WorldWideScience

Sample records for transportation security issues

  1. Emerging issues in transportation information infrastructure security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-31

    On October 26-27, 1995, over two hundred transportation leaders and decision-makers from around the nation convened in Cambridge, Massachusetts to participate in a two day symposium on "Challenges and Opportunities for Global Transportation in the 21...

  2. Sensitive Security Information and Transportation Security: Issues and Congressional Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sollenberger, Mitchel A

    2004-01-01

    .... TSA's application of the SSI regulations has, however, resulted in some controversies over airport security procedures, employee accountability, passenger screening, and airport secrecy agreements...

  3. Transportation Security: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frittelli, John

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus of this issue brief is how best to construct and finance a system of deterrence, protection, and response that effectively reduces the possibility and consequences of another terrorist...

  4. Client-Focused Security Assessment of mHealth Apps and Recommended Practices to Prevent or Mitigate Transport Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Müthing, Jannis; Jäschke, Thomas; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) apps show a growing importance for patients and health care professionals. Apps in this category are diverse. Some display important information (ie, drug interactions), whereas others help patients to keep track of their health. However, insufficient transport security can lead to confidentiality issues for patients and medical professionals, as well as safety issues regarding data integrity. mHealth apps should therefore deploy intensified vigilance to pro...

  5. Implementation of Safety and Security Issues in the Transport of Radioactive Material in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Vietri, J.; Elechosa, C.; Gerez Miranda, C.; Menossi, S.; Rodríguez Roldán, M.S.; Fernández, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to describe implementation of safety and security issues in the transport of radioactive material by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in Spanish Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN), which is the Competent Authority of Argentina in Safety, Security and Safeguards of radioactive and nuclear material. There are depicted main regulatory activities dealing with the mentioned issues, and relevant milestones of national regulatory standards and guidance applied, that are based on requirements and guides from IAEA. Interfaces between Safety and Security sections are most of the times complementary but sometimes conflictive, therefore the resolution of such conflicts and goals achieved during their implementation are also commented; as well as future joint planned activities between both sections of ARN as a way to provide safety and security without compromising one or the other. (author)

  6. Application of the API/NPRA SVA methodology to transportation security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2006-03-17

    Security vulnerability analysis (SVA) is becoming more prevalent as the issue of chemical process security is of greater concern. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Petrochemical and Refiner's Association (NPRA) have developed a guideline for conducting SVAs of petroleum and petrochemical facilities in May 2003. In 2004, the same organizations enhanced the guidelines by adding the ability to evaluate transportation security risks (pipeline, truck, and rail). The importance of including transportation and value chain security in addition to fixed facility security in a SVA is that these issues may be critically important to understanding the total risk of the operation. Most of the SVAs done using the API/NPRA SVA and other SVA methods were centered on the fixed facility and the operations within the plant fence. Transportation interfaces alone are normally studied as a part of the facility SVA, and the entire transportation route impacts and value chain disruption are not commonly considered. Particularly from a national, regional, or local infrastructure analysis standpoint, understanding the interdependencies is critical to the risk assessment. Transportation risks may include weaponization of the asset by direct attack en route, sabotage, or a Trojan Horse style attack into a facility. The risks differ in the level of access control and the degree of public exposures, as well as the dynamic nature of the assets. The public exposures along the transportation route need to be carefully considered. Risks may be mitigated by one of many strategies including internment, staging, prioritization, conscription, or prohibition, as well as by administrative security measures and technology for monitoring and isolating the assets. This paper illustrates how these risks can be analyzed by the API/NPRA SVA methodology. Examples are given of a pipeline operation, and other examples are found in the guidelines.

  7. Transportation Security : federal action needed to enhance security efforts : statement of Peter Guerrero, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-09

    Mr. Guerrero's testimony examines (1) challenges in securing the nation's transportation system; (2) actions transportation operators, as well as state and local governments, have taken since September 11 to enhance security; (3) the federal role in ...

  8. Client-Focused Security Assessment of mHealth Apps and Recommended Practices to Prevent or Mitigate Transport Security Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müthing, Jannis; Jäschke, Thomas; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2017-10-18

    Mobile health (mHealth) apps show a growing importance for patients and health care professionals. Apps in this category are diverse. Some display important information (ie, drug interactions), whereas others help patients to keep track of their health. However, insufficient transport security can lead to confidentiality issues for patients and medical professionals, as well as safety issues regarding data integrity. mHealth apps should therefore deploy intensified vigilance to protect their data and integrity. This paper analyzes the state of security in mHealth apps. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) identification of relevant transport issues in mHealth apps, (2) development of a platform for test purposes, and (3) recommendation of practices to mitigate them. Security characteristics relevant to the transport security of mHealth apps were assessed, presented, and discussed. These characteristics were used in the development of a prototypical platform facilitating streamlined tests of apps. For the tests, six lists of the 10 most downloaded free apps from three countries and two stores were selected. As some apps were part of these top 10 lists in more than one country, 53 unique apps were tested. Out of the 53 apps tested from three European App Stores for Android and iOS, 21/53 (40%) showed critical results. All 21 apps failed to guarantee the integrity of data displayed. A total of 18 apps leaked private data or were observable in a way that compromised confidentiality between apps and their servers; 17 apps used unprotected connections; and two apps failed to validate certificates correctly. None of the apps tested utilized certificate pinning. Many apps employed analytics or ad providers, undermining user privacy. The tests show that many mHealth apps do not apply sufficient transport security measures. The most common security issue was the use of any kind of unprotected connection. Some apps used secure connections only for selected tasks

  9. Client-Focused Security Assessment of mHealth Apps and Recommended Practices to Prevent or Mitigate Transport Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müthing, Jannis; Jäschke, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) apps show a growing importance for patients and health care professionals. Apps in this category are diverse. Some display important information (ie, drug interactions), whereas others help patients to keep track of their health. However, insufficient transport security can lead to confidentiality issues for patients and medical professionals, as well as safety issues regarding data integrity. mHealth apps should therefore deploy intensified vigilance to protect their data and integrity. This paper analyzes the state of security in mHealth apps. Objective The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) identification of relevant transport issues in mHealth apps, (2) development of a platform for test purposes, and (3) recommendation of practices to mitigate them. Methods Security characteristics relevant to the transport security of mHealth apps were assessed, presented, and discussed. These characteristics were used in the development of a prototypical platform facilitating streamlined tests of apps. For the tests, six lists of the 10 most downloaded free apps from three countries and two stores were selected. As some apps were part of these top 10 lists in more than one country, 53 unique apps were tested. Results Out of the 53 apps tested from three European App Stores for Android and iOS, 21/53 (40%) showed critical results. All 21 apps failed to guarantee the integrity of data displayed. A total of 18 apps leaked private data or were observable in a way that compromised confidentiality between apps and their servers; 17 apps used unprotected connections; and two apps failed to validate certificates correctly. None of the apps tested utilized certificate pinning. Many apps employed analytics or ad providers, undermining user privacy. Conclusions The tests show that many mHealth apps do not apply sufficient transport security measures. The most common security issue was the use of any kind of unprotected connection. Some apps

  10. Maritime security : progress made in implementing Maritime Transportation Security Act, but concerns remain : statement of Margaret Wrightson, Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-09

    After the events of September 11, 2001, concerns were raised over the security of U.S. ports and waterways. In response to the concerns over port security, Congress passed the Maritime Transportation Security Act in November 2002. The act created a b...

  11. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  12. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  13. Public Policy Issues in Transport. Taxes and standards for energy security and greenhouse gas objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskeland, Gunnar (Cicero, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-07-01

    The direct case for fuel economy standards on a stand alone basis dies in the textbook on the basis of first principles: the fuel tax is a better targeted instrument. In practice, the fuel economy standard, is killed by the 'rebound effect'. Vehicle users will, once they have more fuel efficient vehicles, respond to lower marginal costs by increased vehicle use. If an important part of negative externalities from transport are associated with vehicle kilometres (accidents, congestion, road wear) rather than fuel consumption, the rebound effect increases negative externalities from transport. The more direct way of addressing negative externalities from transport is to increase fuel taxes, and depending on their prior level, this is our first recommendation. But higher fuel taxes often raise political resistance. The fuel efficiency of existing cars is an important way by which people have adapted to present fuel taxes, determining their resistance to increases. A higher fuel efficiency standard is an instrument that faces little political resistance and which - over time - reduces the political resistance to increased fuel taxes. In efforts to reduce the fuel intensity of an economy, this interplay between an activity's fuel intensity, like gallons per vehicle mile, and the activity level, vehicle miles travelled or transported, nicely illustrates some important empirical questions and public policy issues: i) the first best policy proposition to reduce fuel related externalities is fuel taxes. Indeed, at the right level of fuel taxes, the externalities are zero: they are internalized. ii) the part of an economy's ability to shed fuel consumption lies in increased fuel efficiency in the individual activities, and this part can be stimulated with fuel efficiency standards. The other part, the activity level, should then be addressed with fuel tax increases. iv) We speculate that it may be difficult credibly to raise expected fuel taxes more than

  14. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality is that cloud computing has simplified some technical aspects of building computer systems, but the myriad challenges facing IT environment still remain. Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation. The goal of this article is to identify the main security issues and to draw the attention of both decision makers and users to the potential risks of moving data into “the cloud”.

  15. Mitigating Docker Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Yasrab, Robail

    2018-01-01

    It is very easy to run applications in Docker. Docker offers an ecosystem that offers a platform for application packaging, distributing and managing within containers. However, Docker platform is yet not matured. Presently, Docker is less secured as compare to virtual machines (VM) and most of the other cloud technologies. The key of reason of Docker inadequate security protocols is containers sharing of Linux kernel, which can lead to risk of privileged escalations. This research is going t...

  16. Transportation security : post-September 11th initiatives and long-term challenges : statement of Gerald L. Dillingham, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    This testimony responds to the request of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States for information on GAO's work in transportation security. It addresses (1) transportation security before September 2001; (2) what the feder...

  17. ICS security in maritime transportation : a white paper examining the security and resiliency of critical transportation infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center was asked by the Office of Security of the Maritime Administration to examine the issue of industrial control systems (ICS) security in the Maritime Transportation System (MTS), and to develop ...

  18. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  19. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  20. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  1. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R ampersand D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining

  2. Security issues in mobile NFC devices

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an assessment of the current state of near field communication (NFC) security, it reports on new attack scenarios, and offers concepts and solutions to overcome any unresolved issues. The work describes application-specific security aspects of NFC based on exemplary use-case scenarios and uses these to focus on the interaction with NFC tags and on card emulation. The current security architectures of NFC-enabled cellular phones are evaluated with regard to the identified security aspects.

  3. Cyber security issues in online games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, online gaming has become a way of entertainment for many young people in the modern era. However, in recent years, cyber security issues in online games have emerged in an endless stream, which have also caused great attention of many game operators. Common cyber security problems in the game include information disclosure and cyber-attacks. These problems will directly or indirectly cause economic losses to gamers. Many gaming companies are enhancing the stability and security of their network or gaming systems in order to enhance the gaming user experience. This article has carried out the research of the cyber security issues in online games by introducing the background and some common cyber security threats, and by proposing the latent solution. Finally, it speculates the future research direction of the cyber security issues of online games in the hope of providing feasible solution and useful information for game operators.

  4. Protective force legal issues: the security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much discussion and some controversy on the legal issues faced by the Department of Energy's (DOE) protective forces in the performance of their security duties. These include the observance of legal proprieties in the arrest of non-violent demonstrators, the use of lethal weapons, and the extent of protective forces' authority to carry weapons and protect DOE's security interests offsite. In brief, the need to protect DOE's security interests may be in nominal conflict with other requirements. When faced with a potential conflict in requirements, we in the DOE security community must place first attention to the security mission -- to deter and prevent hostile acts

  5. 77 FR 70796 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... privacy issues, please contact: Jonathan Cantor, (202-343-1717), Acting Chief Privacy Officer, Privacy... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy...

  6. 77 FR 70795 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... 20598-6036; email: [email protected] . For privacy issues please contact: Jonathan Cantor, (202-343... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy...

  7. 77 FR 70792 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ..., VA 20598-6036; email: [email protected] . For privacy issues please contact: Jonathan R. Cantor... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy...

  8. Study of rural transportation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report is in response to Section 6206 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (PL : 110-246), which directs the Secretaries of Agriculture and Transportation jointly to conduct a : study of rural transportation issues. The report revie...

  9. Ethics issues in security hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Henry C

    2002-01-01

    The term 'security hospital' is used for a variety of facilities including forensic hospitals and prison hospitals, which, because of their mission, the nature of their work, and the populations they serve-or because of the authority under which they operate-place the staff at considerable risk of ethical violations related to either clinical care or to forensic activities. The problem of divided loyalties is of special concern in security hospitals. Ethics principles particularly at risk are confidentiality and informed consent. Where there are cultural disparities between the staff and the patients, differences in background, socioeconomic class, education, and other types of diversity, cultural awareness is required and must be reflected in appropriate treatment and evaluation. To counteract the risks of ethical violations, a security hospital should create an ethical climate and develop means to anticipate, prevent, and deal with ethical violations. These might include detailed and specific policies and procedures, programs of orientation, education, consultation, and liaison as well as its own ethics committee. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Security Issues in Networks with Internet Access

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landwehr, Carl E; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... The principles are illustrated by describing the security issues a hypothetical company faces as the networks that support its operations evolve from strictly private, through a mix of Internet...

  11. Web Services Security - Implementation and Evaluation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenidis, Elias; Georgiadis, Christos K.; Bako, Peter; Zorkadis, Vassilis

    Web services development is a key theme in the utilization the commercial exploitation of the semantic web. Paramount to the development and offering of such services is the issue of security features and they way these are applied in instituting trust amongst participants and recipients of the service. Implementing such security features is a major challenge to developers as they need to balance these with performance and interoperability requirements. Being able to evaluate the level of security offered is a desirable feature for any prospective participant. The authors attempt to address the issues of security requirements and evaluation criteria, while they discuss the challenges of security implementation through a simple web service application case.

  12. DATA SECURITY ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Alddin Shihab Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an internet based model that empower on demand ease of access and pay for the usage of each access to shared pool of networks. It is yet another innovation that fulfills a client's necessity for computing resources like systems, stockpiling, servers, administrations and applications. Securing the Data is considered one of the principle significant challenges and concerns for cloud computing. This persistent problem is getting more affective due to the changes in improving cloud computing technology. From the perspective of the Clients, cloud computing is a security hazard especially when it comes to assurance affirmation issues and data security, remain the most basically which backs off for appropriation of Cloud Computing administrations. This paper audits and breaks down the essential issue of cloud computing and depicts the information security and protection of privacy issues in cloud.

