WorldWideScience

Sample records for transportation test bed

  1. PTC test bed upgrades to provide ACSES testing support capabilities at transportation technology center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    FRA Task Order 314 upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed at the Transportation Technology Center to support : testing of PTC systems, components, and related equipment associated with the Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System : (ACSES)...

  2. Missouri S&T hydrogen transportation test bed equipment & construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Investments through the National University Transportation Center at Missouri University of Science and Technology have really scored on the Centers mission areas and particularly Transition-state fuel vehicle infrastructure leading to a hydrogen ...

  3. Method of online cleanliness control for upward-facing transport mirrors in integration test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Longbiao; Qin Lang; Zhou Guorui; Ye Yayun; Zhang Chuanchao; Miao Xinxiang; Wang Hongbin; Yuan Xiaodong; Wang Xiaohong; Cheng Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    An online cleanliness control method based on the online monitoring system was developed for controlling the particle pollution and damage of upward-facing transport mirrors in the integration test bed. By building up gas knife system, the online cleanliness processing was effectively achieved for the particle pollution on the mirror surface. By using the gas screen, the cleanliness of the mirror surface was effectively online maintained. The image processing system was applied to assessing the effect of online cleanliness processing. The experimental results indicate that the particle pollution was reduced by the gas knife and the gas screen was useful to avoid the settlement of particle pollution. (authors)

  4. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  5. Positive train control test bed interoperability upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed to support additional PTC testing configurations under Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Task Order 270. The scope of work provided additional PTC Co...

  6. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  7. Real rock-microfluidic flow cell: A test bed for real-time in situ analysis of flow, transport, and reaction in a subsurface reactive transport environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajveer; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn A; Fouke, Bruce W; Sanford, Robert A; Carrera, Martin; Werth, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological interactions between groundwater and sedimentary rock directly control the fundamental subsurface properties such as porosity, permeability, and flow. This is true for a variety of subsurface scenarios, ranging from shallow groundwater aquifers to deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs. Microfluidic flow cells are now commonly being used to study these processes at the pore scale in simplified pore structures meant to mimic subsurface reservoirs. However, these micromodels are typically fabricated from glass, silicon, or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and are therefore incapable of replicating the geochemical reactivity and complex three-dimensional pore networks present in subsurface lithologies. To address these limitations, we developed a new microfluidic experimental test bed, herein called the Real Rock-Microfluidic Flow Cell (RR-MFC). A porous 500μm-thick real rock sample of the Clair Group sandstone from a subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir of the North Sea was prepared and mounted inside a PDMS microfluidic channel, creating a dynamic flow-through experimental platform for real-time tracking of subsurface reactive transport. Transmitted and reflected microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal laser microscopy techniques were used to (1) determine the mineralogy, geochemistry, and pore networks within the sandstone inserted in the RR-MFC, (2) analyze non-reactive tracer breakthrough in two- and (depth-limited) three-dimensions, and (3) characterize multiphase flow. The RR-MFC is the first microfluidic experimental platform that allows direct visualization of flow and transport in the pore space of a real subsurface reservoir rock sample, and holds potential to advance our understandings of reactive transport and other subsurface processes relevant to pollutant transport and cleanup in groundwater, as well as energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Airborne Test Bed Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory operates the main hangar on the Hanscom Air Force Base flight line. This very large building (~93,000sqft) accommodates the Laboratory's airborne test...

  9. Dynometer test bed (fact sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dell, K.

    2000-04-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Dynamometer Test Bed is one of a kind. It offers wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct lifetime endurance tests on a wide range of wind turbine drivetrains and gearboxes at various speeds, using low or high torque. By testing full-scale wind turbines, engineers from NREL and industry hope to understand the impact of various wind conditions with the goal of improving hardware design.

  10. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...

  11. Product removal and solids transport from fluidized-bed calciners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Munger, D.H.

    1978-09-01

    Methods of removing the solid product from pilot-plant and production fluidized-bed calciners, and transporting product to underground storage vaults are reported here. Testing of dense-phase solids transport systems in test loops during development of a 15-cm-diam. and 30-cm-diam. calciner are described. A lean-phase solid transport system is used with the Waste Calcining Facility. The results of some recent tests done in a lean-phase transport system connected to the 30-cm-diam. calciner are included in this report

  12. Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is a modular software environment that is based on the Ptolemy II software environment. The BCVTB can be used for design and analysis of heterogenous systems, such as building energy and controls systems. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to Couple to Ptolemy II simulation software such as EnergyPlus, MATLAB/Simulink or Dymola for data exchange during run-time. Future versions of the BCVTS will also contain an interface to BACnet which is a communication protocol for building Control systems, and interfaces to digital/analog converters that allow communication with controls hardware. Through Ptolemy II, the BCVTB provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run- time.

  13. Manual for computing bed load transport using BAGS (Bedload Assessment for Gravel-bed Streams) Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Pitlick; Yantao Cui; Peter Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides background information and instructions on the use of a spreadsheet-based program for Bedload Assessment in Gravel-bed Streams (BAGS). The program implements six bed load transport equations developed specifically for gravel-bed rivers. Transport capacities are calculated on the basis of field measurements of channel geometry, reach-average slope,...

  14. Deep space test bed for radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation, flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status

  15. Sediment transport primer: estimating bed-material transport in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Wilcock; John Pitlick; Yantao Cui

    2009-01-01

    This primer accompanies the release of BAGS, software developed to calculate sediment transport rate in gravel-bed rivers. BAGS and other programs facilitate calculation and can reduce some errors, but cannot ensure that calculations are accurate or relevant. This primer was written to help the software user define relevant and tractable problems, select appropriate...

  16. IPv6 Test Bed for Testing Aeronautical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ryan; Zernic, Michael; Dhas, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Aviation industries in United States and in Europe are undergoing a major paradigm shift in the introduction of new network technologies. In the US, NASA is also actively investigating the feasibility of IPv6 based networks for the aviation needs of the United States. In Europe, the Eurocontrol lead, Internet Protocol for Aviation Exchange (iPAX) Working Group is actively investigating the various ways of migrating the aviation authorities backbone infrastructure from X.25 based networks to an IPv6 based network. For the last 15 years, the global aviation community has pursued the development and implementation of an industry-specific set of communications standards known as the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN). These standards are now beginning to affect the emerging military Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) community as well as the commercial air transport community. Efforts are continuing to gain a full understanding of the differences and similarities between ATN and Internet architectures as related to Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) infrastructure choices. This research paper describes the implementation of the IPv6 test bed at NASA GRC, and Computer Networks & Software, Inc. and these two test beds are interface to Eurocontrol over the IPv4 Internet. This research work looks into the possibility of providing QoS performance for Aviation application in an IPv6 network as is provided in an ATN based network. The test bed consists of three autonomous systems. The autonomous system represents CNS domain, NASA domain and a EUROCONTROL domain. The primary mode of connection between CNS IPv6 testbed and NASA and EUROCONTROL IPv6 testbed is initially a set of IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels. The aviation application under test (CPDLC) consists of two processes running on different IPv6 enabled machines.

  17. Relaxation approximation to bed-load sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, A. I.; Papoglou, I.

    2008-04-01

    In this work we propose and apply a numerical method based on finite volume relaxation approximation for computing the bed-load sediment transport in shallow water flows, in one and two space dimensions. The water flow is modeled by the well-known nonlinear shallow water equations which are coupled with a bed updating equation. Using a relaxation approximation, the nonlinear set of equations (and for two different formulations) is transformed to a semilinear diagonalizable problem with linear characteristic variablesE A second order MUSCL-TVD method is used for the advection stage while an implicit-explicit Runge-Kutta scheme solves the relaxation stage. The main advantages of this approach are that neither Riemann problem solvers nor nonlinear iterations are required during the solution process. For the two different formulations, the applicability and effectiveness of the presented scheme is verified by comparing numerical results obtained for several benchmark test problems.

  18. Proposed new ultrasonic test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxfield, B.W.

    1978-01-01

    Within the last four or five years, a great deal of progress has been made both here and in a number of other laboratories in developing techniques that will enable considerably more information to be obtained from the ultrasonic examination of an object. Some of these recent developments relate to information contained within the diffracted beam which does not return along the incident path. An ultrasonic examination based upon an evaluation of diffracted energy must use at least two transducers, one for transmission and the other for reception. Current indications are that even more reliable test results will be achieved using a receiving transducer that can scan a significant portion of the diffracted field including that portion which is back-reflected. In general, this scan can be interpreted most accurately if it follows a path related to the surface shape. If more than one region within the object is to be interrogated, then the transmitting transducer must also be scanned, again along a path related to the surface shape. The large quantity of information obtained as the result of such an examination must be subjected to sophisticated computer analysis in order to be displayed in a meaningful and intelligible manner. Although one motivation for building such an instrument is to explore new ultrasonic test procedures that are evolving from current laboratory research, this is neither the sole motivation nor the only use for this instrument. Such a mechanical and electronic device would permit conventional ultrasonic tests to be performed on parts of complex geometry without the expensive and time-consuming special fixturing that is currently required. May possible test geometries could be explored in practice prior to the construction of a specialized test apparatus. Hence, it would be necessary to design much, if any, flexibility into the special test apparatus

  19. Advanced Expander Test Bed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Aoceptance Tests 2. Design Methodology Review a. Cononent Acceptance Tm w/ Spares 3. Preliminary DeignReview 9. Engine Asembly and Acceptance Teets 4. Critical...of the disk and the bearing of both primary and secondary turbines, has been revised to accommodate brush seals for reduced leakage. Primary disk

  20. Test Bed for Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nantista, C D; Dolgashev, Valery A; Siemann, Robert; Tantawi, Sami G; Weisend, John

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting rf cavities are increasingly used in accelerators. Gradient is a parameter of particular importance for the ILC. Much progress in gradient has been made over the past decade, overcoming problems of multipacting, field emission, and breakdown triggered by surface impurities. However, the quenching limit of the surface magnetic field for niobium remains a hard limitation on cavity fields sustainable with this technology. Further exploration of materials and preparation may offer a path to surpassing the current limit. For this purpose, we have designed a resonant test cavity. One wall of the cavity is formed by a flat sample of superconducting material; the rest of the cavity is copper or niobium. The H field on the sample wall is 74% higher than on any other surface. Multipacting is avoided by use of a mode with no surface electric field. The cavity will be resonated through a coupling iris with high-power rf at superconducting temperature until the sample wall quenches, as detected by a change...

  1. Wireless Sensor Networks TestBed: ASNTbed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 IST-Africa 2013 Conference Proceedings, Nairobi, Kenya, 29 - 31 May 2013 Wireless Sensor Networks TestBed: ASNTbed Angeline G. DLUDLA, Adnan M. ABU-MAHFOUZ, Carel P. KRUGER, John S. ISAAC Advanced Sensor Networks Research Group, CSIR Meraka...

  2. Influence of turbulence on bed load sediment transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Chua, L.; Cheng, N. S.

    2003-01-01

    -bed experiments and the ripple-covered-bed experiments. In the former case, the flow in the presence of the turbulence generator was adjusted so that the mean bed shear stress was the same as in the case without the turbulence generator in order to single out the effect of the external turbulence on the sediment...... transport. In the ripple-covered-bed case, the mean and turbulence quantities of the streamwise component of the velocity were measured, and the Shields parameter, due to skin friction, was determined. The Shields parameter, together with the r.m.s. value of the streamwise velocity fluctuations, were...

  3. Coal Bed Aquifer Tests: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E. P.

    2005-12-01

    Coal bed methane development is proceeding at a rapid pace in the USA and in several other countries. Development of coal bed methane requires the simultaneous co-production of water in a manner that maximizes the amount of drawdown while minimizing the amount of water pumped. Determination of optimal well spacing and production rates to achieve such drawdowns requires knowledge of the hydraulic properties of the coal aquifer. Natural closely spaced fractures, termed cleats, develop during coal formation as an orthogonal fracture network that creates anisotropic transmissivity. Water held in the matrix porosity of the coal is released slowly to the cleat system during pumping, resulting in coal beds behaving as dual-porosity aquifers. Knowledge of the magnitude and orientation of the principal axes of the transmissivity tensor, as well as of the late-time dual-porosity storage coefficient, are needed to optimally design well fields for the exploitation of coal bed methane. An aquifer test with three observation wells was conducted to determine these properties for a 7.6- m thick coal bed located in the Powder River Basin, southeast Montana. The test results exhibit all the features that would be expected for a test on an anisotropic dual-porosity medium. However, the test was initially misinterpreted, providing a cautionary tale. The initial interpretation assumed a single-porosity aquifer, and the late-time break in slope was assumed to represent the effects of a hidden boundary. Despite their apparent plausibility, the results of the analysis raised several red flags. An attempt to determine the location of the hidden boundary failed, the indicated specific storage was implausibly small, and the analysis of recovery data provided transmissivity values that were in disagreement with those determined from the drawdown analysis. Reanalysis of the test using type curves developed for a dual-porosity aquifer resulted in a transmissivity value that is about 25% smaller

  4. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O' Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  5. Field testing of absorption bed clogging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltomaa, T.; Joy, D.M

    2002-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems throughout North America most commonly use absorption beds to re-introduce treated wastewater from rural properties into the groundwater. With proper design and operating conditions these systems can work well for over 20 years with some reports of over 40 years. However, failure rates as high as 30% for on-site systems are reported and the most common mode of failure is the clogging of the soil absorption system. Research under laboratory settings has been conducted in a number of institutions to demonstrate the key factors leading to failure. These include items such as poor design, excessive hydraulic loading, and high concentrations of wastewater constituents leading to the formation of an excessive biologic layer (the biomat) at the interface of the sand and gravel. Most of these studies have been on simplified systems under accelerated conditions leading to questions about the validity of the results for actual systems. This project was designed to determine the causes of clogging using actual systems so that questions about the effects of simplified testing could be avoided. In this study actual soil absorption systems with ages from 3 to 15 years were studied to determine the proportion of the bed that was 'failed'. Failure was defined as the portion of the bed which had a significant biomat present and ponding water. Measurements were made of the effluent rates, effluent quality, absorption bed characteristics and background soil conditions. The results confirmed the effect of background soils in that fine grain soils showed a much stronger tendency for biomat formation and reached failure sooner. What was of greatest importance was the effect of the wastewater constituents, most particularly BOD, on the expected bed life. With the exception of soil characteristics, BOD had greatest impact on the rate of failure. For normal operating conditions even a modest change in BOD, within the range of expected values, resulted

  6. An experimental analysis of bed load transport in gravel-bed braided rivers with high grain Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincenzo, Annamaria; Brancati, Francesco; Pannone, Marilena

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with nearly uniform fluvial gravel (D50=9 mm, D10=5 mm and D90=13 mm) to analyse the relationship between stream power and bed load transport rate in gravel-bed braided rivers at high grain Reynolds numbers. The values of the unit-width dimensionless bed-load rate qb* and unit-width dimensionless stream power ω* were evaluated in equilibrium conditions based on ten different experimental runs. Then, they were plotted along with values obtained during particularly representative field studies documented in the literature, and a regression law was derived. For comparison, a regression analysis was performed using the data obtained from laboratory experiments characterized by smaller grain sizes and, therefore, referring to relatively low grain Reynolds numbers. A numerical integration of Exner's equation was performed to reconstruct the local and time-dependent functional dependence of qb* and ω*. The results led to the following conclusions: 1) At equilibrium, the reach-averaged bed load transport rate is related to the reach-averaged stream power by different regression laws at high and low grain Reynolds numbers. Additionally, the transition from bed to suspended load transport is accelerated by low Re*, with the corresponding bed load discharge increasing with stream power at a lower, linear rate. 2) When tested against the gravel laboratory measurements, the high Re* power law derived in the present study performs considerably better than do previous formulas. 3) The longitudinal variability of the section-averaged equilibrium stream power is much more pronounced than that characterizing the bed load rate, at least for high Re*. Thus, the stream power and its local-scale heterogeneity seem to be directly responsible for transverse sediment re-distribution and, ultimately, for the determination of the spatial and temporal scales that characterize the gravel bedforms. 4) Finally, the stochastic interpretation of the wetted

  7. Calculations of Bed-Material Transport, Chetco River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.; Wallick, R.; Cannon, C.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Chetco River drains 914 square kilometers of the Klamath Mountains in far southwestern Oregon. The lower 18 kilometers of the river are flanked by large and abundant gravel bars, which have been commercially mined for aggregate during most of the last century. Increasing concern regarding the impact of this mining on aquatic habitats motivated an assessment of historical channel change and sediment transport rates along this lower reach. A key component of this research was estimating bed-material transport through the application of sediment transport equations at multiple locations along the study reach. Flow hydraulics were estimated with a 1-D hydraulic model constructed in HEC-RAS, using a combination of LiDAR and bathymetric surveys to characterize the valley morphology. Once calibrated to USGS rating curves, low flow water surfaces, and several high flow photos, this model allowed us to calculate energy slopes for a given cross section at a variety of flows. These flow-energy slope pairs, along with cross sections and sediment data collected from surface pebble counts, were then applied to a number of different modern bedload transport equations. This process was facilitated by the Bedload Assessment in Gravel-bedded Streams Excel macro, or BAGS, which allows users to quickly apply multiple transport equations using a single set of inputs (Pitlick et al., 2009). A review of the literature, along with tests of internal consistency and comparisons to direct bedload measurements taken in the winter of 2008-09, led us to choose the Parker (1991) and Wilcock-Crowe (2003) equations as the two most applicable to the Chetco River. Sediment transport-flow curves for both equations were calculated for seven cross sections spanning the study area. For each of these cross sections, we estimated annual transport fluxes using derived transport rating curves in conjunction with unit flow data from a USGS gage at the upstream end of study reach, with data extending back

  8. Next generation network based carrier ethernet test bed for IPTV traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Berger, Michael Stübert; Zheng, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Carrier Ethernet (CE) test bed based on the Next Generation Network (NGN) framework. After the concept of CE carried out by Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF), the carrier-grade Ethernet are obtaining more and more interests and being investigated as the low cost and high performanc...... services of transport network to carry the IPTV traffic. This test bed is approaching to support the research on providing a high performance carrier-grade Ethernet transport network for IPTV traffic....

  9. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-01-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-(micro)m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system

  10. Oxygen/hydrogen technology test bed status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Hydrogen/Oxygen Technology Test Bed program. The status of the program, the program direction, plans for testing, and plans for technology implementation within the program are delineated. Test Bed goals and objectives are defined and the current status of the Test Bed engine is provided. A test facility status and a summary of the test facility capabilities are given.

  11. Undulator Transportation Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    A test was performed to determine whether transporting and handling the undulators makes any changes to their properties. This note documents the test. No significant changes to the test undulator were observed. After the LCLS undulators are tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF), they must be transported to storage buildings and transported to the tunnel. It has been established that the undulators are sensitive to temperature. We wish to know whether the undulators are also sensitive to the vibrations and shocks of transportation. To study this issue, we performed a test in which an undulator was measured in the MMF, transported to the tunnel, brought back to the MMF, and re-measured. This note documents the test and the results.

  12. Bed Load Transport in Channels with Bank Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, F.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Natural and restored rivers are dominated to a high extent by the vegetation at the banks and on the flood plains of the river. Especially, the interactive zone between the region of water flow through the vegetation and the region of free flowing water in the main channel is of great importance. It is characterized by large vortices at the interface of these two regions. The vortices have an influence on the flow resistance, especially on bed shear stress and thus on bed load transport and dune shape. The aim of the study was to investigate the hydraulic/sedimentological processes in a trapezoidal channel depending on the arrangement of the vegetation and channel width. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a 30 m long and 2.0 m wide tilting flume. The sand of the bed (d50 = 0.82 mm) was recirculated. The arrangement of the bank vegetation (made of rigid PVC-sticks with a diameter of 10 mm, bank slope 1:1) and the width B of the channel bed was variied from B = 0.4 m to B = 1.2 m to investigate the influence of channel width on the overall processes. Based on the experimental results, the existing bed load formulas were verified to determine the influence of rigid bank vegetation on bed load transport. In the case of wide channels (B/h > 3, with h = water depth) the deviation between measured and calculated values was low. However, in the case of narrow channels (B/h bank vegetation down to the river bed the measured transport rates were 52% higher than the calculated ones and in the extreme case of B/h load transport formulas could be modified. In the experiments a significant influence of the vegetation on the occurring dunes was observed. In the series without vegetation the dune crests and vales were horizontally distributed over the width. Especially, the dune vales close to the vegetation zones are scoured in the series with vegetation. The dune crests were tilted in the cross-section of the channel in the series with vegetation on one bank only. As a

  13. Simulation Facilities and Test Beds for Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarmann, Bernhard Kl.; Leonard, Arian

    2002-01-01

    Galileo is the European satellite navigation system, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission (EC). The Galileo System, currently under definition phase, will offer seamless global coverage, providing state-of-the-art positioning and timing services. Galileo services will include a standard service targeted at mass market users, an augmented integrity service, providing integrity warnings when fault occur and Public Regulated Services (ensuring a continuity of service for the public users). Other services are under consideration (SAR and integrated communications). Galileo will be interoperable with GPS, and will be complemented by local elements that will enhance the services for specific local users. In the frame of the Galileo definition phase, several system design and simulation facilities and test beds have been defined and developed for the coming phases of the project, respectively they are currently under development. These are mainly the following tools: Galileo Mission Analysis Simulator to design the Space Segment, especially to support constellation design, deployment and replacement. Galileo Service Volume Simulator to analyse the global performance requirements based on a coverage analysis for different service levels and degrades modes. Galileo System Simulation Facility is a sophisticated end-to-end simulation tool to assess the navigation performances for a complete variety of users under different operating conditions and different modes. Galileo Signal Validation Facility to evaluate signal and message structures for Galileo. Galileo System Test Bed (Version 1) to assess and refine the Orbit Determination &Time Synchronisation and Integrity algorithms, through experiments relying on GPS space infrastructure. This paper presents an overview on the so called "G-Facilities" and describes the use of the different system design tools during the project life cycle in order to design the system with respect to

  14. The role of velocity, pressure, and bed stress fluctuations in bed load transport over bed forms: numerical simulation downstream of a backward-facing step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Schmeeckle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bed load transport over ripples and dunes in rivers exhibits strong spatial and temporal variability due to the complex turbulence field caused by flow separation at bedform crests. A turbulence-resolving flow model downstream of a backward-facing step, coupled with a model integrating the equations of motion of individual sand grains, is used to investigate the physical interaction between bed load motion and turbulence downstream of separated flow. Large bed load transport events are found to correspond to low-frequency positive pressure fluctuations. Episodic penetration of fluid into the bed increases the bed stress and moves grains. Fluid penetration events are larger in magnitude near the point of reattachment than farther downstream. Models of bed load transport over ripples and dunes must incorporate the effects of these penetration events of high stress and sediment flux.

  15. The role of velocity, pressure, and bed stress fluctuations in bed load transport over bed forms: numerical simulation downstream of a backward-facing step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2015-02-01

    Bed load transport over ripples and dunes in rivers exhibits strong spatial and temporal variability due to the complex turbulence field caused by flow separation at bedform crests. A turbulence-resolving flow model downstream of a backward-facing step, coupled with a model integrating the equations of motion of individual sand grains, is used to investigate the physical interaction between bed load motion and turbulence downstream of separated flow. Large bed load transport events are found to correspond to low-frequency positive pressure fluctuations. Episodic penetration of fluid into the bed increases the bed stress and moves grains. Fluid penetration events are larger in magnitude near the point of reattachment than farther downstream. Models of bed load transport over ripples and dunes must incorporate the effects of these penetration events of high stress and sediment flux.

  16. Performance of bed-load transport equations relative to geomorphic significance: Predicting effective discharge and its transport rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Barry; John M. Buffington; Peter Goodwin; John .G. King; William W. Emmett

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies assessing the accuracy of bed-load transport equations have considered equation performance statistically based on paired observations of measured and predicted bed-load transport rates. However, transport measurements were typically taken during low flows, biasing the assessment of equation performance toward low discharges, and because equation...

  17. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  18. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  19. Multiagency Urban Search Experiment Detector and Algorithm Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew D.; Garishvili, Irakli; Peplow, Douglas E.; Archer, Daniel E.; Ray, William R.; Swinney, Mathew W.; Willis, Michael J.; Davidson, Gregory G.; Cleveland, Steven L.; Patton, Bruce W.; Hornback, Donald E.; Peltz, James J.; McLean, M. S. Lance; Plionis, Alexander A.; Quiter, Brian J.; Bandstra, Mark S.

    2017-07-01

    In order to provide benchmark data sets for radiation detector and algorithm development, a particle transport test bed has been created using experimental data as model input and validation. A detailed radiation measurement campaign at the Combined Arms Collective Training Facility in Fort Indiantown Gap, PA (FTIG), USA, provides sample background radiation levels for a variety of materials present at the site (including cinder block, gravel, asphalt, and soil) using long dwell high-purity germanium (HPGe) measurements. In addition, detailed light detection and ranging data and ground-truth measurements inform model geometry. This paper describes the collected data and the application of these data to create background and injected source synthetic data for an arbitrary gamma-ray detection system using particle transport model detector response calculations and statistical sampling. In the methodology presented here, HPGe measurements inform model source terms while detector response calculations are validated via long dwell measurements using 2"×4"×16" NaI(Tl) detectors at a variety of measurement points. A collection of responses, along with sampling methods and interpolation, can be used to create data sets to gauge radiation detector and algorithm (including detection, identification, and localization) performance under a variety of scenarios. Data collected at the FTIG site are available for query, filtering, visualization, and download at muse.lbl.gov.

  20. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided

  1. Bed topography and sand transport responses to a step change in discharge and water depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephemeral streams with sand and gravel beds may inherit bed topography caused by previous flow events, resulting in bed topography that is not in equilibrium with flow conditions, complicating the modeling of flow and sediment transport. Major flow events, resulting from rainfall with high intensity...

  2. Thermal Protection Test Bed Pathfinder Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to increase thermal protection capabilities for future reentry vehicles, a method to obtain relevant test data is required.  Although arcjet testing can be...

  3. Influence of turbulence on bed load sediment transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Chua, L.; Cheng, N. S.

    2003-01-01

    -bed experiments and the ripple-covered-bed experiments. In the former case, the flow in the presence of the turbulence generator was adjusted so that the mean bed shear stress was the same as in the case without the turbulence generator in order to single out the effect of the external turbulence on the sediment...

  4. The relative contribution of near-bed vs. intragravel horizontal transport to fine sediment accumulation processes in river gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Lakhanpal, Garima; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding flow-sediment interactions is important for comprehending river functioning. Fine sediment accumulation processes, in particular, have key implications for ecosystem health. However, the amount of fines generated by intragravel flows and later accumulated in gravel streambeds may have been underestimated, as the hydraulic-related driving transport mechanisms in play are not clearly identified. Specifically, the relative contribution of fines from upper vs. lower sediment layers in gravel beds is not well understood. By recreating flooded and dewatered conditions in an experimental flume filled with natural sediment, we estimated such contributions by observing and collecting intragravel transported fines that were later accumulated into a void in the middle of the sediment matrix. Near-bed transport in the upper sediment layers (named Brinkman load) during flooded conditions accounted for most (90%) of the accumulated fines. Intragravel transport in the lower sediment layers (named Interstitial load) was the sole source of transport and accumulation during dewatered conditions with steeper hydraulic gradients. Interstitial load accounted for 10% of the total transport during flooded conditions. Although small, such estimations demonstrate that hydraulic-gradient transport in the lower sediment layers occurs in spite of the contradicting analytical assessments. We provide a case study to challenge the traditional approaches of assessing intragravel transport, and a useful framework to understand the origin and relative contribution of fine sediment accumulation in gravel beds. Such knowledge will be highly useful for the design of monitoring programs aiding river management, particularly in regulated rivers.

  5. Thermal Protection Test Bed Pathfinder Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Cooper

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase thermal protection capabilities for future reentry vehicles, a method to obtain relevant test data is required. Although arc jet testing can be used to obtain some data on materials, the best method to obtain these data is to actually expose them to an atmospheric reentry. The overprediction of the Orion EFT-1 flight data is an example of how the ground test to flight traceability is not fully understood. The RED-Data small reentry capsule developed by Terminal Velocity Aerospace is critical to understanding this traceability. In order to begin to utilize this technology, ES3 needs to be ready to build and integrate heat shields onto the RED-Data vehicle. Using a heritage Shuttle tile material for the heat shield will both allow valuable insight into the environment that the RED-Data vehicle can provide and give ES3 the knowledge and capability to build and integrate future heat shields for this vehicle.

  6. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  7. Solid phase transport in series fluidised bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    In a multistage counter-current fluidised bed column, fluidised bed material is recycled within each stage and a fraction is continuously withdrawn to the next lower stage at a rate dependent only on the rate of removal of the fluidised bed material from the base of the column. It has a particular application to the ion exchange treatment of liquids containing suspended solids, for example leach solutions from uranium ores. (author)

  8. The influence of sediment transport rate on the development of structure in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockelford, Annie; Rice, Steve; Powell, Mark; Reid, Ian; Nguyen, Thao; Tate, Nick; Wood, Jo

    2013-04-01

    Although adjustments of surface grain size are known to be strongly influenced by sediment transport rate little work has systematically explored how different transport rates can affect the development of surface structure in gravel bed rivers. Specifically, it has been well established that the transport of mixed sized sediments leads to the development of a coarser surface or armour layer which occurs over larger areas of the gravel bed. Armour layer development is known to moderate overall sediment transport rate as well as being extremely sensitive to changes in applied shear stress. However, during this armouring process a bed is created where, smaller gain scale changes, to the bed surface are also apparent such as the development of pebble clusters and imbricate structures. Although these smaller scale changes affect the overall surface grain size distribution very little their presence has the ability to significantly increase the surface stability and hence alter overall sediment transport rates. Consequently, the interplay between the moderation of transport rate as a function of surface coarsening at a larger scale and moderation of transport rate as a function of the development of structure on the bed surface at the smaller scale is complicated and warrants further investigation. During experiments a unimodal grain size distribution (σg = 1.30, D50 = 8.8mm) was exposed to 3 different levels of constant discharge that produced sediment transport conditions ranging from marginal transport to conditions approaching full mobility of all size fractions. Sediment was re-circulated during the experiments surface grain size distribution bed load and fractional transport rates were measured at a high temporal resolution such that the time evolution of the beds could be fully described. Discussion concentrates on analysing the effects of the evolving bed condition sediment transport rate (capacity) and transported grain size (competence). The outcome of this

  9. Turbulent flow and sand transport over a cobble bed in a laboratory flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    The turbulence structure of flow over rough beds and its interaction with fine sediments in the bed are important for efforts to predict sediment transport downstream of dams. The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored...

  10. Material control system design: Test Bed Nitrate Storage Area (TBNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.A.; Da Roza, R.A.; Dunn, D.R.; Sacks, I.J.; Harrison, W.; Huebel, J.G.; Ross, W.N.; Salisbury, J.D.; Sanborn, R.H.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-05-01

    This report provides an example of a hypothetical Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Safeguard Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System which will be used as a subject for the demonstration of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory MC and A System Evaluation Methodology in January 1978. This methodology is to become a tool in the NRC evaluation of license applicant submittals for Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities. The starting point for this test bed design was the Allied-General Nuclear Services--Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Reprocessing plant as described in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), of August 1975. The test bed design effort was limited to providing an SNM safeguard system for the plutonium nitrate storage area of this facility

  11. Establishing Bedding Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kephart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During warm weather, incorrect bedding levels on a trailer transporting market weight pigs may result in heat stress, fatigue, and death. Two experiments were conducted in June and July of 2011; Experiment 1 used 80 loads (n = 13,887 pigs to determine the effects of two bedding levels (3 (68.1 kg or 6 bags (136.2 kg of wood shavings/trailer [each bag contained 22.7 kg, 0.2 m3] on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs. Experiment 2 used 131 loads (n = 22,917 pigs to determine the effects of bedding (3 vs. 6 bags on transport losses (dead, sum of dead- and euthanized- on arrival; non-ambulatory, sum of fatigued and injured; total transport losses sum of dead and non-ambulatory. Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively. However, pigs transported on 6 bags/trailer had 1.5% more stress signs than pigs transported on 3 bags/trailer (p < 0.01. No differences were observed between bedding levels for non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p = 0.10, p = 0.67, and p = 0.34, respectively. Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses. However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry. Therefore, 3 bags of bedding/trailer may be used when transporting market weight pigs during warm weather in the Midwestern U.S.

  12. The Tore Supra Lower Hybrid Test Bed : improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, L.; Achard, J.; Beaumont, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within the CIMES project framework in Tore Supra, a klystron TH2103C (3.7 GHz) is under development at THALES ELECTRON DEVICES. It differs from the previous klystrons used in Tore Supra generator mainly in that it has no modulating anode, the RF output power will reach 700 kW CW, by raising the High Voltage value to 76 kV and a beam current up to 23 A. The Tore Supra test bed is a dedicated facility used for high power tests on RF components or on RF transmitters. It has been improved to integrate the TH2103C klystron and a specific 100 kV solide state switch which control the beam current. Since April 2005, the integration of the first tube (without modulating anode) and the 100 kV switch has been completed in the Test Bed and has allowed the modifications and tests of the interfaces and security system for the devices. Improvements were also made on the cooling loop flow to dissipate a power of 1750 kW CW. With these devices, the RF power routinely available in the Lower Hybrid Test Bed is 400 kW CW. With the development of the TH2103C, detailed studies and tests on RF components which will be used up to 750 kW CW on match load or 700 kW on VSWR = 1.4, are necessary to evaluate their performances and thermal behaviour. The test a crucial component, the recombiner, which adds the RF powers coming from the two RF outputs of the TH2103C and inject the resulted power into one WR284 waveguide to a test load or to the plasma, was completed. Two tests have been performed : a thermal study with 400 kW during 1000 s, and RF pulsed tests on short cuts to increase the value of the electric field inside the component. The experiments and calculations (ANSYS and HFSS codes) validate the use of this device with the TH2103C. A module made with two different Beryllium Oxide RF windows, has been under test. The losses on each window are measured by calorimetric measurements and evaluated by computation with HFSS and ANSYS code. The results are compared. In this paper, the

  13. Decoupled control for internal combustion engines research test beds

    OpenAIRE

    López Hincapié, José David; Espinosa Oviedo, Jairo José; Agudelo Santamaría, John Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a solid and robust automation model which has been developed and implemented in two different research engine test beds which were instrumented, one for diesel and the other one for spark ignition engines. The model, programmed in Matlab, is based on transfer functions with a decoupled (two single input single output systems) independent proportional and integral action controller that allows setting the desired engine speed and torque under stationary operation conditio...

  14. Parallel-Processing Test Bed For Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blech, Richard; Cole, Gary; Townsend, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Second-generation Hypercluster computing system is multiprocessor test bed for research on parallel algorithms for simulation in fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, chemistry, and other fields with large computational requirements but relatively low input/output requirements. Built from standard, off-shelf hardware readily upgraded as improved technology becomes available. System used for experiments with such parallel-processing concepts as message-passing algorithms, debugging software tools, and computational steering. First-generation Hypercluster system described in "Hypercluster Parallel Processor" (LEW-15283).

  15. Test bed for applications of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Muñoz Palacios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the development and implementation of a test bed for applications of heterogeneous unmanned vehicle systems. The test bed consists of unmanned aerial vehicles (Parrot AR.Drones versions 1 or 2, Parrot SA, Paris, France, and Bebop Drones 1.0 and 2.0, Parrot SA, Paris, France, ground vehicles (WowWee Rovio, WowWee Group Limited, Hong Kong, China, and the motion capture systems VICON and OptiTrack. Such test bed allows the user to choose between two different options of development environments, to perform aerial and ground vehicles applications. On the one hand, it is possible to select an environment based on the VICON system and LabVIEW (National Instruments or robotics operating system platforms, which make use the Parrot AR.Drone software development kit or the Bebop_autonomy Driver to communicate with the unmanned vehicles. On the other hand, it is possible to employ a platform that uses the OptiTrack system and that allows users to develop their own applications, replacing AR.Drone’s original firmware with original code. We have developed four experimental setups to illustrate the use of the Parrot software development kit, the Bebop Driver (AutonomyLab, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada, and the original firmware replacement for performing a strategy that involves both ground and aerial vehicle tracking. Finally, in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed test bed for the implementation of advanced controllers, we present experimental results of the implementation of three consensus algorithms: static, adaptive, and neural network, in order to accomplish that a team of multiagents systems move together to track a target.

  16. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  17. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Eto, Joseph H.; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Klapp, Dave; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Stevens, John; Volkommer, Harry

    2008-07-25

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating small energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of small generating sources. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation; 2) an approach to electrical protection within the microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications. The techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protections system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust and under all conditions, including difficult motor starts. The results from these test are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or mroe of the CERTS Microgrid concepts.

  18. Leaf transport in mimic mangrove forests and seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, L.G.; Bouma, T.J.; Kiswara, W.; Ziegler, A.D.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests and seagrass beds are thought to exchange particulate organic material, especially in the form of leaves. However, relatively little is known about the trapping capacity of mangrove above-ground roots and seagrass plants for leaf segments. We aimed to identify the major factors

  19. Predicting Coarse Sediment Transport from Patchy Beds in Ephemeral Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    basin fill of Plio-Pleistocene plutonic or volcanic clasts approaching 900 m in thickness. Surficial ERDC/GSL TR-12-17 7 sediments were likely...flow velocity, D84 is grain size in which 84% of the channel bed grains are finer. The variable a is a channel shape factor defined as h R a D

  20. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Johnson, Anna; Sapkota, Avi; Kephart, Rebecca

    2014-05-21

    The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers) used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA), non-ambulatory (NA), and total dead and down (D&D) data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1) and fall/spring (Experiment 2). Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P transport.

  1. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data

  2. Influence of tube and particle diameter on heat transport in packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borkink, J.G.H.; Borkink, J.G.H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Influence of the tube and particle diameter and shape, as well as their ratio, on the radial heat transport in packed beds has been studied. Heat transport experiments were performed with four different packings in three wall-cooled tubes, which differed in inner diameter only. Experimental values

  3. Effects of check dams on bed-load transport and steep-slope stream morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain

    2017-08-01

    Check dams are transversal structures built across morphologically-active streams in mountainous regions. These structures have been used widely in torrent-hazard mitigation for over 150 years. Thousands of them are regularly maintained by stream managers and torrent-control services. The stabilization role of these structures is well known, i.e. they durably constrain the stream-bed through the creation of vertical and planar fixed points. What is not yet clear is to what extent check dams influence bed-load transport: How do peak solid discharge or flood-transported volume change when check dams are added to a reach? To address these questions, long-lasting small-scale experiments were conducted in a 4.8-m-long flume with either one, three or no structures. The results show that the addition of structures creates independent compartments in the bed level, which have a strong influence on bed surface armouring and stream morphodynamics: the consequence is that instantaneous transport intensities are unchanged, but peak solid discharge occur more often and for shorter duration. This results in the same total transported volume over the long term, but reduced volume for a single transport event. It reaffirms the observation of pioneering authors of the mid-19th and early 20th century who conceptualized the possible sediment transport regulation function of check dams: in addition to stabilizing the stream-bed, check dams influence bed-load transport through a buffering effect, releasing frequently and in small doses what, in their absence, would be transported abruptly en masse during rare extreme events.

  4. Sediment transport capacity of concentrated flows on steep loessial slope with erodible beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai; Liu, Gang; Liu, Puling; Zheng, Fenli; Zhang, Jiaqiong; Hu, Feinan

    2017-05-24

    Previous research on sediment transport capacity has been inadequate and incomplete in describing the detachment and transport process of concentrated flows on slope farmlands during rill development. An indoor concentrated flow scouring experiment was carried out on steep loessial soil slope with erodible bed to investigate the sediment transport capacity under different flow rates and slope gradients. The results indicated that the sediment transport capacity increases with increasing flow rate and slope gradient, and these relationships can be described by power functions and exponential functions, respectively. Multivariate, nonlinear regression analysis showed that sediment transport capacity was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow rate, and it was more sensitive to unit discharge per unit width than to slope gradient for sediment transport capacity in this study. When similar soil was used, the results were similar to those of previous research conducted under both erodible and non-erodible bed conditions. However, the equation derived from previous research under non-erodible bed conditions with for river bed sand tends to overestimate sediment transport capacity in our experiment.

  5. Tests of candidate materials for particle bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Wales, D.

    1987-01-01

    Rhenium metal hot frits and zirconium carbide-coated fuel particles appear suitable for use in flowing hydrogen to at least 2000 K, based on previous tests. Recent tests on alternate candidate cooled particle and frit materials are described. Silicon carbide-coated particles began to react with rhenium frit material at 1600 K, forming a molten silicide at 2000 K. Silicon carbide was extensively attacked by hydrogen at 2066 K for 30 minutes, losing 3.25% of its weight. Vitrous carbon was also rapidly attacked by hydrogen at 2123 K, losing 10% of its weight in two minutes. Long term material tests on candidate materials for closed cycle helium cooled particle bed fuel elements are also described. Surface imperfections were found on the surface of pyrocarbon-coated fuel particles after ninety days exposure to flowing (∼500 ppM) impure helium at 1143 K. The imperfections were superficial and did not affect particle strength

  6. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that

  7. Coupling Solute and Fine Particle Transport with Sand Bed Morphodynamics within a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Ortiz, C. P.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Packman, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Fine suspended particles are typically considered to pass through streams and rivers as wash load without interacting with the bed, however experiments have demonstrated that hyporheic flow causes advective exchange of fine particles with the stream bed, yielding accumulation of fine particle deposits within the bed. Ultimately, understanding river morphodynamics and ecosystem dynamics requires coupling both fine particle and solute transport with bed morphodynamics. To better understand the coupling between these processes we analyze a novel dataset from a controlled field experiment conducted on Clear Run, a 2nd order sand bed stream located within the North Carolina coastal plain. Data include concentrations of continuously injected conservative solutes and fine particulate tracers measured at various depths within the stream bed, overhead time lapse images of bed forms, stream discharge, and geomorphological surveys of the stream. We use image analysis of bed morphodynamics to assess exchange, retention, and remobilization of solutes and fine particles during constant discharge and a short duration experimental flood. From the images, we extract a time series of bedform elevations and scour depths for the duration of the experiment. The high-resolution timeseries of bed elevation enables us to assess coupling of bed morphodynamics with both the solute and fine particle flux during steady state mobile bedforms prior to the flood and to changing bedforms during the flood. These data allow the application of a stochastic modeling framework relating bed elevation fluctuations to fine particle residence times. This combined experimental and modeling approach ultimately informs our ability to predict not only the fate of fine particulate matter but also associated nutrient and carbon dynamics within streams and rivers.

  8. Test Bed for Safety Assessment of New e-Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hahn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New e-navigation strains require new technologies, new infrastructures and new organizational structures on bridge, on shore as well as in the cloud. Suitable engineering and safety/risk assessment methods facilitate these efforts. Understanding maritime transportation as a sociotechnical system allows the application of system-engineering methods. Formal, simulation based and in situ verification and validation of e-navigation technologies are important methods to obtain system safety and reliability. The modelling and simulation toolset HAGGIS provides methods for system specification and formal risk analysis. It provides a modelling framework for processes, fault trees and generic hazard specification and a physical world and maritime traffic simulation system. HAGGIS is accompanied by the physical test bed LABSKAUS which implements a physical test bed. The test bed provides reference ports and waterways in combination with an experimental Vessel Traffic Services (VTS system and a mobile integrated bridge: This enables in situ experiments for technological evaluation, testing, ground research and demonstration. This paper describes an integrated seamless approach for developing new e-navigation technologies starting with simulation based assessment and ending in physical real world demonstrations

  9. Geologic and physiographic controls on bed-material yield, transport, and channel morphology for alluvial and bedrock rivers, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Anderson, Scott A.; Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2014-01-01

    The rivers of western Oregon have diverse forms and characteristics, with channel substrates ranging from continuous alluvial gravel to bare bedrock. Analysis of several measurable morphologic attributes of 24 valley reaches on 17 rivers provides a basis for comparing nonalluvial and alluvial channels. Key differences are that alluvial reaches have greater bar area, greater migration rates, and show systematic correlation among variables relating grain size to bed-material transport capacity. We relate these differences between channel types to bed-material transport rates as derived from a coupled regional analysis of empirical sediment yield measurements and physical experiments of clast attrition during transport. This sediment supply analysis shows that overall bed-material transport rates for western Oregon are chiefly controlled by (1) lithology and basin slope, which are the key factors for bed-material supply into the stream network, and (2) lithologic control of bed-material attrition from in-transport abrasion and disintegration. This bed-material comminution strongly affects bed-material transport in the study area, reducing transport rates by 50%–90% along the length of the larger rivers in the study area. A comparison of the bed-material transport estimates with the morphologic analyses shows that alluvial gravel-bed channels have systematic and bounding relations between bed-material transport rate and attributes such as bar area and local transport capacity. By contrast, few such relations are evident for nonalluvial rivers with bedrock or mixed-bed substrates, which are apparently more influenced by local controls on channel geometry and sediment supply. At the scale of western Oregon, the physiographic and lithologic controls on the balance between bed-material supply and transport capacity exert far-reaching influence on the distribution of alluvial and nonalluvial channels and their consequently distinctive morphologies and behaviors

  10. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ''The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  11. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BETSILL,J. DAVID; ELKINS,NED Z.; WU,CHUAN-FU; MEWHINNEY,JAMES D.; AAMODT,PAUL

    2000-01-27

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ``The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only

  12. Design of the Dual Conjugate Adaptive Optics Test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Bell, K.; Crampton, D.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Herriot, Glen; Jolissaint, Laurent; Lee, B.; Richardson, H.; van der Kamp, D.; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    In this paper, we describe the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics laboratory test-bed presently under construction at the University of Victoria, Canada. The test-bench will be used to support research in the performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics, turbulence simulators, laser guide stars and miniaturizing adaptive optics. The main components of the test-bed include two micro-machined deformable mirrors, a tip-tilt mirror, four wavefront sensors, a source simulator, a dual-layer turbulence simulator, as well as computational and control hardware. The paper will describe in detail the opto-mechanical design of the adaptive optics module, the design of the hot-air turbulence generator and the configuration chosen for the source simulator. Below, we present a summary of these aspects of the bench. The optical and mechanical design of the test-bed has been largely driven by the particular choice of the deformable mirrors. These are continuous micro-machined mirrors manufactured by Boston Micromachines Corporation. They have a clear aperture of 3.3 mm and are deformed with 140 actuators arranged in a square grid. Although the mirrors have an open-loop bandwidth of 6.6 KHz, their shape can be updated at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In our optical design, the mirrors are conjugated at 0km and 10 km in the atmosphere. A planar optical layout was achieved by using four off-axis paraboloids and several folding mirrors. These optics will be mounted on two solid blocks which can be aligned with respect to each other. The wavefront path design accommodates 3 monochromatic guide stars that can be placed at either 90 km or at infinity. The design relies on the natural separation of the beam into 3 parts because of differences in locations of the guide stars in the field of view. In total four wavefront sensors will be procured from Adaptive Optics Associates (AOA) or built in-house: three for the guide stars and the fourth to collect data from the science source output in

  13. The microelectronics and photonics test bed (MPTB) space, ground test and modeling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the MPTB (microelectronics and photonics test bed) experiment, a combination of a space experiment, ground test and modeling programs looking at the response of advanced electronic and photonic technologies to the natural radiation environment of space. (author)

  14. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA, non-ambulatory (NA, and total dead and down (D&D data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 and fall/spring (Experiment 2. Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P < 0.01. In conclusion, over-use of bedding may be economically inefficient. Pig skin surface temperature could be a useful measure of pig welfare during or after transport.

  15. Summary of Technical Meeting To Compare US/French Approaches for Physical Protection Test Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Thomas Kimball [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Gerald [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Palut, Jean-Michel [French Alternative and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Fontenay Aux Roses (France)

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, representatives of the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration, including test bed professionals from Sandia National Laboratories, and representatives of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission participated in a one-week workshop to share best practices in design, organization, operations, utilization, improvement, and performance testing of physical protection test beds. The intended workshop outcomes were to (1) share methods of improving respective test bed methodologies and programs and (2) prepare recommendations for standards regarding creating and operating testing facilities for nations new to nuclear operations. At the workshop, the French and American subject matter experts compared best practices as developed at their respective test bed sites; discussed access delay test bed considerations; and presented the limitations/ constraints of physical protection test beds.

  16. ITER: a technology test bed for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, M.; Green, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The ITER Project aims to establish nuclear fusion as an energy source that has potential safety and environmental advantages, and to develop the technologies required for a fusion reactor. ITER is a collaborative project between the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. During the current phase of the Project, an R and D programme of about 850 million dollars is underway to develop the technologies required for ITER. This technological effort should culminate in the construction of the components and systems of the ITER machine and its auxiliaries. The main areas of technological development include the first wall and divertor technology, the blanket technology and tritium breeding, superconducting magnet technology, pulsed power technology and remote handling. ITER is a test bed and an essential step to establish the technology of future fusion reactors. Many of the ITER technologies are of potential interest to other fields and their development is expected to benefit the industries involved. (author)

  17. Field Observation and Numerical Modeling of Bed-Material Transport Dynamics in the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M. T.; Allison, M. A.; Meselhe, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding specific pathways for sand transport through the lower reaches of large rivers like the Mississippi is a key to addressing (1) significant source-to-sink geologic problems for sediment and particulate organic carbon and (2) environmental restoration efforts in deltas under threat from climate change. Five field studies were performed in the Mississippi River 75-100 km upstream of the Gulf of Mexico outlet in 2010 and 2011 at discharges ranging from 18,500 to 32,000 m3 s-1 to examine sand transport phenomena in the river channel. These studies utilized multibeam sonar bathymetric surveys, acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements of current velocity and acoustic backscatter, point-integrated isokinetic suspended sediment sampling, and channel-bed grab sampling to examine fluid flow and suspended/bedload sediment transport. Substantial interaction was observed between flow conditions in the river (boundary shear stress, turbulence intensity), channel-bed morphology (size and extent of sandy bedforms), and bed-material sand transport (quantity, transport mode, and spatial distribution). A lateral shift was observed in the region of maximum dune size and water column turbulence intensity from deep to shallow areas of lateral sand bars as water discharge increased, and is associated with the expansion of the bar top area experiencing critical shear stress conditions. Bed material was transported both in traction and in suspension at these water discharges, with the highest suspended mass flux rates associated with the part of the channel cross-section where the largest dunes were present, as a result of a relationship between bed shear stress, dune size, and turbulence intensity. We posit that the downriver flux of sand grains alternates between these two modes over relatively short spatial (up to a few km) and temporal scales. These results complicate the task of using cross-sectional flux measurements taken in lower reaches of large river channels

  18. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  19. Turbulence structure and sand transport over gravel and cobble beds in laboratory flumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing the turbulence generated by flow over rough beds has become increasingly important in support of efforts to predict sediment transport downstream of dams. The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored in r...

  20. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Jared A. Frank; Anthony Brill; Vikram Kapila

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their em...

  1. Transport and storage of bed material in a gravel-bed channel during episodes of aggradation and degradation: a field and flume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie Smith Pryor; Thomas Lisle; Diane Sutherland Montoya; Sue Hilton

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of sediment transport capacity in gravel-bed rivers is critical to understanding the formation and preservation of fluvial landforms and formulating sediment-routing models in drainage systems. We examine transport-storage relations during cycles of aggradation and degradation by augmenting observations of three events of channel aggradation and...

  2. Test bed control center design concept for Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design concept for the control center for the Single Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System test bed and the design process behind the concept. The design concept supports all phases of the test bed mission, including technology demonstration, comprehensive system testing, and comparative evaluation for further development and refinement of the TWRMS for field operations

  3. Development of a smart-antenna test-bed, demonstrating software defined digital beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, T.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a smart-antenna test-bed consisting of ‘common of the shelf’ (COTS) hardware and software defined radio components. The use of software radio components enables a flexible platform to implement and test mobile communication systems as a real-world system. The test-bed is

  4. Results from the Cold Atom Laboratory's ground test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ethan; CAL Team

    2017-04-01

    We describe validation and development of critical technologies in the Cold Atom Laboratory's (CAL) ground test bed, including the demonstration of the first microwave evaporation and generation of dual-species quantum gas mixtures on an atom chip. CAL is a multi-user facility developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide the first persistent quantum gas platform in the microgravity environment of space. The CAL instrument will be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and utilize a compact atom chip trap loaded from a dual-species magneto optical trap of rubidium and potassium. In the unique environment of microgravity, the confining potentials necessary to the process of cooling atoms can be arbitrarily relaxed, enabling production of gases down to pikoKelvin temperatures and ultra-low densities. Complete removal of the confining potential allows for ultracold clouds that can float virtually fixed relative to the CAL apparatus. This new parameter regime enables ultracold atom research with broad applications in fundamental physics and inertial sensing. Results from the Cold Atom Laboratory's ground testbed.

  5. Femoral Test Bed for Impedance Controlled Surgical Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brendle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk for patients during the standard procedure of revision of cemented artificial hip joints is unsatisfactorily highdue to its high level of invasiveness and limited access to the operative field. To reduce this risk we are developing anImpedance Controlled Surgical Instrumentation (ICOS system, which aims to establish real-time control during a BoneCement (BC milling process. For this, the relationship between the thickness of the BC and its frequency-dependentelectrical impedance is used to estimate the residual BC thickness. The aim is to avoid unintended cutting of boneby detecting the passage of the BC/bone boundary layer by the milling head. In a second step, an estimation of theresidual BC thickness will be used to improve process control. As a first step towards demonstrating the feasibility ofour approach, presented here are experimental studies to characterize the BC permittivity and to describe the process indetail. The results show that the permittivity properties of BC are dominated by its polymethyl methacrylate (PMMAfraction. Thus, PMMA can be used as a substitute for future experiments. Furthermore, a Femoral Test Bed (FTB wasdesigned. Using this setup we show it is feasible to accurately distinguish between slightly different thicknesses of BC.

  6. Microforms in gravel bed rivers: Formation, disintegration, and effects on bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, K.; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Evangelopoulos, N.; Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    This research aims to advance current knowledge on cluster formation and evolution by tackling some of the aspects associated with cluster microtopography and the effects of clusters on bedload transport. The specific objectives of the study are (1) to identify the bed shear stress range in which clusters form and disintegrate, (2) to quantitatively describe the spacing characteristics and orientation of clusters with respect to flow characteristics, (3) to quantify the effects clusters have on the mean bedload rate, and (4) to assess the effects of clusters on the pulsating nature of bedload. In order to meet the objectives of this study, two main experimental scenarios, namely, Test Series A and B (20 experiments overall) are considered in a laboratory flume under well-controlled conditions. Series A tests are performed to address objectives (1) and (2) while Series B is designed to meet objectives (3) and (4). Results show that cluster microforms develop in uniform sediment at 1.25 to 2 times the Shields parameter of an individual particle and start disintegrating at about 2.25 times the Shields parameter. It is found that during an unsteady flow event, effects of clusters on bedload transport rate can be classified in three different phases: a sink phase where clusters absorb incoming sediment, a neutral phase where clusters do not affect bedload, and a source phase where clusters release particles. Clusters also increase the magnitude of the fluctuations in bedload transport rate, showing that clusters amplify the unsteady nature of bedload transport. A fourth-order autoregressive, autoregressive integrated moving average model is employed to describe the time series of bedload and provide a predictive formula for predicting bedload at different periods. Finally, a change-point analysis enhanced with a binary segmentation procedure is performed to identify the abrupt changes in the bedload statistic characteristics due to the effects of clusters and detect the

  7. Testing a Threshold-Based Bed Bug Management Approach in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard; Robson, Mark

    2017-07-26

    We tested a threshold-based bed bug ( Cimex lectularius L.) management approach with the goal of achieving elimination with minimal or no insecticide application. Thirty-two bed bug infested apartments were identified. These apartments were divided into four treatment groups based on apartment size and initial bed bug count, obtained through a combination of visual inspection and bed bug monitors: I- Non-chemical only in apartments with 1-12 bed bug count, II- Chemical control only in apartments with 1-12 bed bug count, III- Non-chemical and chemical control in apartments with >12 bed bug count, and IV- Chemical control only in apartments with ≥11 bed bug count. All apartments were monitored or treated once every two weeks for a maximum of 28 wk. Treatment I eliminated bed bugs in a similar amount of time to treatment II. Time to eliminate bed bugs was similar between treatment III and IV but required significantly less insecticide spray in treatment III than that in treatment IV. A threshold-based management approach (non-chemical only or non-chemical and chemical) can eliminate bed bugs in a similar amount of time, using little to no pesticide compared to a chemical only approach.

  8. Numerical study of propagation effects in a wireless mesh test bed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present layout of the indoor wireless mesh network test-bed build at the Meraka Institute is introduced. This is followed by a description of a numerical electromagnetic model for the complete test-bed, including the coupling and diffraction...

  9. Aeolian Sand Transport in the Planetary Context: Respective Roles of Aerodynamic and Bed-Dilatancy Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Bratton, C.

    1999-09-01

    The traditional view of aeolian sand transport generally estimates flux from the perspective of aerodynamic forces creating the airborne grain population, although it has been recognized that "reptation" causes a significant part of the total airborne flux; reptation involves both ballistic injection of grains into the air stream by the impact of saltating grains as well as the "nudging" of surface grains into a creeping motion. Whilst aerodynamic forces may initiate sand motion, it is proposed here that within a fully-matured grain cloud, flux is actually governed by two thresholds: an aerodynamic threshold, and a bed-dilatancy threshold. It is the latter which controls the reptation population, and its significance increases proportionally with transport energy. Because we only have experience with terrestrial sand transport, extrapolations of aeolian theory to Mars and Venus have adjusted only the aerodynamic factor, taking gravitational forces and atmospheric density as the prime variables in the aerodynamic equations, but neglecting reptation. The basis for our perspective on the importance of reptation and bed dilatancy is a set of experiments that were designed to simulate sand transport across the surface of a martian dune. Using a modified sporting crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism, individual grains of sand were fired at loose sand targets with glancing angles typical of saltation impact; grains were projected at about 80 m/s to simulate velocities commensurate with those predicted for extreme martian aeolian conditions. The sabot impelling method permitted study of individual impacts without the masking effect of bed mobilization encountered in wind-tunnel studies. At these martian impact velocities, grains produced small craters formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. Unexpectedly, the craters were not elongated, despite glancing impact; the craters were very close to circular in planform

  10. Bed load transport for a mixture of particle sizes: Downstream sorting rather than anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Niannian; Xie, Yushu; Nie, Ruihua

    2017-10-01

    The stochastic nature of bed load transport induces diffusion of sediment tracers, which is governed by the dynamics of their bulk behavior over time. By deploying both numerical simulations and flume experiments, the emergent particle diffusion regimes for both uniform and mixed tracer particles were studied and compared. For uniform particles, power-law-distributed resting times Tr produced super-, sub- or normal diffusion regimes for certain values of the tail exponent ν . Based on the assumption that heterogeneity in particle size leads to a power-law distribution of Tr , a completely different diffusion regime emerges in mixtures compared with those obtained from uniform particles with the same value of the tail exponent ν . Mixtures exhibited the same ballistic regime (the variance of travel distance grows as time squared) for different values of ν , and ballistic regimes for mixtures also emerged from several other tested models. Furthermore, our experimental results confirmed the ballistic regime; however, the decreasing number of tracked particles may result in apparent but deceptive sub-diffusion. We conclude that ballistic regimes for mixtures result from violations of the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) assumptions, attributing to downstream sorting processes.

  11. An EMTP system level model of the PMAD DC test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, Narayan V.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Tam, Kwa-Sur

    1991-01-01

    A power management and distribution direct current (PMAD DC) test bed was set up at the NASA Lewis Research Center to investigate Space Station Freedom Eelectric Power Systems issues. Efficiency of test bed operation significantly improves with a computer simulation model of the test bed as an adjunct tool of investigation. Such a model is developed using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and is available to the test bed developers and experimenters. The computer model is assembled on a modular basis. Device models of different types can be incorporated into the system model with only a few lines of code. A library of the various model types is created for this purpose. Simulation results and corresponding test bed results are presented to demonstrate model validity.

  12. Radionuclide transport in running waters, sensitivity analysis of bed-load, channel geometry and model discretisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark

    2006-08-01

    In this report, further investigations of the model concept for radionuclide transport in stream, developed in the SKB report TR-05-03 is presented. Especially three issues have been the focus of the model investigations. The first issue was to investigate the influence of assumed channel geometry on the simulation results. The second issue was to reconsider the applicability of the equation for the bed-load transport in the stream model, and finally the last issue was to investigate how the model discretisation will influence the simulation results. The simulations showed that there were relatively small differences in results when applying different cross-sections in the model. The inclusion of the exact shape of the cross-section in the model is therefore not crucial, however, if cross-sectional data exist, the overall shape of the cross-section should be used in the model formulation. This could e.g. be accomplished by using measured values of the stream width and depth in the middle of the stream and by assuming a triangular shape. The bed-load transport was in this study determined for different sediment characteristics which can be used as an order of magnitude estimation if no exact determinations of the bed-load are available. The difference in the calculated bed-load transport for the different materials was, however, found to be limited. The investigation of model discretisation showed that a fine model discretisation to account for numerical effects is probably not important for the performed simulations. However, it can be necessary for being able to account for different conditions along a stream. For example, the application of mean slopes instead of individual values in the different stream reaches can result in very different predicted concentrations

  13. Development of Chinese HTR-PM pebble bed equivalent conductivity test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Cheng; Yang, Xingtuan; Jiang, Shengyao [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology

    2016-01-15

    The first two 250-MWt high-temperature reactor pebble bed modules (HTR-PM) have been installing at the Shidaowan plant in Shandong Province, China. The values of the effective thermal conductivity of the pebble bed core are essential parameters for the design. For their determination, Tsinghua University in China has proposed a full-scale heat transfer experiment to conduct comprehensive thermal transfer tests in packed pebble bed and to determine the effective thermal conductivity.

  14. Propagation of hydrological modeling uncertainties on bed load transport simulations in steep mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Bernhard; Koller, Julian; Kammerlander, Johannes; Schöber, Johannes; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    As mountain streams are sources of both, water and sediment, they are strongly influencing the whole downstream river network. Besides large flood flow events, the continuous transport of sediments during the year is in the focus of this work. Since small mountain streams are usually not measured, spatial distributed hydrological models are used to assess the internal discharges triggering the sediment transport. In general model calibration will never be perfect and is focused on specific criteria such as mass balance or peak flow, etc. The remaining uncertainties influence the subsequent applications, where the simulation results are used. The presented work focuses on the question, how modelling uncertainties in hydrological modelling impact the subsequent simulation of sediment transport. The applied auto calibration by means of MonteCarlo Simulation optimizes the model parameters for different aspects (efficiency criteria) of the runoff time series. In this case, we investigated the impacts of different hydrological criteria on a subsequent bed load transport simulation in catchment of the Längentaler Bach, a small catchment in the Stubai Alps. The used hydrologic model HQSim is a physically based semi-distributed water balance model. Different hydrologic response units (HRU), which are characterized by elevation, orientation, vegetation, soil type and depth, drain with various delay into specified river reaches. The runoff results of the Monte-Carlo simulation are evaluated in comparison to runoff gauge, where water is collected by the Tiroler Wasserkraft AG (TIWAG). Using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) on events and main runoff period (summer), the weighted root mean squared error (RMSE) on duration curve and a combination of different criteria, a set of best fit parametrization with varying runoff series was received as input for the bed load transport simulation. These simulations are performed with sedFlow, a tool especially developed for bed load

  15. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters

  16. The Impact of Urbanization on Temporal Changes in Sediment Transport in a Gravel Bed Channel in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, B. D.; Annable, W. K.; Thompson, P. J.; Hassan, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    A field investigation has been undertaken to characterize the event-based bed load transport dynamics of a highly urbanized gravel bed stream. A combination of direct bed load and tracer particle measurements were taken over a 3 year period during which time approximately 30 sediment mobilizing events occurred. Sediment transport measurements were used to calibrate a fractional bed load transport model and combined with hydrometric data which represent four different land use conditions (ranging from rural to highly urbanized) to analyze the differences in discharge magnitude and frequency and its impact on sediment transport. Fractional transport analysis of the bed load measurements indicates that frequent intermediate discharge events can mobilize sand and fine gravel to an approximate equally mobile condition, however, the transport rates at these discharges exhibit greater variability than at discharges above the bankfull discharge. Path lengths of the coarse fraction, measured using tracer clasts, are insensitive to peak discharge, and instead transport at distances less than those reported in other gravel bed channels, which is attributed to the shorter duration discharge events common to urban streams. The magnitude-frequency analysis reveals that the frequency, time, and volume of competent sediment mobilizing events are increasing with urbanization. Variability in effective discharges suggests that a range of discharges, spanning between frequent, low magnitude events to less frequent, high magnitude events are geomorphically significant. However, trends in the different land use scenarios suggest that urbanization is shifting the geomorphic significance toward more frequent, lower magnitude events.

  17. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  18. Experiment on temporal variation of bed load transport in response to changes in sediment supply in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta-Astaburuaga, Maria A.; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2017-01-01

    A flume experiment was conducted to study channel adjustment to episodic sediment supply in mountain streams. The bulk sediment used for the bed and feed included grain sizes 0.5-64 mm with geometric mean Dg>(bulk>) of 5.7 mm. Water discharge was held constant for 40 h, and 300 kg of sediment was supplied through a range of scenarios. Bed slope, sediment storage, sediment transport, and bed surface texture responded to sediment supply. During the first of seven runs, bed slope decreased from 0.022 m/m (flume slope) to 0.018 m/m due to sediment starvation. Bed slope increased beginning in the second run as the bed aggraded due to preferential storage of grains >8 mm. Transport rate and bed-surface particle size were significantly affected by magnitude-frequency of sediment feed. Under constant feed, transport rate increased gradually and Dg >(surface>) ranged between 12 and 15 mm. Instead, sediment pulses caused a pronounced increase in sediment transport rate and surface fining, trends that were inverted as sediment evacuated. At the run scale, sediment transport and storage behaved as with constant feed if pulse relaxation time exceeded time between pulses. The increase in transport rate and surface fining were proportional to pulse size. After the 300 kg pulse, transport rate reached 100 g m-1 s-1 and Dg >(surface>) was g >(surface>) was >12 mm. Textural differences on the initial bed surface influenced the patterns of sediment transport. Channel adjustment was controlled by magnitude-frequency of sediment feed and not by total feed.

  19. A Framework for Dynamic Modeling of Surface-Structure Patches on Bed Load Transport in Coarse Grained Reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, K. B.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain streams are the first link in the fluvial system and often have complex bed morphologies which make it difficult to develop simple quantitative expressions for sediment mass flux and stream flow resistance. Such expressions are important for landscape evolution modeling as well as stream management and restoration practices and efforts. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that stream beds can have large variations in particle size and structural organization - both of which lead to variations in bed strength that can change as a function of time. This study presents a mathematical framework to account for the dynamic impact of surface-structure patches on bed strength and bed load transport under simplified conditions. The framework is based on conservation principles for tracking the exchange of mass between structured and unstructured surface patches in the bed during structure formation and breakup. Two main transport equations are solved for the mobile and stationary phases, and the exchange between the two is modeled using particle collision theory and a simple breakup model (figure 1). The experiments of Strom et al. (2004) are used to parameterize the model initial conditions, and calculated and experimentally observed transport rates are compared as a function of time. Conceptual sketch of the modeling framework for: (A) a gravel bed, and (B) an idealized bed of uniform spherical particles. Mass conservation equations are written for each phase (structured and unstructured) and then solved with time under varying conditions.

  20. Test bed for a long pulse 160 KeV neutral beam-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becherer, R.; Bariaud, A.; Bottiglioni, F.; Bussac, J.P.; Desmons, M.; Fumelli, M.; Raimbault, P.; Sledziewski, Z.; Valckx, F.P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of 160 KeV neutral injectors with deuterium beams is required for JET - operation. A test bed has been constructed, allowing the operation and testing of quasi DC-neutral beams (10 sec) of 60 A in the energy range of 80 to 160 KeV. For deuterium operation the whole test bed will be moved into a concrete blockhouse for radiation protection. Different elements are described. (author)

  1. Combustion test of refuse derived fuel in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shegeru; Yamazaki, Ryohei; Fujima, Yukihisa; Mori, Shigekatsu [Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Kondo, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RFD) is a promising utilization technology for municipal municipal solid waste. To explain the combustion behaviors of RDF was fed continuously in to a 0.3 x 0.3 m x 2.73 m in height bubbling-type fluidized bed combustor and CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and HCl concentrations in the flue gas from the combustor were detected by a continuos measurement system. It is found that CO concentration in the flue gas is greatly increased by increasing the RFD feed rate, and CO concentration in the flue gas is greatly decreased by increasing the air ratio because the volatile matters rate is extremely great in combustion of RFD. It is also significantly affected by the secondary air injection and the air distribution ratio from the distributor. HCl concentration in the flue gas is effectively controlled by the calcium compound contained in RDF.HCl concentration is maintained to be less than 60 ppm when the bed temperature is 800 degree C, and the HCl removal ratio by the calcium component is higher than 70% even though under the higher bed temperature than 900 degree C. NO{sub x} concentration was among 50-150 ppm and SO{sub x} concentration is less than 0.5 ppm. (author)

  2. STUDI PEMODELAN DAN PERHITUNGAN TRANSPORT MONTE CARLO DALAM TERAS HTR PEBBLE BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair .

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Konsep sistem energi VHTR baik yang berbahan bakar pebble (VHTR pebble bed maupun blok prismatik (VHTR prismatik menarik perhatian fisikawan reaktor nuklir. Salah satu kelebihan teknologi bahan bakar bola adalah menawarkan terobosan teknologi pengisian bahan bakar tanpa harus menghentikan produksi listrik. Selain itu, partikel bahan bakar pebble dengan kernel uranium oksida (UO2 atau uranium oksikarbida (UCO yang dibalut TRISO dan pelapisan silikon karbida (SiC dianggap sebagai opsi utama dengan pertimbangan performa tinggi pada burn-up bahan bakar dan temperatur tinggi. Makalah ini mendiskusikan pemodelan dan perhitungan transport Monte Carlo dalam teras HTR pebble bed. HTR pebble bed adalah reaktor berpendingin gas temperatur tinggi dan bermoderator grafit dengan kemampuan kogenerasi. Perhitungan dikerjakan dengan program MCNP5 pada temperatur 1200 K. Pustaka data nuklir energi kontinu ENDF/B-V dan ENDF/B-VI dimanfaatkan untuk melengkapi analisis. Hasil perhitungan secara keseluruhan menunjukkan konsistensi dengan nilai keff yang hampir sama untuk pustaka data nuklir yang digunakan. Pustaka ENDF/B-VI (66c selalu memproduksi keff lebih besar dibandingkan ENDF/B-V (50c maupun ENDF/B-VI (60c dengan bias kurang dari 0,25%. Kisi BCC memprediksi keff hampir selalu lebih kecil daripada kisi lainnya, khususnya FCC. Nilai keff kisi BCC lebih dekat dengan kisi FCC dengan bias kurang dari 0,19% sedangkan dengan kisi SH bias perhitungannya kurang dari 0,22%. Fraksi packing yang sedikit berbeda (BCC= 61%, SH= 60,459% tidak membuat bias perhitungan menjadi berbeda jauh. Estimasi keff ketiga model kisi menyimpulkan bahwa model BCC lebih bisa diadopsi dalam perhitungan HTR pebble bed dibandingkan model FCC dan SH. Verifikasi hasil estimasi ini perlu dilakukan dengan simulasi Monte Carlo atau bahkan program deterministik lainnya guna optimisasi perhitungan teras reaktor temperatur tinggi.   Kata-kunci: kernel, TRISO, bahan bakar pebble, HTR pebble bed

  3. SYNROC powder preparation: preliminary fluid bed tests in a cold-flow unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.E.; Ackerman, F.J.; Grens, J.Z.

    1982-01-01

    SYNROC is a titanate-based material which is being developed as a medium for immobilizing high-level nuclear waste. The use of a fluid bed unit for production of SYNROC powder has a precedent in the use of a fluid-bed calciner for high-level waste processing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (Idaho Falls, ID). In order to facilitate the design of a fluid bed and demonstrate its use for SYNROC production, two small units have been constructed, one for low temperature use and a second for actual SYNROC production at temperatures up to 800 0 C. The low-temperature unit is constructed with glass walls to allow observation of the fluidization process, including the onset of fluidization, bed and gas bubble behavior and mixing phenomena. Disturbances caused by side streams entering the bed have been examined. Side streams may represent fuel and oxidizer admission or slurry feed with subsequent flash vaporization of the carrier liquid. This report is a summary of the initial tests made with the low-temperature, glass-walled fluid bed. The tests described include: (1) the measurement of basic fluidization parameters; (2) measurement of the effect of distribution-plate design on bed fluidization; (3) observation of jet penetration, bubble formation and coalescence, and surface behavior; and (4) studies of mixing within the bed

  4. Full Scale Drinking Water System Decontamination at the Water Security Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA’s Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) facility is a full-scale representation of a drinking water distribution system. In collaboration with the Idaho National...

  5. Mechanical Systems Characterization of Boeing 747 Aging Systems Test Bed Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aging Aircraft Program, the FAA purchased a Boeing 747 to be used as a test bed aircraft for investigating aging mechanical and electrical systems...

  6. Overview and evolution of the LeRC PMAD DC test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Frye, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been developed electrical power system test beds to support the overall design effort. Through this time, the SSFP has changed the design baseline numerous times, however, the test bed effort has endeavored to track these changes. Beginning in August 1989 with the baseline and an all DC system, a test bed was developed to support the design baseline. The LeRC power measurement and distribution (PMAD) DC test bed and the changes in the restructure are described. The changes included the size reduction of primary power channel and various power processing elements. A substantial reduction was also made in the amount of flight software with the subsequent migration of these functions to ground control centers. The impact of these changes on the design of the power hardware, the controller algorithms, the control software, and a description of their current status is presented. An overview of the testing using the test bed is described, which includes investigation of stability and source impedance, primary and secondary fault protection, and performance of a rotary utility transfer device. Finally, information is presented on the evolution of the test bed to support the verification and operational phases of the SSFP in light of these restructure scrubs.

  7. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  8. Development of a Torque Sensor-Based Test Bed for Attitude Control System Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-30

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2018-0008 TR-2018-0008 DEVELOPMENT OF A TORQUE SENSOR - BASED TEST BED FOR ATTITUDE CONTROL SYSTEM VERIFICATION AND... Sensor -Based Test Bed for Attitude Control System Verification & Validation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-15-1-0315 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...covers the development of a torque sensor for verification and validation (V&V) of spacecraft attitude control actuators. The developed sensor directly

  9. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jared A.; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability. PMID:27556464

  10. A wave model test bed study for wave energy resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Neary, Vincent S.; Wang, Taiping; Gunawan, Budi; Dallman, Annie R.; Wu, Wei-Cheng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a test bed study conducted to evaluate best practices in wave modeling to characterize energy resources. The model test bed off the central Oregon Coast was selected because of the high wave energy and available measured data at the site. Two third-generation spectral wave models, SWAN and WWIII, were evaluated. A four-level nested-grid approach—from global to test bed scale—was employed. Model skills were assessed using a set of model performance metrics based on comparing six simulated wave resource parameters to observations from a wave buoy inside the test bed. Both WWIII and SWAN performed well at the test bed site and exhibited similar modeling skills. The ST4 package with WWIII, which represents better physics for wave growth and dissipation, out-performed ST2 physics and improved wave power density and significant wave height predictions. However, ST4 physics tended to overpredict the wave energy period. The newly developed ST6 physics did not improve the overall model skill for predicting the six wave resource parameters. Sensitivity analysis using different wave frequencies and direction resolutions indicated the model results were not sensitive to spectral resolutions at the test bed site, likely due to the absence of complex bathymetric and geometric features.

  11. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A. Frank

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability.

  12. Fission Product Transport and Source Terms in HTRs: Experience from AVR Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Moormann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission products deposited in the coolant circuit outside of the active core play a dominant role in source term estimations for advanced small pebble bed HTRs, particularly in design basis accidents (DBA. The deposited fission products may be released in depressurization accidents because present pebble bed HTR concepts abstain from a gas tight containment. Contamination of the circuit also hinders maintenance work. Experiments, performed from 1972 to 88 on the AVR, an experimental pebble bed HTR, allow for a deeper insight into fission product transport behavior. The activity deposition per coolant pass was lower than expected and was influenced by fission product chemistry and by presence of carbonaceous dust. The latter lead also to inconsistencies between Cs plate out experiments in laboratory and in AVR. The deposition behavior of Ag was in line with present models. Dust as activity carrier is of safety relevance because of its mobility and of its sorption capability for fission products. All metal surfaces in pebble bed reactors were covered by a carbonaceous dust layer. Dust in AVR was produced by abrasion in amounts of about 5 kg/y. Additional dust sources in AVR were ours oil ingress and peeling of fuel element surfaces due to an air ingress. Dust has a size of about 1  m, consists mainly of graphite, is partly remobilized by flow perturbations, and deposits with time constants of 1 to 2 hours. In future reactors, an efficient filtering via a gas tight containment is required because accidents with fast depressurizations induce dust mobilization. Enhanced core temperatures in normal operation as in AVR and broken fuel pebbles have to be considered, as inflammable dust concentrations in the gas phase.

  13. Coupled dynamics of the co-evolution of gravel bed topography, flow turbulence and sediment transport in an experimental channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2012-12-01

    A series of flume experiments were conducted in a large experimental channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory to understand the coupled dynamics of flow and bed forms above the sediment-water interface. Simultaneous high resolution measurements of velocity fluctuations, bed elevations and sediment flux at the downstream end of the channel, were made for a range of discharges. The probability density functions (pdfs) of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stress reveal a power law tail behavior and a wavelet cross-correlation analysis depicts a strong dependence of these series across a range of scales, indicating a feedback between bed form dynamics and near-bed turbulence. These results complement our previous findings in which the signature of bed form evolution on the near-bed velocity fluctuations was confirmed via the presence of a spectral gap and two distinct power law scaling regimes in the spectral density of velocity fluctuations. We report herein a strong asymmetry in the probability distribution of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stresses, the latter being further analyzed and interpreted via a quadrant analysis of velocity fluctuations in the longitudinal and vertical directions. We also report the presence of intermittency (multifractality) in bed elevation increments and interpret it, in view of the asymmetric nature of the pdfs, as the result of scale coupling. In other words, the geometric asymmetry at the bed form scale gets transferred down to a probabilistic asymmetry at all smaller scales indicating a local anisotropy in the energy transfer. Finally, we propose a predictive relationship between bed form averaged sediment transport rates and bed form averaged instantaneous Reynolds stress and validate it using our experimental data.

  14. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  15. Life-finding detector development at NASA GSFC using a custom H4RG test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory; Rauscher, Bernard; Kutyrev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Chemical species associated with life, called biosignatures, should be visible in exoplanet atmospheres with larger space telescopes. These signals will be faint and require very low noise (~e-) detectors to robustly measure. At NASA Goddard we are developing a single detector H4RG test bed to characterize and identify potential technology developments needed for the next generation's large space telescopes. The vacuum and cryogenic test bed will include near infrared light sources from integrating spheres using a motorized shutter. The detector control and readout will be handled by a Leach controller. Detector cables have been manufactured and test planning has begun. Planned tests include testing minimum read noise capabilities, persistence mitigation strategies using long wavelength light, and measuring intrapixel variation which might affect science goals of future missions. In addition to providing a means to identify areas of improvement in detector technology, we hope to use this test bed to probe some fundamental physics of these infrared arrays.

  16. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  17. Test plan: Hydraulic fracturing and hydrologic tests in Marker Beds 139 and 140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Beauheim, R.L.

    1991-03-01

    Combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements in this test plan are designed to evaluate the potential influence of fracture formation in anhydrite Marker Beds 139 and 140 on gas pressure in and gas flow from the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with time. The tests have the further purpose of providing comparisons of permeabilities of anhydrite interbeds in an undisturbed (virgin) state and after fracture development and/or opening and dilation of preexisting partially healed fractures. Three sets of combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements are planned. A set of trial measurements is expected to last four to six weeks. The duration of each subsequent experiment is anticipated to be six to eight weeks

  18. Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Test Bed and Data Infrastructure Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shipman, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-04

    The collaborative Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project started in July 2011 with the goal of accelerating the development of climate model components (i.e., atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, and land surface) and enhancing their predictive capabilities while incorporating uncertainty quantification (UQ). This effort required accessing and converting observational data sets into specialized model testing and verification data sets and building a model development test bed, where model components and sub-models can be rapidly evaluated. CSSEF’s prototype test bed demonstrated, how an integrated testbed could eliminate tedious activities associated with model development and evaluation, by providing the capability to constantly compare model output—where scientists store, acquire, reformat, regrid, and analyze data sets one-by-one—to observational measurements in a controlled test bed.

  19. Comparison of genetic algorithm and imperialist competitive algorithms in predicting bed load transport in clean pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebtehaj, Isa; Bonakdari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The existence of sediments in wastewater greatly affects the performance of the sewer and wastewater transmission systems. Increased sedimentation in wastewater collection systems causes problems such as reduced transmission capacity and early combined sewer overflow. The article reviews the performance of the genetic algorithm (GA) and imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) in minimizing the target function (mean square error of observed and predicted Froude number). To study the impact of bed load transport parameters, using four non-dimensional groups, six different models have been presented. Moreover, the roulette wheel selection method is used to select the parents. The ICA with root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.007, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) = 3.5% show better results than GA (RMSE = 0.007, MAPE = 5.6%) for the selected model. All six models return better results than the GA. Also, the results of these two algorithms were compared with multi-layer perceptron and existing equations.

  20. Model-Based Diagnosis in a Power Distribution Test-Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarl, E.; McCall, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Rodon model-based diagnosis shell was applied to a breadboard test-bed, modeling an automated power distribution system. The constraint-based modeling paradigm and diagnostic algorithm were found to adequately represent the selected set of test scenarios.