  13. Cloud Security: Issues and Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    4. Cloud Computing Security: What Changes with Software - Defined Networking ? Maur´ıcio Tsugawa, Andr´ea Matsunaga, and Jos´e A. B. Fortes 5...machine’s memory from an untrusted or malicious hypervisor. In Chapter 4, Tsugawa et al. discuss the security issues introduced when Software - Defined ... Networking ( SDN ) is deployed within and across clouds. Chapters 5-9 are focused on the protection of data stored in the cloud. In Chapter 5, Wang et

  14. Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I or other vehicles (C2C progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

  15. Urban Transportation: Issue and Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryati Shafii

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, quality of life of urban population is heavily dependent on social facilities provided within the environment. One of the most important facilities is transportations. Study on transportation mode in an urban area is especially very important because for almost every individual living in a large and densely populated area, mobility is one of the most crucial issues in everyday life. Enhance mobility, faster journey to work and less pollution from petrol-propelled vehicles can increase the quality of life, which in turn lead to a sustainable urban living. The study present transportation mode usage issues faced by community related to quality of life in an urban area. This study identifies several issues of transportation mode in urban areas and its impact on the quality of life. The study areas are Putrajaya, Kuala Lumpur and Bandar Kajang, Selangor. The methodology used in this research is secondary and primary data. The questionnaires for the survey were distributed from May 2008 to Jun 2008. These researches were conducted on 144 respondents for to evaluate their perception of transportation mode correlated to the quality of life. The collected data were then analyzed using “Statistical Packages for the Social Science” (SPSS. The respondents comprise of 61 males and 84 females from the age group of 18 to 57 years. This study identifies the percentage of public transportation mode usage in urban area, such as buses (16.7%, train (ERL, monorail and commuter-6.4%; which is very low compared to owning personal car (45.8% and motorcycle (25.4%.The result shows owning personal car is the highest (45.8% in three study areas and monorail and taxi are the lowest (1.4%. The Chi Square Test shows that among the mode transportation with traffic jam is quite difference in Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Kajang. Analysis of the Chi Square Test shows the result is 0.000 (two sides to respondent answering “yes” and analysis of Spearman

  16. 75 FR 28042 - Privacy Act of 1974: System of Records; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ..., VA 20598-6036 or [email protected] . For privacy issues please contact: Mary Ellen Callahan (703-235... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DHS-2010-0013] Privacy Act of..., Transportation Security Enforcement Record System, System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice...

  17. Transportation Security Institute: recruiting next generation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    "The Center for Transportation Training and Research (CTTR), as part of Texas Southern University (TSU), served as host for the 2012 Transportation Security Institute (TSI) in Houston and surrounding area. The 2012 Houston TSI focuses on the mission ...

  18. Review on security issues in RFID systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Beqqal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency Identification (RFID is currently considered as one of the most used technologies for an automatic identification of objects or people. Based on a combination of tags and readers, RFID technology has widely been applied in various areas including supply chain, production and traffic control systems. However, despite of its numerous advantages, the technology brings out many challenges and concerns still not being attracting more and more researchers especially the security and privacy issues. In this paper, we review some of the recent research works using RFID solutions and dealing with security and privacy issues, we define our specific parameters and requirements allowing us to classify for each work which part of the RFID system is being secured, the solutions and the techniques used besides the conformity to RFID standards. Finally, we present briefly a solution that consists of combining RFID with smartcard based biometric to enhance security especially in access control scenarios. Hence the result of our study aims to give a clear vision of available solutions and techniques used to prevent and secure the RFID system from specific threats and attacks.

  19. Main Issues in Big Data Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through the creation of a new paradigm: Big Data. However, Big Data originated new issues related not only to the volume or the variety of the data, but also to data security and privacy. In order to obtain a full perspective of the problem, we decided to carry out an investigation with the objective of highlighting the main issues regarding Big Data security, and also the solutions proposed by the scientific community to solve them. In this paper, we explain the results obtained after applying a systematic mapping study to security in the Big Data ecosystem. It is almost impossible to carry out detailed research into the entire topic of security, and the outcome of this research is, therefore, a big picture of the main problems related to security in a Big Data system, along with the principal solutions to them proposed by the research community.

  20. International Conference on the Safe and Secure Transport of Radioactive Material: The Next Fifty Years of Transport - Creating a Safe, Secure and Sustainable Framework. Papers and Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the conference is to encourage application of appropriate levels of safety and security during transport by: Promoting international discussion on the safety and security of radioactive material transport; Identifying and sharing best practices; Identifying issues and problems; Identifying opportunities, such as providing assistance, to support national adoption of comprehensive transport safety and security frameworks; Developing ideas for coordinating and enhancing transport safety and security. Scope of the Conference: Nuclear and other radioactive material in legal regulated transport (not illicit trafficking, smuggling, etc.); All modes of transport; Safety; Security; Domestic and international movements, including transit; Response to accidents and security events; Legislative and regulatory requirements and approaches; Practical issues such as transport logistics; Regional networks; and Information security and the need for transparency. The conference is not intended to cover the technical topics covered in the PATRAM conference (package design and analysis).

  1. Cloud Computing Security Latest Issues amp Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelveen Pandey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cloud computing describes effective computing services provided by a third-party organization known as cloud service provider for organizations to perform different tasks over the internet for a fee. Cloud service providers computing resources are dynamically reallocated per demand and their infrastructure platform and software and other resources are shared by multiple corporate and private clients. With the steady increase in the number of cloud computing subscribers of these shared resources over the years security on the cloud is a growing concern. In this review paper the current cloud security issues and practices are described and a few innovative solutions are proposed that can help improve cloud computing security in the future.

  2. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  3. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  4. Understanding food security issues in remote Western Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.

  5. On technical security issues in cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schwenk, Jörg; Gruschka, Nils

    2009-01-01

    , however, there are still some challenges to be solved. Amongst these are security and trust issues, since the user's data has to be released to the Cloud and thus leaves the protection sphere of the data owner. Most of the discussions on this topics are mainly driven by arguments related to organisational......The Cloud Computing concept offers dynamically scalable resources provisioned as a service over the Internet. Economic benefits are the main driver for the Cloud, since it promises the reduction of capital expenditure (CapEx) and operational expenditure (OpEx). In order for this to become reality...... means. This paper focusses on technical security issues arising from the usage of Cloud services and especially by the underlying technologies used to build these cross-domain Internet-connected collaborations....

  6. Nation State as Security Provider in Human Security Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Padmi, Made Fitri

    2015-01-01

    Human Security notion is emphasizing on human as the central of security studies, challenging the position of state as the core of security. Some studies are tried to separate the state security and human security, however there are strong connection between these two notions. State has important role in establishing and maintaining the security of its own citizens. Through social contract and social security protection, state are oblige to set the security of its own people as their security...

  7. Water security-National and global issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  8. COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF POSSIBLE SECURITY ISSUES ON 4G NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumant Ku Mohapatra; Biswa Ranjan Swain; Pravanjan Das

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a brief study of recent advances in wireless network security issues. The paper makes a number of contributions to the wireless networking field. First, it studies the 4G mail threats and risk and their design decisions. Second, the security of 4G architecture with next generation network security and 8- security dimensions of 4G network. Third, security issues and possible threats on 4G are discussed. Finally, we proposed four layer security model which manage...

  9. Emerging nuclear security issues for transit countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabulov, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Tragic events of September eleventh have made nuclear terrorism dangers more evident. In the light of increased terrorism preventing the spread of nuclear and nuclear related items as well as radioactive materials that can be used for production so-called 'dirty bomb'is an urgent global claim. Nuclear Security issues cover multiple aspects of the security and first of all the threat from nuclear terrorism, detection and protection of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources, legal shipment of such type materials as well as nuclear related dual use items. In the face of emerging threats the prevention of proliferation by the development of effective national system of nuclear export controls is hugely important for transit countries like Azerbaijan with underdeveloped export controls and strategic locations along trade and smuggling routes between nuclear suppliers States and countries attempting to develop nuclear weapons or any nuclear explosive devices. Thus, in the face of increasing international threat from nuclear terrorism the role and place of Azerbaijan Republic in the struggle against terrorism increases. In this context it is very important to establish effective national capabilities for detection and prevention of illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials as well as nuclear related dual use items across Azerbaijan's borders. One of the ways for enhancing and strengthening existing activities in this field is carrying out joint actions between scientists and enforcement officials in order to improve knowledge of the front-line customs and border guard inspectors concerning multiple aspects of Nuclear Security

  10. Transportation security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Objective of this manual is to train security personnel to protect special nuclear materials and nuclear facilities against theft and sabotage as required by 10 CFR Part 73. This volume contains the introduction and rationale

  11. SECURITY AND PRIVACY ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina AIT OUAHMAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, cloud computing is defined and talked about across the ICT industry under different contexts and with different definitions attached to it. It is a new paradigm in the evolution of Information Technology, as it is one of the biggest revolutions in this field to have taken place in recent times. According to the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST, “cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction” [1]. The importance of Cloud Computing is increasing and it is receiving a growing attention in the scientific and industrial communities. A study by Gartner [2] considered Cloud Computing as the first among the top 10 most important technologies and with a better prospect in successive years by companies and organizations. Clouds bring out tremendous benefits for both individuals and enterprises. Clouds support economic savings, outsourcing mechanisms, resource sharing, any-where any-time accessibility, on-demand scalability, and service flexibility. Clouds minimize the need for user involvement by masking technical details such as software upgrades, licenses, and maintenance from its customers. Clouds could also offer better security advantages over individual server deployments. Since a cloud aggregates resources, cloud providers charter expert security personnel while typical companies could be limited with a network administrator who might not be well versed in cyber security issues. The new concepts introduced by the clouds, such as computation outsourcing, resource sharing, and external data warehousing, increase the security and privacy concerns and create new security challenges. Moreover, the large scale of the clouds, the proliferation of mobile access devices (e

  12. Analysis and comparison of transportation security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1976-05-01

    The role of modeling in the analysis of transportation security systems is described. Various modeling approaches are outlined. The conflict model developed in Sandia Laboratories' Transportation Mode Analysis for the NRC Special Safeguards Study is used to demonstrate the capability of models to determine system sensitivities and compare alternatives

  13. Surface Transportation Security Priority Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    intercity buses), and pipelines, and related infrastructure (including roads and highways), that are within the territory of the United States...Modernizing the information technology infrastructure used to vet the identity of travelers and transportation workers  Using terrorist databases to...examination of persons travelling , surface transportation modes tend to operate in a much more open environment, making it difficult to screen workers

  14. Securing the Aviation Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    additional 100,000 airport workers who perform duties in sterile areas (the indoor gate area past the security check point).197 These same...containing thirteen handguns, an assault rifle and eight pounds of marijuana .270 However, two Federal Air Marshals were also onboard the aircraft.271

  15. Economics of Food Security: Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews selected key challenges regarding food security from both an academic and policy-oriented angle. In the analysis of the main constraints to achieve food access and availability in low and high-income societies, a detailed distinction is made between technological and institutional aspects. In the case of low-income economies, the emphasis is placed on the socio-economic situation and performance of small-scale farmers while in high-income economies the focus is shifted towards issues of price volatility, market stability and food waste. In both scenarios, productivity and efficiency in the use of resources are also considered. The objective of this assessment is to identify the type of policy support which would be most suitable to fulfil the increasing food demand. Innovation programmes and policies which inte- grate institutional coordination and technical support are put forward as strategic tools in the achievement of food security goals at regional and global level.

  16. Aviation security : status of transportation security inspector workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    This report was written in response to House Report 110-181, accompanying H.R. 2638, the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Bill, 2008. In accordance with direction in that report, we are reporting on the operation of the transportation s...

  17. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 27.204 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by security issue. (a) Release Chemicals—(1) Release-Toxic Chemicals. If a release-toxic chemical of interest...

  18. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to `sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to `hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a `digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers. PMID:12554559

  19. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to 'sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to 'hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a 'digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers.

  20. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  1. Big data, little security: Addressing security issues in your platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Thomas; Mathews, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes some patterns for information security problems that consistently emerge among traditional enterprise networks and applications, both with respect to cyber threats and data sensitivity. We draw upon cases from qualitative studies and interviews of system developers, network operators, and certifiers of military applications. Specifically, the problems discussed involve sensitivity of data aggregates, training efficacy, and security decision support in the human machine interface. While proven techniques can address many enterprise security challenges, we provide additional recommendations on how to further improve overall security posture, and suggest additional research thrusts to address areas where known gaps remain.

  2. Performativity and the project: enacting urban transport security in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, a large consortium of European rail and security suppliers, transport operators and research organisations launched the Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration (SECUR-ED) project with the objective of providing public transport operators with the means to enhance urban

  3. Security Issues in E-Business Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Defta Costinela – Luminita; Iacob Nicoleta - Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    E-business consists mostly in the implementation of the business processes by using the information technology and internet services. Since all business processes must be connected to the internet and available for users, the choice of the information solutions on which e-business is built is crucial for the security. Now more than ever, businesses need to be concerned about the security of their networks. In this paper we will highlight the security threats related to the e-business platform...

  4. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  5. Regulatory Framework for the Safe and Secure Transport of Nuclear Material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnai, A.; Shibasaki, N.; Ikoma, Y.; Kato, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Iwasa, T.

    2016-01-01

    Regulations for nuclear material transport in Japan are based on international regulations. Safety and security regulations, however, have sometime different aspects which have caused a conflict of operations. This paper aims to introduce framework of safety and security regulations for nuclear material transport in Japan, and shows some issues in cooperation of these regulations. (author)

  6. Security issues in a parking facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Abraham; Lew, I Paul

    2009-01-01

    Active security supported by passive security measures which are part of the physical design of a parking facility are essential to preventing crimes from happening wherever and whenever possible, the authors maintain. In the article, they focus on design elements which can be most effective in discouraging potential perpetrators.

  7. The transportation issue management system: A tool for issue resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Boryczka, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, issue management programs have been developed and used by a number of large corporations in the United States. These systems have generally been designed to help senior program managers identify issues, develop strategic plans, and resolve issues. These systems involve scanning and abstracting literature to create a database that is then used for 1) issue identification, 2) issue analysis, 3) priority assessment, 4) development of corporate position/strategic options, and 5) action planning and implementation. Most of the existing systems rely on staff to identify trends in the computerized output, analyze the importance of the issue to the company, and assist in developing corporate responses. The Department of Energy has recently developed an issue management system for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) transportation program. This system is designed to help DOE identify institutional issues related to radioactive waste transportation, analyze the issues, and resolve them in a manner that is responsive to interested parties. The system will contain pertinent information from DOE technical reports, other federal documents, correspondence, professional journals, popular literature, newsclips, legislation and testimony. The program is designed around a number of institutional issues including: prenotification, physical protection procedures; highway, rail, and barge routing; inspections and enforcement of shipments; emergency response; liability, cask design and testing; overweight trucks; rail service; modal mix; infrastructure improvements; training standards, and operational procedures

  8. It Security Issues Within the Video Game Industry

    OpenAIRE

    STEPHEN MOHR; SYED (SHAWON) RAHMAN,

    2011-01-01

    IT security issues are an important aspect for each and every organization within the video game industry. Within the video game industry alone, you might not normally think of security risks being an issue. But as we can and have seen in recent news, no company is immune to security risks no matter how big or how small. While each of these organizations will never be exactly the same as the next, there are common security issues that can and do affect each and every video game company. In or...

  9. Legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues in cloud computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available a gap on reporting are on are legal , privacy, security, access and regulatory issues. This paper raises an awareness of legal, privacy, security, access and regulatory issues that are associated with the advent of cloud computing. An in...