  1. Determination of the solid consumption in the transport of sands in sea beds with gold 198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez A, G.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the movement of sediments in sea beds, is necessary when one plans to build a port. Among the techniques used for this studies, it is the radiotracer balance that gives an useful estimation of the quantity of sediment that it moves per day and by meter (perpendicular to the displacement). The main objectives of this work are: to) to present the characteristics of the obtaining of the used radiotracer, describing details those used safety measures, b) to describe the handling of the radiotracer and it radiological safety, during the transport and injection in the sea bottom, c) description of the detection way and the used equipment, d) to describe the information processing obtained in the field and finally, e) the estimate of the solid consumption and the determination of the direction and speed of displacement of those sediments in the sea bottom, in front of the Tabasco coast, to be used jointly with the information obtained by means of other techniques so that one can make a good planning of the operations of dredging during the construction and later on the maintenance of the Dos Bocas marine terminal. The first step is to obtain the radiotracer that in this case was sand of uniform grain metric, marked superficially with Gold-198. The second step is to transport the sand to the place of interest, to place it in the injection equipment and to deposit it in the sea bottom. The third step is to detect the radiotracer in the sea bed, from a craft that drags a sled, which takes mounted a scintillation detector of sodium iodide activated with thallium NaI(Tl) (probe). The fourth step is to process the field information and to obtain the corresponding results. (Author)

  2. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste: test program results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuit, L C; Wilson, K B

    1980-05-01

    Air classified municipal solid waste (MSW) was fired in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor at low excess air to simulate boiler conditions. The 7 ft/sup 2/ combustor at Combustion Power Company's energy laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and recycles elutriated particles to the bed. System operation was stable while firing processed MSW for the duration of a 300-h test. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluidized bed combustion of MSW. During the 300-h test, combustion efficiency averaged 99%. Excess air was typically 44% while an average bed temperature of 1400/sup 0/F and an average superficial gas velocity of 4.6 fps were maintained. Typical exhaust emission levels were 30 ppM SO/sub 2/, 160 ppM NO/sub x/, 200 ppM CO, and 25 ppM hydrocarbons. No agglomeration of bed material or detrimental change in fluidization properties was experienced. A conceptual design study of a full scale plant to be located at Stanford University was based on process conditions from the 300-h test. The plant would produce 250,000 lb/hr steam at the maximum firing rate of 1000 tons per day (TPD) processed MSW. The average 800 TPD firing rate would utilize approximately 1200 TPD raw MSW from surrounding communities. The Stanford Solid Waste energy Program was aimed at development of a MSW-fired fluidized bed boiler and cogeneration plant to supply most of the energy needs of Stanford University.

  3. System test results from the GNC experiments on the PRISMA in-orbit test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Per; Noteborn, Ron; Larsson, Robin; Chasset, Camille

    2011-04-01

    The PRISMA in-orbit test bed will demonstrate guidance, navigation, and control strategies for spacecraft formation flying and rendezvous. The project is funded by the Swedish National Space Board and the prime contractor is the Swedish Space Corporation. The project is further supported by the German Aerospace Center, the Technical University of Denmark, and the French Space Agency. PRISMA was launched on June 15, 2010 and after three weeks of operations, all on-board systems and units have passed an initial commissioning phase. Separation of the two PRISMA satellites from each other is expected by mid-August 2010. PRISMA consists of two spacecraft: MAIN and TARGET. The MAIN spacecraft has full orbit control capability while TARGET is attitude controlled only. The Swedish Space Corporation is responsible for three groups of guidance, navigation, and control experiments. These experiments include GPS- and vision-based formation flying during which the spacecraft will fly in passive as well as forced motion. The three experiments are: autonomous formation flying, proximity operations with final approach/recede maneuvers, and autonomous rendezvous. This paper presents system test results from two of these experiments as obtained with the flight-ready system. The system tests consist of a series of simulations performed on the flight model spacecraft with a large amount of hardware in the loop.

  4. Introduction to the Chinese HTR-PM pebble bed equivalent conductivity test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiyong; Ren Cheng; Sun Yanfei; Yang Xingtuan; Jiang Shengyao

    2014-01-01

    The first two 250-MWt high temperature reactor pebble bed modules (HTR-PM) have been installing at the Shidaowan plant in Shandong Province, China. The values of the effective thermal conductivity of the pebble bed core under different temperatures are essential parameters for the design of HTR-PM, which are needed to analyze the maximum fuel temperature, temperature distribution and residual heat releasing ability in reactor core. For this purpose, Tsinghua University in China has proposed a full-scale heat transfer experiment to conduct comprehensive thermal transfer tests in packed pebble bed and to determine the effective thermal conductivity through the pebble bed under vacuum condition and helium environment. The design of HTR-PM pebble bed equivalent conductivity test facility is introduced in detail in this paper. Validation experiments have verified the feasibility of the related materials and structures. Test temperature can be elevated to 1600℃, which covers the whole temperature range of the safety analysis of HTR-PM. (author)

  5. 750 Pound M117 Bomb Transportability Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, William

    1999-01-01

    The US Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) Validation Engineering Division (SIOAC-DEV) was tasked by the US Army Pacific, Fort Shafter, HI to conduct transportability tests on modified 750 pound bombs...

  6. EMTP based stability analysis of space station electric power system in a test bed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, Narayan V.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Oconnor, Andrew M.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) will convert solar energy into electric energy and distribute the same using an 'all dc', Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. Power conditioning devices (dc to dc converters) are needed to interconnect parts of this system operating at different nominal voltage levels. Operation of such devices could generate under damped oscillations (instability) under certain conditions. Criteria for instability are examined and verified for a single device. Suggested extension of the criteria to a system operation is examined by using the EMTP model of the PMAD DC test bed. Wherever possible, data from the test bed is compared with the modeling results.

  7. Overview of the Meraka wireless grid test bed for evaluation of ad-hoc routing protocols

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available - and worst-case data rate in a network with shared channel access, as the number of hops increases. However, recent work done by the same authors [3] using a real test bed, employing laptops equipped with Standard (“802.11”) based radios..., OLSR and DYMO Index Terms—ad-hoc networks, IEEE 802.11 standard, wireless grid test bed I.INTRODUCTION One of the key challenges for researchers in the field of wireless networking protocol design, is the ability to carry out...

  8. JPL control/structure interaction test bed real-time control computer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structure Interaction Program is a technology development program for spacecraft that exhibit interactions between the control system and structural dynamics. The program objectives include development and verification of new design concepts - such as active structure - and new tools - such as combined structure and control optimization algorithm - and their verification in ground and possibly flight test. A focus mission spacecraft was designed based upon a space interferometer and is the basis for design of the ground test article. The ground test bed objectives include verification of the spacecraft design concepts, the active structure elements and certain design tools such as the new combined structures and controls optimization tool. In anticipation of CSI technology flight experiments, the test bed control electronics must emulate the computation capacity and control architectures of space qualifiable systems as well as the command and control networks that will be used to connect investigators with the flight experiment hardware. The Test Bed facility electronics were functionally partitioned into three units: a laboratory data acquisition system for structural parameter identification and performance verification; an experiment supervisory computer to oversee the experiment, monitor the environmental parameters and perform data logging; and a multilevel real-time control computing system. The design of the Test Bed electronics is presented along with hardware and software component descriptions. The system should break new ground in experimental control electronics and is of interest to anyone working in the verification of control concepts for large structures.

  9. Designing, Implementing and Documenting the Atlas Networking Test-bed.

    CERN Document Server

    Martinsen, Hans Åge

    The A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS (Atlas) experiment at the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) in European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva is a production environment. To develop new architectures, test new equipment and evaluate new technologies a well supported test bench is needed. A new one is now being commissioned and I will take a leading role in its development, commissioning and operation. This thesis will cover the requirements, the implementation, the documentation and the approach to the different challenges in implementing the testbed. I will be joining the project in the early stages and start by following the work that my colleagues are doing and then, as I get a better understanding, more responsibility will be given to me. To be able to suggest and implement solutions I will have to understand what the requirements are and how to achieve these requirements with the given resources.

  10. Description of all-optical network test bed and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Douglas; Castagnozzi, Daniel M.; Hemenway, B. R.; Parikh, Salil A.; Stevens, Mark L.; Swanson, Eric A.; Thomas, Robert E.; Ozveren, C.; Kaminow, Ivan P.

    1995-12-01

    We describe an all-optical network testbed deployed in the Boston metropolitan area, and some of the experimental applications running over the network. The network was developed by a consortium of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a grant from ARPA. The network is an optical WDM system organized as a hierarchy consisting of local, metropolitan, and wide area nodes that support optical broadcast and routing modes. Frequencies are shared and reused to enhance network scalability. Electronic access is provided through optical terminals that support multiple services having data rates between 10 Mbps/user and 10 Gbps/user. Novel components used to implement the network include fast-tuning 1.5 micrometers distributed Bragg reflector lasers, passive wavelength routers, and broadband optical frequency converters. An overlay control network implemented at 1.3 micrometers allows reliable out-of-band control and standardized network management of all network nodes. We have created interfaces between the AON and commercially available electronic circuit-switched and packet-switched networks. We will report on network applications that can dynamically allocate optical bandwidth between electronic packet-switches based on the offered load presented by users, without requiring interfaces between users and the AON control system. We will also describe video and telemedicine applications running over the network. We have demonstrated an audio/video codec that is directly interfaced to the optical network, and is capable of transmitting high-rate digitized video signals for broadcast or videoconferencing applications. We have also demonstrated a state-of-the-art radiological workstation that uses the AON to transport 2000 X 2000 X 16 bit images from a remote image server.

  11. Bed-material entrainment and associated transportation infrastructure problems in streams of the Edwards Plateau, central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation commonly builds and maintains low-water crossings (LWCs) over streams in the Edwards Plateau in Central Texas. LWCs are low-height structures, typically constructed of concrete and asphalt, that provide acceptable passage over seasonal rivers or streams with relatively low normal-depth flow. They are designed to accommodate flow by roadway overtopping during high-flow events. The streams of the Edwards Plateau are characterized by cobble- and gravel-sized bed material and highly variable flow regimes. Low base flows that occur most of the time occasionally are interrupted by severe floods. The floods entrain and transport substantial loads of bed material in the stream channels. As a result, LWCs over streams in the Edwards Plateau are bombarded and abraded by bed material during floods and periodically must be maintained or even replaced.

  12. Transport Network Technologies – Study and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozorgebrahimi, K.; Channegowda, M.; Colmenero, A.

    Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS, and the ......Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS...

  13. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  14. Use of 198 Au, with surface labelling, in the study of solid transport by bed load in large natural channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study aims to present a method of measuring the bed load transport using a radioisotope technique in large natural channels. This study describes the basic principles of radioisotope application in this field, emphasizing the use of 198 Au for surface labelling of a natural sediment. Moreover, it presents the theoretical aspects, critical analysis, recommendations and comments on the methodology proposed. (author)

  15. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  16. Technology test bed and hydrogen cold flow facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Robert; Gautney, Tim

    1993-01-01

    The Technology Test Bed and Hydrogen Cold Flow facilities at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provide unique testing capabilities for the aerospace community. Located at the Advanced Engine Test Facility (AETF), these facilities are operated and maintained by MSFC Propulsion Laboratory personnel. They provide a systems and components level testing platform for validating new technology concepts and advanced systems design and for gaining a better understanding of the test article internal environments. A discussion follows of the particular capabilities of each facility to provide a range of testing options for specific test articles.

  17. Migration to a distributed system architecture at the National Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebelheinrich, R.

    1991-09-01

    This is a study to consider the mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization's National Test Bed (NTB) and the current directions of gigabit networking and distributed computing research and to produce a report describing a 5- to 10-year vision of an NTB computing architecture and migration path to that architecture. 97 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Test-bed Assessment of Communication Technologies for a Power-Balancing Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findrik, Mislav; Pedersen, Rasmus; Hasenleithner, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    and control. In this paper, we present a Smart Grid test-bed that integrates various communication technologies and deploys a power balancing controller for LV grids. Control performance of the introduced power balancing controller is subsequently investigated and its robustness to communication network cross...

  19. Enabling Smart Manufacturing Research and Development using a Product Lifecycle Test Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu, Moneer; Hedberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Smart manufacturing technologies require a cyber-physical infrastructure to collect and analyze data and information across the manufacturing enterprise. This paper describes a concept for a product lifecycle test bed built on a cyber-physical infrastructure that enables smart manufacturing research and development. The test bed consists of a Computer-Aided Technologies (CAx) Lab and a Manufacturing Lab that interface through the product model creating a "digital thread" of information across the product lifecycle. The proposed structure and architecture of the test bed is presented, which highlights the challenges and requirements of implementing a cyber-physical infrastructure for manufacturing. The novel integration of systems across the product lifecycle also helps identify the technologies and standards needed to enable interoperability between design, fabrication, and inspection. Potential research opportunities enabled by the test bed are also discussed, such as providing publicly accessible CAx and manufacturing reference data, virtual factory data, and a representative industrial environment for creating, prototyping, and validating smart manufacturing technologies.

  20. Enabling Smart Manufacturing Research and Development using a Product Lifecycle Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu, Moneer; Hedberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing technologies require a cyber-physical infrastructure to collect and analyze data and information across the manufacturing enterprise. This paper describes a concept for a product lifecycle test bed built on a cyber-physical infrastructure that enables smart manufacturing research and development. The test bed consists of a Computer-Aided Technologies (CAx) Lab and a Manufacturing Lab that interface through the product model creating a “digital thread” of information across the product lifecycle. The proposed structure and architecture of the test bed is presented, which highlights the challenges and requirements of implementing a cyber-physical infrastructure for manufacturing. The novel integration of systems across the product lifecycle also helps identify the technologies and standards needed to enable interoperability between design, fabrication, and inspection. Potential research opportunities enabled by the test bed are also discussed, such as providing publicly accessible CAx and manufacturing reference data, virtual factory data, and a representative industrial environment for creating, prototyping, and validating smart manufacturing technologies. PMID:28664167

  1. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    During test and verification planning for the Altair lunar lander project, a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team identified several ground transportation and test issues related to the large payload diameter. Although the entire Constellation Program-including Altair-has since been canceled, issues identified by the Altair project serve as important lessons learned for payloads greater than 7 m diameter being considered for NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS). A transportation feasibility study found that Altair's 8.97 m diameter Descent Module would not fit inside available aircraft. Although the Ascent Module cabin was only 2.35 m diameter, the long reaction control system booms extended nearly to the Descent Module diameter, making it equally unsuitable for air transportation without removing the booms and invalidating assembly workmanship screens or acceptance testing that had already been performed. Ground transportation of very large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted by most states, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 66 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA's Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  2. Effect of Mass-Transport Limitations on the Performance of a Packed Bed Membrane Reactor for Partial Oxidations. Transport from the Membrane to the Packed Bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    With a packed bed membrane reactor, the product yield can be significantly enhanced for partial oxidation systems, via distributive addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture along the axial coordinate of the reactor, provided that the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target

  3. Separate Effects Tests to Determine the Pressure Drop over Packed Beds in the PBMR HPTU Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toit, C.G. du; Rousseau, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this study experiments were conducted in the PBMR HPTU test facility on a small scale randomly packed cylindrical bed and a specific annular pebble bed in an effort to determine the impact of the wall effects. Tests were also conducted on test sections with structured BCC packings in an attempt to isolate the effect of porosity. The pebbles were mounted on cables and the required porosities were obtained by varying the distance between the pebbles. The required Reynolds numbers ranging between 1000 and 50000 were obtained by varying the system pressure. In the execution of the tests and the data reduction considerable care was taken to obtain good repeatability and to account for the uncertainties due to statistical variance, instrument accuracy and drift. Evaluation of the results has shown that the wall effect is negligible and that the well-known KTA correlation derived for cylindrical beds may thus be used to determine the pressure drop over the annular packed bed. The results have also shown that porosity is not the only characteristic of the packing structure that influences the pressure drop, but that amongst others the type of packing also plays an important role. (author)

  4. Improved PFB operations - 400-hour turbine test results. [Pressurized Fluidized Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with a 400-hr small turbine test in the effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) at an average temperature of 770 C, an average relative gas velocity of 300 m/sec, and average solid loadings of 200 ppm. Consideration is given to combustion parameters and operating procedure as well as to the turbine system and turbine test operating procedures. Emphasis is placed on erosion/corrosion results.

  5. A Physical Protection Systems Test Bed for International Counter-Trafficking System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinson, Brad J.; Kuhn, Michael J.; Donaldson, Terrence L.; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C.; Younkin, James R.; Pickett, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    Physical protection systems have a widespread impact on the nuclear industry in areas such as nuclear safeguards, arms control, and trafficking of illicit goods (e.g., nuclear materials) across international borders around the world. Many challenges must be overcome in design and deployment of foreign border security systems such as lack of infrastructure, extreme environmental conditions, limited knowledge of terrain, insider threats, and occasional cultural resistance. Successful security systems, whether it be a system designed to secure a single facility or a whole border security system, rely on the entire integrated system composed of multiple subsystems. This test bed is composed of many unique sensors and subsystems, including wireless unattended ground sensors, a buried fiber-optic acoustic sensor, a lossy coaxial distributed sensor, wireless links, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, mobile power generation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and fiber-optic-fence intrusion detection systems. A Common Operating Picture software architecture is utilized to integrate a number of these subsystems. We are currently performance testing each system for border security and perimeter security applications by examining metrics such as probability of sense and a qualitative understanding of the sensors vulnerability of defeat. The testing process includes different soil conditions for buried sensors (e.g., dry, wet, and frozen) and an array of different tests including walking, running, stealth detection, and vehicle detection. Also, long term sustainability of systems is tested including performance differences due to seasonal variations (e.g. summer versus winter, while raining, in foggy conditions). The capabilities of the test bed are discussed. Performance testing results, both at the individual component level and integrated into a larger system for a specific deployment (in situ), help illustrate the usefulness and need for integrated testing facilities to carry out this

  6. Regulatory and performance tests of packages for transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of nuclear tests conducted in our institute, including (1) fireproof and pressure tests of an enriched UF 6 transport package, (2) drop, thermal, and pressure tests of a natural UF 6 transport package, (3) drop, thermal, submerge tests of a spent fuel transport cask, and (4) drop, thermal, and submerge tests of a returned high level vitrified waste transport cask. These tests proved that the transport packages meet IAEA's transport requirements with sufficient margins for the safety. (author)

  7. A SPH elastic-viscoplastic model for granular flows and bed-load transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaïtanellis, Alex; Violeau, Damien; Ferrand, Martin; Abderrezzak, Kamal El Kadi; Leroy, Agnès; Joly, Antoine

    2018-01-01

    An elastic-viscoplastic model (Ulrich, 2013) is combined to a multi-phase SPH formulation (Hu and Adams, 2006; Ghaitanellis et al., 2015) to model granular flows and non-cohesive sediment transport. The soil is treated as a continuum exhibiting a viscoplastic behaviour. Thus, below a critical shear stress (i.e. the yield stress), the soil is assumed to behave as an isotropic linear-elastic solid. When the yield stress is exceeded, the soil flows and behaves as a shear-thinning fluid. A liquid-solid transition threshold based on the granular material properties is proposed, so as to make the model free of numerical parameter. The yield stress is obtained from Drucker-Prager criterion that requires an accurate computation of the effective stress in the soil. A novel method is proposed to compute the effective stress in SPH, solving a Laplace equation. The model is applied to a two-dimensional soil collapse (Bui et al., 2008) and a dam break over mobile beds (Spinewine and Zech, 2007). Results are compared with experimental data and a good agreement is obtained.

  8. Model Test Bed for Evaluating Wave Models and Best Practices for Resource Assessment and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Dallman, Ann Renee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies

    2016-03-01

    A wave model test bed is established to benchmark, test and evaluate spectral wave models and modeling methodologies (i.e., best practices) for predicting the wave energy resource parameters recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC TS 62600-101Ed. 1.0 ©2015. Among other benefits, the model test bed can be used to investigate the suitability of different models, specifically what source terms should be included in spectral wave models under different wave climate conditions and for different classes of resource assessment. The overarching goal is to use these investigations to provide industry guidance for model selection and modeling best practices depending on the wave site conditions and desired class of resource assessment. Modeling best practices are reviewed, and limitations and knowledge gaps in predicting wave energy resource parameters are identified.

  9. Stellarator WEGA as a test-bed for the WENDELSTEIN 7-X control system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, Joerg; Assmus, Dieter; Bluhm, Torsten; Dinklage, Andreas; Heinrich, Stefan; Hennig, Christine; Herbst, Uwe; Koenig, Ralf; Laqua, Heike; Lewerentz, Marc; Mueller, Ina; Otte, Matthias; Pingel, Steffen; Sachtleben, Juergen; Spring, Anett; Werner, Andreas; Woelk, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The concepts for the control of the fusion experiment WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) consider all requirements regarding safety, steady-state operation, flexibility, availability, performance and scalability. The early demonstration of the steady-state control concepts with all interacting parties is necessary to minimize development costs since integrated tests of components are scheduled for a later stage of the W7-X project planning. Therefore the implementation of an integrated test-bed for the control concepts of W7-X is very important to minimize project risks. Main objectives of the test-bed project are an integrated test of control, data acquisition, diagnostics operation and data processing in a W7-X-like environment (steady-state segmented operation, real-time control, interplay of the central slow control system with components control systems, on-line data analysis tools), a demonstration of the W7-X safety concept and the education of engineers and session leaders for a W7-X-like machine operation. The contribution describes the use of the small in-house stellarator experiment WEGA as test-bed for the W7-X control concepts

  10. Hazard classification for the supercritical water oxidation test bed. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    A hazard classification of ''routinely accepted by the public'' has been determined for the operation of the supercritical water oxidation test bed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This determination is based on the fact that the design and proposed operation meet or exceed appropriate national standards so that the risks are equivalent to those present in similar activities conducted in private industry. Each of the 17 criteria for hazards ''routinely accepted by the public,'' identified in the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Safety Manual, were analyzed. The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed will treat simulated mixed waste without the radioactive component. It will be designed to operate with eight test wastes. These test wastes have been chosen to represent a broad cross-section of candidate mixed wastes anticipated for storage or generation by DOE. In particular, the test bed will generate data to evaluate the ability of the technology to treat chlorinated waste and other wastes that have in the past caused severe corrosion and deposition in SCWO reactors

  11. Implementation of a RPS Cyber Security Test-bed with Two PLCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jinsoo; Heo, Gyunyoung; Son, Hanseong; An, Yongkyu; Rizwan, Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Our research team proposed the methodology to evaluate cyber security with Bayesian network (BN) as a cyber security evaluation model and help operator, licensee, licensor or regulator in granting evaluation priorities. The methodology allowed for overall evaluation of cyber security by considering architectural aspect of facility and management aspect of cyber security at the same time. In order to emphasize reality of this model by inserting true data, it is necessary to conduct a penetration test that pretends an actual cyber-attack. Through the collaboration with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, which possesses the Tricon a safety programmable logic controller (PLC) used at nuclear power plants and develops a test-bed for nuclear power plant, a test-bed for reactor protection system (RPS) is being developed with the PLCs. Two PLCs are used to construct a simple test-bed for RPS, bi-stable processor (BP) and coincidence processor (CP). By using two PLCs, it is possible to examine cyber-attack against devices such as PLC, cyber-attack against communication between devices, and the effects of a PLC on the other PLC. Two PLCs were used to construct a test-bed for penetration test in this study. Advantages of using two or more PLCs instead of single PLC are as follows. 1) Results of cyber-attack reflecting characteristics among PLCs can be obtained. 2) Cyber-attack can be attempted using a method of attacking communication between PLCs. True data obtained can be applied to existing cyber security evaluation model to emphasize reality of the model

  12. Working Vibration Analysis of the Bearing Plate on Roadheader Test Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the vibration characteristics of the bearing plate on roadheader test bed to bear the roadheaders with different parameters, this paper establishes a multi-body dynamic model for the bearing plate to bear the roadheaders by using the theory of multi-body dynamics, and analyzes and determines a mathematical model of loads between the track and the bearing plate. By modal analysis of multi-body dynamic model of the roadheader, this paper extracts the modal shape of the system, and draws a frequency response diagram for system vibration, and obtains a larger vibration frequency range. To further explore the vibration characteristics, this paper researches the damping of different hydraulic systems, different mass, stiffness parameters and the impact of the roadheader on the vibration of the bearing plate on the test bed by using the computer numerical simulation, and obtains the longitudinal vibration characteristics of three test points in the geometric center, namely, cutting head, cantilever and engine body. The research results show that the mass of the road-header on the test bed is increased by 6%, and the longitudinal amplitudes of the cutting head and cantilever are respectively reduced by 37% and 19%; the damping of the hydraulic system of the roadheader is increased by 19%, and the longitudinal amplitudes of the cutting head, cantilever and engine body are respectively reduced by 33%, 23% and 16%; the stiffness of the engine body doubles, and the longitudinal amplitudes of the cutting head and cantilever are respectively reduced by 35.8% and 27%. The results are consistent with the underground industrial test so as to provide a regularity basis for load analysis of the test bed bearing the roadheaders with different parameters.

  13. Fate and transport of phenol in a packed bed reactor containing simulated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R.U.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anaerobic column experiments were conducted at 37 °C using a simulated waste mixture. ► Sorption and biodegradation model parameters were determined from batch tests. ► HYDRUS simulated well the fate and transport of phenol in a fully saturated waste column. ► The batch biodegradation rate and the rate obtained by inverse modeling differed by a factor of ∼2. ► Tracer tests showed the importance of hydrodynamic parameters to improve model estimates. - Abstract: An assessment of the risk to human health and the environment associated with the presence of organic contaminants (OCs) in landfills necessitates reliable predictive models. The overall objectives of this study were to (1) conduct column experiments to measure the fate and transport of an OC in a simulated solid waste mixture, (2) compare the results of column experiments to model predictions using HYDRUS-1D (version 4.13), a contaminant fate and transport model that can be parameterized to simulate the laboratory experimental system, and (3) determine model input parameters from independently conducted batch experiments. Experiments were conducted in which sorption only and sorption plus biodegradation influenced OC transport. HYDRUS-1D can reasonably simulate the fate and transport of phenol in an anaerobic and fully saturated waste column in which biodegradation and sorption are the prevailing fate processes. The agreement between model predictions and column data was imperfect (i.e., within a factor of two) for the sorption plus biodegradation test and the error almost certainly lies in the difficulty of measuring a biodegradation rate that is applicable to the column conditions. Nevertheless, a biodegradation rate estimate that is within a factor of two or even five may be adequate in the context of a landfill, given the extended retention time and the fact that leachate release will be controlled by the infiltration rate which can be minimized by engineering controls.

  14. Directory of transport packaging test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Radioactive materials are transported in packagings or containers which have to withstand certain tests depending on whether they are Type A or Type B packagings. In answer to a request by the International Atomic Energy Agency, 13 Member States have provided information on the test facilities and services existing in their country which can be made available for use by other states by arrangement for testing different kinds of packagings. The directory gives the technical information on the facilities, the services, the tests that can be done and in some cases even the financial arrangement is included

  15. The influence of transport phenomena on the fluidized bed combustion of a single carbon particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    The burning rate and temperature of the carbon particles are known to affect the efficiency of a fluidized bed combustor, and also the emission levels of undesired noxious components. The main results of an extensive study on the fluidized bed combustion behaviour of a single carbon particle [1] are

  16. LCLS-II CRYOMODULE TRANSPORT SYSTEM TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); McGee, Michael W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Cryomodules (CM) for the Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will be shipped to SLAC (Menlo Park, California) from JLab (Newport News, Virginia) and FNAL (Batavia, Illinois). A transportation system has been designed and built to safely transport the CMs over the road. It uses an array of helical isolator springs to attenuate shocks on the CM to below 1.5g in all directions. The system rides on trailers equipped with Air-Ride suspension, which attenuates vibration loads. The prototype LCLS-II CM (pCM) was driven 750 miles to test the transport system; shock loggers recorded the shock attenuation on the pCM and vacuum gauges were used to detect any compromises in beamline vacuum. Alignment measurements were taken before and after the trip to check whether cavity positions had shifted beyond the ± 0.2mm spec. Passband frequencies and cavity gradients were measured at 2K at the Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at JLab to identify any degradation of CM performance after transportation. The transport system was found to have safely carried the CM and is cleared to begin shipments from JLab and FNAL to SLAC.

  17. A Method to Analyze Threats and Vulnerabilities by Using a Cyber Security Test-bed of an Operating NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sik; Son, Choul Woong; Lee, Soo Ill

    2016-01-01

    In order to implement cyber security controls for an Operating NPP, a security assessment should conduct in advance, and it is essential to analyze threats and vulnerabilities for a cyber security risk assessment phase. It might be impossible to perform a penetration test or scanning for a vulnerability analysis because the test may cause adverse effects on the inherent functions of ones. This is the reason why we develop and construct a cyber security test-bed instead of using real I and C systems in the operating NPP. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze threats and vulnerabilities of a specific target system by using a cyber security test-bed. The test-bed is being developed considering essential functions of the selected safety and non-safety system. This paper shows the method to analyze threats and vulnerabilities of a specific target system by using a cyber security test-bed. In order to develop the cyber security test-bed with both safety and non-safety functions, test-bed functions analysis and preliminary threats and vulnerabilities identification have been conducted. We will determine the attack scenarios and conduct the test-bed based vulnerability analysis

  18. A Test Bed for Detection of Botnet Infections in Low Data Rate Tactical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    has developed numerous tools and architectures designed for research in botnet tracking [1] and collection [9, 10], with Nepenthes [11] capable of...recorded by the Sebek server at the honeywall [10]. Yet another type of honeypot is a low interaction honeypot called Nepenthes that is specifically...actual malware code/files. To fix this, the test bed could be modified to include Nepenthes . The reader is reminded Nepenthes is a malware collection

  19. Remote sensing of sediment and chlorophyll with the test-bed aircraft multispectral scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, D. E.; Hardesty, C. A.; Jobson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    An instrument known as the test-bed aircraft multispectral scanner (TBAMS) was used in a research flight over the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. Upwelled radiances from the TBAMS data were correlated with the water parameters, particularly sediment and chlorophyll a. Several algorithms were demonstrated for monitoring sediment and chlorophyll, with a three-band ratio being the best. The primary advantage of the three-band ratio was found to be its apparent insensitivity to atmospheric and Sun-angle variations.

  20. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  1. Gowdy waves as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Carles; Bona-Casas, Carles, E-mail: cbona@uib.e [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain Institute for Applied Computation with Community Code (IAC3) (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Gowdy waves, one of the standard 'apples with apples' tests, is proposed as a test-bed for constraint-preserving boundary conditions in the non-linear regime. As an illustration, energy-constraint preservation is separately tested in the Z4 framework. Both algebraic conditions, derived from energy estimates, and derivative conditions, deduced from the constraint-propagation system, are considered. The numerical errors at the boundary are of the same order than those at the interior points.

  2. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  3. The transport phase of pyrolytic oil exiting a fast fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Daren Einar

    An unresolved and debated aspect in the fast pyrolysis of biomass is whether the bio-oil exits as a vapor or as an aerosol from the pyrolytic reactor. The determination of the bio-oil transport phase will have direct and significant impact on the design of fast pyrolysis systems. Optimization of both the removal of particulate matter and collection of bio-oil will require this information. In addition, the success of catalytic reforming of bio-oil to high-value chemicals will depend upon this transport phase. A variety of experimental techniques were used to identify the transport phase. Some tests were as simple as examining the catch of an inline filter while others attempted to deduce whether vapor or aerosol predominated by examining the pressure drop across a flow restriction. In supplementary testing, the effect of char on aerosol formation and the potential impact of cracking during direct contact filtering are evaluated. The study indicates that for pyrolysis of red oak approximately 90 wt-% of the collected bio-oil existed as a liquid aerosol. Conversely, the pyrolysis of corn starch produced bio-oil predominately in the vapor phase at the exit of the reactor. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of char promotes the production of aerosols during pyrolysis of corn starch. Direct contact filtering of the product stream did not collect any liquids and the bio-oil yield was not significantly reduced indicating measurable cracking or coking did not occur.

  4. Metallic insulation transport and strainer clogging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvaerinen, J.; Hongisto, O.

    1994-06-01

    Experiments to probe the transport and clogging properties of metallic (metal reflective) insulation have been carried out in order to provide data for evaluation of their influence on the emergency core cooling and containment spray systems of the Finnish boiling water reactors in the event of a design basis accident. The specific metallic insulation tested was DARMET, provided by Darchem Engineering Ltd. The inner foils of Darmet are dimped. Available literature on the metallic insulation performance under design basis accident conditions has been reviewed. On the basis of the review a parametric approach has been chosen for the transport and clogging experiments. This approach involves testing a wide size range of various shapes of foil pieces. Five sets of experiments have been carried out. The first three sets investigate transport properties of the foil pieces, starting from sedimentation in stagnant waste pool and proceeding to transport in horizontal and vertically circulating flows. The clogging experiments have been addressed the differential pressures obtained due to accumulation of both pure and metallic and a mixture of metallic and fibrous (mineral wool) depris. (4 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.)

  5. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Vehicle Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  6. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Traveler Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  7. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Intersection Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  8. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  9. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 -4">−4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  10. Coral-based Proxy Records of Ocean Acidification: A Pilot Study at the Puerto Rico Test-bed Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral cores collected nearby the Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-bed (AOAT) at La Parguera, Puerto Rico were used to characterize the relationship between...

  11. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary assessment of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Rogue River basin, which encompasses 13,390 square kilometers (km2) along the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * The Rogue River in its lowermost 178.5 kilometers (km) alternates between confined and unconfined segments, and is predominately alluvial along its lowermost 44 km. The study area on the mainstem Rogue River can be divided into five reaches based on topography, hydrology, and tidal influence. The largely confined, active channel flows over bedrock and coarse bed material composed chiefly of boulders and cobbles in the Grants Pass (river kilometers [RKM] 178.5-152.8), Merlin (RKM 152.8-132.7), and Galice Reaches (RKM 132.7-43.9). Within these confined reaches, the channel contains few bars and has stable planforms except for locally wider segments such as the Brushy Chutes area in the Merlin Reach. Conversely, the active channel flows over predominately alluvial material and contains nearly continuous gravel bars in the Lobster Creek Reach (RKM 43.9-6.7). The channel in the Tidal Reach (RKM 6.7-0) is also alluvial, but tidally affected and unconfined until RKM 2. The Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches contain some of the most extensive bar deposits within the Rogue River study area. * For the 56.6-km-long segment of the Applegate River included in this study, the river was divided into two reaches based on topography. In the Upper Applegate River Reach (RKM 56.6-41.6), the confined, active channel flows over alluvium and bedrock and has few bars. In the Lower Applegate River Reach (RKM 41.6-0), the active channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments, flows predominantly over alluvium, shifts laterally in unconfined sections, and contains more numerous and larger bars. * The 6.5-km segment of the lower

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  13. A low-cost test-bed for real-time landmark tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Ambrus; Hanan, Jay C.; Moreels, Pierre; Assad, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    A low-cost vehicle test-bed system was developed to iteratively test, refine and demonstrate navigation algorithms before attempting to transfer the algorithms to more advanced rover prototypes. The platform used here was a modified radio controlled (RC) car. A microcontroller board and onboard laptop computer allow for either autonomous or remote operation via a computer workstation. The sensors onboard the vehicle represent the types currently used on NASA-JPL rover prototypes. For dead-reckoning navigation, optical wheel encoders, a single axis gyroscope, and 2-axis accelerometer were used. An ultrasound ranger is available to calculate distance as a substitute for the stereo vision systems presently used on rovers. The prototype also carries a small laptop computer with a USB camera and wireless transmitter to send real time video to an off-board computer. A real-time user interface was implemented that combines an automatic image feature selector, tracking parameter controls, streaming video viewer, and user generated or autonomous driving commands. Using the test-bed, real-time landmark tracking was demonstrated by autonomously driving the vehicle through the JPL Mars yard. The algorithms tracked rocks as waypoints. This generated coordinates calculating relative motion and visually servoing to science targets. A limitation for the current system is serial computing-each additional landmark is tracked in order-but since each landmark is tracked independently, if transferred to appropriate parallel hardware, adding targets would not significantly diminish system speed.

  14. Development of a Quadrotor Test Bed — Modelling, Parameter Identification, Controller Design and Trajectory Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a quadrotor test bed is developed. The technical approach for this test bed is firstly proposed by utilizing a commercial quadrotor, a Vicon motion capture system and a ground station. Then, the mathematical model of the quadrotor is formulated considering aerodynamic effects, and the parameter identification approaches for this model are provided accordingly. Based on the developed model and identified parameters, a simulation environment that is consistent with the real system is developed. Subsequently, a flight control strategy and a trajectory generation method, both of which are conceptually and computationally lightweight, are developed and tested in the simulation environment. The developed algorithms are then directly transplanted to the real system, and the experimental results show that their responses in the real-time flights match well with those from the simulations. This indicates that the control algorithms developed for the quadrotor can be preliminarily verified and refined though simulations, and then directly implemented to the real system, which could significantly reduce the experimental risks and costs. Meanwhile, real-time experiments show that the developed flight controller can efficiently stabilize the quadrotor when external disturbances exist, and the trajectory generation approach can provide safe guidance for the quadrotor to fly smoothly through cluttered environments with obstacle rings. All of these features are valuable for real applications, thus demonstrating the feasibility of further development.

  15. Dual Testing Algorithm of BED-CEIA and AxSYM Avidity Index Assays Performs Best in Identifying Recent HIV Infection in a Sample of Rwandan Sex Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, S.L.; Nash, D.; Kim, A.A.; Ford, K.; Mwambarangwe, L.; Ingabire, C.M.; Vyankandondera, J.; van de Wijgert, J.H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED) and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI) assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW) in Kigali, Rwanda. Eight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ≥12 months later to

  16. Test-bed for the remote health monitoring system for bridge structures using FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Hyung; Park, Ki-Tae; Joo, Bong-Chul; Hwang, Yoon-Koog

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on test-bed for the long-term health monitoring system for bridge structures employing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, which is remotely accessible via the web, to provide real-time quantitative information on a bridge's response to live loading and environmental changes, and fast prediction of the structure's integrity. The sensors are attached on several locations of the structure and connected to a data acquisition system permanently installed onsite. The system can be accessed through remote communication using an optical cable network, through which the evaluation of the bridge behavior under live loading can be allowed at place far away from the field. Live structural data are transmitted continuously to the server computer at the central office. The server computer is connected securely to the internet, where data can be retrieved, processed and stored for the remote web-based health monitoring. Test-bed revealed that the remote health monitoring technology will enable practical, cost-effective, and reliable condition assessment and maintenance of bridge structures.

  17. Integration of the SSPM and STAGE with the MPACT Virtual Facility Distributed Test Bed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shoman, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Material Protection Accounting and Control Technologies (MPACT) program within DOE NE is working toward a 2020 milestone to demonstrate a Virtual Facility Distributed Test Bed. The goal of the Virtual Test Bed is to link all MPACT modeling tools, technology development, and experimental work to create a Safeguards and Security by Design capability for fuel cycle facilities. The Separation and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) forms the core safeguards analysis tool, and the Scenario Toolkit and Generation Environment (STAGE) code forms the core physical security tool. These models are used to design and analyze safeguards and security systems and generate performance metrics. Work over the past year has focused on how these models will integrate with the other capabilities in the MPACT program and specific model changes to enable more streamlined integration in the future. This report describes the model changes and plans for how the models will be used more collaboratively. The Virtual Facility is not designed to integrate all capabilities into one master code, but rather to maintain stand-alone capabilities that communicate results between codes more effectively.

  18. Use of communication architecture test bed to evaluate data network performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, N.E. Jr.; Swail, B.K.; Naser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Local area networks (LANs) are becoming more prevalent in nuclear power plants. Traditionally, LANs were only used as information highways, providing office automation services. LANs are now being used as data highways for applications in plant data acquisition and control systems. A communication architecture test bed, which contains network simulators, is needed to allow network performance studies and to resolve design issues prior to equipment purchase. Two levels of granularity of simulation are needed to provide the dynamic information about network performance. A coarse-grain simulator is used to estimate the dynamic performance of the network due to major resources such as workstations, gateways, and data acquisition systems. A fine-grain simulator allows a greater level of detail about the underlying network protocol and resources to be simulated. The combination of coarse-grain and fine-grain simulation packages provides the network designer with the required tools to thoroughly understand the behavior of the modeled network. This paper describes the development of a communication architecture test bed using commercial network simulation packages. Network simulators allow the resolution of major design issues in software without the expense of purchasing costly hardware components

  19. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, G.C. [POWER International, Inc., Coeur d`Alene, ID (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  20. Sediment Transport on Continental Shelves: Storm Bed Formation and Preservation in Heterogeneous Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    extends from fair-weather wave base to the beach berm or coastal dune . Observations and modelling studies show that some sand is removed from the...deposit. The top is wave rippled and overlain by fine sediment. (B) Example of hummocky cross stratification (HCS) from the Ferron Sand - stone in Utah...xDept. of Earth Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada ABSTRACT Many storm beds are constructed of silt/ sand

  1. Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.

  2. Operational experience with the JET beryllium evaporators in the J1W test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, A.T.; Dietz, K.J.; Israel, G.; Jensen, H.S.; Johnson, A.; Pick, M.A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.

    1989-01-01

    Four beryllium evaporators were fitted onto the JET vessel during March 1989. These evaporators are planned to give the first introduction of beryllium into the JET machine to study the effect of using beryllium as a first wall material. Over 200 hours operational experience with such an evaporator had been gained on a test bed facility in which the evaporation rate, radial evaporant distribution and head operating temperature had been determined. The results obtained on this facility with two different heat materials, sintered S-65B and vacuum cast beryllium are described. The test vessel has also been used to conduct beryllium wall pumping experiments using the ''Langmuir effect''. The initial results of these experiments will be described. (author)

  3. Development Of A Mobile Robot As A Test Bed For Tele-Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes Armando D. Pascua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a human-sized tracked wheel robot with a large payload capacity for tele-presentation is presented. The robot is equipped with different sensors for obstacle avoidance and localization. A high definition web camera installed atop a pan and tilt assembly was in place as a remote environment feedback for users. An LCD monitor provides the visual display of the operator in the remote environment using the standard Skype teleconferencing software. Remote control was done via the internet through the free Teamviewer VNC remote desktop software. Moreover, this paper presents the design details, fabrication and evaluation of individual components. Core mobile robot movement and navigational controls were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the mobile robot as a test bed for tele-presentation were evaluated and analyzed by way of its real time response and time delay effects of the network.

  4. Development of a Mobile Robot as a Test Bed for Tele-Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes Armando D. Pascua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a human-sized tracked wheel robot with a large payload capacity for tele-presentation is presented. The robot is equipped with different sensors for obstacle avoidance and localization. A high definition web camera installed atop a pan and tilt assembly was in place as a remote environment feedback for users. An LCD monitor provides the visual display of the operator in the remote environment using the standard Skype teleconferencing software. Remote control was done via the internet through the free Teamviewer VNC remote desktop software. Moreover, this paper presents the design details, fabrication and evaluation of individual components. Core mobile robot movement and navigational controls were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the mobile robot as a test bed for tele-presentation were evaluated and analyzed by way of its real time response and time delay effects of the network

  5. Testing mechanical characteristics of chestnut stakes used in bed sills for stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Benfratello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using of wood elements for constructing bed sills in Mediterranean streams, where the banks are not protected by tree vegetation, needs an evaluation of biological and mechanical characteristics for evaluating both the wood durability and the effectiveness of the stream restoration project. Very few studies have dealt both with the decay of mechanical characteristics of wood elements employed for stream restoration works and with the changes over time of physical and chemical wood characters. In this paper, for a wood and stone bed sill located in a stream having no shaded banks, the changes of physical and chemical characters detected after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 months on chestnut stakes are preliminarily recalled. Then, using three chestnut stakes extracted after 96 and 108 months and two unaltered stakes, as reference condition, the mechanical compression tests were carried out. The results of the compression tests for both runs (altered and unaltered stake allowed to establish the influence of the ageing process on the compressive strength and stiffness of the chestnut wood. Finally, using two chestnut stake extracted after 108 and 120 months and two unaltered stakes, the flexural tests were carried out by a four points scheme (two supporting points and two loading points according to UNI EN 408-2012 standard. The results of the flexural tests for both runs (altered and unaltered stake allowed to establish that the wood ageing process determines the decay of mechanical strength of the material and reduces the bending strength of the chestnut wood. From an applicative point of view, the obtained results showed that after 10 years the mechanical resistance characteristics of the wood stakes are less than those corresponding to the undisturbed reference condition.

  6. Development and Implementation of a Hardware In-the-Loop Test Bed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.

  7. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C

    2008-07-31

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate

  8. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding.

  9. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lyon, Kevin Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)ry

    2015-08-31

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  10. Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.

    2014-01-01

    Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test Bed, X-56A, aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of X-56A. The ground vibration test validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A have been improved in a single optimization run.

  11. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash

  12. Effect of hydraulic parameters on sediment transport capacity in overland flow over erodible beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Sterk, G.; Seeger, K.M.; Boersema, M.P.; Peters, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment transport is an important component of the soil erosion process, which depends on several hydraulic parameters like unit discharge, mean flow velocity, and slope gradient. In most of the previous studies, the impact of these hydraulic parameters on transport capacity was studied for

  13. Modeling Non-Fickian Transport and Hyperexponential Deposition for Deep Bed Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    coefficients. For such cases the elliptic equation excels the advection dispersion equation in both fitting breakthrough curves and predicting deposition profiles related to natural or highly heterogeneous porous media. The deposition hyperexponentiality can be caused by the following three mechanisms...... influencing breakthrough curves and deposition profiles for the deep bed filtration systems. Results are compared with a large set of experimental observations. Our findings show that highly dispersed breakthrough curves, e.g. those with early arrivals and large ending tails, correspond to large dispersion...

  14. Development of an adaptive optics test-bed for relay mirror applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Justin D.; Jacobs, Arturo A.; Maynard, Morris

    2005-08-01

    The relay mirror concept involves deploying a passive optical station at a high altitude for relaying a beam from a laser weapon to a target. Relay mirrors have been proposed as a method of increasing the range of laser weapons that is less costly than deploying a larger number of laser weapons. Relay mirrors will only be effective if the beam spreading and beam quality degradation induced by atmospheric aberrations and thermal blooming can be mitigated. In this paper we present the first phase of a multi-year effort to develop a theoretical and experimental capability at Boeing-SVS to study these problems. A team from MZA and Boeing-SVS has developed a laboratory test-bed consisting of a distributed atmospheric path simulated by three liquid crystal phase screens, a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and a MEMS membrane deformable mirror. We present results of AO component calibration and evaluation, the system construction, and the system performance.

  15. Organic molecule fluorescence as an experimental test-bed for quantum jumps in thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cormac; Farrow, Tristan; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Taylor, Robert A; Vlatko, Vedral

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate with an experiment how molecules are a natural test bed for probing fundamental quantum thermodynamics. Single-molecule spectroscopy has undergone transformative change in the past decade with the advent of techniques permitting individual molecules to be distinguished and probed. We demonstrate that the quantum Jarzynski equality for heat is satisfied in this set-up by considering the time-resolved emission spectrum of organic molecules as arising from quantum jumps between states. This relates the heat dissipated into the environment to the free energy difference between the initial and final state. We demonstrate also how utilizing the quantum Jarzynski equality allows for the detection of energy shifts within a molecule, beyond the relative shift.

  16. Development of the rf linear accelerator test bed for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of absorbed energy required by high gain deuterium-tritium targets for inertial confinement fusion reactors is now projected to be greater than 1 Megajoule. It has become apparent that a heavy ion fusion driver is the preferred choice in this scenario. To demonstrate this accelerator-based option, the national program has established two test beds: one at Argonne for the rf linac/storage ring approach, and one at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory developing an induction linac. The Argonne Beam Development Facility (BDF) would consist of a 40 mA rf linac for Xe + 8 , a storage ring, and a 10 GeV synchrotron. The design and status of the BDF is described as well as future program options to demonstrate as many solutions as possible of the issues involved in this approach

  17. Real-Time Building Energy Simulation Using EnergyPlus and the Building Controls Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Bhattachayra, Prajesh; O& #x27; Neill, Zheng; Haves, Philip; Wetter, Michael; Bailey, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    Most commercial buildings do not perform as well in practice as intended by the design and their performances often deteriorate over time. Reasons include faulty construction, malfunctioning equipment, incorrectly configured control systems and inappropriate operating procedures (Haves et al., 2001, Lee et al., 2007). To address this problem, the paper presents a simulation-based whole building performance monitoring tool that allows a comparison of building actual performance and expected performance in real time. The tool continuously acquires relevant building model input variables from existing Energy Management and Control System (EMCS). It then reports expected energy consumption as simulated of EnergyPlus. The Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is used as the software platform to provide data linkage between the EMCS, an EnergyPlus model, and a database. This paper describes the integrated real-time simulation environment. A proof-of-concept demonstration is also presented in the paper.

  18. A test bed for the future access control system the AD Project

    CERN Document Server

    Scibile, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, management and development of the new access control system for the Antiproton Deceleration experimental area, called the AD Project. As this project includes all the elements for the industrial evolution of the present access control system it is an ideal test bed for future access systems. The adoption of new technologies and techniques are described, and the benefits and the shortfalls are highlighted. The open redundant architecture solution, based on a PROFIBUS network and standard industrial components (HP-UNIX, Siemens S7 PLC, Siemens Industrial PC, door locks), guarantees reliability, safety and optimal integration. The project team took advantage of the Goal Directed Project Management technique and managed to define a clear and effective strategy.

  19. A class of ejecta transport test problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerberg, James E.; Buttler, William T.; Oro, David M.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Morris, Christopher; Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydro code implementations of ejecta dynamics at shocked interfaces presume a source distribution function ofparticulate masses and velocities, f 0 (m, v;t). Some of the properties of this source distribution function have been determined from extensive Taylor and supported wave experiments on shock loaded Sn interfaces of varying surface and subsurface morphology. Such experiments measure the mass moment of f o under vacuum conditions assuming weak particle-particle interaction and, usually, fully inelastic capture by piezo-electric diagnostic probes. Recently, planar Sn experiments in He, Ar, and Kr gas atmospheres have been carried out to provide transport data both for machined surfaces and for coated surfaces. A hydro code model of ejecta transport usually specifies a criterion for the instantaneous temporal appearance of ejecta with source distribution f 0 (m, v;t 0 ). Under the further assumption of separability, f 0 (m,v;t 0 ) = f 1 (m)f 2 (v), the motion of particles under the influence of gas dynamic forces is calculated. For the situation of non-interacting particulates, interacting with a gas via drag forces, with the assumption of separability and simplified approximations to the Reynolds number dependence of the drag coefficient, the dynamical equation for the time evolution of the distribution function, f(r,v,m;t), can be resolved as a one-dimensional integral which can be compared to a direct hydro simulation as a test problem. Such solutions can also be used for preliminary analysis of experimental data. We report solutions for several shape dependent drag coefficients and analyze the results of recent planar dsh experiments in Ar and Xe.

  20. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  1. Sediment Transport On The Vegetated Bank of The Soil Bioengineering Test Flume At The Wien River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, H.; Rauch, H. P.; Schreiber, J.; Vollsinger, St.

    Soil bioengineering structures are frequently used to protect river banks. Studies by WEITZER / DOPPLER / FLORINETH (1998) on measuring the pull-out resistance and by OPLATKA (1998) on the effective flow acting on willows show that a high hydraulic load by itself does not lead to failure or dislodging of the plants but that the slopeSs instability is caused by the erosion of bed material. The onset of erosion is indicated by a critical shear stress, determined by the combination of a number of factors such as flow velocity, lift force, turbulence, grain size, grain shape, stratifica- tion of the river bed material and the type and density of the vegetation. Investigations into the stability of a variety of soil bioengineering structures (brush mattress with wil- lows, branch layers, fascine layers) are carried out at the soil bioengineering test flume along the Wien river, where artificial flooding runs expose the plant/soil complex to extreme hydraulic loads. Marked, surveyed and weighed gravel material of different grain diameters (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm) and variable layer arrangements is put into the bed or bank of the test flume to determine the critical shear stress. The exact grain position is identified before and after each artificial flooding, so that the mean sediment transport path can be determined for each grain diameter. By comparing sed- iment transport paths for different grain sizes, a critical grain diameter can be defined for each soil bioengineering structure. The critical grain diameter thus obtained is used as an input parameter in calculating the critical shear stress from bed load transport equations. Based on the data thus collected and their analysis it is possible to present and interpret initial findings.

  2. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  3. Bed morphology, flow structure, and sediment transport at the outlet of Lake Huron and in the upper St. Clair River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, J.A.; Best, J.L.; Oberg, K.A.; Parsons, D.R.; Jackson, P.R.; Garcia, M.H.; Ashmore, P.

    2011-01-01

    An integrated multibeam echo sounder and acoustic Doppler current profiler field survey was conducted in July 2008 to investigate the morphodynamics of the St. Clair River at the outlet of Lake Huron. The principal morphological features of the upper St. Clair River included flow-transverse bedforms that appear weakly mobile, erosive bedforms in cohesive muds, thin non-cohesive veneers of weakly mobile sediment that cover an underlying cohesive (till or glacio-lacustrine) surface, and vegetation that covers the bed. The flow was characterized by acceleration as the banks constrict from Lake Huron into the St. Clair River, an approximately 1500-m long region of flow separation downstream from the Blue Water Bridge, and secondary flow connected to: i) channel curvature; ii) forcing of the flow by local bed topography, and iii) flow wakes in the lee side of ship wrecks. Nearshore, sand-sized, sediment from Lake Huron was capable of being transported into, and principally along, the banks of the upper St. Clair River by the measured flow. A comparison of bathymetric surveys conducted in 2007 and 2008 identifies that the gravel bed does undergo slow downstream movement, but that this movement does not appear to be generated by the mean flow, and could possibly be caused by ship-propeller-induced turbulence. The study results suggest that the measured mean flow and dredging within the channel have not produced major scour of the upper St. Clair River and that the recent fall in the level of Lake Huron is unlikely to have been caused by these mechanisms. ?? 2011.

  4. Modelling dynamic transport and adsorption of arsenic in soil-bed filters for long-term performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; Mondal, Raka; de, Sirshendu; Griffiths, Ian

    2017-11-01

    Purification of contaminated water following the safe water guidelines while generating sufficiently large throughput is a crucial requirement for the steady supply of safe water to large populations. Adsorption-based filtration processes using a multilayer soil bed has been posed as a viable method to achieve this goal. This work describes the theory of operation and prediction of the long-term behaviour of such a system. The fixed-bed column has a single input of contaminated water from the top and an output from the bottom. As the contaminant passes through the column, it is adsorbed by the medium. Like any other adsorption medium, the filter has a certain lifespan, beyond which the filtrate does not meet the safe limit of drinking water, which is defined as `breakthrough'. A mathematical model is developed that couples the fluid flow through the porous medium to the convective, diffusive and adsorptive transport of the contaminant. The results are validated with experimental observations and the model is then used to predict the breakthrough and lifetime of the filter. The key advantage of this model is that it can predict the long-term behaviour of any adsorption column system for any set of physical characteristics of the system. This worked was supported by the EPSRC Global Challenge Research Fund Institutional Sponsorship 2016.

  5. A Six-DOF Buoyancy Tank Microgravity Test Bed with Active Drag Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Jianping; Zhu, Zhanxia

    2017-10-01

    Ground experiment under microgravity is very essential because it can verify the space enabling technologies before applied in space missions. In this paper, a novel ground experiment system that can provide long duration, large scale and high microgravity level for the six degree of freedom (DOF) spacecraft trajectory tracking is presented. In which, the most gravity of the test body is balanced by the buoyancy, and the small residual gravity is offset by the electromagnetic force. Because the electromagnetic force on the test body can be adjusted in the electromagnetic system, it can significantly simplify the balancing process using the proposed microgravity test bed compared to the neutral buoyance system. Besides, a novel compensation control system based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method is developed to estimate and compensate the water resistance online, in order to improve the fidelity of the ground experiment. A six-DOF trajectory tracking in the microgravity system is applied to testify the efficiency of the proposed compensation controller, and the experimental simulation results are compared to that obtained using the classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method. The simulation results demonstrated that, for the six-DOF motion ground experiment, the microgravity level can reach to 5 × 10-4 g. And, because the water resistance has been estimated and compensated, the performance of the presented controller is much better than the PID controller. The presented ground microgravity system can be applied in on-orbit service and other related technologies in future.

  6. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, E. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, C. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, C. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, N. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valenta, M. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Robbins, R. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, L. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  7. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  8. Test facilities for radioactive materials transport packages (Transportation Technology Center Inc., Pueblo, Colorado, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, P.C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. is capable of conducting tests on rail vehicle systems designed for transporting radioactive materials including low level waste debris, transuranic waste, and spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Services include rail vehicle dynamics modelling, on-track performance testing, full scale structural fatigue testing, rail vehicle impact tests, engineering design and technology consulting, and emergency response training. (author)

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST BED DESIGNATED FOR MODEL STUDIES OF AERODYNAMICS OF PREMISES USING METHOD OF DIGITAL FLOW VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varapaev Vladimir Nikolaevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors present their findings generated at the laboratory of aerodynamic and aero-acoustic testing of structural units of MGSU. The authors provide information about the principle of operation and a brief description of the experimental test bed designated for the physical research of patterns of air flows arising inside building premises of various geometric shapes. The authors also demonstrate the basic parameters of the test bed, the principle of operation of its recording devices and some of its characteristics. The test bed is designated for the identification of characteristics of three-dimensional flows of models under research and for the verification of results of numerical studies. The measurement bed has advanced measurement and registration units. The management principle is based on the method of digital flow visualization, PIV method and Doppler flow meter implemented in the LDA anemometer. The test stand generates two or three component vector fields of turbulent gas flow velocities. It may be applicable to the study of liquids in case of research of hydraulics-related problems. Some results of the flow study are provided in the article, as well.

  10. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  11. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : concept of operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document presents the Concept of Operations (ConOps) Plan for the Automated and Connected Vehicle (AV/CV) Test Bed to Improve Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Safety. As illustrated in Figure 1, the plan presents the overarching vision and goals...

  12. Numerical modeling of cohesive sediment transport and bed morphology in estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Leupi, Célestin; Deville, Michel; Altinakar, Mustafa S.

    2007-01-01

    Two major lines of investigation have been pursued in this thesis: (1) More efficient, robust and realistic numerical techniques are designed for the simulation of complex turbulent fluid flows; (2) A new algorithm and its analysis is performed in the context of multiphasic fluid flow, for a cohesive fine-grained sediment (fluid mud) transport in estuaries. Estuaries exist between marine and freshwater system where waters of different physical, chemical and biological composition meet, combin...

  13. Sensitivity of growth characteristics of tidal sand ridges and long bed waves to formulations of bed shear stress, sand transport and tidal forcing : A numerical model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Bing; de Swart, Huib E.; Panadès, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Tidal sand ridges and long bed waves are large-scale bedforms that are observed on continental shelves. They differ in their wavelength and in their orientation with respect to the principal direction of tidal currents. Previous studies indicate that tidal sand ridges appear in areas where tidal

  14. PAPI based federation as a test-bed for a common security infrastructure in EFDA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.; Vega, J.; Portas, A.; Lopez, D.R.; Balme, S.; Theis, J.M.; Lebourg, P.; Fernandes, H.; Neto, A.; Duarte, A.; Oliveira, F.; Reis, F.; Purahoo, K.; Thomsen, K.; Schiller, W.; Kadlecsik, J.

    2008-01-01

    Federated authentication and authorization systems provide several advantages to collaborative environments, for example, easy authentication integration, simpler user management, easier security policy implementation and quicker implementation of access control elements for new type of resources. A federation integrates different aspects that have to be coordinated by all the organizations involved. The most relevant are: definition of common schemas and attributes, definition of common policies and procedures, management of keys and certificates, management of common repositories and implementation of a home location service. A federation enabling collaboration of European sites has been put into operation. Four laboratories have been integrated and two more organizations (EFDA and KFKI/HAS) are finishing their integration. The federation infrastructure is based on Point of Access to Providers of Information (PAPI), a distributed authentication and authorization system. PAPI technology gives some important features, such as, single sign on for accessing to different resources, mobility for users, and compatibility with open and standard technologies: Java, JNLP protocol, XML-RPC and web technologies among others. In this article, the test-bed of EFDA federation is presented. Some examples of resources, securely shared inside the federation, are shown. Specific issues and experience gained in deploying federated collaboration systems will be addressed as well

  15. Influence of Temperature on Characters of Thermoelectric Generators Based on Test Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzheng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the energy recovery of the coolant heat for internal combustion engine (ICE using the thermoelectric generation (TEG technology, one test bed for studying the influence of temperature on the characters of thermoelectric generators was established and the relationship between the temperature and characters of thermoelectric generator was researched based on it. The results showed that the cooling effect improved with the increase of fan speed which the fan was installed in the vertical direction of the radiator, but the cooling effect had a limit speed value. And it also indicated that the forced air cooling was better than the natural convection cooling method which can effectively reduce the temperature of the cold end while it has little effect on the hot end temperature. Moreover, the Seebeck coefficient was reduced with the increase of temperature difference between the two ends of thermoelectric generator and the Seebeck coefficient was also declined with one end temperature rise when the other end temperature was constant.

  16. A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip

    2008-06-30

    This paper describes the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) that is currently under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An earlier prototype linked EnergyPlus with controls hardware through embedded SPARK models and demonstrated its value in more cost-effective envelope design and improved controls sequences for the San Francisco Federal Building. The BCVTB presented here is a more modular design based on a middleware that we built using Ptolemy II, a modular software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to couple to Ptolemy II a prototype version of EnergyPlus,MATLAB/Simulink or other simulation programs for data exchange during run-time. In future work we will also implement a BACnet interface that allows coupling BACnet compliant building automation systems to Ptolemy II. We will present the architecture of the BCVTB and explain how users can add their own simulation programs to the BCVTB. We will then present an example application in which the building envelope and the HVAC system was simulated in EnergyPlus, the supervisory control logic was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and Ptolemy II was used to exchange data during run-time and to provide realtime visualization as the simulation progresses.

  17. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-08-22

    This article describes the implementation of the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). The BCVTB is a software environment that allows connecting different simulation programs to exchange data during the time integration, and that allows conducting hardware in the loop simulation. The software architecture is a modular design based on Ptolemy II, a software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. The BCVTB provides additions to Ptolemy II that allow the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB, Simulink and the Modelica modelling and simulation environment Dymola. The additions also allow executing system commands, such as a script that executes a Radiance simulation. In this article, the software architecture is presented and the mathematical model used to implement the co-simulation is discussed. The simulation program interface that the BCVTB provides is explained. The article concludes by presenting applications in which different state of the art simulation programs are linked for run-time data exchange. This link allows the use of the simulation program that is best suited for the particular problem to model building heat transfer, HVAC system dynamics and control algorithms, and to compute a solution to the coupled problem using co-simulation.

  18. Vision development test bed: The cradle of the MSS artificial vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucherman, Leon; Stovman, John

    This paper presents the concept of the Vision Development Test-Bed (VDTB) developed at Spar Aerospace Ltd. in order to assist development work on the Artificial Vision System (AVS) for the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) of Space Station Freedom in providing reliable and robust target auto acquisition and robotic auto-tracking capabilities when operating in the extremely contrasty illumination of the space environment. The paper illustrates how the VDTB will be used to understand the problems and to evaluate the methods of solving them. The VDTB is based on the use of conventional but high speed image processing hardware and software. Auxiliary equipment, such as TV cameras, illumination sources, monitors, will be added to provide completeness and flexibility. A special feature will be the use of solar simulation so that the impact of the harsh illumination conditions in space on image quality can be evaluated. The VDTB will be used to assess the required techniques, algorithms, hardware and software characteristics, and to utilize this information in overcoming the target-recognition and false-target rejection problems. The problems associated with NTSC video processing and the use of color will also be investigated. The paper concludes with a review of applications for the VDTB work, such as AVS real-time simulations, application software development, evaluations, and trade-offs studies.

  19. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  20. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  1. Model behavior and sensitivity in an application of the cohesive bed component of the community sediment transport modeling system for the York River estuary, VA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Kelsey A.; Harris, Courtney K.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Rinehimer, J. Paul; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) cohesive bed sub-model that accounts for erosion, deposition, consolidation, and swelling was implemented in a three-dimensional domain to represent the York River estuary, Virginia. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the application of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic York Cohesive Bed Model, (2) compare calculations to observations, and (3) investigate sensitivities of the cohesive bed sub-model to user-defined parameters. Model results for summer 2007 showed good agreement with tidal-phase averaged estimates of sediment concentration, bed stress, and current velocity derived from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) field measurements. An important step in implementing the cohesive bed model was specification of both the initial and equilibrium critical shear stress profiles, in addition to choosing other parameters like the consolidation and swelling timescales. This model promises to be a useful tool for investigating the fundamental controls on bed erodibility and settling velocity in the York River, a classical muddy estuary, provided that appropriate data exists to inform the choice of model parameters.

  2. Preliminary Flight Results of the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed: NASA DR1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl; Barth, Janet; Seidleck, Christina; Marshall, Paul

    1998-01-01

    NASA Goddard Spare Flight Center's (GSFC) Dual Rate 1773 (DR1773) Experiment on the Microelectronic and Photonic Test Bed (MPTB) has provided valuable information on the performance of the AS 1773 fiber optic data bus in the space radiation environment. Correlation of preliminary experiment data to ground based radiation test results show the AS 1773 bus is employable in future spacecraft applications requiring radiation tolerant communication links.

  3. Linking the spatial distribution of bed load transport to morphological change during high-flow events in a shallow braided river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. D.; Rennie, C. D.; Brasington, J.; Hicks, D. M.; Vericat, D.

    2015-03-01

    This paper provides novel observations linking the connections between spatially distributed bed load transport pathways, hydraulic patterns, and morphological change in a shallow, gravel bed braided river. These observations shed light on the mechanics of braiding processes and illustrate the potential to quantify coupled material fluxes using remotely sensed methods. The paper focuses upon a 300 m long segment of the Rees River, New Zealand, and utilizes spatially dense observations from a mobile acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) to map depth, velocity, and channel topography through a sequence of high-flow events. Apparent bed load velocity is estimated from the bias in aDcp bottom tracking and mapped to indicate bed load transport pathways. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) of exposed bar surfaces is fused with the aDcp surveys to generate spatially continuous digital elevation models, which quantify morphological change through the sequence of events. Results map spatially distributed bed load pathways that were likely to link zones of erosion and deposition. The coherence between the channel thalweg, zone of maximum hydraulic forcing, and maximum apparent bed load pathways varied. This suggests that, in places, local sediment supply sources exerted a strong control on the distribution of bed load, distinct from hydraulic forcing. The principal braiding mechanisms observed were channel choking, leading to subsequent bifurcation. Results show the connection between sediment sources, pathways, and sinks and their influence on channel morphology and flow path directions. The methodology of coupling spatially dense aDcp surveys with TLS has considerable potential to understand connections between processes and morphological change in dynamic fluvial settings.

  4. Near-bed observations of high-concentration sediment transport in the Changjiang Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Ge, J.; Ding, P.

    2017-12-01

    The North Passage, the core of turbidity maximum in the Changjiang Estuary, is now under the strong sedimentation due to the abundant sediment supply from the upstream Changjiang River and the river-tide interacted dynamics. Recent studies suggested that strong siltation could be attributed to bottom high-concentration sediment transport, which however is very difficult to be detected and observed by vessel-anchored survey methods. To better understand the mechanisms of sediment transport and deposition in the channel region of the North Passage and its adjacent areas, we conducted continuous field observations which covered spring and neap tide period in the wintertime of 2016, the summertime of 2015 and 2017, focusing on near-bottom sediment transport. Tripods mounted with multiple instruments, including up-looking and down-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers(ADCP), Vector Current Meter(ADV), Optical Backscatter Sensor(OBS), ASM, ALEC and RBR were used to observe the near-bottom physical process and its induced sediment dynamics. Results of these observations clearly described the current-wave-sediment interaction, which produced different patterns of bottom mud suspension at different tripods. Both hydrodynamic features and suspended sediment showed variations between spring and neap tide. Taking data of 2016 as an example, averaged suspended sediment concentration(SSC) at two tripods was 1.52 g/L and 2.13 g/L during the neap tide, 4.51 g/L and 5.75 g/L with the peak value reaching 25 g/L during the spring tide. At the tripod which was closer to the channel region, three peaks of SSC during the spring tide occurred near the flood slack with notable salinity increase, indicating the impact of saltwater intrusion on the bottom hydrodynamics. The results showed the occurrence of high-concentration suspended sediment was probably related to combined effects of bottom salinity intrusion, turbulent kinetic energy(TKE) and local stratification due to density

  5. A Method to Derive Monitoring Variables for a Cyber Security Test-bed of I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyung Soo; Song, Jae Gu; Lee, Joung Woon; Lee, Cheol Kwon

    2013-01-01

    In the IT field, monitoring techniques have been developed to protect the systems connected by networks from cyber attacks and incidents. For the development of monitoring systems for I and C cyber security, it is necessary to review the monitoring systems in the IT field and derive cyber security-related monitoring variables among the proprietary operating information about the I and C systems. Tests for the development and application of these monitoring systems may cause adverse effects on the I and C systems. To analyze influences on the system and safely intended variables, the construction of an I and C system Test-bed should be preceded. This article proposes a method of deriving variables that should be monitored through a monitoring system for cyber security as a part of I and C Test-bed. The surveillance features and the monitored variables of NMS(Network Management System), a monitoring technique in the IT field, were reviewed in section 2. In Section 3, the monitoring variables for an I and C cyber security were derived by the of NMS and the investigation for information used for hacking techniques that can be practiced against I and C systems. The monitoring variables of NMS in the IT field and the information about the malicious behaviors used for hacking were derived as expected variables to be monitored for an I and C cyber security research. The derived monitoring variables were classified into the five functions of NMS for efficient management. For the cyber security of I and C systems, the vulnerabilities should be understood through a penetration test etc. and an assessment of influences on the actual system should be carried out. Thus, constructing a test-bed of I and C systems is necessary for the safety system in operation. In the future, it will be necessary to develop a logging and monitoring system for studies on the vulnerabilities of I and C systems with test-beds

  6. New ZnO-based regenerable sulfur sorbents for fluid-bed/transport reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Williams, B.E. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2002-11-13

    A new sorbent synthesis technique has been developed at GTI, based on sol-gel processing of inorganic and organic precursors, for the preparation of ZnO-based regenerable sulfur sorbents with unique properties that could not be attained with 'conventional' sorbent preparation methods such as coprecipitation or solid-oxide mixing followed by extrusion, granulation, or spray drying. Unlike these techniques, which require very high calcination temperatures to impart physical strength to sorbents, sol-gel processing offers the unique capability of producing sintering at exceptionally low temperatures. As a result, materials with high surface areas, small pore sizes, and very high resistance to attrition can be synthesized. Sorbents prepared with this new technique demonstrated attrition indices that are well below the stringent requirement of the transport reactor of about 4% and effective capacity for sulfur absorption exceeding 8 g of S 1100 g of sorbent. In addition, these sorbents demonstrated regenerability at temperatures that are lower than those required by typical zinc titanates. On the basis of chemical analysis, physical characterization, attrition resistance determination, and evaluation of chemical reactivity and regenerability, the exceptional characteristics of this new class of zinc-based sorbents are demonstrated in this paper.

  7. SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment): A test bed for the light ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Hanson, D.L.; McKay, P.F.; Maenchen, J.E.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Nash, T.; Bernard, M.; Boney, C.; Chavez, J.R.; Fowler, W.F.; Ruscetti, J.; Stearns, W.F.; Noack, D.; Wenger, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    Extraction applied-B ion diode experiments are underway on the recently completed SABRE positive polarity linear induction accelerator (6 MV, 220 kA). The authors are performing these experiments in direct support of the light ion fusion program on PBFAII at Sandia. SABRE provides a test bed with a higher shot rate and improved diagnostic access for ion source development and ion beam divergence control experiments. These experiments will also address the coupling of an ion diode to the turbulent, wide spectrum feed electrons which occur on these inductive adders in positive polarity. This work continues previous work on the HELIA accelerator. The diode is a uniformly magnetically insulated, extraction ion diode, with a 5-cm mean anode surface radius. The uniform insulation field profiles are generated by four individual 60 kJ capacitor banks. Field-exclusion profiles are also anticipated. They have developed a wide array of electrical, ion beam, and plasma diagnostics to accomplish their objectives. MITL (magnetically insulated transmission line) and diode voltages are being measured with a magnetic spectrometer, a range-filtered-scintillator (RFS) fiber optic/PMT system, and a range-filtered CR-39 nuclear track film based system. Beam energy can be determined by these diagnostics as well as a filtered Faraday cup array. MITL and ion currents are being measured with an array of Rogowski coils, common-mode rejection and single turn Bs, and resistive shunts. The ion source experiments will investigate thin-film lithium ion sources, particularly the active LEVIS (Laser EVaporation Ion Source) and the passive LiF source. LEVIS uses two pulsed lasers to evaporate and then ionize lithium from a lithium bearing thin-film on the anode. A ruby laser (20 ns, 12 J) for evaporation, and a dye laser for resonant lithium ionization have been developed. The performance of LEVIS with an array of active and passive surface cleaning techniques will be studied

  8. High energy nuclear database: a test-bed for nuclear data information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.A.; Vogt, R.; Beck, B.; Pruet, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, R. [Davis Univ. of California, CA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We describe the development of an on-line high-energy heavy-ion experimental database. When completed, the database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. While this effort is relatively new, it will eventually contain all published data from older heavy-ion programs as well as published data from current and future facilities. These data include all measured observables in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Once in general use, this database will have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models for a broad range of experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion, target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the International Linear Collider and homeland security. This database is part of a larger proposal that includes the production of periodic data evaluations and topical reviews. These reviews would provide an alternative and impartial mechanism to resolve discrepancies between published data from rival experiments and between theory and experiment. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This project serves as a test-bed for the further development of an object-oriented nuclear data format and database system. By using 'off-the-shelf' software tools and techniques, the system is simple, robust, and extensible. Eventually we envision a 'Grand Unified Nuclear Format' encapsulating data types used in the ENSDF, Endf/B, EXFOR, NSR and other formats, including processed data formats. (authors)

  9. Vertical Drop Test of a Transport Fuselage Section

    OpenAIRE

    熊倉, 郁夫; KUMAKURA, Ikuo

    2002-01-01

    The NAL Structures and Materials Research Center conducted a vertical drop test of a fuselage section from a YS-11A transport airplane in December 2001. This test program is part of research into the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft in the event of a crash accident, one of the subjects of Aviation Safety and Environmental Compatibility Technology Research(ASET) at NAL. Cooperative research related to this test program has also been carried out by NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industr...

  10. Testing of a "smart-pebble" for measuring particle transport statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Avgeris, Loukas; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from novel experiments aiming to assess coarse sediment transport statistics for a range of transport conditions, via the use of an innovative "smart-pebble" device. This device is a waterproof sphere, which has 7 cm diameter and is equipped with a number of sensors that provide information about the velocity, acceleration and positioning of the "smart-pebble" within the flow field. A series of specifically designed experiments are carried out to monitor the entrainment of a "smart-pebble" for fully developed, uniform, turbulent flow conditions over a hydraulically rough bed. Specifically, the bed surface is configured to three sections, each of them consisting of well packed glass beads of slightly increasing size at the downstream direction. The first section has a streamwise length of L1=150 cm and beads size of D1=15 mm, the second section has a length of L2=85 cm and beads size of D2=22 mm, and the third bed section has a length of L3=55 cm and beads size of D3=25.4 mm. Two cameras monitor the area of interest to provide additional information regarding the "smart-pebble" movement. Three-dimensional flow measurements are obtained with the aid of an acoustic Doppler velocimeter along a measurement grid to assess the flow forcing field. A wide range of flow rates near and above the threshold of entrainment is tested, while using four distinct densities for the "smart-pebble", which can affect its transport speed and total momentum. The acquired data are analyzed to derive Lagrangian transport statistics and the implications of such an important experiment for the transport of particles by rolling are discussed. The flow conditions for the initiation of motion, particle accelerations and equilibrium particle velocities (translating into transport rates), statistics of particle impact and its motion, can be extracted from the acquired data, which can be further compared to develop meaningful insights for sediment transport

  11. Load converter interactions with the secondary system in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution DC test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Ramon C.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA LeRC in Cleveland, Ohio, is responsible for the design, development, and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Electrical Power System (EPS). In order to identify and understand system level issues during the SSF Program design and development phases, a system Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC test bed was assembled. Some of the objectives of this test bed facility are the evaluation of, system efficiency, power quality, system stability, and system protection and reconfiguration schemes. In order to provide a realistic operating scenario, dc Load Converter Units are used in the PMAD dc test bed to characterize the user interface with the power system. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. This final regulation is required on the actual space station because the majority of user loads will require voltage levels different from the secondary bus voltage. This paper describes the testing of load converters in an end to end system environment (from solar array to loads) where their interactions and compatibility with other system components are considered. Some of the system effects of interest that are presented include load converters transient behavior interactions with protective current limiting switchgear, load converters ripple effects, and the effects of load converter constant power behavior with protective features such as foldback.

  12. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott; Parris, Thomas; Damico, James; Okwen, Roland; McKaskle, Ray; Monson, Charles; Goodwin, Jonathan; Beck, E; Berger, Peter; Butsch, Robert; Garner, Damon; Grube, John; Hackley, Keith; Hinton, Jessica; Iranmanesh, Abbas; Korose, Christopher; Mehnert, Edward; Monson, Charles; Roy, William; Sargent, Steven; Wimmer, Bracken

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well design an injection well and three monitoring wells was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A continuous injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6-0.7 tonne/day (0.66-0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at

  13. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  14. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  15. Recent Developments in the Design, Capabilities and Autonomous Operations of a Lightweight Surface Manipulation System and Test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, W. R.; Brady, Jeffrey S.; Berry, Felecia C.; Ganoe, George G.; Anderson, Eric; King, Bruce D.; Mercer, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The first generation of a versatile high performance device for performing payload handling and assembly operations on planetary surfaces, the Lightweight Surface Manipulation System (LSMS), has been designed and built. Over the course of its development, conventional crane type payload handling configurations and operations have been successfully demonstrated and the range of motion, types of operations and the versatility greatly expanded. This enhanced set of 1st generation LSMS hardware is now serving as a laboratory test-bed allowing the continuing development of end effectors, operational techniques and remotely controlled and automated operations. This paper describes the most recent LSMS and test-bed development activities, that have focused on two major efforts. The first effort was to complete a preliminary design of the 2nd generation LSMS that has the capability for limited mobility and can reposition itself between lander decks, mobility chassis, and fixed base locations. A major portion of this effort involved conducting a study to establish the feasibility of, and define, the specifications for a lightweight cable-drive waist joint. The second effort was to continue expanding the versatility and autonomy of large planetary surface manipulators using the 1st generation LSMS as a test-bed. This has been accomplished by increasing manipulator capabilities and efficiencies through both design changes and tool and end effector development. A software development effort has expanded the operational capabilities of the LSMS test-bed to include; autonomous operations based on stored paths, use of a vision system for target acquisition and tracking, and remote command and control over a communications bridge.

  16. Design and adjustment on test bed of replacing subassembly machine control system for China experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shengguo; Ma Hongsheng; Zhao Lixia

    2008-01-01

    The present research concerns in the design and adjustment of replacing sub- assembly machine control system of China Experimental Fast Reactor. The design of replacing subassembly machine control system adopts some electric equipments, such as programmable controllers, digital DC drivers. The designed control system was adjusted on the test bed. The results indicate that the operation of the control system is steady and reliable, and designed control system can meet the needs of the design specification. (authors)

  17. Impact of the throat sizing on the operating parameters in an experimental fixed bed gasifier: Analysis, evaluation and testing

    OpenAIRE

    MONTUORI, LINA; Vargas Salgado, Carlos Afranio; Alcázar-Ortega, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute into the diffusion of biomass power systems by analyzing and testing the throat sizing influence on the operation of a gasification plant coupled with an internal combustion engine. In order to do this, the assessment of the proper operation range for some of the driving process parameters has been carried out. The analysis has been focused on such parameters as pressure drop of the fixed bed reactor, the inlet air flow, the syngas production, electri...

  18. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  19. Boeing’s CubeSat TestBed 1 Attitude Determination Design and On-Orbit Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Taraba, Michael; Rayburn, Christian; Tsuda, Albert; MacGillivray, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The CubeSat standard has provided space access to rapidly accelerate the maturity of hardware components and software algorithms for extremely small satellites. The Boeing CubeSat TestBed 1 (CSTB1) on‐orbit experiment, launched April 17, 2007, validated a highly integrated and multi‐functional approach for attitude determination. This paper covers the constraints and design concept of a CubeSat attitude determination system using multiple integrated sensors. The on‐orbit data collected from f...

  20. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup −2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

  1. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignal, N.; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m −2 , advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

  2. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    as a multifunctional grid-interactive EV, which a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) or a generic EV coordinator could use for testing different control strategies, such as EV contribution to regulating power reserves. The EV coordination is realized using the IEC 61850 modeling standard in the communication. Regulating power...... requests from the Danish TSO are used as a proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the EV test bed power response. Test results have proven the capability to respond to frequent power control requests and they reveal the potential EV ability for contributing to regulating power reserves....

  3. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  4. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Ibarra, Aitor; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. All these characteristics ensure good survey performance for transients and fast moving objects. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Nominal exposures are in the range from 2 to 30 seconds, depending on the observational strategy. Part of the validation scenario involves the scheduling concept integrated in the robotic operations for both sensors. Every night it takes all the input needed and prepares a schedule following predefined rules allocating tasks for the telescopes. Telescopes are managed by RTS2 control software, that performs the real-time scheduling of the observation and manages all the devices at the observatory.1 At the end of the night the observing systems report astrometric positions and photometry of the objects detected. The first telescope was installed in Cebreros Satellite Tracking Station in mid-2015. It is currently in the commissioning phase and we present here the first results of the telescope. We evaluate the site characteristics and the performance of the TBT Cebreros

  5. How Well Are We Measuring Snow? The NOAA/FAA/NCAR Winter Precipitation Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Rasmussen, R.; Kochendorfer, J.; Meyers, T.; Nitu, R.; Paul, J.; Smith, C.; Yang, D.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important atmospheric variables for ecosystems, hydrologic systems, climate, and weather forecasting. Despite its importance, accurate measurement remains challenging, and the lack of recent and complete inter-comparisons leads researchers to discount the importance and severity of measurement errors. These errors are exacerbated for the automated measurement of solid precipitation and underestimates of 20-50% are common. While solid precipitation measurements have been the subject of many studies, there have been only a limited number of coordinated assessments on the accuracy, reliability, and repeatability of automatic precipitation measurements. The most recent comprehensive study, the "WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Inter-comparison" focused on manual techniques of solid precipitation measurement. Precipitation gauge technology has changed considerably in the last 12 years and the focus has shifted to automated techniques. Given the strong need for automated solid precipitation data from both the climate and weather communities, and the widely varying catch efficiencies of the various instruments, inter-comparison studies are needed. The World Meteorological Organization Committee on Meteorological Instruments and Observations (WMO-CIMO) is organizing a Solid Precipitation Inter-comparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE) focused on automatic precipitation gauges and their configurations, in various climate conditions, building on the significant efforts currently underway in many countries. The inter-comparison will aim at understanding and improving our ability to reliably measure solid precipitation using automatic gauges. The study will take place starting in 2012 at sites around the world including the US, Norway, China, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Russia, Finland and New Zealand. The NOAA /FAA/NCAR precipitation test bed in Marshall, CO. in partnership with Environment Canada will collect data during the winter of 2011/2012 to

  6. Hydride transport vessel vibration and shock test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, D.G.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed vibration and shock testing on a Savannah River Hydride Transport Vessel (HTV) which is used for bulk shipments of tritium. This testing is required to qualify the HTV for transport in the H1616 shipping container. The main requirement for shipment in the H1616 is that the contents (in this case the HTV) have a tritium leak rate of less than 1x10{sup {minus}7} cc/sec after being subjected to shock and vibration normally incident to transport. Helium leak tests performed before and after the vibration and shock testing showed that the HTV remained leaktight under the specified conditions. This report documents the tests performed and the test results.