  10. Survey of Security and Privacy Issues of Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Borgohain, Tuhin; Kumar, Uday; Sanyal, Sugata

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a general survey of all the security issues existing in the Internet of Things (IoT) along with an analysis of the privacy issues that an end-user may face as a consequence of the spread of IoT. The majority of the survey is focused on the security loopholes arising out of the information exchange technologies used in Internet of Things. No countermeasure to the security drawbacks has been analyzed in the paper.

  11. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  12. CRITICAL REVIEW OF OPENSTACK SECURITY: ISSUES AND WEAKNESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Albaroodi; Selvakumar Manickam; Parminder Singh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the state of both cloud computing security in general and OpenStack in particular. Conducting a reassessment of cloud computing security can provide a greater understanding of how cloud computing functions and what types of security issues arise therein. This study is divided into two parts; in the first part, the background of cloud computing and its different deployment models are discussed. This section also describes various security challenges that...

  13. Global Security Contingency Fund: Summary and Issue Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR), Washington, D.C., December 2010, p. 203; Gordon Adams and Rebecca Williams, A New Way Forward: Rebalancing ...Williams, A New Way Forward: Rebalancing Security Assistance Programs and (continued...) Global Security Contingency Fund: Summary and Issue Overview...a large security assistance portfolio . But others may point to the State Department’s creation of new programs under the Security Assistance

  14. Internet of Cloud: Security and Privacy issues

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Allan; Robinson, Michael; Ferrag, Mohamed Amine; Maglaras, Leandros A.; He, Ying; Jones, Kevin; Janicke, Helge

    2017-01-01

    The synergy between the cloud and the IoT has emerged largely due to the cloud having attributes which directly benefit the IoT and enable its continued growth. IoT adopting Cloud services has brought new security challenges. In this book chapter, we pursue two main goals: 1) to analyse the different components of Cloud computing and the IoT and 2) to present security and privacy problems that these systems face. We thoroughly investigate current security and privacy preservation solutions th...

  15. Security and privacy issues of personal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    While health systems in developed countries and increasingly also in developing countries are moving from organisation-centred to person-centred health service delivery, the supporting communication and information technology is faced with new risks regarding security and privacy of stakeholders involved. The comprehensively distributed environment puts special burden on guaranteeing communication security services, but even more on guaranteeing application security services dealing with privilege management, access control and audit regarding social implication and connected sensitivity of personal information recorded, processed, communicated and stored in an even internationally distributed environment.

  16. National Security Education Program: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Riddle, Wayne C

    2005-01-01

    ... knowledgeable about the languages and cultures of foreign nations, especially those which are of national security concern and have not traditionally been the focus of American interest and study...

  17. Secure coprocessing applications and research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

  18. STATE REGULATION OF CARGO SECURING FOR ROAD TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Anatolievich Atrokhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal documents governing the securing of cargo in road transport, provides an overview of international experience in the safety of road transport of goods by means of securing.

  19. Security Requirements – Analysis of the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Needs about security are matters little taken into account when managing requirements engineering , and when considered in the life cycle of the system , they tend to become a general list of functions, as password of protection , firewalls , virus detection tools , and other similar. But in fact, they cannot be considered as requirements of security, because they are implementation mechanisms to try to meet unspecified requirements, as an authenticated access. As a result, the security requirements for the system are ignored, which are required to protect essential services and assets, besides, when are specified, is not considered the prospect of future attacks. This paper describes the need for a systematic approach to managing security requirements engineering, in order to help avoid the problem of generic lists and take into account the future perspective. Several related approaches are described and also are provided references additional material that can help requirements engineers to ensure that their products be taken into account, effectively , the security requirements.

  20. Considerations concerning the secure transport of radioactive materials in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    As UNO member and founding member of the IAEA, Romania has implemented national regulations concerning the transport of radioactive materials in complete safety, complying with recommendations by IAEA and other international organizations. Accordingly, the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, issued the Directive no. 374/October 2001 which provides the rules for secure radioactive material transport in Romania on roads, rail ways, sea/fluvial and air ways. The paper presents the main sources of producing radioactive materials focussing the following: mining of natural uranium ore, nuclear fuel fabrication plants, nuclear power plants operation, nuclear research reactors, industrial use of radioactive sources (as gamma radiography), use of radioisotope in scientific, educational or medical units. The paper pays attention to the special routes and containers adopted for most secure transport of radioactive waste. Finally, one presents specific issues relating to identification and evaluation of the risk factors occurring at the transport of radioactive waste, as well as the potential radiological consequences upon population and environment. Estimated are the collective risk doses for different categories of populations from areas adjacent to the routes of radioactive materials transportation. It is stressed that the annual collective dose which the population is exposed to in case of accident is comparable with the dose from the natural (cosmic radiation background)

  1. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  2. 75 FR 8096 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... response to workplace violence, analyzes data as needed, and provides training. Additionally, DHS is... 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence... Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records.'' This system will...

  3. Privacy and security issues in a digital world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most important security and privacy issues of the modern digital world, emphasizing the issues brought by the concept of ambient intelligence. Furthermore, the chapter explains the organization of the book, describing which issues and related technologies are addressed by

  4. Privacy and Security Issues in a Digital World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most important security and privacy issues of the modern digital world, emphasizing the issues brought by the concept of ambient intelligence. Furthermore, the chapter explains the organization of the book, describing which issues and related technologies are addressed by

  5. How is health a security issue? Politics, responses and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Yuk-ping, Catherine; Thomas, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    In the closing decade of the 20th century the myriad challenges posed by infectious disease in a globalized environment began to be re-conceptualized as threats to national and human security. The most widely applied model for identifying and responding to such threats is securitization theory, as proposed by the Copenhagen School. Although its analytical framework is generally accepted, its utility remains contested; especially in non-European and non-state settings. The papers in this special edition have several aims: (1) to analyse ways by which Asian states and international organizations have identified health challenges as security threats, (2) to draw upon the securitization model as a way of understanding the full extent to which these states and international organizations have responded to the health threat, and (3) to identify areas where the theory might be strengthened so as to provide greater analytical clarity in areas of health security. This paper acts as a broad introduction to a set of papers on 'Unhealthy governance' and explores some of the key findings from the subsequent papers.

  6. Gas transportation issues in the WCSB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addressed the issue of the competitiveness of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), concentrating on transportation issues. Various related issues such as natural gas pricing dynamics, price convergence in late 1998, projected gas revenues, issues of supply and demand, reserves inventory, the worrisome rate of decline in well productivity, deliverability and drilling, all received attention. Despite the gloomy picture, the general conclusion was that industry activity in the Basin will need to increase as the growth of the WCSB will be driven by rising North American demand. A profile of Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. was also presented. 1 tab., 13 figs

  7. Smart Grids Cyber Security Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Imen Aouini; Lamia Ben Azzouz

    2015-01-01

    The energy need is growing rapidly due to the population growth and the large new usage of power. Several works put considerable efforts to make the electricity grid more intelligent to reduce essentially energy consumption and provide efficiency and reliability of power systems. The Smart Grid is a complex architecture that covers critical devices and systems vulnerable to significant attacks. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the success and the wide deployment of...

  8. Brainjacking: Implant Security Issues in Invasive Neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycroft, Laurie; Boccard, Sandra G; Owen, Sarah L F; Stein, John F; Fitzgerald, James J; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2016-08-01

    The security of medical devices is critical to good patient care, especially when the devices are implanted. In light of recent developments in information security, there is reason to be concerned that medical implants are vulnerable to attack. The ability of attackers to exert malicious control over brain implants ("brainjacking") has unique challenges that we address in this review, with particular focus on deep brain stimulation implants. To illustrate the potential severity of this risk, we identify several mechanisms through which attackers could manipulate patients if unauthorized access to an implant can be achieved. These include blind attacks in which the attacker requires no patient-specific knowledge and targeted attacks that require patient-specific information. Blind attacks include cessation of stimulation, draining implant batteries, inducing tissue damage, and information theft. Targeted attacks include impairment of motor function, alteration of impulse control, modification of emotions or affect, induction of pain, and modulation of the reward system. We also discuss the limitations inherent in designing implants and the trade-offs that must be made to balance device security with battery life and practicality. We conclude that researchers, clinicians, manufacturers, and regulatory bodies should cooperate to minimize the risk posed by brainjacking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

    Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2,…

  10. The Role of Target Leverage in Security Issues and Repurchases

    OpenAIRE

    Armen Hovakimian

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines whether security issues and repurchases adjust the capital structure toward the target. The time-series patterns of debt ratios imply that only debt reductions are initiated to offset the accumulated deviation from target leverage. The importance of target leverage in earlier debt-equity choice studies is driven by the subsample of equity issues accompanied by debt reductions. Unlike debt issues and reductions, equity issues and repurchases have no significant lasting effec...

  11. Security Measures and some Specific Features of the Transport Police Functioning in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Ignatushenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article specifics of the transport police work in the Russian Federation are discussed, as well as in other countries of the world (USA, Germany, Israel, etc.. Attention is drawn to the need of the role and significance of the Russian police review in the matters of railway and aviation security, as well as safety on river and sea transport. The term “transport security” is a state of security of transport and transport infrastructure, consumers of transport services (passengers from various types of threats (natural and man-made, as well as acts of unlawful interference in the activities of various modes of transport – points put the author. Transport security issues are important for the creation of the transport police system in the Russian Federation, taking into account experience of foreign countries.

  12. Major issues in the training of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, W.M.; Robertson, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of the response component of a physical protection system depends greatly upon the training received by the security personnel. The issues and problems in the area of training which were of greatest concern to the attendees of the 1980 and 1981 INMM sponsored Technical Workshops on Guard Training are discussed. The attendees were training supervisors of managers of security personnel and represented a variety of organizations and companies including DOE facilities, NRC licensees, the military, private security contractors, and governmental agencies. Major categories of concern include: professionalism in security, legal constraints and obligations, physical and psychological testing and standards, governmental requirements, morale and motivation, and tactical training techniques

  13. The cloud security ecosystem technical, legal, business and management issues

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon the expertise of world-renowned researchers and experts, The Cloud Security Ecosystem comprehensively discusses a range of cloud security topics from multi-disciplinary and international perspectives, aligning technical security implementations with the most recent developments in business, legal, and international environments. The book holistically discusses key research and policy advances in cloud security - putting technical and management issues together with an in-depth treaties on a multi-disciplinary and international subject. The book features contributions from key tho

  14. The IAEA Assistance and Training Programme for Transport Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Eriksson, Ann-Margret [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rawl, Richard [Transport Security and Safety, Oak Ridge; Anderson, Kimberly K [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security is working cooperatively with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, European Union and Australia to provide transport security assistance to countries throughout the world. Assistance is available to countries in reviewing and upgrading their transport security programs at all levels: (1) National level (regulatory and other government agencies); and (2) Operator level (shippers and carriers). Assistance is directed at implementing a consistent level of security throughout the life cycle of radioactive material (same level of security during transport as when in a fixed facility) Upgrade assistance can include: (1) Expert advisory missions to provide advice and guidance; (2) Training courses for regulatory, governmental and industry personnel; (3) Transport security awareness; (4) Detailed training on designing and implementing transport security programs; (5) Planning to identify and prioritize needs (developing security approaches and plans); (6) Developing model security plans and procedures; and (7) Equipment (vehicles, packages, command and control equipment, etc.). Country visits are now being scheduled to initiate transport security cooperative activities. A training course has been developed to assist countries in developing and implementing transport security programs. The training course has been given as a national training course (three times) and as a Regional training course (three times). The course addresses recommended security provisions for the transport of all radioactive material.

  15. The IAEA Assistance Training Programme for Transport Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ann-Margret [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Anderson, Kimberly K [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security is working cooperatively with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, European Union and Australia to provide transport security assistance to countries throughout the world. Assistance is available to countries in reviewing and upgrading their transport security programs at all levels: (1) National level (regulatory and other government agencies); and (2) Operator level (shippers and carriers). Assistance is directed at implementing a consistent level of security throughout the life cycle of radioactive material (same level of security during transport as when in a fixed facility) Upgrade assistance can include: (1) Expert advisory missions to provide advice and guidance; (2) Training courses for regulatory, governmental and industry personnel; (3) Transport security awareness; (4) Detailed training on designing and implementing transport security programs; (5) Planning to identify and prioritize needs (developing security approaches and plans); (6) Developing model security plans and procedures; and (7) Equipment (vehicles, packages, command and control equipment, etc.). Country visits are now being scheduled to initiate transport security cooperative activities. A training course has been developed to assist countries in developing and implementing transport security programs. The training course has been given as a national training course (three times) and as a Regional training course (three times). The course addresses recommended security provisions for the transport of all radioactive material.

  16. The Campus Executive's Role in Security and Liability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Max; Territo, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    Executives at institutions of higher education have become increasingly concerned about serious crimes being committed on their campuses. The liability issue, criminal activity information, physical security and design issues, student patrol escorts, crime prevention training, and task force development are discussed. (MLW)

  17. No Nation Is Home Alone: Understanding The International Dimension Of Homeland Security Through Global Transportation Security Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    global economy have produced security gaps susceptible to exploitation. Transportation infrastructure , such as air and seaports, can be the target...15 Karen DeYoung, “New Issue of Jihadist Magazine Produced by Al-Qaeda in Yemen Suggests Attacks on U.S.,” Washington Post, December 24, 2014. http...is a complex system of people, things, and infrastructure that cross national boundaries; security policies must continue to be implemented to

  18. Climate: an issue of security or of strategic control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascre, D.

    2010-01-01

    For the United States, climate has become a national security issue. In September 2009 the CIA created a Centre for Climate Change to monitor space and the biosphere, and to verify the levels of pollution of every country worldwide. This initiative is more than just a new mission; it marks a change of policy which acknowledges the new security-related troika of climate, economy and strategic control. (author)

  19. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standa...

  20. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  1. 77 FR 19680 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Rail Transportation Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration [Docket No. TSA-2006-26514] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Rail Transportation Security AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the...

  2. 77 FR 15114 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security Officer (TSO) Medical Questionnaire AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice...

  3. 75 FR 2556 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security Officer (TSO) Medical Questionnaire AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice...

  4. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  5. Safeguards and security issues at the MRS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuinn, E.; Birch, M.; Jones, J.; Floyd, W.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for disposing of the nation's high level radioactive waste in a way that ensures the protection of the public from any unacceptable radiological risks and the maintenance of the national security. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM plans to institute a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved security program at its facilities including the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. This program will safeguard nuclear information and provide not only for the physical protection of facilities but also for the nuclear material being handled and stored. Several key regulatory issues were identified during the development of the safeguards and security (S ampersand S) program for the MRS. These issues relate to developing a realistic definition of the security threat at the MRS and establishing a single set of regulatory requirements. Resolution of these issues is important to implement a realistic S ampersand S program who scope is commensurate with the potential risk at the MRS and complies with all appropriate regulatory requirements. OCRWM is working toward a timely resolution of these issues and on the formulation of an S ampersand S program for implementation at the MRS. As an initial step, DOE has proposed an S ampersand S strategy for the MRS based on a set of assumed resolutions to the key regulatory issues. With this approach, the facility designers will be able to evaluate possible S ampersand S concepts for integration into the MRS early in the design process

  6. Secure messaging via the cloud and mobile devices: data security issues emerge with new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestigiacomo, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    The secure messaging space is alive with new innovations that are moving the industry forward. Key in this space is the push toward moving secure messaging to the cloud and pushing it out to mobile devices. Among the examples are solutions that allow physicians to receive encrypted email on mobile devices, as well as ones that allow doctors to securely text-message each other to coordinate care. However, the security issues around these emerging technologies in this very active space must be further explored.

  7. Reviews on Security Issues and Challenges in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y. Z.; Zaaba, Z. F.; Samsudin, N. F.

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing service provided by the third party allowing share of resources and data among devices. It is widely used in many organizations nowadays and becoming more popular because it changes the way of how the Information Technology (IT) of an organization is organized and managed. It provides lots of benefits such as simplicity and lower costs, almost unlimited storage, least maintenance, easy utilization, backup and recovery, continuous availability, quality of service, automated software integration, scalability, flexibility and reliability, easy access to information, elasticity, quick deployment and lower barrier to entry. While there is increasing use of cloud computing service in this new era, the security issues of the cloud computing become a challenges. Cloud computing must be safe and secure enough to ensure the privacy of the users. This paper firstly lists out the architecture of the cloud computing, then discuss the most common security issues of using cloud and some solutions to the security issues since security is one of the most critical aspect in cloud computing due to the sensitivity of user's data.

  8. A method to assess multi-modal hazmat transport security vulnerabilities: Hazmat transport SVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2013-01-01

    The suggested Hazmat transport Security Vulnerability Assessment (SVA) methodology presents a user-friendly approach to determine relative security risk levels of the different modes of hazardous freight transport (i.e., road, railway, inland waterways and pipeline transportation). First, transport

  9. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  10. Cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide history of cyber attacks targeting at nuclear facilities. • Provide cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants. • Provide possible countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants. - Abstract: With the introduction of new technology based on the increasing digitalization of control systems, the potential of cyber attacks has escalated into a serious threat for nuclear facilities, resulting in the advent of the Stuxnet. In this regard, the nuclear industry needs to consider several cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants, including regulatory guidelines and standards for cyber security, the possibility of Stuxnet-inherited malware attacks in the future, and countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants against possible cyber attacks

  11. Security Issues Model on Cloud Computing: A Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Komeil Raisian; Jamaiah Yahaya

    2015-01-01

    By developing the cloud computing, viewpoint of many people regarding the infrastructure architectures, software distribution and improvement model changed significantly. Cloud computing associates with the pioneering deployment architecture, which could be done through grid calculating, effectiveness calculating and autonomic calculating. The fast transition towards that, has increased the worries regarding a critical issue for the effective transition of cloud computing. From the security v...

  12. Security issues of new innovative payments and their regulatory challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Gabriella, Gimigliano

    2016-01-01

    Kasiyanto discusses how the security issues of M-payments and Bitcoin as new forms of innovative payments challenge the existing EU regulatory frameworks, and whether the proposed regulatory frameworks suffice to address such challenges. The regulatory frameworks Kasiyanto discusses mainly focus on

  13. Energy security issues at household level in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Energy security at the household level implies ensuring assured and regular supply of clean energy fuels at an affordable price for various household activities. Threat to physical availability of clean energy fuels for cooking and lighting is determined through various indicators such as dependence on traditional fuels and limited access to clean fuels. Energy insecurity translates into various adverse social impacts. Financial threat to energy security is indicated by expenses incurred on energy fuels and affordability of clean fuels. Households spend a major portion of their income on acquiring energy fuels; however, due to high price of clean fuels, they continue to depend on traditional and inefficient fuels. There is an urgent need to address factors that pose a threat to energy security at the household level. In this regard, measures taken by the government agencies and other institutions are also reviewed. The paper also suggests the regulatory and policy interventions required to address the energy security issues at the household level.

  14. Security and privacy issues with health care information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meingast, Marci; Roosta, Tanya; Sastry, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    The face of health care is changing as new technologies are being incorporated into the existing infrastructure. Electronic patient records and sensor networks for in-home patient monitoring are at the current forefront of new technologies. Paper-based patient records are being put in electronic format enabling patients to access their records via the Internet. Remote patient monitoring is becoming more feasible as specialized sensors can be placed inside homes. The combination of these technologies will improve the quality of health care by making it more personalized and reducing costs and medical errors. While there are benefits to technologies, associated privacy and security issues need to be analyzed to make these systems socially acceptable. In this paper we explore the privacy and security implications of these next-generation health care technologies. We describe existing methods for handling issues as well as discussing which issues need further consideration.

  15. 75 FR 28046 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... security, law enforcement, immigration, intelligence, or other functions consistent with the routine uses... transportation operators, flight students, and others, where appropriate, for services related to security threat.... Enforce safety- and security-related regulations and requirements; 3. Assess and distribute intelligence...

  16. Regional disarmament and security issues. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenhill, J.

    1994-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in building cooperation in the Asia-pacific region in remarkably short period of time. Problems of regional disarmament are analysed by linking the economic and security issues. International cooperation regimes, whether in the military sphere, such as the Non-proliferation treaty, or in the trade sphere such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, inevitably impose restrictions on the autonomy of member States. The integrity of the regime depends on countries' acceptance of the obligations it imposes. The task ahead is to convince all countries in the region that cooperation in the security sphere will be of even greater long-term benefit

  17. 12 CFR 559.12 - How may a subsidiary of a savings association issue securities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... issue securities? 559.12 Section 559.12 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... may a subsidiary of a savings association issue securities? (a) A subsidiary may issue, either...”) may issue. The subsidiary must not state or imply that the securities it issues are covered by federal...

  18. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  19. Computer Security Issues in Online Banking: An Assessment from the Context of Usable Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmadi, FN; Zaaba, ZF; Osman, A.

    2016-11-01

    Today's online banking is a convenient mode of finance management. Despite the ease of doing online banking, there are people that still sceptical in utilizing it due to perception and its security. This paper highlights the subject of online banking security in Malaysia, especially from the perspective of the end-users. The study is done by assessing human computer interaction, usability and security. An online survey utilising 137 participants was previously conducted to gain preliminary insights on security issues of online banking in Malaysia. Following from those results, 37 participants were interviewed to gauge deeper understanding about end-users perception on online banking within the context of usable security. The results suggested that most of the end-users are continuingly experiencing significant difficulties especially in relation to the technical terminologies, security features and other technical issues. Although the security features are provided to provide a shield or protection, users are still incapable to cope with the technical aspects of such implementation.

  20. U.S. spent fuel transportation security in the post 9/11 world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Catherine; Patterson, John; Williams, Blake

    2002-01-01

    On September 11, 2002 the terrible tragedies in New York, Pennsylvania and Washington, DC changed the world forever. Security issues not only impact our daily lives, but are also in a state flux concerning the shipment of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. The formation of the Homeland Security Advisory System and Interim Compensatory Measures from the NRC, along with other security measures, have affected the way we transport spent nuclear fuel. This paper describes the challenging and demanding way that security is planned, implemented and maintained in support of spent fuel shipments in the United States. (author)

  1. Secure Media Independent Handover Message Transport in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Choong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 framework for Media Independent Handover (MIH provides seamless vertical handover support for multimode mobile terminals. MIH messages are exchanged over various wireless media between mobile terminals and access networks to facilitate seamless handover. This calls for the need to secure MIH messages against network security threats in the wireless medium. In this paper, we first analyze IPSec/IKEv2 and DTLS security solution for secure MIH message transport. We show that handover latency can be an impediment to the use of IPSec and DTLS solutions. To overcome the handover overhead and hence minimize authentication time, a new secure MIH message transport solution, referred as MIHSec in this paper, is proposed. Experimental results are obtained for MIH between WLAN and Ethernet networks and the impacts of MIH message security on the handover latency are evaluated for IPSec, DTLS, and MIHSec security solutions. The effectiveness of MIHSec is demonstrated.

  2. Some issues on environmental impact report of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaming

    2001-01-01

    The author puts forward some issues which should be paid attention to when compiling a environmental impact report of radioactive material transport. The main issues discussed are as follows: (1) Optimization analysis for transport routes. (2) Source terms under accident conditions in transport. (3) Precautions against accidents and emergency preparedness. (4) Quality assurance of transport, etc

  3. Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle test and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the past many DOE and DoD facilities involved in handling nuclear material realized a need to enhance the safely and security for movement of sensitive materials within their facility, or ''intra-site''. There have been prior efforts to improve on-site transportation; however, there remains a requirement for enhanced on-site transportation at a number of facilities. The requirements for on-site transportation are driven by security, safety, and operational concerns. The Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) was designed to address these concerns specifically for DOE site applications with a standardized vehicle design. This paper briefly reviews the ISTV design features providing significant enhancement of onsite transportation safety and security, and also describes the test and evaluation activities either complete of underway to validate the vehicle design and operation

  4. Securing global trade through secure freight transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    Given the increased probability of disruptions to global supply chains, and the significant impact these have on national and global economies, the problem is how to secure global trade. The concept of a global trade chain-of-custody has been develop...

  5. The Arctic: between climatic change, economic development and security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeorges, Damien

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic is a perfect illustration of how climate change is impacting international relations, in particular because it triggers new economic and safety issues. Since every major economic power has interests in the region, it has now become the stage of many rivalries, including between China and the United-States. Whether it is because its extreme climate conditions or the growing international pressure, the Arctic sets a new challenge for investors: securing a sustainable economic growth in the region

  6. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-13

    general election. Key observers have also pointed to decisions by Parti-Islam sa- Malaysia (PAS), Parti Keadilan Rakyat , and the Democratic Action Party...Sultan fulfills this function. Each state has a state legislature. The lower house of Malaysia’s Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat , has 193 members elected...Order Code RL33878 Malaysia : Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered February 13, 2007 Bruce Vaughn, Coordinator Specialist in

  7. Protecting Commercial Space Systems: A Critical National Security Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    systems. Part two will describe, at the operational level , this author’s theory for space protection and recommend a course of action to work...minimal loss of life. These factors force us to conclude this is a critical national security issue just as many in high- level government positions...Command and Staff College Operational Forces Coursebook (Academic Year 1999), 35. 3 The USCG is not a Title 10 Service, thus Posse Comitatus is not a

  8. Security issues of cloud computing environment in possible military applications

    OpenAIRE

    Samčović, Andreja B.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of cloud computing over the past few years is potentially one of major advances in the history of computing and telecommunications. Although there are many benefits of adopting cloud computing, there are also some significant barriers to adoption, security issues being the most important of them. This paper introduces the concept of cloud computing; looks at relevant technologies in cloud computing; takes into account cloud deployment models and some military applications. Addit...

  9. Security issues at the Department of Energy and records management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUSBAUM, ANNA W.

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the connection between security issues within the Department of Energy and records management, the author covers a bit of security history and talks about what she calls ''the Amazing Project''. Initiated in late May 1999, it was to be a tri-laboratory (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of Livermore, California, Los Alamos National Laboratory of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories of Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California) project. The team that formed was tasked to develop the best set of security solutions that still enabled weapon mission work to get done and the security solutions were to be the same set for everyone. The amazing project was called ''The Integrated Security Management Project'', or ''ISecM' for short. She'll describe why she thinks this project was so amazing and what it accomplished. There's a bit of sad news about the project, but then she'll move onto discuss what was learned at Sandia as a result of the project and what they're currently doing in records management

  10. Transportation access to Yucca Mountain: Critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R.J.; Souleyrette, R.R.; Bartolo, R. di

    1991-01-01

    Transportation planning for a repository at Yucca Mountain is complicated because of uncertainty about the modes and numbers of nuclear waste shipments and because of uncertainty about the routes which will be used. There could be as many as 76,000 truck shipments, or as few as 1,060 dedicated train shipments, during repository operations. The site lacks rail access. Three rail access options currently under study range in length from 120 miles to more than 400 miles. The site is more than 100 miles from the Interstate highway system. The UNLV Transportation Research Center has evaluated three rail and four highway routes using a broad range of impact measures. This preliminary evaluation found that the routing options differ significantly regarding resident and non-resident populations, environmentally sensitive areas, accident rates, and other factors. Crosscutting issues include impacts on Nevada Indian tribes, potential conflicts with US Air Force operations, and future population growth in southern Nevada. Considerable additional analysis will be required prior to environmental impact statement scoping

  11. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  12. Internal transport barriers: critical physics issues?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaudon, X [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM, Departement de Recherches sur La Fusion Controlee, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2006-05-15

    Plasmas regimes with improved core energy confinement properties, i.e. with internal transport barriers (ITB), provide a possible route towards simultaneous high fusion performance and continuous tokamak reactor operation in a non-inductive current drive state. High core confinement regimes should be made compatible with a dominant fraction of the plasma current self-generated (pressure-driven) by the bootstrap effect while operating at high normalized pressure and moderate current. Furthermore, ITB regimes with 'non-stiff' plasma core pressure break the link observed in standard inductive operation between fusion performances and plasma pressure at the edge, thus offering a new degree of freedom in the tokamak operational space. Prospects and critical issues for using plasmas with enhanced thermal core insulation as a basis for steady tokamak reactor operation are reviewed in the light of the encouraging experimental and modelling results obtained recently (typically in the last two years). An extensive set of data from experiments carried out worldwide has been gathered on ITB regimes covering a wide range of parameters (q-profile, T{sub i}/T{sub e}, gradient length, shaping, normalized toroidal Larmor radius, collisionality, Mach number, etc). In the light of the progress made recently, the following critical physics issues relevant to the extrapolation of ITB regimes to next-step experiments, such as ITER, are addressed: 1. conditions for ITB formation and existence of a power threshold,; 2. ITB sustainment at T{sub i} {approx} T{sub e}, with low toroidal torque injection, low central particle fuelling but at high density and low impurity concentration,; 3. control of confinement for sustaining wide ITBs that encompass a large volume at high {beta}{sub N},; 4. real time profile control (q and pressure) with high bootstrap current and large fraction of alpha-heating and; 5. compatibility of core with edge transport barriers or with external core

  13. Intrinsic information Security: Embedding security issues in the design process of telematics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettero, Olaf; Tettero, O.

    This book presents a systematic approach to embed information security issues in the design process of telematics systems. The approach supports both designers and user organisations. We elaborate on the activities that designers should perform to design telematics systems in which information

  14. The public transportation system security and emergency preparedness planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have focused renewed attention on the vulnerability of the nation's critical infrastructure to major events, including terrorism. The Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide has been prepared to s...