  7. Hydride transport vessel vibration and shock test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, D.G.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed vibration and shock testing on a Savannah River Hydride Transport Vessel (HTV) which is used for bulk shipments of tritium. This testing is required to qualify the HTV for transport in the H1616 shipping container. The main requirement for shipment in the H1616 is that the contents (in this case the HTV) have a tritium leak rate of less than 1x10 -7 cc/sec after being subjected to shock and vibration normally incident to transport. Helium leak tests performed before and after the vibration and shock testing showed that the HTV remained leaktight under the specified conditions. This report documents the tests performed and the test results

  8. The effects of transport by car on coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Merve; Erdogan, Serpil; Akturk, Onur; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-10-26

    This research investigated the effects of the transport of blood samples between centers/laboratories by car on coagulation tests. Five tubes of blood samples were taken from 20 healthy volunteers. The samples consisted of a baseline (control) group, centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples; centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples. The groups of centrifuged and noncentrifuged samples were transported by car for 2 h. The centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples were incubated in the laboratory until the transported samples arrived. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests were conducted for all samples. Significant differences between the baseline group and the centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples and the noncentrifuged untransported samples were found for APTT levels (pcar.

  9. The anatomy of effective discharge: the dynamics of coarse sediment transport revealed using continuous bedload monitoring in a gravel-bed river during a very wet year

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Peter W.; Soar, Philip J.; Taylor, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Indirect, passive approaches for monitoring coarse bedload transport could allow cheaper, safer, higher-resolution, longer-term data that revolutionises bedload understanding and informs river management. Here, insights provided by seismic impact plates in a downstream reach of a flashy gravel-bed river (River Avon, Devon, UK) are explored in the context of plate performance. Monitoring of a centrally-situated plate (IP1) during an extremely wet 12-month period demonstrated that impacts were ...

  10. Quality of Service Control Based on Virtual Private Network Services in a Wide Area Gigabit Ethernet Optical Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Luca; Pompei, Sergio; Valenti, Alessandro; Matera, Francesco; Zema, Cristiano; Settembre, Marina

    We report an experimental investigation about the Virtual Private LAN Service technique to guarantee the quality of service in the metro/core network and also in the presence of access bandwidth bottleneck. We also show how the virtual private network can be set up for answering to a user request in a very fast way. The tests were performed in a GMPLS test bed with GbE core routers linked with long (tens of kilometers) GbE G.652 fiber links.

  11. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  12. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  13. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Control Development and Validation in a Controller-Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shirazi, Mariko [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, Akanksha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Penetration levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on the electric grid have increased in recent years. In the past, most PV installations have not included grid-support functionalities. But today, standards such as the upcoming revisions to IEEE 1547 recommend grid support and anti-islanding functions-including volt-var, frequency-watt, volt-watt, frequency/voltage ride-through, and other inverter functions. These functions allow for the standardized interconnection of distributed energy resources into the grid. This paper develops and tests low-level inverter current control and high-level grid support functions. The controller was developed to integrate advanced inverter functions in a systematic approach, thus avoiding conflict among the different control objectives. The algorithms were then programmed on an off-the-shelf, embedded controller with a dual-core computer processing unit and field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This programmed controller was tested using a controller-hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) test bed setup using an FPGA-based real-time simulator. The CHIL was run at a time step of 500 ns to accommodate the 20-kHz switching frequency of the developed controller. The details of the advanced control function and CHIL test bed provided here will aide future researchers when designing, implementing, and testing advanced functions of PV inverters.

  14. Development and Validation of a Lifecycle-based Prognostics Architecture with Test Bed Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sharp, Michael [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeffries, Brien [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Nam, Alan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Strong, Eric [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tong, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Welz, Zachary [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Barbieri, Federico [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Langford, Seth [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Meinweiser, Gregory [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Weeks, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-11-06

    On-line monitoring and tracking of nuclear plant system and component degradation is being investigated as a method for improving the safety, reliability, and maintainability of aging nuclear power plants. Accurate prediction of the current degradation state of system components and structures is important for accurate estimates of their remaining useful life (RUL). The correct quantification and propagation of both the measurement uncertainty and model uncertainty is necessary for quantifying the uncertainty of the RUL prediction. This research project developed and validated methods to perform RUL estimation throughout the lifecycle of plant components. Prognostic methods should seamlessly operate from beginning of component life (BOL) to end of component life (EOL). We term this "Lifecycle Prognostics." When a component is put into use, the only information available may be past failure times of similar components used in similar conditions, and the predicted failure distribution can be estimated with reliability methods such as Weibull Analysis (Type I Prognostics). As the component operates, it begins to degrade and consume its available life. This life consumption may be a function of system stresses, and the failure distribution should be updated to account for the system operational stress levels (Type II Prognostics). When degradation becomes apparent, this information can be used to again improve the RUL estimate (Type III Prognostics). This research focused on developing prognostics algorithms for the three types of prognostics, developing uncertainty quantification methods for each of the algorithms, and, most importantly, developing a framework using Bayesian methods to transition between prognostic model types and update failure distribution estimates as new information becomes available. The developed methods were then validated on a range of accelerated degradation test beds. The ultimate goal of prognostics is to provide an accurate assessment for

  15. Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle test and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the past many DOE and DoD facilities involved in handling nuclear material realized a need to enhance the safely and security for movement of sensitive materials within their facility, or ''intra-site''. There have been prior efforts to improve on-site transportation; however, there remains a requirement for enhanced on-site transportation at a number of facilities. The requirements for on-site transportation are driven by security, safety, and operational concerns. The Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) was designed to address these concerns specifically for DOE site applications with a standardized vehicle design. This paper briefly reviews the ISTV design features providing significant enhancement of onsite transportation safety and security, and also describes the test and evaluation activities either complete of underway to validate the vehicle design and operation

  16. Design and Test Space Exploration of Transport-Triggered Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach in the high level design and test of transport-triggered architectures (TTA), a special type of application specific instruction processors (ASIP). The proposed method introduces the test as an additional constraint, besides throughput and circuit area. The

  17. Multi-Scale Science Framework for Attributing and Tracking Greenhouse Gas Fluxes at LANL's Four Corners New Mexico Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, K. R.; Dubey, M. K.; Chylek, P.; Love, S. P.; Henderson, B. G.; Flowers, B. A.; Reisner, J. M.; Rahn, T.; Quick, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions require scientifically valid methods for monitoring and validating anthropogenic emissions. However, the task of monitoring CO2 emissions is difficult because relatively small increases need to be detected against CO2’s variable and large background concentrations. To ensure fair compliance, remotely sensed measurements and an understanding of the atmospheric transport of CO2 from the sources are required. We hypothesize that CO2 from various natural and anthropogenic sources can be distinguished and tracked by monitoring co-emitted gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, and CO) and isotopomers (e.g.13CO2). The ratio of a co-emitted species to CO2 depends on fuel composition and combustion process and thus varies by energy sector. These ratios provide an independent method to quantify CO2 emissions. Their low backgrounds, their large perturbations from energy activities, and our ability to measure them precisely make them sensitive probes to attribute sources, especially when emission ratios of multiple species are used concurrently. This strategy of observing emission ratios of co-emitted species to derive regional and source-specific baselines and CO2 fluxes is being tested in the Four Corners region of northwestern New Mexico. The semi-arid ecology in the region has a weak natural carbon cycle, facilitating our goal of dissection of anthropogenic sector-specific sources. The net Four Corners and San Juan power plant emissions are the largest point source of CO2 and NOx in North America. The Four Corners plant produces much more NOx than the San Juan power plant, while their energy and CO2 outputs, and coal used, are similar. This difference offers us a unique opportunity to test discrimination methods. While their CO2 signals remain elusive for current satellites, their NO2 plumes have recently been resolved from space. The region also experiences dispersed CO2 urban emissions as well as emissions and leaks from thousands of oil

  18. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  19. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  20. Baseline tests of the Volkswagen transporter electric delivery van

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, R. F.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Gourash, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Volkswagen Transporter, an electric delivery van, was tested as part of an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state of the art of electric vehicles. The Volkswagen Transporter is a standard Volkswagen van that has been converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by a 144-volt traction battery. A direct current (dc) chopper controller, actuated by a conventional accelerator pedal, regulates the voltage or power applied to the 16-kilowatt (21-hp) motor. The braking system uses conventional hydraulic braking in combination with an electric regenerative braking system. The Volkswagen vehicle performance test results are presented.

  1. A deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation in a pebble bed reactor based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbing; He, Ayada; Du, Dong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Haiquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A deceleration system for fuel transportation in a pebble bed reactor is designed. • Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. • The effectiveness of the system is verified by the analysis and the experiment. • Some key design parameters are studied to achieve effective deceleration. • This research provides a guide for the design of a pebble bed reactor. - Abstract: The fuel elements cycle occurring inside and outside the core of a pebble bed reactor is carried out by pneumatic conveying. In some processes of conveyance, it is necessary to reduce the velocity of the moving fuel element in a short time to avoid damage to the fuel elements and the equipment. In this research, a deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion is designed to achieve an effective and reliable deceleration process. Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. The results show that when the fuel element is moving in the deceleration pipeline, the gas in the pipeline is compressed to create a pneumatic cushion which resists the movement of the fuel element. In this way, the velocity of the fuel element is decreased to below the target value. During this process, the deceleration is steady and reliable. On this basis some key design parameters are studied, such as the deceleration pipeline length, the ratio of the diameter of the fuel element to the internal diameter of the pipeline, etc. The experimental results are generally consistent with the analysis and demonstrate the considerable effectiveness of the deceleration process as well. This research provides a guide for the design of the fuel elements cycling system in a pebble bed reactor along with the optimization of its control

  2. Dual testing algorithm of BED-CEIA and AxSYM Avidity Index assays performs best in identifying recent HIV infection in a sample of Rwandan sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Sarah L; Nash, Denis; Kim, Andrea A; Ford, Ken; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Ingabire, Chantal M; Vyankandondera, Joseph; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2011-04-12

    To assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED) and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI) assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW) in Kigali, Rwanda. Eight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ≥12 months later to estimate assay false-recent rates (FRR). STARHS-based HIV incidence was estimated using the McWalter/Welte formula, and adjusted with locally derived FRR and CD4 results. HIV incidence and local assay window periods were estimated from a prospective cohort of FSW. At baseline, 190 HIV-positive women were BED and Ax-AI tested; 23 were classified as recent infection (RI). Assay FRR with 95% confidence intervals were: 3.6% (1.2-8.1) (BED); 10.6% (6.1-17.0) (Ax-AI); and 2.1% (0.4-6.1) (BED/Ax-AI combined). After FRR-adjustment, incidence estimates by BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI were: 5.5/100 person-years (95% CI 2.2-8.7); 7.7 (3.2-12.3); and 4.4 (1.4-7.3). After CD4-adjustment, BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI incidence estimates were: 5.6 (2.6-8.6); 9.7 (5.0-14.4); and 4.7 (2.0-7.5). HIV incidence rates in the first and second 6 months of the cohort were 4.6 (1.6-7.7) and 2.2 (0.1-4.4). Adjusted incidence estimates by BED/Ax-AI combined were similar to incidence in the first 6 months of the cohort. Furthermore, false-recent rate on the combined BED/Ax-AI algorithm was low and substantially lower than for either assay alone. Improved assay specificity with time since seroconversion suggests that specificity would be higher in population-based testing where more individuals have long-term infection.

  3. Dual testing algorithm of BED-CEIA and AxSYM Avidity Index assays performs best in identifying recent HIV infection in a sample of Rwandan sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Braunstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Eight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ≥12 months later to estimate assay false-recent rates (FRR. STARHS-based HIV incidence was estimated using the McWalter/Welte formula, and adjusted with locally derived FRR and CD4 results. HIV incidence and local assay window periods were estimated from a prospective cohort of FSW. At baseline, 190 HIV-positive women were BED and Ax-AI tested; 23 were classified as recent infection (RI. Assay FRR with 95% confidence intervals were: 3.6% (1.2-8.1 (BED; 10.6% (6.1-17.0 (Ax-AI; and 2.1% (0.4-6.1 (BED/Ax-AI combined. After FRR-adjustment, incidence estimates by BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI were: 5.5/100 person-years (95% CI 2.2-8.7; 7.7 (3.2-12.3; and 4.4 (1.4-7.3. After CD4-adjustment, BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI incidence estimates were: 5.6 (2.6-8.6; 9.7 (5.0-14.4; and 4.7 (2.0-7.5. HIV incidence rates in the first and second 6 months of the cohort were 4.6 (1.6-7.7 and 2.2 (0.1-4.4. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusted incidence estimates by BED/Ax-AI combined were similar to incidence in the first 6 months of the cohort. Furthermore, false-recent rate on the combined BED/Ax-AI algorithm was low and substantially lower than for either assay alone. Improved assay specificity with time since seroconversion suggests that specificity would be higher in population-based testing where more individuals have long-term infection.

  4. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS. A wireless sensor network (WSN is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  5. Via-Satellite Trials of W-CDMA Multimedia Broadcasting and Interactive Packet Access: The ESA Advanced Test Bed (ATB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A.; Buck, M.; Chiassarini, G.; De Gaudenzi, R.; Geracitano, G.; Perez-Carro, A.; Roza, Jose; Vernucci, A.; Widmer, H.

    2003-07-01

    This paper provides an overview on the ESA-funded Advanced S-UMTS Test Bed (ATB) project, intended to define, validate and demonstrate 3G mobile via-satellite services. One of the main project targets is to develop a set of technical solutions for the interactive packet-access aiming to efficiently exploit the radio resources, as well as for the multicast- mode, so opening the road to the deployment of those multimedia broadcasting services which are predicted to represent the most important Satellite-UMTS (S-UMTS) market share. After illustrating the main aims of ATB, the paper presents the architecture of the real-time end-to-end Test Bed which was developed to support both laboratory and over-the-air trials, and provides a brief description of its main constituting elements. Finally, the architecture of the overall via-satellite demonstrator is addressed. Presently, the ATB hardware is in final integration stage at Space Engineering, and via-satellite trials are planned to take place by the second half of year 2003.

  6. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  7. Testing of a transport cask for research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Silva, Luiz Leite da; Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O.; Novara, Oscar E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries which operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the reactors operated in the region. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel from research reactors was designed by a tri-national team and a half-scale model for MTR fuel constructed in Argentina and tested in Brazil. Two test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. Although the specimen has not successfully performed the tests, its overall performance was considered very satisfactory, and improvements are being introduced to the design. A third test sequence is planned for 2011. (author)

  8. Does Moss Grow on a Rolling Stone? The Influence of Precipitation Phase on Streamflow Characteristics, Bed Particle Transport and Periphyton Development in 18 Mountain Channels, Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, C.; Crosby, B. T.; Baxter, C.

    2012-12-01

    It has been suggested that linked ecological and geomorphological systems exhibit complex and non-linear response to disturbance. However, quantifying the response of these systems is complicated by identifying the relevant linkages between system components and by variability in time scale adjustments. To help elucidate some of these complexities we characterized the influence of streamflow and bed-substrate mobility on periphyton assemblage development. Study catchments are subdivided into 3 categories based on the fraction of precipitation that fell as rain vs. snow. The categories are rain-dominated (RD), mixed rain-snow (MRS) and snow-dominated (SD). Three water years of streamflow data demonstrate that RD catchments experienced the largest inter-regime and inter-annual variability in streamflow conditions. RD sites were characterized by flashy responses to frequent precipitation events during wet winter and spring months and experienced channel drying during the summer. Runoff in MRS and SD catchments was characterized by much higher magnitude, longer duration flow events in early and mid-summer. Hydrologic results suggest that RD watersheds limit periphyton mass because of drought conditions and that MRS and SD channels control the temporal scale of periphyton development via long duration, high magnitude flood events that transport bed sediments and disrupt primary production. Results from our rock-tracing experiment indicate that assessments of biological disturbance based on hydrologic metrics alone miss important details of the characteristics of physical disturbance within channels. Channels within RD catchments appear to be in disequilibrium because of variability in the frequency and consistency of hydrologic events capable of mobilizing bed particles. Wet winters resulted in frequent and flashy streamflow events that likely caused bedload transport, whereas drier winters caused few streamflow events and subsequently little to no bedload transport

  9. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary study of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Tillamook (drainage area 156 square kilometers [km2]), Trask (451 km2), Wilson (500 km2), Kilchis (169 km2), Miami (94 km2), and Nehalem (2,207 km2) Rivers along the northwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted in coopera-tion with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Oregon Department of State Lands to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * Study areas along the six rivers can be divided into reaches based on tidal influence and topography. The fluvial (nontidal or dominated by riverine processes) reaches vary in length (2.4-9.3 kilometer [km]), gradient (0.0011-0.0075 meter of elevation change per meter of channel length [m/m]), and bed-material composition (a mixture of alluvium and intermittent bedrock outcrops to predominately alluvium). In fluvial reaches, unit bar area (square meter of bar area per meter of channel length [m2/m]) as mapped from 2009 photographs ranged from 7.1 m2/m on the Tillamook River to 27.9 m2/m on the Miami River. * In tidal reaches, all six rivers flow over alluvial deposits, but have varying gradients (0.0001-0.0013 m/m) and lengths affected by tide (1.3-24.6 km). The Miami River has the steepest and shortest tidal reach and the Nehalem River has the flattest and longest tidal reach. Bars in the tidal reaches are generally composed of sand and mud. Unit bar area was greatest in the Tidal Nehalem Reach, where extensive mud flats flank the lower channel. * Background factors such as valley and channel confinement, basin geology, channel slope, and tidal extent control the spatial variation in the accumulation and texture of bed material. Presently, the Upper Fluvial Wilson and Miami Reaches and Fluvial Nehalem Reach have the greatest abundance of gravel bars, likely owing to local bed-material sources in combination with decreasing channel gradient and

  10. A Fano cavity test for Monte Carlo proton transport algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, Edmond; Sorriaux, Jefferson; Souris, Kevin; Vynckier, Stefaan; Bouchard, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the scope of reference dosimetry of radiotherapy beams, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to compute ionization chamber dose response accurately. Uncertainties related to the transport algorithm can be verified performing self-consistency tests, i.e., the so-called “Fano cavity test.” The Fano cavity test is based on the Fano theorem, which states that under charged particle equilibrium conditions, the charged particle fluence is independent of the mass density of the media as long as the cross-sections are uniform. Such tests have not been performed yet for MC codes simulating proton transport. The objectives of this study are to design a new Fano cavity test for proton MC and to implement the methodology in two MC codes: Geant4 and PENELOPE extended to protons (PENH). Methods: The new Fano test is designed to evaluate the accuracy of proton transport. Virtual particles with an energy ofE 0 and a mass macroscopic cross section of (Σ)/(ρ) are transported, having the ability to generate protons with kinetic energy E 0 and to be restored after each interaction, thus providing proton equilibrium. To perform the test, the authors use a simplified simulation model and rigorously demonstrate that the computed cavity dose per incident fluence must equal (ΣE 0 )/(ρ) , as expected in classic Fano tests. The implementation of the test is performed in Geant4 and PENH. The geometry used for testing is a 10 × 10 cm 2 parallel virtual field and a cavity (2 × 2 × 0.2 cm 3 size) in a water phantom with dimensions large enough to ensure proton equilibrium. Results: For conservative user-defined simulation parameters (leading to small step sizes), both Geant4 and PENH pass the Fano cavity test within 0.1%. However, differences of 0.6% and 0.7% were observed for PENH and Geant4, respectively, using larger step sizes. For PENH, the difference is attributed to the random-hinge method that introduces an artificial energy straggling if step size is not

  11. Brittle fracture tests at low temperature for transport cask materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Ito, Chihiro; Arai, Taku; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1993-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material were revised in 1985, and brittle fracture assessment at low temperature for transport packages are now required. This report discusses the applicability of the actual method for brittle fracture assessment of type-B transport cask materials used in JAPAN. The necessity of brittle fracture assessment at low temperature was estimated for each material of type-B transport casks used in Japan and the applicability was investigated. Dynamic fracture toughness values, K Id (J Id ), and RT NDT values of Low-Mn Carbon Steels, that are SA 350 Gr.LF1 Modify and SA 516 Gr.70 material which used in type-B transport cask body, were also obtained to check whether or not an easier and conventional test method, that prescribed in ASME CODE SECTION III, can be substituted for the dynamic fracture test method. And for bolt materials, which include 1.8Ni-0.8Cr-0.3Mo Carbon Steel and type 630 H Stainless Steel, toughness data were obtained for reference. (J.P.N.)

  12. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  13. Flow instability tests for a particle bed reactor nuclear thermal rocket fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Timothy J.

    1993-05-01

    Recent analyses have focused on the flow stability characteristics of a particle bed reactor (PBR). These laminar flow instabilities may exist in reactors with parallel paths and are caused by the heating of the gas at low Reynolds numbers. This phenomena can be described as follows: several parallel channels are connected at the plenum regions and are stabilized by some inlet temperature and pressure; a perturbation in one channel causes the temperature to rise and increases the gas viscosity and reduces the gas density; the pressure drop is fixed by the plenum regions, therefore, the mass flow rate in the channel would decrease; the decrease in flow reduces the ability to remove the energy added and the temperature increases; and finally, this process could continue until the fuel element fails. Several analyses based on different methods have derived similar curves to show that these instabilities may exist at low Reynolds numbers and high phi's ((Tfinal Tinitial)/Tinitial). These analyses need to be experimentally verified.

  14. Development and testing of nuclear graphite for the German pebble-bed high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.; Delle, W.; Nickel, H.; Theymann, W.; Wilhelmi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Several types of high temperature reactors have been developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. They are all based on spherical fuel elements being surrounded by graphite as reflector material. As an example, HTR-500 developed by the Hochtemperatur Reaktorbau GmbH is shown. The core consists of the top reflector, the side reflector with inner and outer parts, the bottom reflector and the core support columns. The most serious problem with respect to fast neutron radiation damage had to be solved for the materials of those parts near the pebble bed. Regarding the temperature profile in the core, the top reflector is at 300 deg C, and as cooling gas flows from the top downward, the temperature of the inner side reflector rises to about 700 deg C at the bottom. Fortunately, the highest fast neutron load accumulated during the life time of a reactor corresponds to the lowest temperature. This makes graphite components easier to survive neutron exposure without being mechanically damaged, although the maximum fast neutron fluence is as high as 4 x 10 22 /cm 2 at about 400 deg C. HTR graphite components are divided into four classes according to loading. The raw materials for nuclear graphite, the development of pitch coke nuclear graphite, the irradiation behavior of ATR-2E and ASR-IRS and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  16. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  17. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  18. Vehicle for transporting instruments for testing against a wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, E.A.; Goldsmith, H.A.; Proudlove, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a non-destructive testing apparatus and, in particular, to a vehicle that can be moved at will, for transporting instruments for testing against a surface remote from the operator. Under this invention a vehicle is intended, for instance, for testing the vessel of an installation containing a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor of the pond type. Such an installation includes a nuclear reactor comprising an assembly containing a nuclear fuel immersed in a pond of liquid metal coolant, located in a vessel which is itself placed in a concrete containment vessel [fr

  19. Transport processes in partially saturate concrete: Testing and liquid properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Chiara

    The measurement of transport properties of concrete is considered by many to have the potential to serve as a performance criterion that can be related to concrete durability. However, the sensitivity of transport tests to several parameters combined with the low permeability of concrete complicates the testing. Gas permeability and diffusivity test methods are attractive due to the ease of testing, their non-destructive nature and their potential to correlate to in-field carbonation of reinforced concrete structures. This work was aimed at investigating the potential of existing gas transport tests as a way to reliably quantify transport properties in concrete. In this study gas permeability and diffusivity test methods were analyzed comparing their performance in terms of repeatability and variability. The influence of several parameters was investigated such as moisture content, mixture proportions and gas flow. A closer look to the influence of pressure revealed an anomalous trend of permeability with respect to pressure. An alternative calculation is proposed in an effort to move towards the determination of intrinsic material properties that can serve as an input for service life prediction models. The impact of deicing salts exposure was also analyzed with respect to their alteration of the degree of saturation as this may affect gas transport in cementitious materials. Limited information were previously available on liquid properties over a wide range of concentrations. To overcome this limitation, this study quantified surface tension, viscosity in presence of deicing salts in a broad concentration range and at different temperatures. Existing models were applied to predict the change of fluid properties during drying. Vapor desorption isotherms were obtained to investigate the influence of deicing salts presence on the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient. Semi-empirical models were used to quantify the initiation and the rate of drying using liquid

  20. Effect of Mass-Transport Limitations on the Performance of a Packed Bed Membrane Reactor for Partial Oxidations. Intraparticle Mass Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    For partial oxidation systems, where the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target product is smaller than the reaction order in oxygen of the consecutive reaction rate toward the waste product, a packed bed membrane reactor can be applied to distributively dose oxygen along the

  1. Particles fluidized bed receiver/reactor tests with quartz sand particles using a 100-kWth beam-down solar concentrating system at Miyazaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tatsuya; Gokon, Nobuyuki; Cho, Hyun Seok; Matsubara, Koji; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Senuma, Kazuya; Itoh, Sumie; Yokota, Shin-nosuke

    2017-06-01

    A window-type, solar fluidized bed receiver with quartz sand particles was tested by a 100-kWth novel beam-down solar concentrating system at Miyazaki, Japan. A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) was placed above the quartz window of the receiver to increase the concentration of the solar fluxes from the beam-down solar concentrating system. The solar tests were performed in the middle of December, 2015. The central bed temperature of the receiver was reached around 960-1100° C. It was found that only 20 Ndm3/min of air flow rate was enough to create the uniform fluidization of the particles at the given temperature range. It was predicted that if the central bed temperature could have been higher than 1100°C if solar receiver test had conducted in other seasons than winter. The next solar campaign of the receiver test will be carried out in October, 2016.

  2. Design and tests of a package for the transport of radioactive sources; Projeto e testes de uma embalagem para o transporte de fontes radioativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de Oliveira, E-mail: pos@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The Type A package was designed for transportation of seven cobalt-60 sources with total activity of 1 GBq. The shield thickness to accomplish the dose rate and the transport index established by the radioactive transport regulation was calculated by the code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5). The sealed cobalt-60 sources were tested for leakages. according to the regulation ISO 9978:1992 (E). The package was tested according to regulation Radioactive Material Transport CNEN. The leakage tests results pf the sources, and the package tests demonstrate that the transport can be safe performed from the CDTN to the steelmaking industries

  3. National evaluation of the SafeTrip-21 initiative : California connected traveler test bed final evaluation report : mobile millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    Through the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) SafeTrip-21 initiative, the USDOT is testing a variety of technologies in a number of locations in California as well as along the I-95 corridor on the east coast. This document presents the e...

  4. An Apparatus for Bed Material Sediment Extraction From Coarse River Beds in Large Alluvial Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Adam, H.; Cooper, J.; Cepello, S.

    2005-12-01

    Grain size distributions of bed material sediment in large alluvial rivers are required in applications ranging from habitat mapping, calibration of sediment transport models, high resolution sediment routing, and testing of existing theories of longitudinal and cross steam sediment sorting. However, characterizing bed material sediment from coarse river beds is hampered by difficulties in sediment extraction, a challenge that is generally circumvented via pebble counts on point bars, even though it is unclear whether the bulk grain size distribution of bed sediments is well represented by pebble counts on bars. We have developed and tested a boat-based sampling apparatus and methodology for extracting bulk sediment from a wide range of riverbed materials. It involves the use of a 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.2 meter stainless steel toothed sampler, called the Cooper Scooper, which is deployed from and dragged downstream by the weight of a jet boat. The design is based on that of a river anchor such that a rotating center bar connected to a rope line in the boat aligns the sampler in the downstream direction, the teeth penetrate the bed surface, and the sampler digs into the bed. The sampler is fitted with lead weights to keep it from tipping over. The force of the sampler `biting' into the bed can be felt on the rope line held by a person in the boat at which point they let out slack. The boat then motors to the spot above the embedded sampler, which is hoisted to the water surface via a system of pulleys. The Cooper Scooper is then clipped into a winch and boom assembly by which it is brought aboard. This apparatus improves upon commonly used clamshell dredge samplers, which are unable to penetrate coarse or mixed bed surfaces. The Cooper Scooper, by contrast, extracts statistically representative bed material sediment samples of up to 30 kilograms. Not surprisingly, the sampler does not perform well in very coarse or armored beds (e.g. where surface material size is on the

  5. Thermal tests of a transport / Storage cask in buried conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Gomi, Y.; Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal tests for a hypothetical accident which simulated accidents caused by building collapse in case of an earthquake were conducted using a full-scale dry type transport and storage cask (total heat load: 23 kW). The objectives of these tests were to clarify the heat transfer features of the buried cask under such accidents and the time limit for maintaining the thermal integrity of the cask. Moreover, thermal analyses of the test cask under the buried conditions were carried out on basis of experimental results to establish methodology for the thermal analysis. The characteristics of the test cask are described as well as the test method used. The heat transfer features of the buried cask under such accidents and a time for maintaining the thermal integrity of the cask have been obtained. (O.M.)

  6. ITER diagnostics: Maintenance and commissioning in the hot cell test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.I.; Barnsley, R.; Costley, A.E.; Gottfried, R.; Haist, B.; Itami, K.; Kondoh, T.; Loesser, G.D.; Palmer, J.; Sugie, T.; Tesini, A.; Vayakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel diagnostic equipment in ITER integrated in six equatorial and 12 upper ports, 16 divertor cassettes and five lower ports is designed to be removed in modules and then repaired, tested and commissioned in the same location at the ITER hot cell. The repair requirements and tests on these components are described along with design features that facilitate repair. The testing establishes the repair strategy, qualifies the refurbishment work and finally checks the mechanical and diagnostic function before the return of the modules. At the hot cell, a dummy port is provided for tests of mechanical and vacuum integrity as well as commissioning of the diagnostic equipment. The scope of the hot cell maintenance and commissioning activities is summarised and an overview of the integration of the diagnostic equipment is given

  7. UAV Data Exchange Test Bed for At-Sea and Ashore Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-02

    camouflage . LADAR will produce a virtual picture to reliably identify previously hidden targets (tanks or other vehicles). This technology also has the...Online; accessed November-2013]. [19] HomelandSecurity-Technology.com. Sagem completes flight test of pa- troller drone system. http...www.homelandsecurity-technology.com/news/ newssagem-completes-flight-test-of-patroller- drone -system, 2012. [Online; accessed October-2013]. [20] Jerome Hudson

  8. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... 2105-AE03 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug..., Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; 202... Part 40 Administrative practice and procedures, Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug...

  9. Field Measurements of Perceived Air Quality in the Test-Bed for Innovative Climate Conditioning Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, Michal

    the potential influence of aforementioned technologies on the perceived air quality. Additionally, the effect of Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) on the perceived air quality was tested. Measurements comprised of the assessments of perceived air quality and objective measurements of operative temperature......, relative humidity and CO2 concentration. Results showed that the mean sensory pollution load in the tested offices was 0.09±0.02 olf/m2 (mean±SEM). This refers to a low-polluting building according to CEN Report CR 1752. The acceptability of the air quality was worst in unoccupied offices ventilated at 20...

  10. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  11. Technical Note: A numerical test-bed for detailed ice nucleation studies in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Cotton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol and cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe can be used to test the ice forming ability of aerosols. The AIDA chamber is extensively instrumented including pressure, temperature and humidity sensors, and optical particle counters. Expansion cooling using mechanical pumps leads to ice supersaturation conditions and possible ice formation. In order to describe the evolving chamber conditions during an expansion, a parcel model was modified to account for diabatic heat and moisture interactions with the chamber walls. Model results are shown for a series of expansions where the initial chamber temperature ranged from −20°C to −60°C and which used desert dust as ice forming nuclei. During each expansion, the initial formation of ice particles was clearly observed. For the colder expansions there were two clear ice nucleation episodes. In order to test the ability of the model to represent the changing chamber conditions and to give confidence in the observations of chamber temperature and humidity, and ice particle concentration and mean size, ice particles were simply added as a function of time so as to reproduce the observations of ice crystal concentration. The time interval and chamber conditions over which ice nucleation occurs is therefore accurately known, and enables the model to be used as a test bed for different representations of ice formation.

  12. Dynamic Test Bed Analysis of Gas Energy Balance for a Diesel Exhaust System Fit with a Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Dobrzyński, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of the energy balance for an exhaust system of a diesel engine fit with an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design has been carried out. A special measurement system and dedicated software were developed to measure the power generated by the modules. The research object was a 1.3-l small diesel engine with power output of 66 kW. The tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed that allows reproduction of an actual driving cycle expressed as a function V = f( t), simulating drivetrain (clutch, transmission) operating characteristics, vehicle geometrical parameters, and driver behavior. Measurements of exhaust gas thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and mass flow) as well as the voltage and current generated by the thermoelectric modules were performed during tests of our own design. Based on the results obtained, the flow of exhaust gas energy in the entire exhaust system was determined along with the ATEG power output. The ideal area of the exhaust system for location of the ATEG was defined to ensure the highest thermal energy recovery efficiency.

  13. Trials and tribulations of a new regulation: coal bed methane water well testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lintott, D.; Swyngedouw, C.; Schneider, E. [Norwest Labs, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lintott, D.; Swyngedouw, C.; Schneider, E. [Bodycote Testing Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    As of January 2006, coalbed methane (CBM) activity in Alberta was at 3600 producing wells with the potential for 25,000 to 50,000 wells. Coalbed methane risks and regulations were discussed. Regulatory initiatives, politics of coalbed methane, and a regulatory timeline was provided and the trials of a new regulation were presented. Other topics of discussion included: methane sampling and analysis; dissolved methane in water; gas isotopes; routine water potability; microbiology testing; and, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)/iron-related bacteria (IRB) method validation. The results of the microbial testing were presented. Although relatively few positive coliforms in wells were analyzed, most wells demonstrated positive presence for iron and sulfate bacteria. It was recommended that further research be conducted to evaluate the water sulfide concentration/turbidity, along with other parameters with presence and concentration of SRB and IRB bacteria as an indication of poor water quality. refs., tabs.

  14. Performance Support Technology to Assess Training Effectiveness: Functional and Test-Bed Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    renamed, deleted or replaced with another within selected lessons. e The Music Editor: - Provides the ability to create audio files with a piano - type...6.1 Item writing and scenario generation techniques for producing part-task and practical exercise sheets . Checks on learning (Page 10) 6.2 Same as...above but formatted for checks on learning, along with tutorial, help sheets , procedural guidance End-of-block tests 6.3 Ditto 7. Page 12. Guidelines

  15. Testing the quality of underground transport in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Statescu Alexandru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a city with overcrowded traffic, a component of the common transport is Bucharest transportation of metro (subway passenger transport on the railway network underground and surface and is the core activity of METROREX S.A. The company aims each year a greater number of passengers according to the charts of the movement of subway trains to ensure adequate transport capacity as required and optimal conditions of comfort and safety. Each year, the company aims to find out the opinion of passengers on the transport conditions and, in this respect, organize a survey with the aim of testing the quality of underground transport in Bucharest in 16 subway stations considered to be representative. In this paper I intend to do an analysis using statistical research methods, of the quality of underground transport in Bucharest, using data from the survey conducted in the year 2014. Data collection in the stations was realized through 32 operators, by 2 in each station (one in each direction of travel by completing questionnaires (using interview technique or face to face technique, using a sample considered representative of 2,400 travelers with a margin of error of ± 2% on a 95% probability level. Data collection was made during the period when passenger traffic is large enough to provide a good representation of data and cover the entire program running underground. The questionnaire contains eight questions that have allowed those who responded to the survey to fit in the time between trains in circulation. In 2016, the structure of the questionnaire was modified, questions were modified for a more effective assessment of characteristics of observation. The answers to the questions contained in the questionnaire were collected by operators in the 16 subway stations: Piața Unirii 1 and 2, Piața Victoriei 1 and 2, Dristor 2, Nicolae Grigorescu, Universitate, Piața Sudului, Pipera, Eroilor, Gara de Nord 1, Obor, Crângași, Pantelimon, Parc Bazilescu

  16. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  17. Evaluation of power control concepts using the PMAD systems test bed. [Power Management and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Kimnach, G. L.; Jett, T. A.; Trash, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System testbed and its use in the evaluation of control concepts applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) are described. The facility was constructed to allow testing of control hardware and software in an environment functionally similar to the space station electric power system. Control hardware and software have been developed to allow operation of the testbed power system in a manner similar to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system employed by utility power systems for control. The system hardware and software are described.

  18. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  19. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  20. FIRE, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, Dale M.

    2004-01-01

    The overall vision for FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains ∼10, self-driven currents of ∼80%, fusion power ∼150-300 MW, and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma-facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. ''Steady-state'' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high beta, high bootstrap fraction, and 100% noninductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/A T operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE high-confinement modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3-10 MWm -3 and neutron wall loading from 2-4 MWm -2 which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies

  1. An information technology enabled sustainability test-bed (ITEST) for occupancy detection through an environmental sensing network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Bing; Lam, Khee Poh; Zhang, Rui; Chiou, Yun-Shang [Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Andrews, Burton; Hoeynck, Michael; Benitez, Diego [Research and Technology Center, Robert BOSCH LLC, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper describes a large-scale wireless and wired environmental sensor network test-bed and its application to occupancy detection in an open-plan office building. Detection of occupant presence has been used extensively in built environments for applications such as demand-controlled ventilation and security; however, the ability to discern the actual number of people in a room is beyond the scope of current sensing techniques. To address this problem, a complex sensor network is deployed in the Robert L. Preger Intelligent Workplace comprising a wireless ambient-sensing system, a wired carbon dioxide sensing system, and a wired indoor air quality sensing system. A wired camera network is implemented as well for establishing true occupancy levels to be used as ground truth information for deriving algorithmic relationships with the environment conditions. To our knowledge, this extensive and diverse ambient-sensing infrastructure of the ITEST setup as well as the continuous data-collection capability is unprecedented. Final results indicate that there are significant correlations between measured environmental conditions and occupancy status. An average of 73% accuracy on the occupancy number detection was achieved by Hidden Markov Models during testing periods. This paper serves as an exploration to the research of ITEST for occupancy detection in offices. In addition, its utility extends to a wide variety of other building technology research areas such as human-centered environmental control, security, energy efficient and sustainable green buildings. (author)

  2. Autonomous Close Formation Flight Control with Fixed Wing and Quadrotor Test Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Rice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous formation flight is a key approach for reducing energy cost and managing traffic in future high density airspace. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs has allowed low-budget and low-risk validation of autonomous formation flight concepts. This paper discusses the implementation and flight testing of nonlinear dynamic inversion (NLDI controllers for close formation flight (CFF using two distinct UAV platforms: a set of fixed wing aircraft named “Phastball” and a set of quadrotors named “NEO.” Experimental results show that autonomous CFF with approximately 5-wingspan separation is achievable with a pair of low-cost unmanned Phastball research aircraft. Simulations of the quadrotor flight also validate the design of the NLDI controller for the NEO quadrotors.

  3. Operation of a test bed axial-gap brushless dc rotor with a superconducting stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, J. W.; Sohns, C. W.; Schwenterly, S. W.; Young, R. W., Sr.; Campbell, V. W.; Hickey, M. H.; Ott, G. W.; Bailey, J. M.

    A variable-speed axial-gap motor with a stator consisting of four liquid helium cooled superconducting electromagnets (two pole pairs) was built and proof tested up to 608 rpm in November 1990 as a tool for joint industry-laboratory evaluation of coils fabricated from high temperature oxide superconductors. A second rotor was fabricated with improved material, winding configuration, and wire type, and the drive system was modified to eliminate current spiking. The modified motor was characterized to design speed, 188 rad/s (1800 rpm), to acquire a performance baseline for future comparison with that of high temperature superconducting (HIS) wire. As it becomes commercially available, HTS wire will replace the low temperature electromagnet wire in a stator modified to control wire temperatures between 4 K and 77 K. Measurements of the superconducting electromagnetic field and locked rotor torque as functions of cryocurrent and dc current through two phases of the rotor, respectively, provided data to estimate power that could be developed by the rotor. Back emf and parasitic mechanical and electromagnetic drag torques were measured as functions of angular velocity to calculate actual rotor power developed and to quantify losses, which reduce the motor's efficiency. A detailed measurement of motor power at design speed confirmed the developed power equation. When subsequently operated at the 33-A maximum available rotor current, the motor delivered 15.3 kW (20.5 hp) to the load. In a final test, the cryostat was operated at 2500 A, 200 A below its critical current. At rotor design current of 60 A and 2500 A stator current, the extrapolated developed power would be 44.2 kW (59.2 hp) with 94% efficiency.

  4. A method for improving predictions of bed-load discharges to reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V.L.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Bravo-Espinosa, M.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management options for mitigating the loss of reservoir water storage capacity to sedimentation depend on improved predictions of bed-load discharges into the reservoirs. Most predictions of bed-load discharges, however, are based on the assumption that the rates of bed-load sediment availability equal the transport capacity of the flow, ignoring the spatio-temporal variability of the sediment supply. This paper develops a semiquantitative method to characterize bed-load sediment transport in alluvial channels, assuming a channel reach is non-supply limited when the bed-load discharge of a given sediment particle-size class is functionally related to the energy that is available to transport that fraction of the total bed-load. The method was applied to 22 alluvial stream channels in the USA to determine whether a channel reach had a supply-limited or non-supply-limited bed-load transport regime. The non-supply-limited transport regime was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of statistical tests. The results indicated the pattern of bed-load sediment transport in alluvial channels depends on the complete spectrum of sediment particle sizes available for transport rather than individual particle-size fractions represented by one characteristic particle size. The application of the method developed in this paper should assist reservoir managers in selecting bed-load sediment transport equations to improve predictions of bed-load discharge in alluvial streams, thereby significantly increasing the efficiency of management options for maintaining the storage capacity of waterbodies. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Vibration analysis of 1 MW gearbox for the Avedoere wind turbine. Test bed measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, A.