  15. Security measures in transport of radiation source in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Alslman [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Kaist Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Radioactive materials are used in Jordan for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, environmental science, education and research and military applications. Most of these radioactive sources used are imported, therefore trans-boundary movement is a significant factor in consideration of security measures during movement of these sources. After 11/9 2001 event, IAEA efforts began to focus and concentrate on security in transport of radioactive materials, after the emergence of risks of using these sources in terrorist activities. In 2002, Efforts were initiated by the IAEA to provide additional guidance for security in the transport of radioactive materials, based upon the new security requirements in the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. This paper reviews some of the measures relating to the transport of radioactive materials in Jordan

  16. Ergonomics issues in national identity card for homeland security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Paul H P; Yuen, Y Y; Loo, W H

    2013-09-01

    Ever since the 9/11 terrorist attack, many countries are considering the use of smart national identity card (SNIC) which has the ability to identify terrorists due to its biometric verification function. However, there are many ergonomics issues in the use of SNIC, e.g. card credibility. This research presents a case study survey of Malaysian users. Although most citizens (>96%) own MyKad (Malaysia SNIC), many do not carry it around and use its applications. This defeats one of its main purposes, i.e. combating terrorism. Thus, the research investigates ergonomics issues affecting the citizens' Intention to Use (ITU) MyKad for homeland security by using an extended technology acceptance model. Five hundred questionnaires were collected and analysed using structural equation modelling. Results show that perceived credibility and performance expectancy are the key issues. The findings provide many countries with insights into methods of addressing ergonomics issues and increasing adoption of SNIC for homeland security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Personnel Security Investigations -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains the types of background investigations, decisions, level of security clearance, date of security clearance training, and credentials issued to...

  18. Safe and secure: transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.

    2015-01-01

    Western Waste Management Facility is Central Transportation Facility for Low and Intermediate waste materials. Transportation support for Stations: Reactor inspection tools and heavy water between stations and reactor components and single bundles of irradiated fuel to AECL-Chalk River for examination. Safety Track Record: 3.2 million kilometres safely travelled and no transportation accident - resulting in a radioactive release.

  19. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  20. Moving ERP Systems to the Cloud - Data Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Saa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light data security issues and concerns for organizations by moving their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems to the cloud. Cloud computing has become the new trend of how organizations conduct business and has enabled them to innovate and compete in a dynamic environment through new and innovative business models. The growing popularity and success of the cloud has led to the emergence of cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS ERP systems, a new alternative approach to traditional on-premise ERP systems. Cloud-based ERP has a myriad of benefits for organizations. However, infrastructure engineers need to address data security issues before moving their enterprise applications to the cloud. Cloud-based ERP raises specific concerns about the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud. Such concerns that affect the adoption of cloud-based ERP are based on the size of the organization. Small to medium enterprises (SMEs gain the maximum benefits from cloud-based ERP as many of the concerns around data security are not relevant to them. On the contrary, larger organizations are more cautious in moving their mission critical enterprise applications to the cloud. A hybrid solution where organizations can choose to keep their sensitive applications on-premise while leveraging the benefits of the cloud is proposed in this paper as an effective solution that is gaining momentum and popularity for large organizations.

  1. Safeguards and security issues for the disposition of fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Moya, R.W.; Duggan, R.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Tolk, K.M.; Rutherford, D.; Fearey, B.; Moore, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Material Disposition (FMD) is analyzing long-term storage and disposition options for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials, preparing a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS), preparing for a record of decision (ROD) regarding this material and conducting other activities. The primary security objectives of this program are to reduce major security risks and strengthen arms reduction and nonproliferation (NP). To help achieve these objectives, a safeguards and security (S ampersand S) team consisting of participants from Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was established. The S ampersand S activity for this program is a cross-cutting task which addresses all of the FMD program options. It includes both domestic and international safeguards and includes areas such as physical protection, nuclear materials accountability and material containment and surveillance. This paper will discuss the activities of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) S ampersand S team as well as some specific S ampersand S issues associated with various FMDP options/facilities. Some of the items to be discussed include the threat, S ampersand S requirements, S ampersand S criteria for assessing risk, S ampersand S issues concerning fissile material processing/facilities, and international and domestic safeguards

  2. Dissecting the Security and Protection Issues in Pervasive Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Javaid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings reflect nomadic behaviour as they keep on travelling place to place whole day for personal or organizational purposes. The inception of modern networking technologies and the advent of wide range of applications in terms of services and resources have facilitated the users in many ways. The advancements in numerous areas such as embedded systems, WN (Wireless Networks, mobile and context-aware computing, anticipated pervasive computing dominated the human communication at large. Pervasive computing refers to the environment where information is accessible anywhere and anytime while existing system is invisible to the user. On the other hand, the invisibility of pervasive computing is also a problem in its adoption as users are unaware when and what devices collect their personal data and how it is being used. It has caused new security chaos as the more information about user is collected the more privacy and security concerns it raises, thus, the pervasive computing applications became key concern for user. This paper is aimed at analyzing the security and protection issues that arise while traveling from place to place connected with wireless mobile networks. The paper reviews many existing systems that offer possible security to pervasive users. An easy, precise and relative analysis and evaluation of surveyed pervasive systems are presented and some future directions are highlighted.

  3. Gender security between human development and human security. Recent issues in the political international agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Degani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues regarding security, for a long time have been proposed, both in the scientific literature, that in the writings of popular character, without taking into due consideration the specificity of the effects that certain threats can cause the different subjectivity or on specific groups rather than on other . In particular, very rarely takes into account the fact that, in relation to the condition of women, we can talk, referring to certain areas or aspects of the problem, think of the problem of violence, of a real security crisis. The safety cultures sedimentation processes of socialization through everyday practices, can be considered an integral part of the internal structures of states. The issues relating to the in / security for women are on the agenda institutional, only a few years, do not fall within the traditional framework of interventions aimed at regulating sector profiles of women, in line with a vision of the subject recipient of this policy individual as "neutral." These are issues that today are also of inter-governmental organizations, in particular the United Nations, a central political role with respect to the adoption of policies related to the affirmation, respect and the effectiveness of human rights and at the same time enrich and innovate in order substantial guidelines and decision-making processes in the field of security.

  4. On the Perception of National Security Issues at Regional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponedelkov Aleksandr Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the issue on the perception of the concept “national security” areas, models and methods of its maintenance by the population. The author uses materials of the sociological survey conducted by the Laboratory of problems of increasing the efficiency of state and municipal management of the South-Russian Institute of Management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The survey was carried out with the participation of leading experts in various aspects of national security, representing 27 Russian higher educational institutions and research centers in Moscow, Astrakhan, Barnaul, Belgorod, Dushanbe, Krasnodar, Nizhny Novgorod, Omsk, Pyatigorsk, Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Syktyvkar, Sochi, Ufa. It is noted that as a priority political governance model that implements the basic concept of national security, respondents identified a democratic model. Most respondents believe that a unified security model in the Russian regions is ineffective, and such model should be developed taking into account the specificity of each subject. The study showed that the public’s attention to the issue of national security is not sustainable, as determined by situational factors. It is proved that the motives of anxiety formed in the Russian public mind are not sustainable, and situational. Respondents see the economic cooperation more effective incentive to maintain national interests than by force. Estimation of the population of the priority issues of security shows that most respondents appreciate the organization of work to ensure the safety and anti-terrorism security in the sphere of national relations. The findings give grounds to assert that the focus of public attention to the problem of national security does not yet occupy the leading positions. To a greater extent, respondents focused on the issues of public safety, reducing threats and risks in their daily lives

  5. Resource industries and security issues in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science

    2009-06-15

    Public concern over global warming has led to many political attacks on the oil industry, particularly Alberta's tar sand industry. This document focused on security issues in northern Alberta and reviewed past incidences of security threats. The likelihood of sabotage to wells, pipelines, buildings, and other industry facilities was assessed. Five potential sources of opposition were identified, notably individual saboteurs, eco-terrorists, mainstream environmentalists, First Nations, and the Metis people. All except the Metis have at various times used some combination of litigation, blockades, boycotts, sabotage, and violence against economic development projects. This report stated that although such incidents will likely continue in the future, it is unlikely that extra-legal obstruction will become widespread unless these various groups cooperate with each other. Since these groups have different social characteristics and conflicting political interests, it is unlikely that such cooperation will occur. 34 refs.

  6. Chemical Facility Security: Regulation and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, Dana A; Tatelman, Todd B

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has proposed security regulations for chemical facilities, implementing the statutory authority granted in the Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2007 (P.L...

  7. Molecular transport network security using multi-wavelength optical spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunsiri, Surachai; Thammawongsa, Nopparat; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2016-01-01

    Multi-wavelength generation system using an optical spin within the modified add-drop optical filter known as a PANDA ring resonator for molecular transport network security is proposed. By using the dark-bright soliton pair control, the optical capsules can be constructed and applied to securely transport the trapped molecules within the network. The advantage is that the dark and bright soliton pair (components) can securely propagate for long distance without electromagnetic interference. In operation, the optical intensity from PANDA ring resonator is fed into gold nano-antenna, where the surface plasmon oscillation between soliton pair and metallic waveguide is established.

  8. Regulatory Framework and Current Practices of the Radioactive Material Safe and Secure Transport in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollani, K.; Grillo, B.; Telhaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts for the establishing of a safe and secure radioactive material transport in Albania began a decade ago with formulation of the different regulation in the field of safe and secure handling of the radioactive materials. In 2004 a special regulation for the safe transport of radioactive material was prepared and approved by the National Radiation Protection Commission). This regulation has been based in the IAEA standards for the radioactive material transport and was reviewed periodically. The last regulation of the radioactive material transport was approved by Albanian government through a governmental ordinance. The transport of the radioactive material in Albania is performed by licensed subjects, which fulfill all requirements of the mentioned governmental ordinance. Based in the existing regulation, for each transport of radioactive material, a special permission is issued by NRPC. The issuing of permission allows competent authority to provide necessary information on transport regularity and to have under survey all transports of the radioactive material carried out inside the country. Last year were issued more than 80 permissions for the transport of the different types and categories of the radioactive sources. (author)

  9. Study Regarding the Provision of Security and Safety in the International Maritime Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana POPA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The security in transport has become a crucial issue internationally, especially after the terrorist attacks of September 2001 and even more recently. Maritime, along with aviation, is considered a sensitive and of high-risk transport sector, in terms of security. Moreover, topics related to safety in maritime transport have become very important over the past decades mostly because of the numerous maritime accidents putting in danger both human lives and the environment. Taking into account the global dimension of maritime transport along with the fact that the participation of Asia in the world trade during the past decade has been substantial, the current maritime safety and security practices apply for all areas. This can only be achieved through the application of high standards and regulations setting the prerequisites for safe and secure navigation. In this direction, a significant number of Directives, Regulations and Initiatives on maritime safety and security have been introduced by international and European organizations, such as the International Maritime Organization, (I.M.O., the International Labour Organization (I.L.O. and the European Union (EU. In the framework of this analysis, the levels of compliance of European and Asian countries, regarding the international legislation, is examined while special emphasis is given on the problems and difficulties encountered during the implementation processes. Furthermore, a number of recommendations aiming to enhance the existing levels of safety and security in maritime transport in both examined area is provided.

  10. Assessment of Performance Measures for Security of the Maritime Transportation Network, Port Security Metrics : Proposed Measurement of Deterrence Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-03

    This report is the thirs in a series describing the development of performance measures pertaining to the security of the maritime transportation network (port security metrics). THe development of measures to guide improvements in maritime security ...

  11. Moving ERP Systems to the Cloud - Data Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Saa; Andrés Cueva Costales; Oswaldo Moscoso-Zea; Sergio Lujan-Mora

    2017-01-01

    This paper brings to light data security issues and concerns for organizations by moving their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to the cloud. Cloud computing has become the new trend of how organizations conduct business and has enabled them to innovate and compete in a dynamic environment through new and innovative business models. The growing popularity and success of the cloud has led to the emergence of cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) ERP systems, a new alternative appr...

  12. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  13. Current status of international training center for nuclear security and security issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-UK; Sin, Byung Woo

    2013-01-01

    During the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) President Lee declared that Korea will establish an international training center (ITC) for nuclear security near the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). It will be open to the world in 2014. The government's long term goal is to make the center a hub for education and training in the nuclear field in Asia. The ITC will accomplish this by establishing facilities for practical and realistic exercises through the use of a test bed and various other experiments. The center will also provide comprehensive educational programs for nuclear newcomers. Its main programs include: a well designed educational program, customized training courses, and on-the-job training. This paper will discuss the current status of the ITC and describe practical plans for solving current security issues in Korea. (authors)

  14. A Review of Bring Your Own Device on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olalere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile computing has supplanted internet computing because of the proliferation of cloud-based applications and mobile devices (such as smartphones, palmtops, and tablets. As a result of this, workers bring their mobile devices to the workplace and use them for enterprise work. The policy of allowing the employees to work with their own personal mobile devices is called Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD. In this article, we discuss BYOD’s background, prevalence, benefits, challenges, and possible security attacks. We then review contributions of academic researchers on BYOD. The Universiti Putra Malaysia online databases (such as IEEE Xplore digital library, Elsevier, Springer, ACM digital library were used to search for peer-reviewed academic publications and other relevant publications on BYOD. The Google Scholar search engine was also used. Our thorough review shows that security issues comprise the most significant challenge confronting BYOD policy and that very little has been done to tackle this security challenge. It is our hope that this review will provide a theoretical background for future research and enable researchers to identify researchable areas of BYOD.

  15. Incorporating security into the transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The transportation system is an important network established to ensure the mobility of people and goods between destinations. In addition, it also serves a vital role in responding to disasters, and therefore deserves special attention when those di...

  16. Transportation Security Leadership: The Right Stuff

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burke, Karen

    2008-01-01

    .... transportation systems from terrorist threats. With the growing complexity and global nature of the terrorist networks, it requires leadership that is collaborative, integrative, and able to take a holistic leadership approach...

  17. The Role of the British Crown on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United Kingdom is a limited parliamentary monarchy, in which state sovereignty is exercised jointly by two basic political institutions: Royal Crown and Parliament. The credit for a successful political co-governance of these institutions, which are simultaneously bearers of popular sovereignty, are usually addressed to the Queen's lack of executive power to exercise power alone and hence all the restraint in the race for primate of governance. It goes even further considering that the Queen is quite weak and has only ceremonial functions, which do not disturb the Parliament. However, a careful researcher may notice that the Queen continues to affect the British Government in general and in particular on defence issues. Declassification of communication between Prince Charles and the Government in 2013, pointed out a continuing impact of the Queen and her son on many political issues, including those of defence and security. Since Britain has no codified constitution in a single document, it is not easy to determine the real power and competences of the Queen. It is even more difficult, because customary law and precedent prevail. Therefore, the real definition of the role of the Queen in general in the British Government, can be done by studying the culture, structure and constitutional practice. On their basis I will try to determine the real impact of the Queen in matters of defence and security, whether through her prerogatives in relation to the Government and Parliament, or through moral and informal influence in relation to the Prime Minister and particular ministers.