    1995-03-01

    The investigations had several purposes: Firstly, to determine and evaluate the structure-borne noise source strength of the gearbox, which is relevant for the final gear noise emission from the wind turbine. Secondly, to select the potentially least noisy gear set out of two, which have been made for the output gear stage. And Thirdly, to obtain the natural vibration modes of the gearbox structure, in order to determine if the structure-borne noise, transmitted to the wind turbine structure, will be amplified due to resonance conditions. Additional vibration tests were carried out. Among these, trials of 'in situ' measurement of the Transmission Error of the output gear stage, and measurements of the torsional vibrations of the input and output shaft. The test of the two output gear sets (from Flender AG and ELKRAFT A.m.b.A.) had the aim to determine the least noisy one of two different tooth profiles. Both gear sets were intended for the Avedoere Wind Turbine when it, in its first period of operation, is going to operate as a stall regulated turbine. After the first mesurements and the exchange of the Flender-designed gear set with the ELKRAFT-designed gear set, troubles with the backmost bearing of the intermediate shaft arose. The evaluation of the structure-borne noise source strength (expressed as the vibration velocity level), has in general been made at load conditions which correspond to the conditions in the wind turibne at a wind speed of 8 m/s, 10 m above terrain (v 10 ). This condition, is the one normally used when the noise emission from wind turbines is evaluated. At the comparison of the two gear sets against each other, the influence of the torque load on the source strength has also been considered. This comparison may indicate the load at which the profile correction is most effective, and may determine the noise potential of the gearbox at wind speeds lower than 8 m/s, which could also be of interest

  6. The Global Modeling Test Bed - Building a New National Capability for Advancing Operational Global Modeling in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, F.; Cortinas, J. V., Jr.; Kuo, W.; Tallapragada, V.; Stajner, I.; Nance, L. B.; Kelleher, K. E.; Firl, G.; Bernardet, L.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA develops, operates, and maintains an operational global modeling capability for weather, sub seasonal and seasonal prediction for the protection of life and property and fostering the US economy. In order to substantially improve the overall performance and accelerate advancements of the operational modeling suite, NOAA is partnering with NCAR to design and build the Global Modeling Test Bed (GMTB). The GMTB has been established to provide a platform and a capability for researchers to contribute to the advancement primarily through the development of physical parameterizations needed to improve operational NWP. The strategy to achieve this goal relies on effectively leveraging global expertise through a modern collaborative software development framework. This framework consists of a repository of vetted and supported physical parameterizations known as the Common Community Physics Package (CCPP), a common well-documented interface known as the Interoperable Physics Driver (IPD) for combining schemes into suites and for their configuration and connection to dynamic cores, and an open evidence-based governance process for managing the development and evolution of CCPP. In addition, a physics test harness designed to work within this framework has been established in order to facilitate easier like-to-like comparison of physics advancements. This paper will present an overview of the design of the CCPP and test platform. Additionally, an overview of potential new opportunities of how physics developers can engage in the process, from implementing code for CCPP/IPD compliance to testing their development within an operational-like software environment, will be presented. In addition, insight will be given as to how development gets elevated to CPPP-supported status, the pre-cursor to broad availability and use within operational NWP. An overview of how the GMTB can be expanded to support other global or regional modeling capabilities will also be presented.

  7. Distributed medical services within the ATM-based Berlin regional test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Krauss, Manfred; Schulz, Sandra; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1996-05-01

    The ATM-based Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) of Berlin connects two university hospitals (Benjamin Franklin University Hospital and Charite) with the computer resources of the Technical University of Berlin (TUB). Distributed new medical services have been implemented and will be evaluated within the highspeed MAN of Berlin. The network with its data transmission rates of up to 155 Mbit/s renders these medical services externally available to practicing physicians. Resource and application sharing is demonstrated by the use of two software systems. The first software system is an interactive 3D reconstruction tool (3D- Medbild), based on a client-server mechanism. This structure allows the use of high- performance computers at the TUB from the low-level workstations in the hospitals. A second software system, RAMSES, utilizes a tissue database of Magnetic Resonance Images. For the remote control of the software, the developed applications use standards such as DICOM 3.0 and features of the World Wide Web. Data security concepts are being tested and integrated for the needs of the sensitive medical data. The highspeed network is the necessary prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of data in a joint teleconference. The transmission of digitized real-time sequences such as video and ultrasound and the interactive manipulation of data are made possible by Multi Media tools.

  8. Cold test with a benchtop set-up for fluidized bed reactor using quartz sand to simulate gasification of coal cokes by concentrated solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Kodama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of internal circulation of a mixture of coal-coke particles and quartz sand on the fluidization state in a fluidized bed reactor are investigated by a cold test with a benchtop set-up in order to design 10-30 kWth scale prototype windowed fluidized-bed reactor. Firstly, a basic relationship between pressure loss of inlet gas and gas velocity was experimentally examined using quartz sand with different particle sizes by a small-scale quartz tube with a distributor at ambient pressure and temperature. Based on the results, an appropriate particle range of quartz sand and layer height/layer diameter ratio (L/D ratio) was determined for a design of the fluidized bed reactor. Secondly, a windowed reactor mock-up was designed and fabricated for solar coke gasification using quartz sand as a bed material. The pressure loss between the inlet and outlet gases was examined, and descending cokes and sand particles on the sidewall of the reactor was observed in the reactor mock-up. The moving velocity and distance of descending particles/sands from the top to bottom of fluidized bed were measured by the visual observation of the colored tracer particles on outside wall of the reactor.

  9. Detection system for location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbing; Du, Dong; Huang, An; Chang, Baohua; Han, Zandong; He, Ayada

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A detection system for locations of pebbles transported in pipes is introduced. • The detection system is based on vibration signal processing, which is original. • The characteristics of the vibration signals of the pipe are analyzed. • The experiment shows that the detection results are accurate. • The research provides an important basis for the design of the reactor. - Abstract: Pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors have many advantages such as inherent safety, high efficiency, etc., and have been considered as a candidate for Generation IV nuclear reactors. During the operation of the reactor, there are thousands of fuel pebbles transported in the pipes outside the core by gravity and helium flow. The pattern of the pipes which consist of straight and arc sections is very complex. When a fuel pebble is transported, it will constantly collide with the pipes, especially in the arc sections. The collisions will lead to the vibration of the pipes. This paper aims to provide a detection system for the location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing. Before the reactor is running, the system acquires the vibration signals of several key sections by sensors. Then the frequency characteristics of the signals are obtained by joint time–frequency analysis. When the reactor is running, the system detects the signals and processes them based on their frequency characteristics in real time. According to the results of the processing, the system can correctly judge whether the fuel pebble has passed through the section and records the time of the passing. The experiment validates the accuracy and reliability of the detection results. In this way, the operational condition of the reactor can be monitored so that the normal running of the reactor can be ensured. Additionally, the detection data are of great significance to the evaluation and optimization of the reactor performance

  10. Detection system for location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongbing, E-mail: liuhb07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, Dong, E-mail: dudong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, An; Chang, Baohua; Han, Zandong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Ayada [Shanghai Electric Power Generation Group Shanghai Generator Works, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A detection system for locations of pebbles transported in pipes is introduced. • The detection system is based on vibration signal processing, which is original. • The characteristics of the vibration signals of the pipe are analyzed. • The experiment shows that the detection results are accurate. • The research provides an important basis for the design of the reactor. - Abstract: Pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors have many advantages such as inherent safety, high efficiency, etc., and have been considered as a candidate for Generation IV nuclear reactors. During the operation of the reactor, there are thousands of fuel pebbles transported in the pipes outside the core by gravity and helium flow. The pattern of the pipes which consist of straight and arc sections is very complex. When a fuel pebble is transported, it will constantly collide with the pipes, especially in the arc sections. The collisions will lead to the vibration of the pipes. This paper aims to provide a detection system for the location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing. Before the reactor is running, the system acquires the vibration signals of several key sections by sensors. Then the frequency characteristics of the signals are obtained by joint time–frequency analysis. When the reactor is running, the system detects the signals and processes them based on their frequency characteristics in real time. According to the results of the processing, the system can correctly judge whether the fuel pebble has passed through the section and records the time of the passing. The experiment validates the accuracy and reliability of the detection results. In this way, the operational condition of the reactor can be monitored so that the normal running of the reactor can be ensured. Additionally, the detection data are of great significance to the evaluation and optimization of the reactor performance

  11. Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.

    2012-05-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  13. Assessment of simulated water balance from Noah, Noah-MP, CLM, and VIC over CONUS using the NLDAS test bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Xitian; Yang, Zong-Liang; Xia, Youlong; Huang, Maoyi; Wei, Helin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ek, Michael

    2014-12-27

    This study assesses the hydrologic performance of four land surface models (LSMs) for the conterminous United States using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) test bed. The four LSMs are the baseline community Noah LSM (Noah, version 2.8), the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC, version 4.0.5) model, the substantially augmented Noah LSM with multiparameterization options (hence Noah-MP), and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). All four models are driven by the same NLDAS-2 atmospheric forcing. Modeled terrestrial water storage (TWS), streamflow, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture are compared with each other and evaluated against the identical observations. Relative to Noah, the other three models offer significant improvements in simulating TWS and streamflow and moderate improvements in simulating ET and soil moisture. Noah-MP provides the best performance in simulating soil moisture and is among the best in simulating TWS, CLM4 shows the best performance in simulating ET, and VIC ranks the highest in performing the streamflow simulations. Despite these improvements, CLM4, Noah-MP, and VIC exhibit deficiencies, such as the low variability of soil moisture in CLM4, the fast growth of spring ET in Noah-MP, and the constant overestimation of ET in VIC.

  14. 1-800-CALL-H.E.P. -- Experiences on a voice-over-IP test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-01-01

    Highly interactive Internet applications such as Voice-over-IP are extremely sensitive to network performance. Even on high performance research networks, many cases will require the use of differentiated services to achieve high (toll) quality conversations. In this talk the authors will describe a test bed over the Energy Sciences network (ESnet) between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratory (Sandia). In particular the characteristics of Voice-over-IP calls between LBNL and SLAC will be reviewed and the effect of low, moderate and high congestion on the link will be quantified. The use of Per Hop Behavior (PHB) in IP headers with Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) in routers and the benefit they provide will be explained. A model of flows and performance will be presented and new techniques to predict the quality of calls are under development and will be reviewed. Comparisons with telephone reliability will be discussed and the feasibility of wide spread deployment of VoIP in HEP will be considered

  15. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  16. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in long-term time series and palaeoecological records: deep sea as a test bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Doi, Hideyuki; Wei, Chih-Lin; Danovaro, Roberto; Myhre, Sarah E

    2016-05-19

    The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies. We also demonstrate with palaeoecological time-series data that a larger species pool does not enhance ecosystem stability through time, whereas higher abundance as an indicator of higher ecosystem functioning may enhance ecosystem stability. These results suggest that BEF relationships are potentially time scale-dependent. Environmental impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may be much stronger than biodiversity impacts on ecosystem functioning at long, decadal-millennial, time scales. Longer time scale perspectives, including palaeoecological and ecosystem monitoring data, are critical for predicting future BEF relationships on a rapidly changing planet. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Developing a test-bed for robust research governance of geoengineering: the contribution of ocean iron biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W; Bressac, Matthieu

    2016-11-28

    Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km 2 ) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering. The utility of these iron enrichments in the geoengineering debate is enhanced by the GEOTRACES global survey. Here, we outline how GEOTRACES surveys and process studies can provide invaluable insights into geoengineering. Surveys inform key unknowns including the regional influence and magnitude of modes of iron supply, and stimulate iron biogeochemical modelling. These advances will enable quantification of interannual variability of iron supply to assess whether any future purposeful multi-year iron-fertilization meets the principle of 'additionality' ( sensu Kyoto protocol). Process studies address issues including upscaling of geoengineering, and how differing iron-enrichment strategies could stimulate wide-ranging biogeochemical outcomes. In summary, the availability of databases on both mesoscale iron-enrichment studies and the GEOTRACES survey, along with modelling, policy initiatives and legislation have positioned the iron-enrichment approach as a robust multifaceted test-bed to assess proposed research into climate intervention.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Developing a test-bed for robust research governance of geoengineering: the contribution of ocean iron biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Bressac, Matthieu

    2016-11-01

    Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km2) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering. The utility of these iron enrichments in the geoengineering debate is enhanced by the GEOTRACES global survey. Here, we outline how GEOTRACES surveys and process studies can provide invaluable insights into geoengineering. Surveys inform key unknowns including the regional influence and magnitude of modes of iron supply, and stimulate iron biogeochemical modelling. These advances will enable quantification of interannual variability of iron supply to assess whether any future purposeful multi-year iron-fertilization meets the principle of `additionality' (sensu Kyoto protocol). Process studies address issues including upscaling of geoengineering, and how differing iron-enrichment strategies could stimulate wide-ranging biogeochemical outcomes. In summary, the availability of databases on both mesoscale iron-enrichment studies and the GEOTRACES survey, along with modelling, policy initiatives and legislation have positioned the iron-enrichment approach as a robust multifaceted test-bed to assess proposed research into climate intervention. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  19. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  20. Real-Time Signal Processing for Multiantenna Systems: Algorithms, Optimization, and Implementation on an Experimental Test-Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haustein Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently realized concept of a reconfigurable hardware test-bed suitable for real-time mobile communication with multiple antennas is presented in this paper. We discuss the reasons and prerequisites for real-time capable MIMO transmission systems which may allow channel adaptive transmission to increase link stability and data throughput. We describe a concept of an efficient implementation of MIMO signal processing using FPGAs and DSPs. We focus on some basic linear and nonlinear MIMO detection and precoding algorithms and their optimization for a DSP target, and a few principal steps for computational performance enhancement are outlined. An experimental verification of several real-time MIMO transmission schemes at high data rates in a typical office scenario is presented and results on the achieved BER and throughput performance are given. The different transmission schemes used either channel state information at both sides of the link or at one side only (transmitter or receiver. Spectral efficiencies of more than 20 bits/s/Hz and a throughput of more than 150 Mbps were shown with a single-carrier transmission. The experimental results clearly show the feasibility of real-time high data rate MIMO techniques with state-of-the-art hardware and that more sophisticated baseband signal processing will be an essential part of future communication systems. A discussion on implementation challenges towards future wireless communication systems supporting higher data rates (1 Gbps and beyond or high mobility concludes the paper.

  1. Retrieval process development and enhancements: Hydraulic test bed integrated testing. Fiscal year 1995 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Smalley, J.T.; Tucker, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, is testing the performance of a technology of high-pressure waterjet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside waste storage tanks. Waste stimulants have been designed to challenge this retrieval process, and this technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste stimulants, at target retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of postulated deployment systems. The approach has been demonstrated to be versatile in dislodging and conveying a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes, through the use of simple and reliable in-tank components

  2. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-01-01

    : identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project

  3. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    Hanford to: identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

  4. Basic tests on integrity evaluation for natural hexafluoride transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomi, Yoshio; Yamakawa, Hidetsugu; Kato, Osamu; Kobayashi, Seiichi

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the affected factors that needed to integrity evaluation for UF 6 transporting 48Y cylinder, were confirmed by basic tests and preliminary analysis. The factors were the sealing parts and external surface emissivity that ruled both the behavior under fire accident condition and the fire resistance capability of the cylinder, and the external pressure resistance capability at the sunk accident. The results obtained as follows. (1) Confirming tests for fire resistance of cylinder valve and plug, seat leakage of the valve caused at 150 degrees C. by unequal thermal expansion between the valve body and the stem. The tin-lead solder coating the tapered thread of valve and plug, melted at 200 degrees C., then the sealing boundary broke. (2) An external emissivity influence to radiation heat transfer measured with test pieces heated by electric oven. The covered paints of the specimen burned and separated, the emissivity changed 0.4 to 0.6, dependent on the surrounding temperature. Type 48Y cylinder filled with 12.5 tons of UF 6 and the measured emissivity was used the computer code analysis. The hydraulic breaking did not happen under the fire accident condition at 800 degrees C., for 30 minutes. (3) The external pressure test of the valve endured the hydrostatic pressure at 3000 meters, which corresponded to about five times the cylinder body buckling strength. (author)

  5. Integrated Test Bed Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ITB's avionics system is composed of multiple high performance processors, embedded software, and data communication systems. The avionics embedded software is a...

  6. Mars Ecopoiesis Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ecopoiesis is the concept of initiating life in a new place; more precisely, the creation of an ecosystem capable of supporting life. It is the concept of initiating...

  7. Design and tests of a package for the transport of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The Type A package was designed for transportation of seven cobalt-60 sources with total activity of 1 GBq. The shield thickness to accomplish the dose rate and the transport index established by the radioactive transport regulation was calculated by the code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5). The sealed cobalt-60 sources were tested for leakages. according to the regulation ISO 9978:1992 (E). The package was tested according to regulation Radioactive Material Transport CNEN. The leakage tests results pf the sources, and the package tests demonstrate that the transport can be safe performed from the CDTN to the steelmaking industries

  8. Analysis of a transport fuselage section drop test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Hayduk, R. J.; Robinson, M. P.; Widmayer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Transport fuselage section drop tests provided useful information about the crash behavior of metal aircraft in preparation for a full-scale Boeing 720 controlled impact demonstration (CID). The fuselage sections have also provided an operational test environment for the data acquisition system designed for the CID test, and data for analysis and correlation with the DYCAST nonlinear finite-element program. The correlation of the DYCAST section model predictions was quite good for the total fuselage crushing deflection (22 to 24 inches predicted versus 24 to 26 inches measured), floor deformation, and accelerations for the floor and fuselage. The DYCAST seat and occupant model was adequate to approximate dynamic loading to the floor, but a more sophisticated model would be required for good correlation with dummy accelerations. Although a full-section model using only finite elements for the subfloor was desirable, constraints of time and computer resources limited the finite-element subfloor model to a two-frame model. Results from the two-frame model indicate that DYCAST can provide excellent correlation with experimental crash behavior of fuselage structure with a minimum of empirical force-deflection data representing structure in the analytical model.

  9. Bench-test comparison of 26 emergency and transport ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Her, Erwan; Roy, Annie; Marjanovic, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    Numerous emergency and transport ventilators are commercialized and new generations arise constantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate a large panel of ventilators to allow clinicians to choose a device, taking into account their specificities of use. This experimental bench-test took into account general characteristics and technical performances. Performances were assessed under different levels of FIO2 (100%, 50% or Air-Mix), respiratory mechanics (compliance 30,70,120 mL/cmH2O; resistance 5,10,20 cmH2O/mL/s), and levels of leaks (3.5 to 12.5 L/min), using a test lung. In total 26 emergency and transport ventilators were analyzed and classified into four categories (ICU-like, n = 5; Sophisticated, n = 10; Simple, n = 9; Mass-casualty and military, n = 2). Oxygen consumption (7.1 to 15.8 L/min at FIO2 100%) and the Air-Mix mode (FIO2 45 to 86%) differed from one device to the other. Triggering performance was heterogeneous, but several sophisticated ventilators depicted triggering capabilities as efficient as ICU-like ventilators. Pressurization was not adequate for all devices. At baseline, all the ventilators were able to synchronize, but with variations among respiratory conditions. Leak compensation in most ICU-like and 4/10 sophisticated devices was able to correct at least partially for system leaks, but with variations among ventilators. Major differences were observed between devices and categories, either in terms of general characteristics or technical reliability, across the spectrum of operation. Huge variability of tidal volume delivery with some devices in response to modifications in respiratory mechanics and FIO2 should make clinicians question their use in the clinical setting.

  10. Effect of Climatic Conditions on Differences in Thermo-Technical Properties of Organic Bedding in Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendelová Jana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to analyse the influence of climatic factors on the thermal performance of separated liquid manure. The samples of organic bedding were collected from the lying area of dairy housing and preparatory store. The measurement of properties of recycled manure solids (RMS was carried out in laboratory conditions. Samples were examined with determining the temperature effect on the thermal conductivity λ of ’dry‘ separated liquid manure (with a dry matter content of 60% and ’wet‘ liquid manure (with a dry matter content of 26%, in air temperatures ranging from 0 °C to 40 °C. Subsequently, the thermal resistance of three selected types of cows lying structures was calculated for winter and summer boundary values. Based on the results of thermal conductivity and thermal resistance, it was observed that dry separated liquid manure as an alternative bedding has, in low temperature (up to 5 °C, the most suitable thermal performance if it is maintained in a dry condition (with a dry matter content of 60%. With increasing temperature (above 20 °C and increasing humidity of bedding (below 26%, thermo-technical properties get worse; however, when comparing the thermal resistance of the cow bed structure with sandwich mattresses with a 50 mm layer of organic bedding and the deep cubicle filled with 200 mm of organic bedding, the thermal resistance of floor structure decreases by 7.6% or 18.4%, respectively. With a proper handling of the recycled organic bedding, it is possible to use its economic advantages.

  11. Transportability Testing of the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) 10-Ton Dump Truck, TP-94-01, Rev. 2, June 2004, "Transportability Testing Procedures"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip W

    2007-01-01

    ... (FMTV) 10-ton dump truck manufactured by Stewart and Stevenson Systems, Inc., Sealy, Texas. The testing was conducted in accordance with TP-94-01, Revision 2, June 2004 "Transportability Testing Procedures...

  12. Comparison among the BED capture enzyme immunoassay test and AxSYM avidity index assay for determining recent HIV infection and incidence in two Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centres in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Medeiros Salustiano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the automated AxSYM avidity assay index with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay test and to calculate the HIV-1 incidence using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay and AxSYM avidity assay index algorithms within a population seeking the Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centres in two municipalities in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Northeast of Brazil. An analysis was conducted in 365 samples that tested positive for HIV infection from frozen serum collected during the period 2006–2009. There was a similar proportion of males and females; most patients were heterosexual (86% with a median age of 29 years. Of the 365 samples, 102 (28% and 66 (18.1% were identified as recent infections by BED capture enzyme immunoassay and AxSYM avidity assay index, respectively. The HIV-1 total incidence in the BED capture enzyme immunoassay and AxSYM avidity assay index algorithms were: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.60–0.98 and 0.34 (95% CI: −0.04 to 0.72, respectively. Incidence was higher among men. There was good agreement between the tests, with a kappa of 0.654 and a specificity of 95.8%. AxSYM avidity assay index may be helpful in improving the quality of the estimates of recent HIV infection and incidence, particularly when used in a combined algorithm with BED capture enzyme immunoassay.

  13. 76 FR 19914 - Safety Standard for Portable Bed Rails: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... bed after rolling a 30 lb cylinder into the bed rail. The test simulates a child rolling into the bed... conditions. Installation of a portable bed rail onto a bed can require complex or physically demanding...

  14. Modeling phosphate transport and removal in a compact bed filled with a mineral-based sorbent for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Inga; Jourak, Amir; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hedström, Annelie; Lundström, T Staffan; Viklander, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Phosphorus filter units containing mineral-based sorbents with a high phosphate (PO4) binding capacity have been shown to be appropriate for removing PO4 in the treatment of domestic wastewater in on-site facilities. However, a better understanding of their PO4 removal mechanisms, and reactions that could lead to the formation of PO4 compounds, is required to evaluate the potential utility of candidate sorbents. Models based on data obtained from laboratory-scale experiments with columns of selected materials can be valuable for acquiring such understanding. Thus, in this study the transport and removal of PO4 in experiments with a laboratory-scale column filled with a commercial silicate-based sorbent were modeled, using the hydro-geochemical transport code PHREEQC. The resulting models, that incorporated the dissolution of calcite, kinetic constrains for the dissolution of calcium oxide (CaO) and wollastonite (CaSiO3), and the precipitation of amorphous tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, successfully simulated the removal of PO4 observed in the experiments. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beam Transport Testing for the Production Accelerator Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-02-14

    The beam transport system is designed to deliver an electron beam from the accelerator to the target. The design of the beam line depends on beam parameter (energy, energy spread, etc.) and target geometry. Elements of the beam transport system should provide transportation, focusing, and positioning of the beam onto the target surface.

  16. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  17. 75 FR 8526 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD64 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey.... PART 40--PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS 0 Accordingly, the...

  18. Neptunium Transport Behavior in the Vicinity of Underground Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Williams, R W; Kersting, A B

    2010-12-03

    We used short lived {sup 239}Np as a yield tracer and state of the art magnetic sector ICP-MS to measure ultra low levels of {sup 237}Np in a number of 'hot wells' at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The results indicate that {sup 237}Np concentrations at the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire and Chancellor sites, are in the range of 3 x 10{sup -5} to 7 x 10{sup -2} pCi/L and well below the MCL for alpha emitting radionuclides (15 pCi/L) (EPA, 2009). Thus, while Np transport is believed to occur at the NNSS, activities are expected to be well below the regulatory limits for alpha-emitting radionuclides. We also compared {sup 237}Np concentration data to other radionuclides, including tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and plutonium, to evaluate the relative {sup 237}Np transport behavior. Based on isotope ratios relative to published unclassified Radiologic Source Terms (Bowen et al., 1999) and taking into consideration radionuclide distribution between melt glass, rubble and groundwater (IAEA, 1998), {sup 237}Np appears to be substantially less mobile than tritium and other non-sorbing radionuclides, as expected. However, this analysis also suggests that {sup 237}Np mobility is surprisingly similar to that of plutonium. The similar transport behavior of Np and Pu can be explained by one of two possibilities: (1) Np(IV) and Pu(IV) oxidation states dominate under mildly reducing NNSS groundwater conditions resulting in similar transport behavior or (2) apparent Np transport is the result of transport of its parent {sup 241}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes and subsequent decay to {sup 237}Np. Finally, measured {sup 237}Np concentrations were compared to recent Hydrologic Source Term (HST) models. The 237Np data collected from three wells in Frenchman Flat (RNM-1, RNM-2S, and UE-5n) are in good agreement with recent HST transport model predictions (Carle et al., 2005). The agreement

  19. Determination of the solid consumption in the transport of sands in sea beds with gold 198; Determinacion del gasto solido en el transporte de arenas en lechos marinos con oro 198

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez A, G

    1983-07-01

    The study of the movement of sediments in sea beds, is necessary when one plans to build a port. Among the techniques used for this studies, it is the radiotracer balance that gives an useful estimation of the quantity of sediment that it moves per day and by meter (perpendicular to the displacement). The main objectives of this work are: to) to present the characteristics of the obtaining of the used radiotracer, describing details those used safety measures, b) to describe the handling of the radiotracer and it radiological safety, during the transport and injection in the sea bottom, c) description of the detection way and the used equipment, d) to describe the information processing obtained in the field and finally, e) the estimate of the solid consumption and the determination of the direction and speed of displacement of those sediments in the sea bottom, in front of the Tabasco coast, to be used jointly with the information obtained by means of other techniques so that one can make a good planning of the operations of dredging during the construction and later on the maintenance of the Dos Bocas marine terminal. The first step is to obtain the radiotracer that in this case was sand of uniform grain metric, marked superficially with Gold-198. The second step is to transport the sand to the place of interest, to place it in the injection equipment and to deposit it in the sea bottom. The third step is to detect the radiotracer in the sea bed, from a craft that drags a sled, which takes mounted a scintillation detector of sodium iodide activated with thallium NaI(Tl) (probe). The fourth step is to process the field information and to obtain the corresponding results. (Author)

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF APPROPRIATE QUALIFICATION TESTING AND END-OF-LIFE WASTE STORAGE CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEEP BED SAND FILTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.

    2010-06-02

    Deep bed sand (DBS) filters have filtered radioactive particulates at two United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites since 1948. Some early DBS filters experienced issues with chemical attack on support tiles, requiring significant repairs. Designs of DBS filters constructed since 1970 paid greater attention to chemical compatibility, resulting in decades of reliable performance since 1975.

  1. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  3. Trace element-bearing phases during the solid transport: in-situ characterization and temporal variability in the Loire bed-sediments (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbois, Cécile; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Dhivert, Elie; Desmet, Marc; Kunz, Martin

    2013-04-01

    As a result of increased of agriculture, land use, urban areas, industry, traffic and population density, trace element inputs have altered considerably fluvial system (sediment, water quality and biota). The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp in 2010), even if it is considered one of the least human-impacted hydrosystem among the 5 large French basins, has been exposed to multiple sources of metals during the last 150 years, originating from major mining districts (coal and non-ferrous metals) and their associated industrial activities (Grosbois et al, 2012; Dhivert et al, 2013). Two major contamination periods were recorded in several core sediments throughout the basin: urban development of the basin. The limited dilution by detrital material (Loire sediment load between1.5 and 3.5 Mt/y) was an additional cause of such severe contamination. After 1950, river eutrophication was well-marked by the general increase of endogenic calcite in the mid and downstream part of the basin, slightly diluting all major and trace element bulk concentrations by 20% (Grosbois et al, 2012). Since 1980, a generalized and gradual decontamination of bed sediments started while mines were gradually closing, urban waste waters collected and treated in addition to new environmental regulations. They aim to limit metallic pollutant dispersion like industrial recycling of metal wastes and to reduce atmospheric emissions and consequently atmospheric fall out wet and dry deposition In-situ chemical and mineralogical techniques (EPMA, SEM-EDS/ACC system and synchrotron based µXRD) were used (i) to highlight anthropogenic activities by a specific mineralogical signature and (ii) to determine potential effects of post-depositional remobilization and access trace element mobility during the solid transport. Trace element-bearing phases were identified at a micron scale during both mechanical erosion and solid transport. However, some others also reflect post

  4. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.M. Verkooijen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on the fossil fuel supply. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of the fluidization technology applied for the gasification of biomass aimed at the production of gas for subsequent synthesis of the liquid energy carriers via, e.g., the Fischer-Tropsch process. It discusses the advantages of the gasification technology over combustion, considers the size of the conversion plant in view of the local biomass availability, assesses the pros and cons of different gasifier types in view of the application of the product gas. Subsequently the article focuses on the fluidized bed technology to discuss the main process parameters and their influence on the product composition and the operability of the gasifier. Finally a synthesis process (FT is introduced shortly to illustrate the necessary gas cleaning steps in view of the purity requirements for the FT feed gas.

  5. The NASA Short-term Prediction and Research Transition (SPoRT) Center: A Research to Operations Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    to the Florida coastal WFOs. A SPoRT Test bed, together with input from other interagency and university partners, will provide a means and a process to effectively transition ESE observations and technology to NWS operations and decision makers at both the globdnational and regional scales. The transition of emerging experimental products into operations through the SPoRT infrastructure will allow NASA to foster and accelerate the progress of this Science Mission Directorate research strategy over the coming years.

  6. Sampling surface and subsurface particle-size distributions in wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams for analyses in sediment transport, hydraulics, and streambed monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Bunte; Steven R. Abt

    2001-01-01

    This document provides guidance for sampling surface and subsurface sediment from wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams. After a short introduction to streams types and classifications in gravel-bed rivers, the document explains the field and laboratory measurement of particle sizes and the statistical analysis of particle-size distributions. Analysis of particle...

  7. Technical committee on transport package test standards (for radioactive materials transport). Vienna, 6-10 August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-11-01

    The report of a meeting of the technical committee on transport package test standards is presented. The committee assigned high priority to work on Low Level Solid material and Low Specific Activity material, on the justification for and requirements of a Crush Test and on leakage from packages

  8. Model of rough bed for numerical simulation of saltation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 366-385 ISSN 1964-8189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718; GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : saltation * bed load transport * rough bed * armoured bed * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2015

  9. Effect of algae on flocculation of suspended bed sediments in a large shallow lake. Consequences for ecology and sediment transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas Pardo, Miguel Angel; Sarpe, Dirk; Winterwerp, Johan Christian

    2015-06-01

    Lake Markermeer, a large shallow lake in The Netherlands, suffers from turbidity and ecology problems. As part of a study aiming to mitigate these problems, we study flocculation processes in the lake; in particular, the possible mutual flocculation between algae and re-suspended bed sediments. We show that sediment re-suspended from the bed of the lake can flocculate, forming flocs for which size is a function of the turbulence level in the water column. Moreover, we also demonstrate that algae and re-suspended bed sediments can mutually flocculate, yielding organic-inorganic aggregates. These aggregates have different features to those of their individual components, some of which have been measured and characterized in this paper. Furthermore, the characteristics of the resulting organic-inorganic flocs are strongly influenced by the type of algae in the aggregate. We found that, in the case of flocs consisting of bed sediments and filamentous algae, flocculation yields smaller flocs than for bed sediments only, resulting in an increased turbidity in the water column. In the case of flocs consisting of bed sediments and colonial algae, flocs grow faster and become larger than bed sediment flocs, which may result in the depletion of most colonies from the water column.

  10. Drift Wave Test Particle Transport in Reversed Shear Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Park, H.B.; Kwon, J.M.; Stronzzi, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Choi, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    Drift wave maps, area preserving maps that describe the motion of charged particles in drift waves, are derived. The maps allow the integration of particle orbits on the long time scale needed to describe transport. Calculations using the drift wave maps show that dramatic improvement in the particle confinement, in the presence of a given level and spectrum of E x B turbulence, can occur for q(r)-profiles with reversed shear. A similar reduction in the transport, i.e. one that is independent of the turbulence, is observed in the presence of an equilibrium radial electric field with shear. The transport reduction, caused by the combined effects of radial electric field shear and both monotonic and reversed shear magnetic q-profiles, is also investigated

  11. Hazardous material transportation safety and security field operational test final evaluation plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-17

    The purpose of this effort is to independently evaluate the Battelle Operational Test Team to test methods for leveraging technology and operations to improve HAZMAT transport security, safety, and operational efficiency. As such, the preceding techn...

  12. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  13. Development of NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Test Bed Aboard ISS to Investigate SDR, On-Board Networking and Navigation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an experimental flight payload (referred to as the Space Communication and Navigation (SCAN) Test Bed) to investigate software defined radio (SDR), networking, and navigation technologies, operationally in the space environment. The payload consists of three software defined radios each compliant to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture, a common software interface description standard for software defined radios. The software defined radios are new technology developments underway by NASA and industry partners. Planned for launch in early 2012, the payload will be externally mounted to the International Space Station truss and conduct experiments representative of future mission capability.

  14. 49 CFR 236.706 - Bed, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bed, locking. 236.706 Section 236.706 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  15. Anomalous Dispersion in a Sand Bed River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. N.; Tucker, G. E.; Benson, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in non-local, heavy-tailed models of sediment transport and dispersion that are governed by fractional order differential equations. These models have a firm mathematical foundation and have been successfully applied in a variety of transport systems, but their use in geomorphology has been minimal because the data required to validate the models is difficult to acquire. We use data from a nearly 50-year-old tracer experiment to test a fluvial bed load transport model with a two unique features. First, the model uses a heavy-tailed particle velocity distribution with a divergent second moment to reproduce the anomalously high fraction of tracer mass observed in the downstream tail of the spatial distribution. Second, the model partitions mass into a detectable mobile phase and an undetectable, immobile phase. This two-phase transport model predicts two other features observed in the data: a decrease in the amount of detected tracer mass over the course of the experiment and the high initial velocity of the tracer plume. Because our model uses a heavy-tailed velocity distribution with a divergent second moment it is non-local and non-Fickian and able to reproduce aspects of the data that a local, Fickian model cannot. The model's successful prediction of the observed concentration profiles provides some of the first evidence of anomalous dispersion of bed load in a natural river.

  16. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  17. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed I. Optimum formulation for core particles and development of a novel friability test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yasuo; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2007-08-01

    To prepare powdered medicines without bitter taste, film coating is required to cover the surface of core particles. In this study, effect of formulation and operating conditions of agitation fluidized bed on the core particle properties was investigated. In order to prevent breakage of the core particles during coating process, which sometimes causes variation of drug dissolution rate, addition of maltose syrup powder during the formulation process of the core particles was investigated. Also, a method for friability test in which the core particles were subjected to strong impact was proposed to evaluate strength of the core particles. The friability of the core particles determined by this test method correlated well with the actual friability of the particles during the coating process. Based on this result, we confirmed this novel friability test method could predict the core particle endurance during the coating process.

  18. Solar Variability and the Near-Earth Environment: Mining Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity Data From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turflinger, T.; Schmeichel, W.; Krieg, J.; Titus, J.; Campbell, A.; Reeves, M.; Marshall (P.); Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This effort is a detailed analysis of existing microelectronics and photonics test bed satellite data from one experiment, the bipolar test board, looking to improve our understanding of the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) phenomenon. Over the past several years, extensive total dose irradiations of bipolar devices have demonstrated that many of these devices exhibited ELDRS. In sensitive bipolar transistors, ELDRS produced enhanced degradation of base current, resulting in enhanced gain degradation at dose rates 1 rd(Si)/s. This Technical Publication provides updated information about the test devices, the in-flight experiment, and both flight-and ground-based observations. Flight data are presented for the past 5 yr of the mission. These data are compared to ground-based data taken on devices from the same date code lots. Information about temperature fluctuations, power shutdowns, and other variables encountered during the space flight are documented.

  19. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic fields. I. General considerations and test particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.

    1978-05-01

    A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-β micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient

  20. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic fields. I. General considerations and test particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.

    1978-05-01

    A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-..beta.. micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient.

  1. Testing the transport energy-environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the EU27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo-Romero, M.P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transport activities are essential for economic and social development. Nevertheless, the transport sector has also shown the fastest growth in energy consumption in the European Union and its contribution to increasing greenhouse gas emissions merits the thorough attention of academics and policy makers. In this paper we analyze the relationship of economic growth and transport activities with transport final energy consumption. Energy Kuznets curves are estimated for a panel data set covering the EU27 countries in the period 1995–2009 for total transport energy use, household transport energy use, and productive transport energy use (all three in absolute and per capita energy use terms). The productive transport energy use and gross value added relationship are further considered as per hour worked. Finally, the control variables of energy prices and differences in the economic structures are tested. Empirical results show that the elasticity of transport energy use with respect to gross value added in per capita terms decreases from a threshold for the three transport energy consumption variables, but the turning point of improved environmental quality is not reached in any instance. - Highlights: • Transport EKCs are estimated for the EU countries in the 1995–2009 period. • Total, household and production activity transport energy uses are analyzed. • Data support a concave shape, but the turning point is not reached. • Richer countries have more limited potential for energy efficiency policies. • EKCs elasticity values are considered to support policy interpretations.

  2. Test facilities for radioactive material transport packages (AEA Technology plc, Winfrith,UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, J.E

    2001-07-01

    Transport containers for radioactive materials are tested to demonstrate compliance with national and international standards. Transport package design, testing, assessment and approval requires a wide range of skills and facilities. The comprehensive capability of AEA Technology in these areas is described. The facilities described include drop-test cranes and targets (up to 700 tonne); pool fires, furnaces and rigs for thermal tests, including heat dissipation on prototype flasks; shielding facilities; criticality simulations and leak test techniques. These are illustrated with photographs demonstrating the comprehensive nature of package testing services supplied to customers. (author)

  3. Test facilities for radioactive material transport packages (AEA Technology plc, Winfrith,UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Transport containers for radioactive materials are tested to demonstrate compliance with national and international standards. Transport package design, testing, assessment and approval requires a wide range of skills and facilities. The comprehensive capability of AEA Technology in these areas is described. The facilities described include drop-test cranes and targets (up to 700 tonne); pool fires, furnaces and rigs for thermal tests, including heat dissipation on prototype flasks; shielding facilities; criticality simulations and leak test techniques. These are illustrated with photographs demonstrating the comprehensive nature of package testing services supplied to customers. (author)

  4. Computer control of the beam transport system of the Chalk River electron test accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, G.E.; Kidner, S.H.; Fraser, J.S.

    1977-05-01

    The beam transport system of the Chalk River Electron Test Accelerator comprises steering coils and solenoidal focusing magnets driven by voltage-programmed, current-regulated power supplies. This report describes the beam transport and beam diagnostics systems presently in use. The computer controls all beam transport magnets from a single, allocatable control knob. The system is currently being expanded to two knobs and two readouts. (author)

  5. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  6. Testing fluidized bed incinerators for energy-efficient operation for the Southtowns Sewage Treatment Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Two methods for improving the energy efficiency of fluidized bed sludge incinerators were evaluated. The first method used paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents for municipal sludge instead of lime and ferric chloride. Automatic control of the incinerator was the second method evaluated for energy savings. To evaluate the use of paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents, varying quantities of paper pulp were added to the liquid sludge to determine the optimal sludge-to-paper pulp ratio. The effect of the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge on plant operations also was evaluated. When compared to sludge conditioned with lime and ferric chloride, the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge had similar cake release and feed characteristics, higher BTU values for the dry sludge solids, required less auxiliary fuel for incineration, and generated less ash for disposal. The paper pulp and polymer did not have any appreciable negative effects on the operation of the wastewater treatment plant. It was estimated that processing and incinerating the sludge conditioned with paper pulp and polymer resulted in a cost savings of up to $91.73 per dry ton of activated sludge solids. To evaluate the effect of automatic control, all the incinerator operating parameters including air flow rates, fuel oil feed rates, and sludge feed rates, were automatically monitored and controlled to minimize auxiliary fuel oil use and to keep the incinerator running at optimal conditions. Although effective, the estimated cost savings for automatic control of the incinerator were small.

  7. Detecting glacier-bed overdeepenings for glaciers in the Western Italian Alps using the GlabTop2 model: the test site of the Rutor Glacier, Aosta Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It is expected that the rapid retreat of glaciers, observed in the European Alps and other mountain regions of the world, will continue in the future. One of the most evident and relevant consequences of this phenomenon is the formation of new glacier lakes in recently deglaciated areas. During glacier retreat overdeepened parts of the glacier bed become exposed and, in some cases, filled with water. It is important to understand where these new lakes can appear because of the associated potential risks (i.e. lake outburst and consequent flood) and opportunities (tourism, hydroelectricity, water reservoir, etc.) especially in densely populated areas such as the European Alps. GlabTop2 (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2) allows to model glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas combining digital terrain information and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness. The model requires a minimum set of input data: glaciers outlines and a surface digital elevation model (DEM). In this work we tested the model on the Rutor Glacier (8,1 km2) located in the Aosta Valley. The glacier has a well-known history of a series of glacier lake outburst floods between 1430 AD and 1864 AD due to front fluctuations. After the last advance occurred during the 70s of the previous century, glacier shrinkage has been continuous and new lakes have formed in newly exposed overdeepenings. We applied GlabTop2 to DEMs derived from historical data (topographic maps and aerial photos pair) representing conditions before the proglacial lake formation. The results obtained have been compared with the present situation and existing lakes. Successively we used the model also on present-day DEMs, which are of higher resolution than the historical derived ones, and compared the modeled bed topography with an existing bedrock map obtained by in-situ geophysical investigations (GPR surveys). Preliminary results, obtained with the 1991 surface model, confirm the robustness of GlabTop2 in

  8. Destructive testing of transport packaging. Quality assurance applied to transport packaging in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses several aspects of quality assurance as applied to packaging, including such requirements for an adequate quality assurance program as assignment of responsibilities, inspections, and audits. In certain cases, we have determined the margin of safety inherent in specific package designs. Testing of packaging to destruction, by subjecting it to conditions far beyond the present accident criteria, was carried out to establish the levels of impact, puncture, crush, and fire at which present designs would fail. A second area in which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has applied quality assurance is qualification testing. The standards for testing prototypes require essentially no loss of contents under the specified accident test conditions. Qualifying a design with an acceptable degree of reliability by testing it at the specified stress levels with no measurable effect requires large numbers of samples to be tested. Testing the prototype under conditions well above the criteria is shown to offer one of the most effective means of demonstrating the adequacy of a design. Scenario tests, i.e., staged accidents or full-scale tests in which vehicles with samples of packages on board are crashed under specified conditions, in most cases present singular points on a curve. One-point tests in most cases will disprove a package design if it fails but may not confirm that a design will not fail. At the same time, much information and some public assurances can be obtained from such tests. (author)

  9. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 [Docket DOT-OST-2008-0088] RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue of Thursday, February 25, 2010, make the...

  10. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  11. Modelling transport of chokka squid (Loligo reynaudii) paralarvae off South Africa: reviewing, testing and extending the ‘Westward Transport Hypothesis'

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Martins, RS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available hydrodynamic model (ROMS) to test the WTH and assessed four factors that might influence successful transport – Release Area, Month, Specific Gravity (body density) and Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) – in numerical experiments that estimated successful transport...

  12. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 --- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 2, Data reconciliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume one. This Volume 2 provides details of the carbonizer data reconciliation.

  13. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E., E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, E.; Salvador, R. [Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías Software y Sistemas Multimedia para la Sostenibilidad, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  14. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, E.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Juárez, E.; Salvador, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  15. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  16. 75 FR 5722 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Senior Policy Advisor (S- 1), Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE..., Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Safety...

  17. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... 2105-AE01 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of...: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  18. Effect of algae on flocculation of suspended bed sediments in a large shallow lake. Consequences for ecology and sediment transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lucas Pardo, MiguelAngel; Sarpe, Dirk; Winterwerp, JohanChristian

    2015-01-01

    Lake Markermeer, a large shallow lake in The Netherlands, suffers from turbidity and ecology problems. As part of a study aiming to mitigate these problems, we study flocculation processes in the lake; in particular, the possible mutual flocculation between algae and re-suspended bed sediments. We

  19. Improved Ribbon Bridge (IRB) Prototype Transporter-Operational Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    exception of a Gerry-can holder on the left rear side of the vehicle. The Gerry- can intefered with the rear mounting bracket on the LjIS and was not... intefered with the stop block on the winch frame A- 14 twpoved mbmo &1dge am RB)Pofot’. Tromwoer-opwo11oio Test A-g Photo 23. The ramp bay bow ponton

  20. Coevolution of bed surface patchiness and channel morphology: 1. Mechanisms of forced patch formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter A.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Riverbeds frequently display a spatial structure where the sediment mixture composing the channel bed has been sorted into discrete patches of similar grain size. Even though patches are a fundamental feature in gravel bed rivers, we have little understanding of how patches form, evolve, and interact. Here we present a two-dimensional morphodynamic model that is used to examine in greater detail the mechanisms responsible for the development of forced bed surface patches and the coevolution of bed morphology and bed surface patchiness. The model computes the depth-averaged channel hydrodynamics, mixed-grain-size sediment transport, and bed evolution by coupling the river morphodynamic model Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) with a transport relation for gravel mixtures and the mixed-grain-size Exner equation using the active layer assumption. To test the model, we use it to simulate a flume experiment in which the bed developed a sequence of alternate bars and temporally and spatially persistent forced patches with a general pattern of coarse bar tops and fine pools. Cross-stream sediment flux causes sediment to be exported off of bars and imported into pools at a rate that balances downstream gradients in the streamwise sediment transport rate, allowing quasi-steady bar-pool topography to persist. The relative importance of lateral gravitational forces on the cross-stream component of sediment transport is a primary control on the amplitude of the bars. Because boundary shear stress declines as flow shoals over the bars, the lateral sediment transport is increasingly size selective and leads to the development of coarse bar tops and fine pools.

  1. The characteristics of bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Tia, Suvit

    2015-01-01

    The bed agglomeration behaviors were investigated experimentally when eucalyptus bark was burning tested in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The focuses of this work were the influences of operating conditions and bed materials on the bed agglomeration tendency and the elucidation in the behaviors of fuel inorganic elements and the governing mode of the agglomeration. It was found that the defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was clearly detectable from the decrease in measured bed pressure. The growth of bed particle and accumulation of agglomerates during combustion provided the partial to complete defluidization. The defluidization was promoted by the increase of bed temperature and bed particle size, and the decrease of fluidizing air velocity. The SEM-EDS analyses revealed that the bed agglomeration was mainly attributed to the formation of potassium silicate compounds as liquid phase during the combustion. This was initiated by the chemical reaction between the bed particle and the released ash constituents. In this study, the inorganic migration from fuel particle to bed particle was likely dominated by the condensation/reaction. The thermodynamic examination by ternary phase diagram analysis corroborated that the liquid phase formation of the ash derived materials controlled the agglomeration. The alumina sand prevented the bed agglomeration since it was inactive in the formation of viscous molten substances during combustion at the observed temperatures. - Highlights: • The behaviors of bed agglomeration were studied during the fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark. • The increase in bed temperature and sand size, and the decrease of air velocity promoted bed defluidization. • The formation of molten potassium silicate compounds conduced to the bed agglomeration. • Condensation/reaction was the dominant inorganic migration mechanism from fuel particle to bed particle. • The alumina sand prevented effectively the bed

  2. Testing of a new mining system performance at narrow coal bed; Ensayo de un sistema de arranque con cepillo mediante accionamiento hidraulico para capas estrechas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This researching project had the aim of: Testing a new mining system performance at narrow coal bed, which uses plough equipment with hydraulic driving devices. Minimising driving power group size to avoid problems regarding with the wall mining-heading transition, decreasing the needed room to house it and thus, simplifying wall mining edge support. The expected goals were: Take advantage of hydraulic driving devices to obtain a good efficiency with a variable and discontinuous load, but without loosing the electric driving devices advantages, consisting on increase driving torque, being the engine blocked Lengthen the mechanical equipment life (chains, driving sprockets, etc) Reach an economic production rate Researching project was developed in El Bierzo basin (leon, Spain), in Grupo Ampliacion, a mining group belonged to Viloria Hnos, S. A. (Author)

  3. Tracking channel bed resiliency in forested mountain catchments using high temporal resolution channel bed movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah E.; Conklin, Martha H.

    2018-01-01

    This study uses continuous-recording load cell pressure sensors in four, high-elevation (1500-1800 m), Sierra Nevada headwater streams to collect high-temporal-resolution, bedload-movement data for investigating the channel bed movement patterns within these streams for water years 2012-2014. Data show an annual pattern where channel bed material in the thalweg starts to build up in early fall, peaks around peak snow melt, and scours back to baseline levels during hydrograph drawdown and base flow. This pattern is punctuated by disturbance and recovery of channel bed material associated with short-term storm events. A conceptual model, linking sediment sources at the channel margins to patterns of channel bed fill and scour in the thalweg, is proposed building on the results of Martin et al. (2014). The material in the thalweg represents a balance between sediment supply from the channel margins and sporadic, conveyor-belt-like downstream transport in the thalweg. The conceptual model highlights not only the importance of production and transport rates but also that seasonal connectedness between the margins and thalweg is a key sediment control, determining the accumulation rate of sediment stores at the margins and the redistribution of sediment from margins to thalweg that feeds the conveyor belt. Disturbance and recovery cycles are observed at multiple temporal scales; but long term, the channel beds are stable, suggesting that the beds act as short-term storage for sediment but are in equilibrium interannually. The feasibility of use for these sensors in forested mountain stream environments is tested. Despite a high failure rate (50%), load cell pressure sensors show potential for high-temporal-resolution bedload measurements, allowing for the collection of channel bed movement data to move beyond time-integrated change measurements - where many of the subtleties of bedload movement patterns may be missed - to continuous and/or real-time measurements. This

  4. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  5. Preliminary Results on Sediment Sorting Under Intense Bedload Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Moreira, R. R.; Vautin, D.; Mathews, S. L.; Kuprenas, R.; Viparelli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous experiments show that parallel-laminated deposits are emplaced under upper plane bed regime by the migration of small-amplitude, long-wavelength bedforms. The present research focuses on how sediment is sorted under upper plane bed and sheet flow transport regimes, and whether parallel-lamination is inhibited during sheet flow transport. The problem of studying the sorting of sediment under so intense transport conditions is plagued by the uncertainties related to flow resistances and bedload transport rates. We simplify the problem by first running the experiments with uniform sediment, to establish a baseline that will aid in the design of the experiments with poorly sorted material. We are running experiments at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, in a unidirectional sediment-feed flume, 9 meters long by 0.2 meters wide, of which 7 meters are used as test section. During the experiments, water surface and bed elevations are periodically measured to characterize the global parameters of the flow, e.g. mean flow velocity and bed shear stress. When the flow and the sediment transport reach conditions of mobile bed equilibrium, bed elevation fluctuations are measured with ultrasonic transducer systems at six fixed locations. Channel bed aggradation is then induced by slowly raising the tail gate of the flume such that there is no change in transport regime, as confirmed by additional measurements of water surface and bed elevation and bed elevation fluctuations. Preliminary observations under upper plane bed regime show the formation of the small-amplitude and long-wavelength bedforms, as well as hints of parallel lamination in the deposits. In the near future we aim to achieve sheet flow transport conditions with both uniform and non-uniform grain size distributions to look at the internal structure of the emplaced deposit.

  6. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage center section including the wheel wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested to measure structural, seat, and anthropomorphic dummy response to vertical crash loads. The specimen had nominally zero pitch, roll and yaw at impact with a sink speed of 20 ft/sec. Results from this drop test and other drop tests of different transport sections will be used to prepare for a full-scale crash test of a B-720.

  7. 77 FR 26471 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...). Consumption of food products (e.g., poppy seeds) must not be considered a legitimate medical explanation for... 2105-AE14 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine... Department is amending certain provisions of its drug testing procedures for 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), a...

  8. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  9. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office... technical amendments to its drug and alcohol testing procedures to authorize employers to begin using the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance...

  10. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD67 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... employers in the Department's drug and alcohol testing program to disclose to State commercial driver licensing (CDL) authorities the drug and alcohol violations of employees who hold CDLs and operate...

  11. 75 FR 49850 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone... methodology upon which DOT can rely in making its drug and alcohol testing regulations; we follow the HHS...

  12. Archiving SLD Records in SRB: The Persistent Archives Test-Bed (PAT) Project at SLAC in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deken, J.

    2005-01-26

    Report on the first year of SLAC's participation in the collaboration to test the NARA prototype persistent archives' ability to perform the functions of accessioning, arrangement, description, preservation and access on the electronic records of the SLD (SLAC Large Detector) collaboration.

  13. Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds: Phase III. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1981. [Rawlins Test 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Preparations are being made for the August start-up of Rawlins Test 2. Site construction activities began May 4 with the mobilization of the construction subcontractor. The drilling program was completed this quarter with the installation of instrumentation wells. The Experimental Basis Document, PGA Operating Manual, and DAS Operating Manual have also been completed.

  14. Development of a Low Strain-Rate Gun Propellant Bed Compression Test and its Use in Evaluating Mechanical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    3291 UNCLASSIFIED Nomenclature Symbol Description a Burn rate coefficient ADI Australian Defence Industries AISI American Iron and Steel...received, besides grain density determination, which was by helium pycnometry with grains first ground and sieved , with material passing through a 1.00...mm sieve but retained on a 0.425 mm sieve tested as per Method 502/83 of [19]. The resulting ground and sieved propellant was then placed in the

  15. Literature Review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heitmuller, Franklin T; Asquith, William H; Fang, Xing; Thompson, David B; Wang, Keh-Han

    2005-01-01

    .... Major themes within the body of literature include deterministic sediment transport theory and equations, development of methods to measure and analyze fluvial sediment, applications and development...

  16. Test facilities for radioactive material transport packages (AEA Technology, Winfrith, UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Transport packages for radioactive materials are tested to demonstrate compliance with national and international regulations. The involvement of AEA Technology is traced from the establishment of the early IAEA Regulations. Transport package design, testing, assessment and approval requires a wide variety of skills and facilities. The comprehensive capability of AEA Technology in these areas is described with references to practical experience in the form of a short bibliography. The facilities described include drop-test cranes and targets (up to 700te); air guns for impacts up to sonic velocities; pool fires, furnaces and rigs for thermal tests including heat dissipation on prototype flasks; shielding facilities and instruments; criticality simulations and leak test instruments. These are illustrated with photographs demonstrating the comprehensive nature of package testing services supplied to customers. (author)

  17. Variability of bed mobility in natural, gravel-bed channels and adjustments to sediment load at local and reach scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle; Jonathan M. Nelson; John Pitlick; Mary Ann Madej; Brent L. Barkett

    2000-01-01

    Abstract - Local variations in boundary shear stress acting on bed-surface particles control patterns of bed load transport and channel evolution during varying stream discharges. At the reach scale a channel adjusts to imposed water and sediment supply through mutual interactions among channel form, local grain size, and local flow dynamics that govern bed mobility...

  18. Intermodal transportation of low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) presently serves as a disposal site for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated by DOE-approved generators. The environmental impacts resulting from the disposal of LLW at the NTS are discussed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Nevada Test Site Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada (NTS EIS). During the formal NTS EIS scoping period, it became clear that transportation of LLW was an issue that required attention. Therefore, the Nevada Transportation Protocol Working Group (TPWG) was formed in 1995 to identify, prioritize, and understand local issues and concerns associated with the transportation of LLW to the NTS. Currently, generators of LLW ship their waste to the NTS by legal-weight truck. In 1995, the TPWG suggested the DOE could reduce transportation costs and enhance public safety by using rail transportation. The DOE announced, in October 1996, that they would study the potential for intermodal transportation of LLW to the NTS, by transferring the LLW containers from rail cars to trucks for movements to the NTS. The TPWG and DOE/NV prepared the NTS Intermodal Transportation Facility Site and Routing Evaluation Study to present basic data and analyses on alternative rail-to-truck transfer sites and related truck routes for LLW shipments to the NTS. This Environmental Assessment (EA) identifies the potential environmental impacts and transportation risks of using new intermodal transfer sites and truck routes or continuing current operations to accomplish the objectives of minimizing radiological risk, enhancing safety, and reducing cost. DOE/NV will use the results of the assessment to decide whether or not to encourage the LLW generators and their transportation contractors to change their current operations to accomplish these objectives

  19. Mathematical Basis and Test Cases for Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport Modeling in GDSA-PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report provides documentation of the mathematical basis for a colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport modeling capability that can be incorporated into GDSA-PFLOTRAN. It also provides numerous test cases against which the modeling capability can be benchmarked once the model is implemented numerically in GDSA-PFLOTRAN. The test cases were run using a 1-D numerical model developed by the author, and the inputs and outputs from the 1-D model are provided in an electronic spreadsheet supplement to this report so that all cases can be reproduced in GDSA-PFLOTRAN, and the outputs can be directly compared with the 1-D model. The cases include examples of all potential scenarios in which colloid-facilitated transport could result in the accelerated transport of a radionuclide relative to its transport in the absence of colloids. Although it cannot be claimed that all the model features that are described in the mathematical basis were rigorously exercised in the test cases, the goal was to test the features that matter the most for colloid-facilitated transport; i.e., slow desorption of radionuclides from colloids, slow filtration of colloids, and equilibrium radionuclide partitioning to colloids that is strongly favored over partitioning to immobile surfaces, resulting in a substantial fraction of radionuclide mass being associated with mobile colloids.

  20. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed II. A proposal of a rapid dissolution test for evaluation of bitter taste of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Matsuzaki, Miwako; Ono, Tetsuo; Ono, Masaki; Tsunenari, Yoshinobu; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2008-07-01

    To prepare powdered drugs that do not have a bitter taste, a film coating covering the surfaces of the core particles is required. The dissolution rate of ibuprofen from the coated particles changes according to the physical properties of the core particles. In this study, the effects of the physical properties of granules prepared by using several scales of agitation fluidized beds on the drug dissolution rate were investigated. The dissolution rate of ibuprofen decreased when the apparent density and shape factor of the granules increased. In contrast, the dissolution rate of the drug increased with the friablility of the granules increased. Thus, the structures of the granules appear to affect the dissolution rate of the drug to a large degree. A rapid dissolution test that can be used to investigate the early dissolution rate of ibuprofen in vitro was proposed to evaluate the taste-masking level of the coated particles. The bitter taste-masking level of the coated particles was successfully confirmed by using this novel test method.

  1. Follow on Research for Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (FY13 Progress Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2013-01-01

    Modern aircraft employ a significant fraction of their weight in composite materials to reduce weight and improve performance. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to the composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test-bed (MUTT) aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of MUTT aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the MUTT aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of MUTT aircraft is improved using the in-house Multi-disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of MUTT aircraft have been improved simultaneously in a single model tuning procedure.

  2. Design and deployment of an elastic network test-bed in IHEP data center based on SDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shan; Qi, Fazhi; Chen, Gang

    2017-10-01

    High energy physics experiments produce huge amounts of raw data, while because of the sharing characteristics of the network resources, there is no guarantee of the available bandwidth for each experiment which may cause link congestion problems. On the other side, with the development of cloud computing technologies, IHEP have established a cloud platform based on OpenStack which can ensure the flexibility of the computing and storage resources, and more and more computing applications have been deployed on virtual machines established by OpenStack. However, under the traditional network architecture, network capability can’t be required elastically, which becomes the bottleneck of restricting the flexible application of cloud computing. In order to solve the above problems, we propose an elastic cloud data center network architecture based on SDN, and we also design a high performance controller cluster based on OpenDaylight. In the end, we present our current test results.

  3. Real test-bed studies at the ETH House of Natural Resources – wood surface protection for outdoor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for sustainable construction materials used in urban areas calls for novel wood protective coatings, which retain the natural appearance of wood while minimizing maintenance intervals. This work reports on three different wood surface modification processes and evaluates their protective effect against weathering after installation at a testing façade of the ETH House of Natural Resources (HoNR, a recently opened living lab located in Zürich, Switzerland. We monitored the discoloration upon outdoor exposure of subsequently improved generations of thin metal oxide coatings developed in our lab. We target almost transparent and durable coatings with water repellent properties to diminish discoloration due to UV light and biological attack. This should lead to wooden facades with increased reliability and thereby boost an enhanced utilization of the renewable and CO2 storing resource wood.

  4. Qualification testing facility for packages to be used for transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    The radioactive materials (RAM) packaging have to comply to all modes and transport condition, routine or in accident conditions possibly to occur during transportation operations. It is well known that the safety in the transport of RAM is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped rather than on operational and/or administrative actions required for the package. The quality of these packages - type A, B or C has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the ROMANIAN nuclear regulation conditions provided by CNCAN Order no. 357/22.12.2005- 'Norms for a Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', the IAEA Vienna Recommendation stipulated in the Safety standard TS-R-1- Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, and other applicable international recommendations. The paper will describe the components of the designed testing facilities, and the qualification testing to be performed for all type A, B and C packages subjected to the testing. In addition, a part of the qualification tests for a package (designed and manufactured in INR Pitesti) used for transport and storage of spent fuel LEU elements of a TRIGA nuclear reactor will be described and analyzed. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design are also presented and commented. The paper concludes that the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM packages will comply with the national safe standards as well as with the IAEA applicable recommendation provided by the TS-R-1 safety standard. (author)

  5. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  6. Effects of bed-load movement on flow resistance over bed forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of bed-load transport on flow resistance of alluvial channels with undulated bed was experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a tilting flume 250mm wide and 12·5m long with glass-sides of rectan- gular cross-section and artificial dune shaped floor that was made from Plexi-glass.

  7. Dependence of saltation characteristics on bed organisation in numerical simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2015), s. 177-184 ISSN 1226-4806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718; GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : saltation parameters * bed roughness * bed structure * bed load transport * armoured bed Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12303-014-0029-3.pdf

  8. Risks of transportation along various routes to the Nevada Test Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.

    2009-04-01

    Residents of Southern Nevada have expressed interest in the risks posed by transportation of radioactive materials to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Residents of the urban sections of Clark County, in particular, are concerned because the trucks carrying this material pass through fairly densely populated areas on both primary and secondary highways. Excellent studies by the Desert Research Institute (Miller, et al, 2005; 2007) measured the external radiation doses from these trucks and provided a benchmark for estimating the doses sustained by the population along the transportation routes. The studies did not, however, assess the doses to the population in the event of an accident involving these trucks. The present study estimates doses to the population along these routes and to various individual receptors, both for routine, incident-free transportation and for transportation accidents.

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE AGR-1 CAPSULE TO FPMS SPECTROMETER TRANSPORT VOLUMES FROM LEADOUT FLOW TEST DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Hartwell; J. B. Walter; D. M. Scates; M. W. Drigert

    2007-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A flow experiment conducted during the AGR-1 irradiation provided data that included the effect of flow rate changes on the decay of a short-lived radionuclide (23Ne). This data has been analyzed to determine the capsule-specific downstream transport volume through which the capsule effluents must pass before arrival at the fission product monitoring system spectrometers. These resultant transport volumes when coupled with capsule outlet flow rates determine the transport times from capsule-to-detector. In this work an analysis protocol is developed and applied in order to determine capsule-specific transport volumes to precisions of better than +/- 7%.

  10. Fleet servicing facilities for testing and maintaining rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Preston, M.K.; Keith, D.A.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of Fleet Servicing Facilities (FSF). Such facilities are intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the waste handling plants in the United States presently receiving radioactive wastes have an onsite FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing all of these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the transport system is placed into service. Thus a need is indicated for FSFs or their equivalent at various radioactive materials receiving sites. This paper also compares the respective capital costs and operating characteristics of the following three concepts of a spent fuel cask transportation FSF; integrated FSF, colocated FSF, and independent FSF

  11. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rio Blanco underground nuclear test site, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.; Earman, S.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-10-01

    DOE is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater is part of preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations allow prioritization of test areas in terms of risk, provide a basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work, and provide a framework for assessing site characterization data needs. The Rio Blanco site in Colorado was the location of the simultaneous detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear devices. The devices were located 1780, 1899, and 2039 below ground surface in the Fort Union and Mesaverde formations. Although all the bedrock formations at the site are thought to contain water, those below the Green River Formation (below 1000 in depth) are also gas-bearing, and have very low permeabilities. The transport scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Fort Union Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affect radionuclide transport at the site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values. Given the sparse data, the modeling results may differ significantly from reality. Confidence in transport predictions can be increased by obtaining more site data, including the amount of radionuclides which would have been available for transport (i.e., not trapped in melt glass or vented during gas flow testing), and the hydraulic properties of the formation. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. The terminator "toy" chemistry test: a simple tool to assess errors in transport schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Lauritzen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This test extends the evaluation of transport schemes from prescribed advection of inert scalars to reactive species. The test consists of transporting two interacting chemical species in the Nair and Lauritzen 2-D idealized flow field. The sources and sinks for these two species are given by a simple, but non-linear, "toy" chemistry that represents combination (X + X → X2 and dissociation (X2 → X + X. This chemistry mimics photolysis-driven conditions near the solar terminator, where strong gradients in the spatial distribution of the species develop near its edge. Despite the large spatial variations in each species, the weighted sum XT = X + 2X2 should always be preserved at spatial scales at which molecular diffusion is excluded. The terminator test demonstrates how well the advection–transport scheme preserves linear correlations. Chemistry–transport (physics–dynamics coupling can also be studied with this test. Examples of the consequences of this test are shown for illustration.

  13. Relevance of IAEA tests to severe accidents in nuclear fuel cycle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, W.L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The design and performance standards for packages used for the transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials, are defined in the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, in order to ensure safety under both normal and accident conditions of transport. The underlying philosophy is that safety is vested principally in the package and the design and performance criteria are related to the potential hazard. Type B packages are high duty packages which are used for the transport of the more radioactive materials, notably spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste (VHLW). Tests are specified in the IAEA Regulations to ensure the integrity of these packages in potential transport accidents involving impacts, fires or immersion in water. The mechanical tests for Type B packages include drop tests onto an unyielding surface without giving rise to a significant release of radioactivity. The objects which a package could impact in real life transport accidents, such as concrete roads, bridge abutments and piers, will yield to some extent and absorb some of the energy of the moving package. Impact tests onto an unyielding surface are therefore relevant to impacts onto real-life objects at much higher speeds. The thermal test specifies that Type B packages should be able to withstand a fully engulfing fire of 8000 C for 30 minutes. Analytical studies backed up by experimental tests have shown that these packages can withstand such conditions without significant release of radioactivity. The Regulations also specify immersion tests for Type B packages; 15 metres for 8 hours without significant release of radioactivity and, in addition for spent fuel and VHLW packages, 200 metres for 1 hour without rupture of the containment. Studies have shown that spent fuel and VHLW casks would meet these conditions. Therefore, there is a large body of evidence to show that the current IAEA Type B test requirements are severe and cover all the situations which can

  14. Relevance of IAEA tests to severe accidents in nuclear fuel cycle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The design and performance standards for packages used for the transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials, are defined in the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, in order to ensure safety under both normal and accident conditions of transport. The underlying philosophy is that safety is vested principally in the package and the design and performance criteria are related to the potential hazard. Type B packages are high duty packages which are used for the transport of the more radioactive materials, notably spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste (VHLW). Tests are specified in the IAEA Regulations to ensure the integrity of these packages in potential transport accidents involving impacts, fires or immersion in water. The mechanical tests for Type B packages include drop tests onto an unyielding surface without giving rise to a significant release of radioactivity. The objects which a package could impact in real life transport accidents, such as concrete roads, bridge abutments and piers, will yield to some extent and absorb some of the energy of the moving package. Impact tests onto an unyielding surface are therefore relevant to impacts onto real-life objects at much higher speeds. The thermal test specifies that Type B packages should be able to withstand a fully engulfing fire of 8000 C for 30 minutes. Analytical studies backed up by experimental tests have shown that these packages can withstand such conditions without significant release of radioactivity. The Regulations also specify immersion tests for Type B packages; 15 metres for 8 hours without significant release of radioactivity and, in addition for spent fuel and VHLW packages, 200 metres for 1 hour without rupture of the containment. Studies have shown that spent fuel and VHLW casks would meet these conditions. Therefore, there is a large body of evidence to show that the current IAEA Type B test requirements are severe and cover all the situations which can

  15. High-resolution Digital Mapping of Historical Lava Flows as a Test-bed for Lava Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Parks, M.; Nomikou, P.; Mather, T. A.; Simou, E.; Kalnins, L. M.; Paulatto, M.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    eruption volume and pre-eruption interval, which will in turn improve our capacity to forecast the size and duration of future dome-forming events at Santorini. The new topographic dataset, and the detailed historical accounts of the eruptions which formed those lava flows, offers a tremendous opportunity to test the current generation of lava flow models.

  16. Nuclear waste transportation package testing: A review of selected programs in the United States and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedeker, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides an overview of some recent nuclear waste transportation package development programs. This information is intended to aid the State of Nevada in its review of US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear waste transportation programs. This report addresses cask testing programs in the United Kingdom and selected 1/4 and full scale testing in the US. Facilities that can provide cask testing services, both in the US and to a limited extent abroad, are identified. The costs for different type test programs are identified as a means to estimate costs for future test programs. Not addressed is the public impact such testing might have in providing an increased sense of safety or confidence. The British test program was apparently quite successful in demonstrating safety to the public at the time. There is no US test effort that is similar in scope for direct comparison. Also addressed are lessons learned from testing programs and areas that may merit possible future integrated examination. Areas that may require further examination are both technical and institutional. This report provides information which, when combined with other sources of information will enable the State of Nevada to assess the following areas: feasibility of full scale testing; costs of full scale tests; potential benefits of testing; limits that full scale testing impose; and disadvantages of emphasis on testing vs analytical solutions. This assessment will then allow the state to comment on DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) plans for the development and licensing of new shipping cask designs. These plans currently expect contractors to perform engineering testing for materials development, quarter scale model testing to validate analytical assessments and full scale prototype testing of operational features. DOE currently plans no full scale or extra-regulatory destructive testing to aid in cask licensing. 1 tab

  17. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  18. Quality assurance requirements in the testing of packages to be used for safe transportation of RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Nistor, Viorica; Mihaiu, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the Type A, B or C packages used for transport and storage of Radioactive Material (RAM) has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the Transport Regulations, within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti, where has designed and developed a new Romanian Testing Facility. The qualifications testing are performed under a strict quality assurance programme based on the specific procedures prior approved by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control). This paper describe the quality assurance programme in accordance with the quality management system developed in order to meet the requirements provided by the national regulations as well as to the requirements of the IAEA's safety standard TS-R-1 related to testing of packages to be used for transport of RAM and also provides an overview of the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM Packages, developed by the INR's Reliability and Testing Laboratory within an Excellence Scientific Contract. (authors)

  19. Application of column tests and electrical resistivity methods for leachate transport monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wychowaniak Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the human civilization leads to the pollution of environment. One of the contamination which are a real threat to soil and groundwater are leachates from landfills. In this paper the solute transport through soil was considered. For this purpose, the laboratory column tests of chlorides tracer and leachates transport on two soil samples have been carried out. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied as auxiliary tool to follow the movements of solute through the soil column what allowed to compare between the results obtained with column test method and electrical resistivity measurements. Breakthrough curves obtained by conductivity and resistivity methods represents similar trends which leads to the conclusion about the suitability of electrical resistivity methods for contamination transport monitoring in soil-water systems.

  20. A comprehensive small and pilot-scale fixed-bed reactor approach for testing Fischer–Tropsch catalyst activity and performance on a BTL route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyapong Hunpinyo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium (Ru-based catalysts were prepared by the sol–gel technique for biomass-to-liquid (BTL operation and had their performance tested under different conditions. The catalytic study was carried out in two steps using a simple and reliable method. In the first step, the effects of reaction temperatures and inlet H2/CO molar feed ratios obtained from biomass gasification were investigated on the catalyst performance. A set of experimental results obtained in a laboratory fixed bed reactor was described and summarized. Moreover, a simplified Langmuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson (LHHW kinetic model was proposed with two promising models, where the surface decomposition of carbon monoxide was assumed as the rate determining step (RDS. In the second step, a FT pilot plant was conducted to validate the catalyst performance, especially the conversion efficiency, heat and mass transfer effects, and system controllability. The results indicated that our catalyst performances under mild conditions were not significantly different in many regards from those previously reported for a severe condition, as especially Ru-based catalyst can be performed to vary over a wide range of conditions to yield specific liquid productivity. The results in terms of the hydrocarbon product distribution obtained from the pilot scale operations were similar with that obtained from the related lab scale experiments.

  1. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  2. Leaktightness definitions for and leakage tests on packages for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1989-07-01

    In 1986, the International Organization for Standardization asked a group of experts representing some fifteen countries to draft a standard for the leaktightness of packagings used for the transport of radioactive materials. Progress of work and test before shipping of packages are reviewed

  3. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  4. Validation of a fracture mechanics approach to nuclear transportation cask design through a drop test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), under contract to the Department of Energy, is conducting a research program to develop and validate a fracture mechanics approach to cask design. A series of drop tests of a transportation cask is planned for the summer of 1986 as the method for benchmarking and, thereby, validating the fracture mechanics approach. This paper presents the drop test plan and background leading to the development of the test plan including structural analyses, material characterization, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques necessary for defining the test plan properly

  5. Thermal simulations and tests in the development of a helmet transport spent fuel elements Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba, R.; Quintana, F.; Márquez Turiello, R.; Furnari, J.C.; Pimenta Mourão, R.

    2013-01-01

    A packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel from research reactors was designed by a group of researchers to improve the capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the reactors operated in the region. Two half-scale models for MTR fuel were constructed and tested so far and a third one for both MTR and TRIGA fuels will be constructed and tested next. Four test campaigns have been carried out, covering both normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. The thermal test is part of the requirements for the qualification of transportation packages for nuclear reactors spent fuel elements. In this paper both the numerical modelling and experimental thermal tests performed are presented and discussed. The cask is briefly described as well as the finite element model developed and the main adopted hypotheses for the thermal phenomena. The results of both numerical runs and experimental tests are discussed as a tool to validate the thermal modelling. The impact limiters, attached to the cask for protection, were not modelled. (author) [es

  6. Transport Modeling Analysis to Test the Efficiency of Fish Markets in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis S. Al-Abri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oman’s fish exports have shown an increasing trend while supplies to the domestic market have declined, despite increased domestic demand caused by population growth and income. This study hypothesized that declining fish supplies to domestic markets were due to inefficiency of the transport function of the fish marketing system in Oman. The hypothesis was tested by comparing the observed prices of several fish species at several markets with optimal prices. The optimal prices were estimated by the dual of a fish transport cost- minimizing linear programming model. Primary data on market prices and transportation costs and quantities transported were gathered through a survey of a sample of fish transporters. The quantity demanded at market sites was estimated using secondary data. The analysis indicated that the differences between the observed prices and the estimated optimal prices were not significantly different showing that the transport function of fish markets in Oman is efficient. This implies that the increasing trend of fish exports vis-à-vis the decreasing trend of supplies to domestic markets is rational and will continue. This may not be considered to be equitable but it is efficient and may have long-term implications for national food security and have an adverse impact on the nutritional and health status of the rural poor population. Policy makers may have to recognize the trade off between the efficiency and equity implications of the fish markets in Oman and make policy decisions accordingly in order to ensure national food security.

  7. Big Data Analytics Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Technology KVM Keyboard Video Monitor LDAP Lightweight Distributed Access Protocol LTE Limited Technology Experiments MILCOM Military Communications...Active Directory and lightweight directory access protocol ( LDAP ) services for authentication. When users log into vCenter, a token is issued to the

  8. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  9. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morrison, Stan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morris, Sarah [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Tigar, Aaron [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Dayvault, Jalena [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management

    2016-04-26

    Motivation for Study: Natural flushing of contaminants at various U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites is not proceeding as quickly as predicted (plume persistence) Objectives: Help determine natural flushing rates using column tests. Use 1D reactive transport modeling to better understand the major processes that are creating plume persistence Approach: Core samples from under a former mill tailings area Tailings have been removed. Column leaching using lab-prepared water similar to nearby Gunnison River water. 1D reactive transport modeling to evaluate processes

  10. Analysis and model testing of a Super Tiger Type B waste transport system in accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.A.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Romesberg, L.E.; Joseph, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the response of a Type B packaging containing drums of contact-handled transuranic waste (CH-TRU) as a part of a program to evaluate the adequacy of experimental and analytical methods for assessing the safety of waste transport systems in accident environments. A US NRC certified Type B package known as the Super Tiger was selected for the study. This overpack consists of inner and outer steel shells separated by rigid polyurethane foam and can be used for either highway or rail transportation. Tests using scale models of the vehicular system are being conducted in conjunction with computer analyses

  11. Packaging and transport case of test fuel assembly irradiated in the Creys-Malville reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Vivien, J.; Pouard, M.; Dujardin, G.N.; Veron, B.; Michoux, H.

    1986-06-01

    Some irradiated fuel assemblies from the fast neutron Creys Malville reactor will be sent to hot laboratories to follow fuel behavior. These test assemblies will be examined after a limited cooling time and transport is realized at high residual power (about 10kW) and cladding temperature should not rise over 500deg C. The fuel assemblies are not dismantled and transported into sodium. The assembly is placed into a case containing sodium plugged and put into a packaging. Dimensioning, thermal behavior, radiation protection and containment are examined [fr

  12. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG'S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG'S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria

  13. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  14. Stable-channel design in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, George A.

    1981-07-01

    Regime relations are derived for more or less straight, stable, symmetrical, wide reaches of coarse gravel-bed rivers having low rates of bedload transport at bankfull flow conditions. The relations are combined to express channel width as a function of median size of bed pavement, energy slope and bankfull water discharge, for sediment of constant specific gravity. This stable-channel design equation, together with three others of similar form in current usage, is tested for accuracy of channel width prediction with 60 field data sets from appropriate gravel-bed river reaches. The minimum mean deviation of predicted width, from the actual width prescribed in each data set, was 160%, with a standard deviation of 430%. A dimensionless stability index, defined in terms of the above parameters, is deduced and shown to be remarkably constant in value at stable reach sections on particular gravel-bed rivers, and for rivers within a single watershed. Employment of this index will result in a substantial improvement in the accuracy of stable-channel design. The range of application of the stability index method is increased by a combination with an empirical equation that predicts median bed-pavement size, from given flow conditions over gravel-bed material having a known initial sediment size distribution. An example of the suggested design procedure, following from this combination, is given for an existing unstable river-diversion channel. Some recommendations are made concerning the identification of stable river reaches and the determination of the requisite sediment parameters for design.

  15. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.; De Jong, W.; Verkooijen, A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on

  16. Downstream effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project on bedload, transport, channel morphology, and channel-bed texture, lower Deschutes River, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Fassnacht; Ellen M. McClure; Gordon E. Grant; Peter C. Klingeman

    2003-01-01

    Field, laboratory, and historical data provide the basis for interpreting the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex on the surface water hydrology and geomorphology of the lower Deschutes River, Oregon, USA. The river's response to upstream impoundment and flow regulation is evaluated in terms of changes in predicted bedload transport rates, channel...

  17. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, Douglas; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  18. Student Assessment System. Domain Referenced Tests. Transportation/Automotive Mechanics. Volume II: Theory. Georgia Vocational Education Program Articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, James F., Comp.

    These written domain referenced tests (DRTs) for the area of transportation/automotive mechanics test cognitive abilities or knowledge of theory. Introductory materials describe domain referenced testing and test development. Each multiple choice test includes a domain statement, describing the behavior and content of the domain, and a test item…

  19. Flow fields, bed shear stresses, and suspended bed sediment dynamics in bifurcations of a large river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szupiany, R. N.; Amsler, M. L.; Hernandez, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Fornari, E.; Trento, A.

    2012-11-01

    Channel bifurcations associated with bars and islands are important nodes in braided rivers and may control flow partitioning and thus affect downstream confluences, as well as the formation and dynamics of bars. However, the morphodynamic processes associated with bar formation are poorly understood, and previous studies have largely concerned laboratory experiments, small natural streams, or numerical analyses with large Froude numbers, high slopes, and low Shields stresses. In these cases, the morphologic changes at bifurcations are relatively rapid, with predominant bed load transport and the suspended load playing a minor role. In this paper, the evolution of the flow structure and suspended bed sediment transport along four expansion-diffluence units in the Rio Paraná, Argentina, are described. The Rio Paraná is a large multichannel river with a bed composed of medium and fine sands and possesses low Froude numbers and high suspended bed material transport. Primary and secondary flow velocity components were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) along the expansion-diffluence units, and the backscatter signal of the ADCP was calibrated to allow simultaneous measurements of suspended bed sediment concentrations. The interactions between these variables show that the cores of primary flow velocity and suspended bed sediment concentration do not necessarily follow the thalweg at the bifurcation and that inertial effects on the suspended bed sediment may influence the morphodynamics of bar formation. It is suggested that changes in flow stage, as well as the presence of vegetation, may further increase the deposition of suspended bed sediment at the bar head. This study suggests that the ratio of suspended bed material to bed load is an important factor controlling the morphodynamics of bifurcations in large sand bed braided rivers.

  20. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  1. The Theoretical Basis of the Concept of Using the Controlled Pyrotechnical Reaction Method as an Energy Source in Transportation from the Sea Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Filipek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we have observed the global growing interest in undersea exploitation of mineral deposits. Research on various concepts of operating systems on the seabed has been conducted, where different methods of transporting excavated material from the bottom to the surface are used. Great depths, where there are the most interesting resources (eg. IOM lot for the Clarion-Clipperton 4500 m set very high technical and technological demands which results in intensive search for solutions. The authors of the paper want to explain the concept of the use of pyrotechnic materials for transportation in the aquatic environment. The presented method is designed for the cyclic transport from great depths (less than 200 m from the seabed. The principle of operation of the relay unit is based on the change in the average density of the entire module which is inseparably connected with the force of buoyancy acting on the submerged body. Changing the density of the whole module to the given depth of immersion is strictly dependent on the amount of energy supplied to the system by a power source in the form of a controlled pyrotechnic reaction. However, during the ascent energy demand decreases. The problem of transport of spoil from depth not only boils down to such considerations as initiation of the process of ascent. One should also consider how to use the excess energy occurring during the movement of the object toward the surface. The authors of the paper present the concept of making the transport of cyclic depths (less than 200 m from the seabed taking into account the optimal use of energy from controlled pyrotechnic reaction.