  18. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  19. Oil and international security: old and new issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    1998-09-01

    This paper questions the effectiveness of the link between international oil and (inter)national security. First, it explains an acknowledge the rise and decline of the traditional case of this link: the threat that so called ''oil dependence'' inflicts upon the national economy, hence the problem it raises for government. The reason for that decline is looked for in the emergence of multiple forms of competition in oil and energy markets, making the ''oil weapon'' less credible and its use less desirable and less possible. In oil like in any other commodity, the normal situation is the competition between suppliers for access to markets. For all basic economics tells us and experience has confirmed, analyses and policies (at least in France) are still strongly influenced by the ''oil security'' thinking shaped in the eve of the 1970 crises. Yet, those fallacies may be the strongest obstacle to the acknowledgment of the real oil security issues we face. The main one is the possible political destabilization of the Middle East due to oil competition between its members in an increasingly competitive world market. The consequences on regional antagonisms of the come back of Iraqi oil to the market on one hand, the internal stability of Iran and Saudi Arabia in a situation of lasting low oil revenues on the other hand, are reviewed as the main possible factors of regional destabilization in a context of strong competition in the world oil market. A large scale political burst with major oil producers concerned would certainly hurt developed and developing economy. That leads us to this paradoxical situation: the very cause of the decline of the traditional oil dependence issue is, due to Middle East situation, the main cause of possible destabilization of world oil market today. (author)

  20. New safety and security requirements for the transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Horvath, K.; Safar, J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the promulgation of mode-specific regulations of international transport of dangerous goods, some Hungarian governmental and ministerial decrees impose further conditions upon the transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials. One of these ministerial decrees on the transport, carriage and packaging of radioactive materials is under revision and it will require • approval of emergency response plan (including security and safety contingency plan); • report on transport incidents and accidents for classifying them in accordance with the INES scale; • the competent authority to request experts’ support for the approval of package designs, radioactive material designs and shipments. Regarding the security of the transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials a new Hungarian governmental decree and a related guidance are about to be published which will supply additional requirements in the field of the transport security especially concerning radioactive materials, implementing - among others - IAEA recommendations of the NSS No9 and No14. The main and relevant features of the Hungarian nuclear regulatory system and the details of both new decrees regarding the safety and security issues of transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials will be discussed. (author)

  1. Legal Framework and Best Practice for Improving Transport Security of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Medakovic, S.

    2012-01-01

    Security of transporting radioactive and nuclear materials always poses a demanding task to the holder of the authorization or beneficiary, and especially transporter. Very strict and precise legal framework must be done for this purpose, yet it has not be too complicated to create a great problems in practice. The best balance between efficiency and simplicity should be achieved. In Croatia on power is 'The Dangerous Goods Transport Act' which stipulates the conditions for the carriage of dangerous goods in individual transport modes, obligations of persons participating in the carriage, requirements for packaging and vehicles, conditions for the appointment of safety advisers and safety adviser's rights and duties, competence and conditions for the implementation of training programs for persons participating in transport, competence of the state authorities related to such carriage and supervision of the implementation of the Act. Besides this Act, which regulates the issue in more general way, in preparation is a new 'Ordinance on Physical Security Measures for Radioactive Sources, Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The intention of this Ordinance, in the part dealing with transport, is to bring specific approach, in accordance with IAEA guides, forwarding the most of obligations to the holder of the authorization or beneficiary and transporter, leaving state regulatory bodies mostly supervising role. In practice this can create some problems in the beginning, but with rising security awareness and after some experience collected, this can be the best way to achieve satisfactory security, yet not slowing down and complicating regular jobs with radioactive and nuclear materials.(author).

  2. Security in the transport of radioactive material - interim guidance for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legoux, P.; Wangler, M.

    2004-01-01

    While the IAEA has provided specific guidance for physical protection in the transport of nuclear material, its previous publications have only provided some general guidelines for security of non-nuclear radioactive material in transport. Some basic practical advice has been provided in the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) [1]. These guidelines were primarily directed toward such issues as unintentional exposure to radiation, negligence and inadvertent loss. Recently, the IAEA published a document on the security of sources, which included some general guidance on providing security during transport of the sources. However, it is clear that more guidance is needed for security during the transport of radioactive material in addition to those already existing for nuclear material. Member States have requested guidance on the type and nature of security measures that might be put in place for radioactive material in general during its transport and on the methodology to be used in choosing and implementing such measures. The purpose of the TECDOC on Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material being developed by the IAEA is to provide an initial response to that request. This interim guidance is being developed with a view to harmonizing the security guidance - as much as possible - with existing guidance from the IAEA for the transport of radioactive sources and nuclear material. It is also intended to harmonize with model requirements developed in 2002-2003 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council's Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals which was issued as general security guidelines for all dangerous goods, including radioactive material, and that will shortly be implemented as binding regulations by the international modal authorities

  3. Security in the transport of radioactive material - interim guidance for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoux, P.; Wangler, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    While the IAEA has provided specific guidance for physical protection in the transport of nuclear material, its previous publications have only provided some general guidelines for security of non-nuclear radioactive material in transport. Some basic practical advice has been provided in the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) [1]. These guidelines were primarily directed toward such issues as unintentional exposure to radiation, negligence and inadvertent loss. Recently, the IAEA published a document on the security of sources, which included some general guidance on providing security during transport of the sources. However, it is clear that more guidance is needed for security during the transport of radioactive material in addition to those already existing for nuclear material. Member States have requested guidance on the type and nature of security measures that might be put in place for radioactive material in general during its transport and on the methodology to be used in choosing and implementing such measures. The purpose of the TECDOC on Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material being developed by the IAEA is to provide an initial response to that request. This interim guidance is being developed with a view to harmonizing the security guidance - as much as possible - with existing guidance from the IAEA for the transport of radioactive sources and nuclear material. It is also intended to harmonize with model requirements developed in 2002-2003 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council's Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals which was issued as general security guidelines for all dangerous goods, including radioactive material, and that will shortly be implemented as binding regulations by the international modal

  4. Australian Experience in Implementing Transport Safety Regulations and Transport Security Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Australian transport safety and security regulatory framework is governed by Commonwealth, State and Territory legislations. There are eleven competent authorities in Australia that includes three Commonwealth authorities, six states and two territory authorities. IAEA Regulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1, 2005 edition) is applied through Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) Code of Practice for Transport of Radioactive Material 2008 by road, rail and waterways not covered by marine legislations. All states and territories apply this Transport Code through their regulatory system. For air transport, the Civil Aviation Act 1988 adopts the requirements of the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air DOC 9284, which also adopts TS-R-1. The security of radioactive material in air transport is achieved via the Aviation Transport Security Act 2004. For sea transport Australian Marine Order 41 applies the requirements of IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) Code which also adopts TS-R-1. The security of radioactive material (nuclear material) is governed by two Commonwealth Agencies namely, ARPANSA and ASNO (Australian Safeguards and Non-proliferation Office) . ARPANSA regulates the security of radioactive sources through ARPANSA Code of Practice for the Security of Radioactive Sources 2007 which is based on the IAEA Draft Security Series. ASNO regulates security of nuclear material including U, Th and Pu through the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, and the object of which is to give effect to certain obligations that Australia has as a party to the NPT, Australia’s safeguards agreement with the IAEA, and other bilateral safeguards agreements and certain obligations that Australia has as a party to the Convention for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM). This paper presents the effectiveness of regulatory approaches for safe and secure

  5. NON-PROLIFERATION IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR GNEP: ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, Ross; Rochau, Gary E

    2008-03-01

    This report evaluates transportation issues for nuclear material in the proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) fuel cycle. Since many details of the GNEP program are yet to be determined, this document is intended only to identify general issues. The existing regulatory environment is determined to be largely prepared to incorporate the changes that the GNEP program will introduce. Nuclear material vulnerability and attractiveness are considered with respect to the various transport stages within the GNEP fuel cycle. Physical protection options are then outlined for the transportation of this nuclear material. It is determined that increased transportation security will be required for the GNEP fuel cycle, particularly for international transport. Finally, transportation considerations for several fuel cycle scenarios are discussed. These scenarios compare the current "once-through" fuel cycle with various aspects of the proposed GNEP fuel cycle. 3

  6. 17 CFR 250.52 - Exemption of issue and sale of certain securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of issue and sale of... sale of any security, of which it is the issuer if: (1) The issue and sale of the security are solely.... 79f(a)) and related rules with respect to the issue and sale of any security of which it is the issuer...

  7. FORWARD: DESERTIFICATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: A SECURITY ISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Workshop focused on two basic concepts: security and desertification and their linkages. Since the end of the Cold War, traditional security concepts based on national sovereignty and territorial security have increasingly been brought under review. Currently, a broader defin...

  8. Spent fuel transportation regulatory and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippek, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    The problems that could result from state and local governments and other groups with relation to regulations concerning the transportation of spent nuclear fuels are discussed. The powers of the individual states as spelled out in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 are set forth in some detail. The possibility of transportation employees gaining a position to demand and receive more stringent protections from hazards of radiation is pointed out

  9. Improvement of economic security management system of municipalities with account of transportation system development: methods of assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe Sun, Pak; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov; Voskresenskay, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the necessity of a complex approach to assess economic security of municipalities, which would consider municipal management specifics. The approach allows comparing the economic security level of municipalities, but it does not describe parameter differences between compared municipalities. Therefore, there is a second method suggested: parameter rank order method. Applying these methods allowed to figure out the leaders and outsiders of the economic security among municipalities and rank all economic security parameters according to the significance level. Complex assessment of the economic security of municipalities, based on the combination of the two approaches, allowed to assess the security level more accurate. In order to assure economic security and equalize its threshold values, one should pay special attention to transportation system development in municipalities. Strategic aims of projects in the area of transportation infrastructure development in municipalities include the following issues: contribution into creating and elaborating transportation logistics and manufacture transport complexes, development of transportation infrastructure with account of internal and external functions of the region, public transport development, improvement of transport security and reducing its negative influence on the environment.

  10. 76 FR 75781 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities issued with more than a de minimis amount of... a toll-free number). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities...

  11. Safety And Reduce In Pollution Issues For Inland Waterway Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Huong Dong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Transport inland water transport is one of the five modes of transport in our country play a very important role. Inland waterway transport not only plays a major role in transporting large volumes of goods and passengers but also creates millions of jobs contributing to ensuring social security and national defense and security. However there are still many inadequacies in waterway transportation such as unequal waterway traffic The phenomenon of exploitation of river resources as planned or Process technology is not as planned exploitation of sand gravel etc. are common in most rivers and canals in the country. The signaling system is not synchronized between the signal of the inland waterway management unit and the signal of the owner The handling of domestic goods transportation and inland port management is inadequate The force of the means of development is fast uneven but concentrated in some urban areas and industrial parks. Therefore the Ministry of Transport has proposed a scheme to facilitate the development of a synchronized inland waterway infrastructure linking with other modes of transport To improve the capacity of the crew and the inland waterway transport crews. To create favorable conditions for inland waterway transportation business with reasonable transportation costs Improve the quality of water transport services Ensure safety and environmental friendliness Make a distinct advantage over other modes of transport. Specifically will develop promulgate mechanisms The policy is to facilitate the development of inland waterway infrastructure Build and promulgate mechanism The policy of supporting the development of the fleet has a reasonable structure with a fleet of about 30 self-propelled ships accounting for about 70 of the total number of inland waterway vessels To prioritize the development of the container fleet Inland waterway transportation and training retraining of human resources for

  12. An Empirical Study of Security Issues Posted in Open Source Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Treude, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    When developers gain thorough understanding and knowledge of software security, they can produce more secure software. This study aims at empirically identifying and understanding the security issues posted on a random sample of GitHub repositories. We tried to understand the presence of security...

  13. Safe and Secure Transportation of Radioactive Materials in Pakistan and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Muhammad; Ejaz, Asad

    2016-01-01

    PNRA is the sole organization in the country responsible to regulate all matters pertaining to ionizing radiations. For the safety of transport of radioactive material in the country, PNRA has adopted IAEA TS-R-1 as a national regulation. To cover the security aspects and emergency situations, if any, during the transportation of radioactive material, PNRA has issued the regulatory guide on ‘Transportation of Radioactive Material by Road in Pakistan’. In Pakistan, low to medium activity radioactive sources are transported from one place to another by road for the purpose of industrial radiography, well logging, medical application, etc. According to national policy, sealed radioactive sources of half life greater than 1 year and with initial activity of 100 GBq or more imported in the country are required to be returned to country of origin (exported) after its use. Although the activities related to transport of radioactive material remained safe and secure and no major accident/incident has been reported so far, however, the improvement/enhancement in the regulatory infrastructure is a continuous process. In future, more challenges are expected to be faced in the safety of transport packages. This paper will describe the steps taken by PNRA for the safety and security of transport of radioactive material in the country and future challenges. (author)

  14. [Natural gas rate design and transportation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is presented from an industrial user viewpoint with regards to natural gas distribution and pricing. The author reviews the problems with rate structures at local distributing companies and gas utility companies which resort to charging high prices to industrial users while subsidizing residential users. He goes on then to discuss the lack of innovation amount LDCs to meet the needs of the industrial sector. Secondly it analyses the regulation and price structure of the pipeline industry which drastically affects all gas prices. The paper specifically discusses 'equivalent margin rates' which are being used by many states to control transportation rates. The author feels that these margin rates are inappropriate in that it transfers much of the LDC's exploration and development costs to the pipeline company which transfers it on to the consumer. He feels that the transportation rates should exclude all costs that are clearly not incurred by an LDC to provide transportation service. The paper concludes with recommendations to regulators regarding the need for regulatory reform of deregulation of the gas industry with regards to profit-taking and the transportation industry with regards to developing capacity assignment programs

  15. CARONTE project: Creating an Agenda for Research on Transportation Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Bello, J.; Gonzalez Viosca, E.

    2016-07-01

    Europe’s prosperity relies on effective transport systems. Any attacks and disturbances to land freight and passenger transport would have significant impact on economic growth, territorial cohesion, social development and the environment. Unfortunately, there are weaknesses in the land transport security.The objective of CARONTE project is define a future research agenda for security in land transport that focuses on core gaps caused by emerging risks while avoiding any doubling-up of research elsewhere. Its research agenda will cover all threats, including cyber-crime, and security aspects across all modes of land transportation. At the same time, it will respect the fundamental human rights and privacy of European citizens. The step-by-step method of CARONTE’s consortium has analyzed the state of the art and emerging risks; has identified gaps, analyses and assessments of potential solutions; and has produced an overall research agenda for the future. CARONTE’s results will answer the following questions among others: Which existing research projects merit a follow up and extension? Where are the combinations or synergy effects to be attended? Which themes and topics should be elaborated in new research projects? Who should be involved and integrated in future research projects (stakeholders, authorities, etc.)? The CARONTE consortium includes universities and research institutes, companies, and end-users providing with experience in research and consultancy in transportation, logistics, infrastructure management, security and communications. ITENE - Instituto Tecnológico del Embalaje, Transporte y Logística-has been one of the Project partners among a total of 11 members from eight different countries in the European Union which have also been supported via a High Level Advisory Board. (Author)

  16. Efficient Aviation Security: Strengthening the Analytic Foundation for Making Air Transportation Security Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    tenfold to account for uninsured and other costs unaccounted for, the result would be in the low billions of dollars rather than tens of billions...Aviation Security GAO—See U.S. Government Accountability Office or, prior to 2004, U.S. General Accounting Office. Ghylin, K. M., C. G . Drury , and A...outweigh their costs . This document seeks to contribute to the national debate on avia- tion security by examining a set of issues that are either

  17. The Impact of Road Transporter Development Trajectory onto Cargo Safety and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Lányi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to reveal the general behavioural norms of cargo carriers, with a predominant emphasis on security issues. The security awareness level of road transporters has been found hugely dependent on management capabilities. Additionally, this poses a risk factor indicative of a shipment load's quantity and value. At a certain level of road transporter development trajectory, broad research delineates a sharp increase in security awareness, stemming from leadership recognition at larger companies. The results of the following research findings are significantly similar to various well respected scientific theories which verify the hypothesis that the principal barrier to developing a company is a combination of a lack of management capabilities and an unwillingness to adapt to change.