  2. Numerical model of turbulence, sediment transport, and morphodynamics tested in the Colorado River at Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. V.; Grams, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model using the Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) technique, tested at the scale of the river-reach in the Colorado River. DES is a hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). RANS is applied to the near-bed grid cells, where grid resolution is not sufficient to fully resolve wall turbulence. LES is applied in the flow interior. We utilize the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence closure with a rough wall extension. The model resolves large-scale turbulence using DES and simultaneously integrates the suspended sediment advection-diffusion equation. The Smith and McLean suspended sediment boundary condition is used to calculate the upward and downward settling of sediment fluxes in the grid cells attached to the bed. Model results compare favorably with ADCP measurements of flow taken on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon during the High Flow Experiment (HFE) of 2008. The model accurately reproduces the size and position of the major recirculation currents, and the error in velocity magnitude was found to be less than 17% or 0.22 m/s absolute error. The mean deviation of the direction of velocity with respect to the measured velocity was found to be 20 degrees. Large-scale turbulence structures with vorticity predominantly in the vertical direction are produced at the shear layer between the main channel and the separation zone. However, these structures rapidly become three-dimensional with no preferred orientation of vorticity. Cross-stream velocities, into the main recirculation zone just upstream of the point of reattachment and out of the main recirculation region just downstream of the point of separation, are highest near the bed. Lateral separation eddies are more efficient at storing and exporting sediment than previously modeled. The input of sediment to the eddy recirculation zone occurs in the interface of the eddy and main channel. Pulsation of the

  3. Safely Transporting the assembled EUSO-SPB instrument 1000 miles for field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Austin; Gregg, Rachael; Polonsky, Zach

    2017-01-01

    The EUSO-SPB instrument assembled and tested at Colorado School of Mines and then transported in this state to the Telescope Array site in Delta Utah for field tests. 6 hours after arrival the instrument recorded first light from a laser 20 km distant. We describe the structures and methods that we developed drive this instrument to the test site. The vibration data collected during the 1000 mile round trip and the lessons learned will also be presented. In our experience, there is relatively little quantitative information available about this type of critical operation.

  4. Testing strategy for classifying self-heating substances for transport of dangerous goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Sima; Bodman, Glenn T

    2004-11-11

    A testing strategy for the classification of self-heating substances for transport of dangerous goods is proposed. The strategy was developed based on the tests described and correlations used in the UN Recommendations. It was demonstrated that the value of activation energy of the exothermic reaction has a significant impact on the extrapolation of test results with regard to different container sizes and temperatures. Based on a combination of the Grewer Oven test screening, the 25 mm cube test at 140 degrees C, and the determination of the activation energy of a specific material, a flowchart is presented for classifying chemicals as self-heating. The presented approach allows predicting chemical stability in large containers more accurately and eliminates the need to perform hazardous large-scale tests of energetic chemicals in a laboratory.

  5. The Influence of Bed Roughness on Turbulence: Cabras Lagoon, Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Chirol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of bed roughness used for predictions of sediment transport are usually derived either from simple scalars of the physical roughness (i.e., ripple height or grain size or from the hydrodynamic roughness length (Zo based upon velocity gradient estimates in the benthic boundary layer. Neither parameter accounts for irregular bed features. This study re-evaluates the relation between hydrodynamic roughness and physical bed roughness using high-resolution seabed scanning in the inlet of a shallow lagoon. The statistically-robust relationship, based on a 1D statistical analysis of the seabed elevation at different locations of the Cabras lagoon. Sardinia, has been obtained between Zo and the topographical bed roughness Ks by defining Ks = 2*STD + skin friction, with STD the standard deviation of the seabed elevation variations. This correlation between Ks and Zo demonstrates that the roughness length is directly influenced by irregular bed features, and that the Reynolds number accounts for the total drag of the bed: the data points collapse on the Law of the Wall curves with a fitting factor x = 0.5. Further testing must be done in other locations and in the fully-rough domain in order to test how widely those new parameters can be applied.

  6. A novel sputum transport solution eliminates cold chain and supports routine tuberculosis testing in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan Maharjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study evaluated the transport reagent OMNIgene SPUTUM (OMS in a real-world, resource-limited setting: a zonal hospital and national tuberculosis (TB reference laboratory, Nepal. The objectives were to: (1 assess the performance of OMS for transporting sputum from peripheral sites without cold chain stabilization; and (2 compare with Nepal’s standard of care (SOC for Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear and culture diagnostics. Sixty sputa were manually split into a SOC sample (airline-couriered to the laboratory, conventional processing and an OMS sample (OMS added at collection, no cold chain transport or processing. Smear microscopy and solid culture were performed. Transport was 0–8 days. Forty-one samples (68% were smear-positive using both methods. Of the OMS cultures, 37 (62% were positive, 22 (36% were negative, and one (2% was contaminated. Corresponding SOC results were 32 (53%, 21 (35%, and seven (12%. OMS “rescued” six (i.e., missed using SOC compared with one rescue using SOC. Of smear-positives, six SOC samples produced contaminated cultures whereas only one OMS sample was contaminated. OMS reduced culture contamination from 12% to 2%, and improved TB detection by 9%. The results suggest that OMS could perform well as a no cold chain, long-term transport solution for smear and culture testing. The findings provide a basis for larger feasibility studies.

  7. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  8. Testing the effects of in-stream sediment sources and sinks on simulated watershed sediment yield using the coupled U.S. Army Corps of Engineers GSSHA Model and SEDLIB Sediment Transport Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, I. E.; Downer, C. W.; Brown, G.; Pradhan, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model is the US Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE)'s only fully coupled overland/in-stream sediment transport model. While the overland sediment transport formulation in GSSHA is considered state of the art, the existing in-stream sediment transport formulation is less robust. A major omission in the formulation of the existing GSSHA in-stream model is the lack of in-stream sources of fine materials. In this effort, we enhanced the in-stream sediment transport capacity of GSSHA by linking GSSHA to the SEDLIB sediment transport library. SEDLIB was developed at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) under the System Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) and Flood and Coastal (F&C) research program. It is designed to provide a library of sediment flux formulations for hydraulic and hydrologic models, such as GSSHA. This new version of GSSHA, with the updated in-stream sediment transport simulation capability afforded by the linkage to SEDLIB, was tested in against observations in an experimental watershed that had previously been used as a test bed for GSSHA. The results show a significant improvement in the ability to model in-stream sources of fine sediment. This improved capability will broaden the applicability of GSSHA to larger watersheds and watersheds with complex sediment dynamics, such as those subjected to fire hydrology.

  9. Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-10-01

    The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the

  10. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests

  12. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-01-01

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests

  13. Advisory group on transport package test standards. Vienna, 19-23 December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, P.; Taylor, W.R.

    1978-03-01

    The IAEA convened the Advisory Group to (1) consider any available data on transport accidents and any risk assessments performed in Member States, with a view to making a critical study of the continuing adequacy of the package test requirements included in the current version of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (Safety Series No.6, 1973 Revised Edition), and (2) make recommendations concerning the future planning and conduct of this study. The reports and recommendations are presented of the four working groups assigned, i.e., Statistical Data on Accidents and ''Near Accidents'', Incidents of Accidents and Risk Assessments, Review Package Testing Requirements, and Review Basis for the Radiation Levels for Packages

  14. Mechanics and transport phenomena in agarose-based hydrogels studied by compression-relaxation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavo, Diego; Cascone, Sara; Poto, Serena; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogels are widespread materials, used in several frontier fields, due to their peculiar behavior: they couple solvent mass transport to system mechanics, exhibiting viscoelastic and poroelastic characteristics. The full understanding of this behavior is crucial to correctly design such complex systems. In this study agarose gels has been investigated through experimental stress-relaxation tests and with the aid of a 3D poroviscoelastic model. At the investigated experimental conditions, the agarose gels samples show a prevalent viscoelastic behavior, revealing limited water transport and an increase of the stiffness as well as of the relaxation time along with the polymer concentration. The model parameters, derived from the fitting of some experimental data, have been generalized and used to purely predict the behavior of another set of gels. The stress-relaxation tests coupled with mathematical modeling demonstrated to be a powerful tool to study hydrogels' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal test and analysis for transporting vitrified high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Gomi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Kato, O.; Tamaki, H.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the safety demonstration tests for transport casks of high level radioactive vitrified wastes, the thermal tests of the cask (left unattended at an ambient temperature of 38degC for a period of one week) were executed before and after the side free drop test (from height of 30 cm). This condition was set according to the prospect of the damage of contents (baskets, etc.) by the impact force at the drop test. It was shown that the cask temperatures at the representative parts, such as the vitrified wastes, the containment system, and the protection wire net, were lower than allowable values. From the result of measured temperatures it was considered that no damages and no large deformations could happen to the contents in this drop test. Thermal analysis was also done to establish the analysis model. (J.P.N.)

  16. Safety Evaluation of Radioactive Material Transport Package under Stacking Test Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chan; Seo, Ki Seog; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste transport package was developed to transport eight drums of low and intermediate level waste(LILW) in accordance with the IAEA and domestic related regulations. The package is classified with industrial package IP-2. IP-2 package is required to undergo a free drop test and a stacking test. After free drop and stacking tests, it should prevent the loss or dispersal of radioactive contents, and loss of shielding integrity which would result in more than 20 % increase in the radiation level at any external surface of the package. The objective of this study is to establish the safety test method and procedure for stacking test and to prove the structural integrities of the IP-2 package. Stacking test and analysis were performed with a compressive load equal to five times the weight of the package for a period of 24 hours using a full scale model. Strains and displacements were measured at the corner fitting of the package during the stacking test. The measured strains and displacements were compared with the analysis results, and there were good agreements. It is very difficult to measure the deflection at the container base, so the maximum deflection of the container base was calculated by the analysis method. The maximum displacement at the corner fitting and deflection at the container base were less than their allowable values. Dimensions of the test model, thickness of shielding material and bolt torque were measured before and after the stacking test. Throughout the stacking test, it was found that there were no loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and no loss of shielding integrity. Thus, the package was shown to comply with the requirements to maintain structural integrity under the stacking condition.

  17. Gas transport during in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing of inert gas therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Katz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New gas therapies using inert gases such as xenon and argon are being studied, which require in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments. Examples of the kinetics of gas transport during such experiments are analyzed in this paper. Using analytical and numerical models, we analyze an in vitro experiment for gas transport to a 96 cell well plate and an in vivo delivery to a small animal chamber, where the key processes considered are the wash-in of test gas into an apparatus dead volume, the diffusion of test gas through the liquid media in a well of a cell test plate, and the pharmacokinetics in a rat. In the case of small animals in a chamber, the key variable controlling the kinetics is the chamber wash-in time constant that is a function of the chamber volume and the gas flow rate. For cells covered by a liquid media the diffusion of gas through the liquid media is the dominant mechanism, such that liquid depth and the gas diffusion constant are the key parameters. The key message from these analyses is that the transport of gas during preclinical experiments can be important in determining the true dose as experienced at the site of action in an animal or to a cell.

  18. Multiphase, multicomponent flow and transport models for Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty monitoring and nuclear waste disposal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy

    Open challenges remain in using numerical models of subsurface flow and transport systems to make useful predictions related to nuclear waste storage and nonproliferation. The work presented here addresses the sensitivity of model results to unknown parameters, states, and processes, particularly uncertainties related to incorporating previously unrepresented processes (e.g., explosion-induced fracturing, hydrous mineral dehydration) into a subsurface flow and transport numerical simulator. The Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) transfer code is used for all numerical models in this research. An experimental campaign intended to validate the predictive capability of numerical models that include the strongly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes in bedded salt is also presented. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce radionuclide gases that may seep to the surface over weeks to months. The estimated timing of gas arrival at the surface may be used to deploy personnel and equipment to the site of a suspected UNE, if allowed under the terms of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. A model was developed using FEHM that considers barometrically pumped gas transport through a simplified fractured medium and was used to quantify the impact of uncertainties in hydrologic parameters (fracture aperture, matrix permeability, porosity, and saturation) and season of detonation on the timing of gas breakthrough. Numerical sensitivity analyses were performed for the case of a 1 kt UNE at a 400 m burial depth. Gas arrival time was found to be most affected by matrix permeability and fracture aperture. Gases having higher diffusivity were more sensitive to uncertainty in the rock properties. The effect of seasonality in the barometric pressure forcing was found to be important, with detonations in March the least likely to be detectable based on barometric data for Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Monte Carlo modeling was also used to predict the window of

  19. Mock-up tests of rail-mounted vehicle type in-vessel transporter/manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, K.; Kakaudate, S.; Fukatsu, S.

    1995-01-01

    A rail-mounted vehicle system has been developed for remote maintenance of in-vessel components for fusion experimental reactor. In this system, a rail deploying/storing system is installed at outside of the reactor core and used to deploy a rail transporter and vehicle/manipulator for the in-vessel maintenance. A prototype of the rail deploying/storing system has been fabricated for mockup tests. This paper describes structural design of the prototypical rail deploying/storing system and results of the performance tests such as payload capacity, position control and rail deployment/storage performance

  20. Numerical study of thermal test of a cask of transportation for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Tiago A.S.; Santos, André A.C. dos; Vidal, Guilherme A.M.; Silva Junior, Geraldo E.

    2017-01-01

    In this study numerical simulations of a transport cask for radioactive material were made and the numerical results were compared with experimental results of tests carried out in two different opportunities. A mesh study was also made regarding the previously designed geometry of the same cask, in order to evaluate its impact in relation to the stability of numerical results for this type of problem. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results allowed to evaluate the need to plan and carry out a new test in order to validate the CFD codes used in the numerical simulations

  1. The nature of the bed load transport in the mouth of the river to the non-tidal sea (the Vistula River, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisimenka, Aliaksandr; Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Rudowski, Stanisław

    2015-04-01

    layer thickness exceeds 3 m. In addition to, granulometry analysis indicates dominating of medium-grained sands, in average well sorted, with the small add mixture of coarsed-grained sand (mainly on the crest of dunes) and sandy muds (mainly in the hollows). Field and computer analyzes indicated on the hydrodynamic conditions of water discharge in the mouth of the Vistula River in the longitudinal and transverse profiles, variations of bed load facies and variations of morphodynamic zones in the river channel. Despite the large internal dynamics of the river channel, analyzes show the relative spatial stability of that channel, independent of seasonal variations. This demonstrates the inertial character (stable) of depositional environment in estuary section of the Vistula River.

  2. Development of the Packed Bed Reactor ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Martin O.; Bruzas, Anthony E.; Rame, Enrique; Motil, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Packed bed reactors are compact, require minimum power and maintenance to operate, and are highly reliable. These features make this technology a leading candidate as a potential unit operation in support of long duration human space exploration. On earth, this type of reactor accounts for approximately 80% of all the reactors used in the chemical process industry today. Development of this technology for space exploration is truly crosscutting with many other potential applications (e.g., in-situ chemical processing of planetary materials and transport of nutrients through soil). NASA is developing an ISS experiment to address this technology with particular focus on water reclamation and air revitalization. Earlier research and development efforts funded by NASA have resulted in two hydrodynamic models which require validation with appropriate instrumentation in an extended microgravity environment. The first model developed by Motil et al., (2003) is based on a modified Ergun equation. This model was demonstrated at moderate gas and liquid flow rates, but extension to the lower flow rates expected in many advanced life support systems must be validated. The other model, developed by Guo et al., (2004) is based on Darcy s (1856) law for two-phase flow. This model has been validated for a narrow range of flow parameters indirectly (without full instrumentation) and included test points where the flow was not fully developed. The flight experiment presented will be designed with removable test sections to test the hydrodynamic models. The experiment will provide flexibility to test additional beds with different types of packing in the future. One initial test bed is based on the VRA (Volatile Removal Assembly), a packed bed reactor currently on ISS whose behavior in micro-gravity is not fully understood. Improving the performance of this system through an accurate model will increase our ability to purify water in the space environment.

  3. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xucheng.

    1992-01-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included

  4. Characterization of Anomalous Contaminant Transport via Push-Pull Tracer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. K.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Berkowitz, B.

    2015-12-01

    Push-pull (single-well-injection-withdrawal) tracer tests are widely used as an economical means of characterizing field-scale solute transport properties such as sorption and dispersion. Typically, these are analyzed by means of analytic solutions that assume transport obeys the radial advection-dispersion equation. We revisit this approach as: (1) Recognition of the ubiquity of anomalous transport and its impact on contaminant remediation necessitates the use of new methods to characterize it, and (2) Improved computational power and numerical methods have rendered reliance on analytical solutions obsolete. Here, we present a technique for characterizing diffusion-driven anomalous transport (i.e., anomalous transport driven by a "trapping" process whose trapping and release statistics are independent of the groundwater flow velocity). Examples include diffusion into low permeability zones, kinetic sorption, and matrix diffusion. Using field observations, we simultaneously calibrate an exponential probability distribution for time spent on a single sojourn in the mobile domain and a truncated power law probability distribution for time spent on a single sojourn in the immobile domain via a stochastic global optimization technique. The calibrated distributions, being independent of the flow regime, are applicable to the same domain under any flow conditions, including linear flow. In the context of the continuous time random walk (CTRW), one may simply define a transition to represent a single trap-and-release cycle, and directly compute the spatiotemporal transition distribution that defines the CTRW from the two calibrated distributions and the local seepage velocity (so that existing CTRW transport theory applies). A test of our methodology against a push-pull test from the MADE site demonstrated fitting performance comparable to that of a 3-D MODFLOW/MT3DMS model with a variety of hydraulic conductivity zones and explicit treatment of mobile-immobile mass

  5. Development and Testing of a Variable Conductance Thermal Acquisition, Transport, and Switching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David C.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Stouffer, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a scalable thermal management architecture for instruments, subsystems, or systems that must operate in severe space environments with wide variations in sink temperature. The architecture involves a serial linkage of one or more hot-side variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) to one or more cold-side loop heat pipes (LHPs). The VCHPs provide wide area heat acquisition, limited distance thermal transport, modest against gravity pumping, concentrated LHP startup heating, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. The LHPs provide localized heat acquisition, long distance thermal transport, significant against gravity pumping, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. The single-VCHP, single-LHP system described herein was developed to maintain thermal control of a small robotic lunar lander throughout the lunar day-night thermal cycle. It is also applicable to other variable heat rejection space missions in severe environments. Operationally, despite a 60-70% gas blocked VCHP condenser during ON testing, the system was still able to provide 2-4 W/K ON conductance, 0.01 W/K OFF conductance, and an end-to-end switching ratio of 200-400. The paper provides a detailed analysis of VCHP condenser performance, which quantified the gas blockage situation. Future multi-VCHP/multi-LHP thermal management system concepts that provide power/transport length scalability are also discussed.

  6. Simulation of the Twin Lake tracer tests using different transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleris, V.; Klukas, M.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The 1983 Twin Lake tracer test was simulated using two different sets of the aquifer parameters and three different numerical models. The purpose of the simulations was to identify the parameter set and the model most appropriate to describe the transport phenomena in the Twin Lake aquifer. It is shown that a reliable estimation of the aquifer parameters cannot be obtained from the flow model alone. Transport models must also be used to obtain a reliable estimate of parameters. The method-of-characteristics and random-walk models were used for this purpose. The sensitivity of the results to different execution parameters was evaluated and the required computational efforts were compared. Finally, results obtained by the method of characteristics were compared with the results of a finite element simulation carried out with the same spatial discretization. The comparison demonstrates the influence of the numerical dispersion on the results of the finite element method. Travel time calculations represent a simple way to test the accuracy of the aquifer parameters before transport modeling is done. (Author) (14 refs, 19 figs., 3 tabs.)

  7. Stabilizing Effects of Bacterial Biofilms: EPS Penetration and Redistribution of Bed Stability Down the Sediment Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. D.; Zhang, C. K.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Z.; Zhou, J. J.; Tao, J. F.; Paterson, D. M.; Feng, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Biofilms, consisting of microorganisms and their secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), serve as "ecosystem engineers" stabilizing sedimentary environments. Natural sediment bed provides an excellent substratum for biofilm growth. The porous structure and rich nutrients allow the EPS matrix to spread deeper into the bed. A series of laboratory-controlled experiments were conducted to investigate sediment colonization of Bacillus subtilis and the penetration of EPS into the sediment bed with incubation time. In addition to EPS accumulation on the bed surface, EPS also penetrated downward. However, EPS distribution developed strong vertical heterogeneity with a much higher content in the surface layer than in the bottom layer. Scanning electron microscope images of vertical layers also displayed different micromorphological properties of sediment-EPS matrix. In addition, colloidal and bound EPSs exhibited distinctive distribution patterns. After the full incubation, the biosedimentary beds were eroded to test the variation of bed stability induced by biological effects. This research provides an important reference for the prediction of sediment transport and hence deepens the understanding of the biologically mediated sediment system and broadens the scope of the burgeoning research field of "biomorphodynamics."

  8. Design description of the Large Coil Test Facility pulse-coil support and transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    In order to simulate the transient fields which would be imposed on superconducting toroidal field coils in an operating tokamak reactor, the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) test stand includes a set of pulse coils. This set of pulse coils is designed to be moved from one test location to another within the LCTF vacuum vessel while the vessel is operating under vacuum and the test stand and test coils are at an operating temperature of 4.2K. This operating environment and the extremely high magnetic loads have necessitated some unique design features for the pulse coil support and transport system. The support structure for the pulse coil must react high overturning moments and axial loads induced on the pulse coil by the interaction of the pulse field with the field generated by the large test coils. These loads are reacted into the test stand support structure or spider frame by an arrangement of six pedestals and a support beam. In order to move the pulse coil set from one test location to another, the support beam containing the pulse coils must be driven across rollers mounted on the pedestals, then clamped securely to react the loads. Because these operations must be performed in a vacuum environment at cryogenic tmperature, special consideration was given to component design

  9. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gasbuggy underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gasbuggy site in northwestern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 29-kiloton nuclear device in 1967. The test took place in the Lewis Shale, approximately 182 m below the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, which is the aquifer closest to the detonation horizon. The conservative assumption was made that tritium was injected from the blast-created cavity into the Ojo Alamo Sandstone by the force of the explosion, via fractures created by the shot. Model results suggest that if radionuclides produced by the shot entered the Ojo Alamo, they are most likely contained within the area currently administered by DOE. The transport calculations are most sensitive to changes in the mean groundwater velocity, followed by the variance in hydraulic conductivity, the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity, the transverse hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient, and uncertainty in the source size. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affects calculations of radionuclide transport at the Gasbuggy site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation at the site; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values

  10. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  11. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  12. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  13. Rail-Cask Tests: Normal-Conditionsof- Transport Tests of Surrogate PWR Fuel Assemblies in an ENSA ENUN 32P Cask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ross, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grey, Carissa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arviso, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garmendia, Rafael [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez Perez, Ismael [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Palacio, Alejandro [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Calleja, Guillermo [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Garrido, David [COORDINADORA, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez Casas, Ana [COORDINADORA, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez Garcia, Luis [COORDINADORA, Madrid (Spain); Chilton, Lyman Wes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ammerman, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walz, Jacob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gershon, Sabina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Brady [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pena, Ruben [Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, CO (United States); Walker, Russell [Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, CO (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report describes tests conducted using a full-size rail cask, the ENSA ENUN 32P, involving handling of the cask and transport of the cask via truck, ships, and rail. The purpose of the tests was to measure strains and accelerations on surrogate pressurized water reactor fuel rods when the fuel assemblies were subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport within the rail cask. In addition, accelerations were measured on the transport platform, the cask cradle, the cask, and the basket within the cask holding the assemblies. These tests were an international collaboration that included Equipos Nucleares S.A., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Coordinadora Internacional de Cargas S.A., the Transportation Technology Center, Inc., the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. All test results in this report are PRELIMINARY – complete analyses of test data will be completed and reported in FY18. However, preliminarily: The strains were exceedingly low on the surrogate fuel rods during the rail-cask tests for all the transport and handling modes. The test results provide a compelling technical basis for the safe transport of spent fuel.

  14. Scour and fill in cobble-bedded streams

    OpenAIRE

    Carling, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Scour and deposition have been measured in two small cobble-bedded upland streams, for two years. Grids of scour chains were inserted in the bed and relocated after the passage of individual hydrographs. Scour, fill and the area of the bed affected by these processes were recorded. The relationship between mean scour or fill and maximum scour or fill is assessed. In addition, the relationship between the depth of scour and the sediment transport rate as bedload is discussed briefly.

  15. Development of a test system for verification and validation of nuclear transport simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Triplett, Brian S [GENERAL ELECTRIC; Anghaie, Samim [UNIV OF FL

    2008-01-01

    Verification and validation of nuclear data is critical to the accuracy of both stochastic and deterministic particle transport codes. In order to effectively test a set of nuclear data, the data must be applied to a wide variety of transport problems. Performing this task in a timely, efficient manner is tedious. The nuclear data team at Los Alamos National laboratory in collaboration with the University of Florida has developed a methodology to automate the process of nuclear data verification and validation (V and V). This automated V and V process can efficiently test a number of data libraries using well defined benchmark experiments, such as those in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP). The process is implemented through an integrated set of Pyton scripts. Material and geometry data are read from an existing medium or given directly by the user to generate a benchmark experiment template file. The user specifies the choice of benchmark templates, codes, and libraries to form a V and V project. The Python scripts generate input decks for multiple transport codes from the templates, run and monitor individual jobs, and parse the relevant output automatically. The output can then be used to generate reports directly or can be stored into a database for later analysis. This methodology eases the burden on the user by reducing the amount of time and effort required for obtaining and compiling calculation results. The resource savings by using this automated methodology could potentially be an enabling technology for more sophisticated data studies, such as nuclear data uncertainty quantification. Once deployed, this tool will allow the nuclear data community to more thoroughly test data libraries leading to higher fidelity data in the future.

  16. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  17. Testing ZigBee Motes for Monitoring Refrigerated Vegetable Transportation under Real Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ruiz-Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous ‘cold chain’ from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments.

  18. A Validation Process for the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Faultless Nuclear Test at Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2003-01-01

    Many sites of groundwater contamination rely heavily on complex numerical models of flow and transport to develop closure plans. This has created a need for tools and approaches that can be used to build confidence in model predictions and make it apparent to regulators, policy makers, and the public that these models are sufficient for decision making. This confidence building is a long-term iterative process and it is this process that should be termed ''model validation.'' Model validation is a process not an end result. That is, the process of model validation cannot always assure acceptable prediction or quality of the model. Rather, it provides safeguard against faulty models or inadequately developed and tested models. Therefore, development of a systematic approach for evaluating and validating subsurface predictive models and guiding field activities for data collection and long-term monitoring is strongly needed. This report presents a review of model validation studies that pertain to groundwater flow and transport modeling. Definitions, literature debates, previously proposed validation strategies, and conferences and symposia that focused on subsurface model validation are reviewed and discussed. The review is general in nature, but the focus of the discussion is on site-specific, predictive groundwater models that are used for making decisions regarding remediation activities and site closure. An attempt is made to compile most of the published studies on groundwater model validation and assemble what has been proposed or used for validating subsurface models. The aim is to provide a reasonable starting point to aid the development of the validation plan for the groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The review of previous studies on model validation shows that there does not exist a set of specific procedures and tests that can be easily adapted and

  19. 40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

  20. Sand Bed Morphodynamics under Standing Waves and Vegetated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Littoral processes such as sediment transport, wave attenuation, and boundary layer development are governed by the presence of bathymetric features, which include large-scale sand bars upon which smaller-scale sand ripples are superimposed, as well as the presence of submarine vegetation. Numerous studies on sand ripples and bars have aided to elucidate the dynamics in oscillatory flows; however, the effect of vegetation on the system is less understood. Recent laboratory studies have focused on quantifying wave attenuation by emergent vegetation as a natural method to mitigate storm surges. The emergent vegetation, while promising for coastal protection, alters sediment transport rates directly by the physical presence of the plants near the bed and indirectly from reduction in near-bed shear stresses due to attenuated wave energy. The experimental work herein focuses on the area near the deeply submerged vegetated canopy limit (current work has a ratio of mean still water depth to plant height, H/h, = 7.9) to minimize the effect on the surface waves and discern the direct impact vegetation has on sand bed morphodynamics. Experiments were conducted in the large wave tank (49-m long by 1.83-m wide by 1.22-m deep) in the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois in which a high reflection wave forcing was used over a uniform sand bed with a 0.25-mm median sediment diameter in which staggered and uniform arrangements of idealized vegetation (i.e., 6.35-mm diameter rigid wooden cylinders) were positioned along the bed (e.g., at predetermined sand bar troughs and over an entire sand bar). The resulting bathymetric evolution from the vegetated case experiments were compared to the base case of no vegetation using two optical methods: a high-resolution laser displacement sensor for three-dimensional surveys and digitized profiles via high-definition panoramic images of the entire test section. The experimental findings illustrate the profound

  1. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  2. Sampling design for groundwater solute transport: Tests of methods and analysis of Cape Cod tracer test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopman, Debra S.; Voss, Clifford I.; Garabedian, Stephen P.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a one-dimensional sampling design methodology on measurements of bromide concentration collected during the natural gradient tracer test conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, demonstrate its efficacy for field studies of solute transport in groundwater and the utility of one-dimensional analysis. The methodology was applied to design of sparse two-dimensional networks of fully screened wells typical of those often used in engineering practice. In one-dimensional analysis, designs consist of the downstream distances to rows of wells oriented perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction and the timing of sampling to be carried out on each row. The power of a sampling design is measured by its effectiveness in simultaneously meeting objectives of model discrimination, parameter estimation, and cost minimization. One-dimensional models of solute transport, differing in processes affecting the solute and assumptions about the structure of the flow field, were considered for description of tracer cloud migration. When fitting each model using nonlinear regression, additive and multiplicative error forms were allowed for the residuals which consist of both random and model errors. The one-dimensional single-layer model of a nonreactive solute with multiplicative error was judged to be the best of those tested. Results show the efficacy of the methodology in designing sparse but powerful sampling networks. Designs that sample five rows of wells at five or fewer times in any given row performed as well for model discrimination as the full set of samples taken up to eight times in a given row from as many as 89 rows. Also, designs for parameter estimation judged to be good by the methodology were as effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates as arbitrary designs with many more samples. Results further showed that estimates of velocity and longitudinal dispersivity in one-dimensional models based on data from only five

  3. Bed-load transportmeter for find sand "Sphinx"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinckers, J.B.; Bijker, E.W.; Schijf, J.B.

    1953-01-01

    A new bed-load transportmeter has been designed particularly for very fine bed material (below 400 micron). The basic conception is the same as for the so-called Delft-bottle used for measuring transport by turbulent suspension. The instrument is of the flow-through type. The flow enters through a

  4. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  5. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2016 Meteorological, Radiological, and Wind Transported Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if wind blowing across the Clean Slate sites is transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  6. Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, T.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended

  7. M871A3 Tactical Trailer 22.5-Ton Payload Capacity TP-94-01, Transportability Testing Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, (SOSAC-DEV), was tasked by the Program Manager, Medium Tactical Vehicles to conduct transportability testing on the M871A3 Tactical Trailer...

  8. Validation Analysis of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman; H. Bekhit; B. Lyles; K. Pohlmann

    2006-09-30

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site undergoing environmental restoration. The CNTA is located about 95 km northeast of Tonopah, Nevada, and 175 km southwest of Ely, Nevada (Figure 1.1). It was the site of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (DOE's predecessor agency) in January 1968. The purposes of this test were to gauge the seismic effects of a relatively large, high-yield detonation completed in Hot Creek Valley (outside the Nevada Test Site [NTS]) and to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless underground nuclear test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 2000). A three-dimensional flow and transport model was created for the CNTA site (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and determined acceptable by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for predicting contaminant boundaries for the site.

  9. Transport and Storage Cask Safety Assessment - Drop Tests and Numerical Calculations -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzke, H.; Wille, F.; Wieser, G.; Quercetti, Th.

    2006-01-01

    BAM (the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing) has been performing cask design testing for more than 30 years with a large number of prototype casks of original dimensions and of 1:2 or 1:3 scales. In 2004 a brand new drop test facility was built at the new BAM test facility at Horstwalde about 80 km to the south of Berlin. In September 2004 first demonstration tests with 2 different cask designs were performed in connection with the PATRAM 2004 conference held in Berlin. The dropped prototype casks had gross masses of 141 and 181 metric tons. Since that time BAM has been performing a lot of more drop tests with new cask designs developed by different international cask manufacturers for getting German Type B(U) transport licenses. Current safety assessments especially for mechanical accident scenarios require a combination of experimental and analytical/numerical proofs commonly, because both methods offer specific options and advantages with respect to more and more detailed structural analyses. That again is a consequence of the permanent cask design optimisation for commercial reasons leading to higher stress levels in general. For that reason BAM also improves its numerical analyses capacities including the operation of different software codes. A general BAM guideline describing basic requirements for numerical safety assessment reports gives a good orientation for both applicants and inspectors. But different details of any cask design and safety assessment have to be taken into account and lead to specific questions, investigations and experiences. This paper gives an overview about the new BAM drop test facility and the ongoing drop testing there and it presents current experiences and results of numerical cask analyses and the specific methods developed and used by BAM. In this context special attention is turned to the correlation between experimental and numerical results and an outlook to future developments is given. (authors)

  10. Construction and testing of a transportable solar adsorption refrigerator; Construction et test d'un refrigerateur solaire a adsorption transportable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.; Dind, P.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the development of an autonomous solar adsorption refrigerator characterized by its compactness and transportability. The refrigerator utilizes water as the working fluid and silicagel as the adsorbent and operates discontinuously over the day/night cycle. For a cooling volume of about 100 liters a collector-adsorber surface of 1 m{sup 2} is required and the total mass of the system amounts to about 150 kg. In order to keep its mass as low as possible the apparatus has been built with light weight materials. The cold-storage room has been insulated with a high-performance insulation material, thus minimizing thermal losses without excessively reducing the cooled volume. A new automatic valve system has been developed making superfluous any manual manipulation during normal operation. The dimensioning of the cooling system allows to cool the equivalent of 2.5 to 3.7 kg of water by 30 K daily in a climate of the Sahelien type. The cooling energy is stored in the form of ice in the evaporator and allows to bridge a period of three overcast-sky days. The construction of the solar refrigerator was made in cooperation with small regional enterprises and workshops. The cooperation with a non governmental organization allowed to test the system from May to September 2002 in a Subsaharian region of Africa where an equivalent model had been built using locally available materials. Likewise, a market study has been made in Burkina Faso in order to analyze the potential of solar adsorption refrigerators in this region. The result of the study suggests that the opening of a production workshop for such refrigerators in Burkina Faso is promising.

  11. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  12. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    An ''in-bed accountability'' (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the ''cold'' test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from ± 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to ± 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds

  13. Evaluation of the First Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 1) Full-Scale Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Bark, Lindley W.; DeWeese, Rick L.; McEntire, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the NASA Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Program initiated the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program by obtaining two CH-46E helicopters from the Navy CH-46E Program Office (PMA-226) at the Navy Flight Readiness Center in Cherry Point, North Carolina. Full-scale crash tests were planned to assess dynamic responses of transport-category rotorcraft under combined horizontal and vertical impact loading. The first crash test (TRACT 1) was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR), which enables the study of critical interactions between the airframe, seat, and occupant during a controlled crash environment. The CH-46E fuselage is categorized as a medium-lift rotorcraft with fuselage dimensions comparable to a regional jet or business jet. The first TRACT test (TRACT 1) was conducted in August 2013. The primary objectives for TRACT 1 were to: (1) assess improvements to occupant loads and displacement with the use of crashworthy features such as pre-tensioning active restraints and energy absorbing seats, (2) develop novel techniques for photogrammetric data acquisition to measure occupant and airframe kinematics, and (3) provide baseline data for future comparison with a retrofitted airframe configuration. Crash test conditions for TRACT 1 were 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocity onto soft soil, which represent a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. The extraordinary value of the TRACT 1 test was reflected by the breadth of meaningful experiments. A total of 8 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate ATD responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and photogrammetric techniques. A combination of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. Loads from ATDs in energy

  14. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1982-11-01

    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions

  15. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  16. Laboratory study of gravel-bed cluster formation and disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heays, K. G.; Friedrich, H.; Melville, B. W.

    2014-03-01

    Increased knowledge of clusters is essential for the understanding of sediment transport behavior and the monitoring and protection of aquatic life. A physical study using graded river gravels is conducted in a laboratory environment. Using photogrammetry and painted gravels, a cluster identification tool (CIT) is developed based on image subtraction between subsequent frames, allowing identification of any stable areas and groups of particles on the bed. This is combined with digital particle tracking (DPT) to present a novel approach for monitoring the formation and disintegration of clusters. Clusters from graded gravels are formed successfully during the experimental stage, allowing investigation into the complex dynamic behavior of cluster formation and disintegration in a simulated natural environment. Various anchor stone arrangements are used in the experiments. However, only about one fifth of the potential anchor stones on the bed surface enable cluster formation. In general, clusters classified as "typical" and "heap" are most common. Inspection of temporal cluster coverage of the test-bed surface shows that the proportion of clusters present on the surface tends to grow with time. Maximum cluster surface coverage of between 5% and 34% is observed. In addition, particles entering and departing from clusters are monitored. Most commonly, particles enter from directly upstream of the cluster, however >20% of particles approach from a direction >20 deg from the streamwise direction. Approximately 35% of all particles directly upstream of a cluster bypass the cluster.

  17. Do ants need to estimate the geometrical properties of trail bifurcations to find an efficient route? A swarm robotics test bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Simon; Combe, Maud; Jost, Christian; Theraulaz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between individuals and the structure of their environment play a crucial role in shaping self-organized collective behaviors. Recent studies have shown that ants crossing asymmetrical bifurcations in a network of galleries tend to follow the branch that deviates the least from their incoming direction. At the collective level, the combination of this tendency and the pheromone-based recruitment results in a greater likelihood of selecting the shortest path between the colony's nest and a food source in a network containing asymmetrical bifurcations. It was not clear however what the origin of this behavioral bias is. Here we propose that it results from a simple interaction between the behavior of the ants and the geometry of the network, and that it does not require the ability to measure the angle of the bifurcation. We tested this hypothesis using groups of ant-like robots whose perceptual and cognitive abilities can be fully specified. We programmed them only to lay down and follow light trails, avoid obstacles and move according to a correlated random walk, but not to use more sophisticated orientation methods. We recorded the behavior of the robots in networks of galleries presenting either only symmetrical bifurcations or a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical bifurcations. Individual robots displayed the same pattern of branch choice as individual ants when crossing a bifurcation, suggesting that ants do not actually measure the geometry of the bifurcations when travelling along a pheromone trail. Finally at the collective level, the group of robots was more likely to select one of the possible shorter paths between two designated areas when moving in an asymmetrical network, as observed in ants. This study reveals the importance of the shape of trail networks for foraging in ants and emphasizes the underestimated role of the geometrical properties of transportation networks in general.

  18. Do ants need to estimate the geometrical properties of trail bifurcations to find an efficient route? A swarm robotics test bed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Garnier

    Full Text Available Interactions between individuals and the structure of their environment play a crucial role in shaping self-organized collective behaviors. Recent studies have shown that ants crossing asymmetrical bifurcations in a network of galleries tend to follow the branch that deviates the least from their incoming direction. At the collective level, the combination of this tendency and the pheromone-based recruitment results in a greater likelihood of selecting the shortest path between the colony's nest and a food source in a network containing asymmetrical bifurcations. It was not clear however what the origin of this behavioral bias is. Here we propose that it results from a simple interaction between the behavior of the ants and the geometry of the network, and that it does not require the ability to measure the angle of the bifurcation. We tested this hypothesis using groups of ant-like robots whose perceptual and cognitive abilities can be fully specified. We programmed them only to lay down and follow light trails, avoid obstacles and move according to a correlated random walk, but not to use more sophisticated orientation methods. We recorded the behavior of the robots in networks of galleries presenting either only symmetrical bifurcations or a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical bifurcations. Individual robots displayed the same pattern of branch choice as individual ants when crossing a bifurcation, suggesting that ants do not actually measure the geometry of the bifurcations when travelling along a pheromone trail. Finally at the collective level, the group of robots was more likely to select one of the possible shorter paths between two designated areas when moving in an asymmetrical network, as observed in ants. This study reveals the importance of the shape of trail networks for foraging in ants and emphasizes the underestimated role of the geometrical properties of transportation networks in general.

  19. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2...

  20. Analysis of flow fields, temperatures and ruthenium transport in the test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Pyykoenen, J.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2008-03-01

    Ruthenium transport experiments were conducted at VTT during years 2002- 2006. Experiments gave information about ruthenium behaviour in air ingress accident conditions. This study complements those experiments with an analysis of the flows and thermal fields in the test system. Temperature profiles were measured at the walls of the experimental facility. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations used the measured profiles and provided predictions of flows and temperatures inside the furnace. Ruthenium transport was also modelled with CFD. Thermal characterisation of the reactor demonstrated that buoyancy has a significant role during the cooling after the furnace. A hypothesis of the dominant role of RuO2 and RuO3 condensation on reactor walls gave simulation results that are in accordance with radiotracer measurements of deposition in experiments conducted with furnace at 1500K. Actually, RuO3 does not condensate, but it thermal decomposes to RuO2. This does not seem to have effect on result. Particle formation around the furnace exit could be detected from the comparison of modelling results with the measured profiles. In several other experiments ruthenium behaviour is dominated by other issues. These are related to the complex ruthenium chemistry that includes various surface reactions. Thermal equilibrium indicates significant gaseous RuO4 concentration around 1300 K. It seems that seed particles decreased the catalytic decomposition activity of RuO4 to RuO2 around this temperature pushing the gas concentration towards the equilibrium, and further give rise to gaseous RuO4 transport to low temperatures. At higher temperature increasing mass flow rate of RuO2 particles is likely to catalyse (decomposition) reaction of RuO4 to RuO2. (au)