  18. Security and health protection during the transport of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.; Bobic, V.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of this work describes the legal regulations which regulate the conditions and method of the transport of hazardous substances, necessary documentation for storage, forwarding and transport. Hazardous substances are defined and classified according to the ADR. The necessary security measures which are taken for the transport of particular types of hazardous substances are mentioned. Marking and labeling of vehicles for the transport of hazardous substances (plates and lists of hazards), packing and marking of packaging is important. The safety measures which are taken at the filling stations of combustible liquids as well as places specially organized for filling, prohibitions and limitations and necessary transport documentation are mentioned. It is visible from the above mentioned that the activity of the whole security chain is necessary and depends on the good knowledge of basic characteristics and features of substances. All the participants in the security chain have to be familiar with and consistently obey the legal regulations. The manufacturer must know the features of the hazardous substance, supervisory services must be acquainted with the threat and potential danger. The hauler and intervention forces must, in case of accidents and damage, be familiar with the emergency procedures in case of accidents and act properly regarding the threatening dangerous substance.(author)

  19. 31 CFR 356.0 - What authority does the Treasury have to sell and issue securities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to sell and issue securities? 356.0 Section 356.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... sell and issue securities? Chapter 31 of Title 31 of the United States Code authorizes the Secretary of... AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  20. Perceptions of Accounting Practitioners and Educators on E-Business Curriculum and Web Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragothaman, Srinivasan; Lavin, Angeline; Davies, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This research examines, through survey administration, the perceptions of accounting practitioners and educators with respect to the multi-faceted security issues of e-commerce payment systems as well as e-business curriculum issues. Specific security issues explored include misuse/theft of personal and credit card information, spam e-mails,…

  1. 76 FR 75829 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... IRS is issuing temporary regulations that provide guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation....1275-7(d) applies to Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) issued with more than a de minimis...

  2. Maritime security report number 3. September 1996 [U.S. Coast Guard issues passenger vessel and terminal security inspection regulations; international perspectives on maritime security; first Inter-American course on port security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    While most issues of the Maritime Security Report deal with the security situation in geographic area, the articles in this issue deal with publications, training courses, and policy developments which contribute to deterring opportunities for crimin...

  3. Homeland Security Affairs Journal, Volume II - 2006: Issue 1, April

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS), providing a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies, and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security. The instructors, participants, alumni, and partners of CHDS represent the leading subject matter experts and practitioners in the field of homeland security. April 2006. Welcome to the third edition of Homeland Securit...

  4. Issues of Falsifying Financial Statements in Terms of Economic Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitlukhina, Olga G.; Rakutko, Svetlana Y.; Berezhnova, Elena I.; Selezneva, Elena Y.; Belik, Elena V.; Shalaeva, Nina I.; Denisevich, Elena I.; Belik, Natalia V.; Saenko, Zhanna E.; Sultanova, Alina A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of the country's economic security and entities, timely resolution of which influences directly the country's national security. The cornerstone of successful existence of any country, especially the Russian Federation, during such complicated period is the presence of effective national economic security system.…

  5. Special issue : transport in a post-carbon society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This special issue of World Transport Policy & Practice is an outcome of the conference Planning for the Carbon Neutral World: Challenges for Cities and Regions, held 15-18 May 2008 in Salzburg, Austria. The conference, organised by SCUPAD Salzbu...

  6. 75 FR 18867 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... source categories, retention and disposal, and notification procedure. The Transportation Security... recipients of information about individuals who are their employees, job applicants, or contractors, or.... For each system of records covered by this notice, the retention and disposal sections are updated to...

  7. No nation is home alone: understanding the international dimension of homeland security through global transportation security programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tarpey, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Terrorist actors focus on the global transportation system to introduce threats and target attacks. As the lead department for securing the transportation system into the United States, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) works both domestically and internationally to implement programs and foreign assistance activities to secure the global transportation network. This thesis examines DHS’ international role by analyzing programs...

  8. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  9. High-speed civil transport issues and technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1992-01-01

    A strawman program plan is presented, consisting of technology developments and demonstrations required to support the construction of a high-speed civil transport. The plan includes a compilation of technology issues related to the development of a transport. The issues represent technical areas in which research and development are required to allow airframe manufacturers to pursue an HSCT development. The vast majority of technical issues presented require flight demonstrated and validated solutions before a transport development will be undertaken by the industry. The author believes that NASA is the agency best suited to address flight demonstration issues in a concentrated effort. The new Integrated Test Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility is considered ideally suited to the task of supporting ground validations of proof-of-concept and prototype system demonstrations before night demonstrations. An elaborate ground hardware-in-the-loop (iron bird) simulation supported in this facility provides a viable alternative to developing an expensive fill-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator. Drygen's SR-71 assets, modified appropriately, are a suitable test-bed for supporting flight demonstrations and validations of certain transport technology solutions. A subscale, manned or unmanned flight demonstrator is suitable for flight validation of transport technology solutions, if appropriate structural similarity relationships can be established. The author contends that developing a full-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator is the best alternative to ensuring that a positive decision to develop a transport is reached by the United States aerospace industry.

  10. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  11. 75 FR 18863 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... 12th Street, Arlington, VA, 20598-6036. For privacy issues please contact: Mary Ellen Callahan (703-235... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DHS-2010-0015] Privacy Act of... Matters Tracking Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. [[Page 18864

  12. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems A review of the security and privacy related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. METHODS: Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in

  13. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, M. B.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Amoako, J. K.; Hasford, F.; Akrobortu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Board was established in 1993 by PNDC Law 308 as the National Competent Authority for the regulation of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. The mandate and responsibilities of RPB are prescribed in the legislative instrument, LI 1559 issued in 1993. The operational functions of the Board are carried out by the Radiation Protection Institute, which was established to provide technical support for the enforcement of the legislative instrument. The regulatory activities include among others: – Issuance permits for the import/export of any radiation producing device and radioactive materials into/out of the country. It therefore certifies the radioactivity levels in food and the environmental samples. – Authorization and Inspection of practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. – Undertakes safety assessment services and enforcement actions on practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in line with regulations. – Provides guidance and technical support in fulfilling regulatory requirement to users of radiation producing devices and radioactive materials nationwide by monitoring of monthly radiation absorbed doses for personnel working at radiation facilities. – Provides support to the management of practices in respect of nuclear and radioactive waste programme. – Calibrates radiation emitting equipment and nuclear instrumentation to ensure the safety of patients, workers and the general public. – Establish guidelines for the mounting (non-ionizing) communication masts. – Environmental monitoring (non-ionizing) programmes for communication masts. With the establishment of the national competent authority, facilities using radioactive sources and radiation emitting devices have been brought under regulatory control. Effective regulatory control of radiation emitting devices are achieved through established legal framework, independent Regulatory Authority supported by

  14. Special issue on Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  15. Security and the 2015 elections: issues and perspectives | Attoh Ph ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politics is the quest for power, influence and authority and for the simple reason that political office aids the allocation of resources in transition states it is often viewed as warfare with attendant security implications. Security which is the freedom from danger or damage whether physical or emotional is imperative in the ...

  16. Information Security Issues in Higher Education and Institutional Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Information security threats to educational institutions and their data assets have worsened significantly over the past few years. The rich data stores of institutional research are especially vulnerable, and threats from security breaches represent no small risk. New genres of threat require new kinds of controls if the institution is to prevent…

  17. Security Issues for Mobile Medical Imaging: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhri, Asim F; Chatterjee, Arindam R; Javan, Ramin; Radvany, Martin G; Shih, George

    2015-10-01

    The end-user of mobile device apps in the practice of clinical radiology should be aware of security measures that prevent unauthorized use of the device, including passcode policies, methods for dealing with failed login attempts, network manager-controllable passcode enforcement, and passcode enforcement for the protection of the mobile device itself. Protection of patient data must be in place that complies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and U.S. Federal Information Processing Standards. Device security measures for data protection include methods for locally stored data encryption, hardware encryption, and the ability to locally and remotely clear data from the device. As these devices transfer information over both local wireless networks and public cell phone networks, wireless network security protocols, including wired equivalent privacy and Wi-Fi protected access, are important components in the chain of security. Specific virtual private network protocols, Secure Sockets Layer and related protocols (especially in the setting of hypertext transfer protocols), native apps, virtual desktops, and nonmedical commercial off-the-shelf apps require consideration in the transmission of medical data over both private and public networks. Enterprise security and management of both personal and enterprise mobile devices are discussed. Finally, specific standards for hardware and software platform security, including prevention of hardware tampering, protection from malicious software, and application authentication methods, are vital components in establishing a secure platform for the use of mobile devices in the medical field. © RSNA, 2015.

  18. An Examination of Issues Surrounding Information Security in California Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have provided increasing opportunities in higher education for delivering instruction and other services. However, exposure to information security attacks has been increasing as more organizations conduct their businesses online. Higher education institutions have one of the highest frequencies of security breaches as…

  19. Security and Robustness issues in Collaborative Runtime Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, B.J.G.; Bulling, N.; Dastani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized monitors can have robustness and security risks. Among robustness risks are attacks on the monitor's infrastructure in or- der to disable parts of its functionality. Among security risks are attacks that try to extract information from the monitor, and thereby possibly leak sensitive

  20. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of rail transportation safety and security....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route... establish that the route chosen by the carrier poses the least overall safety and security risk, the...

  1. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  2. 77 FR 15319 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-130777-11] RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue...), providing guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities issued with more than a...

  3. U.S. Relations with Japan: A Critical Security Issue?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodgers, David P

    2006-01-01

    .... The 2005 U.S. National Defense Strategy declares that, "We will create conditions for a favorable international system by honoring our security commitments"--commitments which are critical to our interests abroad...

  4. Mobile Connectivity and Security Issues for Cloud Informatic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmin Cătălin Olteanu

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the importance of new software tools that can be used with mobile devices to make them more secure for the use of day to day business software. Many companies are using mobile applications to access some components to ERP’s or CRM’s remotely. Even the new come, cloud Informatic Systems are using more remote devices than ever. This is why we need to secure somehow these mobile applications.

  5. Mobile Connectivity and Security Issues for Cloud Informatic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Cătălin Olteanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the importance of new software tools that can be used with mobile devices to make them more secure for the use of day to day business software. Many companies are using mobile applications to access some components to ERP’s or CRM’s remotely. Even the new come, cloud Informatic Systems are using more remote devices than ever. This is why we need to secure somehow these mobile applications.

  6. Analysis and solutions of security issues in Ethernet PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Jiang, Tao; Xiao, Dingzhong

    2005-02-01

    Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), which combines the low cost Ethernet equipment and economic fiber infrastructure, is being considered as a promising solution for Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH). However, since EPON is an optical shared medium network, some unique features make it more vulnerable to security attacks. In this paper, the key security threats of EPON are firstly analyzed. And then, considering some specific properties which might be utilized for security, such as the safety of transmissions in upstream direction, some novel methods are presented to solve security problems. Firstly, based on some modification about registration, the mechanism of access control is achieved. Secondly, we implement an AES-128 symmetrical encryption and decryption in the EPON system. The AES-128 algorithm can process data blocks of 128 bits, but the length of Ethernet frame is variable. How to deal with the last block, which is not up to 128 bits, is discussed in detail. Finally, key update is accomplished through a vendor specific OAM frame in order to enhance the level of security. The proposed mechanism will remain in conformance with P2MP specification defined by 802.3ah TF, and can supply a complete security solution for EPON.

  7. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  8. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  9. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued? There are three book-entry securities systems... marketable Treasury securities. We maintain and transfer securities in these three book-entry systems at... inflation. Securities may be transferred from one system to the other, unless the securities are not...

  10. Development and Testing of Intelligent Alcohol Transportation Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velaphi Msomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and testing of intelligent liquid transportation security system are being reported in this paper. The targeted fluid to be secured was ethanol alcohol and this was due to the theft cases occurring during the transportation of this product from the supplier to the customer. The system was developed such that only the radar level sensor (VEGAPULS 62 might be in contact with the fluid and the rest of the system remained outside the liquid carrying container to be secured. The system was developed such that it reports any abnormal liquid level drop through short message service (SMS. The functioning of the developed system was tested through the use of 1040 L Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC filled with water which was hauled for about 1.5 km. The liquid theft was simulated and the system sent two SMS. The first SMS reported the beginning of water level drop and the second one reported the ending of water level drop. The second SMS reported the amount of liquid that was taken out of the container.

  11. Issues of Safety and Security: New Challenging to Malaysia Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Ayob Norizawati; Masron Tarmiji

    2014-01-01

    The safety and security issues nowadays become one of the forces causing changes in tourism industry in era of millennium. The main concern of this issues more focus on crime rates, terrorism, food safety, health issues and natural disaster. This topic gained the popularity in tourism research after 9/11 tragedy and since then the academicians and practitioners started seeking the best solution in ways to mitigate these negative impacts. For Malaysia, the image as safety and secure destinatio...

  12. APPROACH TO CYBER SECURITY ISSUES IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ibikunle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-space refers to the boundless space known as the internet. Cyber-security is the body of rules put in place for the protection of the cyber space. Cyber-crime refers to the series of organized crime attacking both cyber space and cyber security. The Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical infrastructure development. Over the past decades, the growth of the internet and its use afforded everyone this opportunity. Google, Wikipedia and Bing to mention a few, give detailed answers to millions of questions every day. Cyberspace is a world that contains just about anything one is searching for. With the advent of these advancements in information accessibility and the advantages and applications of the internet comes an exponentially growing disadvantage- Cyber Crime. Cyber security has risen to become a national concern as threats concerning it now need to be taken more seriously. This paper attempts to provide an overview of Cybercrime and Cyber-security. It defines the concept of cybercrime, identify reasons for cyber-crime and its eradication. It look at those involved and the reasons for their involvement. Methods of stepping up cyber security and the recommendations that would help in checking the increasing rate of cyber-crimes were highlighted. The paper also attempts to name some challenges of cybercrime and present practical and logical solutions to these threats.

  13. The issue of safety in the transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallier, Lucien

    1961-01-01

    This report addresses and discusses the various hazards associated with transports of radioactive materials, their prevention, intervention measures, and precautions to be taken by rescuers, notably how these issues are addressed in regulations. For each of these issues, this report proposes guidelines, good practices, or procedures to handle the situation. The author first addresses hazards related to a transport of radioactive products: multiplicity of hazards, different hazards due to radioactivity, hazards due to transport modes, scale of dangerous doses. The second part addresses precautionary measures: for road transports, for air transports, for maritime transports, control procedures. The third part addresses the intervention in case of accident: case of a road accident with an unhurt or not vehicle crew, role of the first official rescuers, other kinds of accidents. The fourth part briefly addresses the case of transport of fissile materials. The fifth part discusses the implications of safety measures. Appendices indicate standards, and give guidelines for the construction of a storage building for radioactive products, for the control and storage of parcels containing radioactive products, and for the establishment of instructions for the first aid personnel

  14. APPROACH TO CYBER SECURITY ISSUES IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Ibikunle; Odunayo Eweniyi

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-space refers to the boundless space known as the internet. Cyber-security is the body of rules put in place for the protection of the cyber space. Cyber-crime refers to the series of organized crime attacking both cyber space and cyber security. The Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical infrastructure development. Over the past decades, the growth of the internet and its use afforded everyone this opportunity. Google, Wikipedia and Bing to mention a few, give detaile...

  15. Security Issues in the Android Cross-Layer Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Armando, Alessandro; Merlo, Alessio; Verderame, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The security of Android has been recently challenged by the discovery of a number of vulnerabilities involving different layers of the Android stack. We argue that such vulnerabilities are largely related to the interplay among layers composing the Android stack. Thus, we also argue that such interplay has been underestimated from a security point-of-view and a systematic analysis of the Android interplay has not been carried out yet. To this aim, in this paper we provide a simple model of th...

  16. Sample handling and transport for the Secure Automated Fabrication line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrell, D.L.; Jensen, J.D.; Genoway, G.G.; Togesen, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    A totally automated system is described which packages, transports, receives, and unpackages sintered plutonium/uranium oxide fuel pellet samples to support automated chemical analysis equipment for the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. Samples are transferred 100 meters from the fuel production line to a different floor of the facility where automatic determinations are made for purposes of process control and fuel quality certification. The system automatically records identification numbers, net weights sent and received, and all other pertinent information such as fuel lot number, sample point, date, and time of day

  17. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  18. Nuclear Arms and National Security. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet outlines approaches for dealing with the threat of nuclear warfare in six sections. The first section, "Learning to Live with Nuclear Weapons," introduces the topic and considers what can be done to decrease the risk of nuclear warfare without jeopardizing the nation's security. "Arms…

  19. Security issues and service provision in Laz Otti Memorial Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science ... Data was analysed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. ... To curb this menace, library management must educate users on use of library resources ... Keywords: Library security, Theft, Mutilation, Vandalism, Library resources; Laz Otti Memorial ...

  20. 18 CFR 131.43 - Report of securities issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee 6. State mortgage registration tax 7. State commission fee 8. Fee for recording indenture 9. United States document tax 10. Printing and engraving expenses 11. Trustee's charges 12. Counsel fees 13. Accountant's fees 14. Cost of listing 15. Miscellaneous...

  1. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Schwartz, Moshe; Nakamura, Kennon H

    2008-01-01

    .... In Iraq, private firms known as Private Security Contractors (PSCs) serve to protect individuals, transport convoys, forward operating bases, buildings, and other economic infrastructure, and are training Iraqi police and military personnel...

  2. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses

  3. Making Choices about Hydrogen : Transport Issues for Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 sept. 2008 ... Couverture du livre Making Choices about Hydrogen : Transport Issues for Developing Countries ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  4. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs. Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  5. Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  6. Aviation Security: Urgent Issues Need to Be Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-11

    This is the statement of Keith O. Fultz, Assistant Comptroller General, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, General Accounting Office (GAO), before the Subcommittee on Aviation, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Hou...

  7. Security Issues for Information Quality on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ramona ANDRISESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are used everywhere, from making acall to store huge volume of information. But together withdevices shrinking and rise of storage space on a single device webring to mind the problem of trusting the stored information.Trusting the information and assuring its quality meansknowing the security threats these devices face and measuresthat should be taken. Many questions rise from here like “Whathappens when a mobile device is used by several persons andespecially employees?”, “Is that information reliable andoriginal?”, “Who is responsible for a device and its security?”.We are going to see in this paper that information quality can beassured even on portable devices by using the adequate securitymeasures.

  8. Security Issues of the Digital Certificates within Public Key Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic byte level interpretation of an X.509 v3 digital certificate according to ASN.1 DER/BER encoding. The reasons for byte level analysis are various and important. For instance, a research paper has mentioned how a PKI security may be violated by MD5 collision over information from the certificates. In order to develop further studies on the topic a serious knowledge about certificate structure is necessary.

  9. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection —a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...chemicals, such as chlorine, for purposes such as disinfection .29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence of such...Science and Technology (S& T ) Directorate is engaged in a Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment Project that, among other goals, will assess the

  10. A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues of Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Mauro; E, Sandeep Kumar; Lal, Chhagan; Ruj, Sushmita

    2017-01-01

    Bitcoin is a popular cryptocurrency that records alltransactions in a distributed append-only public ledger calledblockchain. The security of Bitcoin heavily relies on the incentive-compatible proof-of-work (PoW) based distributed consensus pro-tocol, which is run by network nodes called miners. In exchangefor the incentive, the miners are expected to honestly maintainthe blockchain. Since its launch in 2009, Bitcoin economy hasgrown at an enormous rate, and it is now worth about 170 billions...

  11. Review Of E-Commerce Issues: Consumers Perception On Security And Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan Muthaiyah; Joseph Antony Jude Ernest; Chew Kok Wai

    2011-01-01

    Web security has been a major issue of debate in the recent years. The lack of security is perceived as a major stumbling block for doing business online. Electronic cash payment systems are becoming more important than ever to facilitate online transactions and thus replacing traditional payment methods such as checks The prime objective of this paper is to determine the perception of consumers towards the security aspects of e-commerce technology. Specifically this paper examines the percep...

  12. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 15, February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Supporting radiation protection in medicine. Wano's pre-startup support. One stop for incident and emergency communications. Emergency preparedness in IAEA Member States. Sophisticated On-Site Nuclide Identification (RanidSONNI). Over land, sea and air: safe and secure transport of radioactive material. INES at 20: Success from simplicity. IAEA and Ibero-American Forum - strengthening ties. Highlights of the 54th IAEA General Conference, 20-24 September 2010. Highlights of the International conference on Challenges faced by TSOs. Department of Nuclear Safety programme highlights

  13. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica

  14. Laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas; Dreier, Thomas; Chen, Weidong; Kearny, Sean; Kulatilaka, Waruna

    2017-04-10

    This Applied Optics feature issue on laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at the LACSEA 2016 Fifteenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America.

  15. Issues of Human Security and Educational Development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Kpolovie, Peter James; Amaele, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from documents, observation, interview and questionnaire, we highlighted the role of issues of human security and its impact on the educational development of the Niger Delta region as well as means of enhancing human security in Nigeria. This article is a conceptual and methodological breakthrough in Nigeria's academic landscape where…

  16. 6 CFR 27.203 - Calculating the screening threshold quantity by security issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.203 Calculating... possesses a chemical of interest that meets the STQ for any security issue, a facility need not include... development, involving chemicals of interest conducted outside the laboratory. (ii) [Reserved] (3) Propane. In...

  17. Information Security Trends and Issues in the Moodle E-Learning Platform: An Ethnographic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research on information security trends and practices in e-learning is scarce. Many articles that have been published apply basic information security concepts to e-learning and list potential threats or propose frameworks for classifying threats. The purpose of this research is to identify, categorize and understand trends and issues in…

  18. 78 FR 666 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...-BL29 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward AGENCY... contains final regulations that provide guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected... regulations in this document provide guidance to holders of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities and other...

  19. Crossing borders: Security and privacy issues of the European e-passport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Hubbers, E.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Oostdijk, M.D.; Wichers Schreur, R.

    2008-01-01

    The first generation of European e-passports will be issued in 2006. We discuss how borders are crossed regarding the security and privacy erosion of the proposed schemes, and show which borders need to be crossed to improve the security and the privacy protection of the next generation of

  20. Some issues in two-dimensional modeling of tritium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Among the major processes leading to tritium transport through Li ceramic breeders the percolation of gaseous tritium species through the connected porosity remains the lest amenable to a satisfactory treatment. The combination of diffusion and reaction through the convoluted transport pathways prescribed by the system of pores poses a formidable challenge. The key issue is to make the fundamental connection between the tortuousity of the medium with the transport processes in terms of only basic parameters that are amenable to fundamental understanding and experimental determinations. This fundamental challenges is met within the following approaches. The technique that we have employed is a random network percolation model. Local transport in each individual pore channel is described by a set of convection-diffusion-reaction equations. Long range transport is described by a matrix technique. The heterogeneous structure of the medium is accounted for via Monte Carlo methods. In this way the approach requires as inputs only physical-chemical parameters that are amenable to clear basic understanding and experimental determination. In the sense it provides predictive capability. The approach has been applied to an analysis of the concept of tritium residence time which is associated with the first passage time, a direct output of our analysis. In the next stage of our work the tool that we have developed would be employed to investigate the issues of vary large networks, realistic microstructural information and the effect of varying pressure gradient along the purge channels. We have demonstrated that the approach that has been adopted can be utilized to analyze in a very illuminating way the underlying issues of the concept of residence time. We believe that the present approach is ideally suited to tackle these very important yet difficult issues

  1. Security And Privacy Issues in Healthcare Monitoring Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handler, Daniel Tolboe; Hauge, Lotte; Spognardi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Security and privacy issues are rarely taken into account in automated systems for monitoring elderly people in their home, exposing inhabitants to a number of threats they are usually not aware of. As a case study to expose the major vulnerabilities these systems are exposed to, this paper reviews...... a generic example of automated healthcare monitoring system. The security and privacy issues identified in this case study can be easily generalised and regarded as alarm bells for all the pervasive healthcare professionals....

  2. Panel presentation: LDC rate design and transportation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers four general views about local distributing company (LDC) sales rate design, transportation issues, and their implications for policy makers. LDC sales rates often hinder marketing to price sensitive customers. LDC rate design contributes to this problem, but there are other major causes such as add-on revenue taxes and pipeline take-or-pay charges that add to customer costs. State commissions, in varying degrees, are constrained in their ability to respond to a number of the barriers to improved gas marketing. Some problems are simply beyond the power of state commissions to remedy. These include federally imposed pipeline rate structures and take-or-pay costs, as well as various limits imposed by state legislatures (e.g., shut-off prohibitions, add-on taxes). Where they are feasible, LDC transportation services can mitigate marketing barriers that impede sales services. Customers select and pay for only their desired level of supply reliability and flexibility from sellers and pipeline transporters, as well as desired levels of standby service from the LDC. While it greatly benefits markets, the provision of transportation service by an LDC creates important new issues. One is fairness in allocating LDC resources between the sales and transportation functions and in pricing them, to avoid subsidies of one service by the other

  3. Complex governance system issues for transportation renewal projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Strong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public–private partnerships (PPPs is growing in the United States in response to reductions in funding combined with an aging highway transportation infrastructure. Many other countries have longer experience with PPP and a greater understanding of the issues surrounding their use. The main governance issues to be addressed in PPPs deal with risk-sharing, relationships, contracts, and legal framework, and standard processes within dedicated organizational units. These governance issues are examined in the context of a case study for the US 36 Phase II PPP in Colorado. Findings suggest that for the US Phase II project, governance issues are resolved through more relational forms than prescriptive contractual language. Colorado has established a dedicated organizational unit to facilitate the use of PPPs, but there exist no standards or best practices in the United States for procurement, concession terms, or risk-sharing.

  4. 17 CFR 270.12d3-1 - Exemption of acquisitions of securities issued by persons engaged in securities related businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities issued by persons engaged in securities related businesses. 270.12d3-1 Section 270.12d3-1... in securities related businesses. (a) Notwithstanding section 12(d)(3) of the Act, a registered... securities related business, the determination required by paragraph (b) of this section shall be made as...

  5. Status of the Regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law No. 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree No.2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis.

  6. Status of the regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law n° 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree n° 2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis. (author)

  7. Integrating security issues in nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Classical vs policy approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putero, Susetyo Hario; Rosita, Widya; Sihana, Fnu; Ferdiansjah; Santosa, Haryono Budi; Muharini, Anung

    2015-01-01

    Recently, risk management for nuclear facilities becomes more complex due to security issue addressed by IAEA. The harmonization between safety, safeguards and security is still questionable. It also challenges to nuclear engineering curriculum in the world how to appropriately lecture the new issue. This paper would like to describe how to integrate this issue in developing nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Indonesia has still no nuclear power plant, but there are 3 research reactors laid in Indonesia. As addition, there are several hospitals and industries utilizing radioisotopes in their activities. The knowledge about nuclear security of their staffs is also not enough for handling radioactive material furthermore the security officers. Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) is the only university in Indonesia offering nuclear engineering program, as consequently the university should actively play the role in overcoming this issue not only in Indonesia, but also in Southeast Asia. In the other hand, students has to have proper knowledge in order to complete in the global nuclear industry. After visited several universities in USA and participated in INSEN meeting, we found that most of universities in the world anticipate this issue by giving the student courses related to policy (non-technical) study based on IAEA NSS 12. In the other hand, the rest just make nuclear security as a case study on their class. Furthermore, almost all of programs are graduate level. UGM decided to enhance several present related undergraduate courses with security topics as first step to develop the awareness of student to nuclear security. The next (curriculum 2016) is to integrate security topics into the entire of curriculum including designing a nuclear security elective course for undergraduate level. The first trial has successfully improved the student knowledge and awareness on nuclear security. (author)

  8. Lessons learned in communicating nuclear transportation issues - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, B.; Austin, P.

    1992-01-01

    Successful communication requires several key elements. They include a non-intimidating forum for exchanging information, two-way communication, advance preparation to identify what each party wants to learn, and feedback. There is no single approach that guarantees success. Factors such as technical complexity of the issue, level of support by the public, and trust and confidence among the parties all play a role in determining the most workable approach for any particular situation. This paper illustrates lessons learned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating nuclear waste disposal and transportation issues to the public

  9. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with essential tools needed to analyze complex societal issues and demonstrates the transition from physics to modern-day laws and treaties. This second edition features new equation-oriented material and extensive data sets drawing upon current information from experts in their fields. Problems to challenge the reader and extend discussion are presented on three timely issues:   •        National Security: Weapons, Offense, Defense, Verification, Nuclear Proliferation, Terrorism •        Environment: Air/Water, Nuclear, Climate Change, EM Fields/Epidemiology •        Energy: Current Energy Situation, Buildings, Solar Buildings, Renewable  Energy, Enhanced End-Use Efficiency, Transportation, Economics   Praise for the first edition: "This insight is needed in Congress and the Executive Branch. Hafemeister, a former Congressional fellow with wide Washington experience, has written a book for physicists, chemists and engineers who want to learn science...

  10. Cyber-Security Issues in Healthcare Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Steve G

    2017-02-01

    In 1999-2003, SIIM (then SCAR) sponsored the creation of several special topic Primers, one of which was concerned with computer security. About the same time, a multi-society collaboration authored an ACR Guideline with a similar plot; the latter has recently been updated. The motivation for these efforts was the launch of Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). That legislation directed care providers to enable the portability of patient medical records across authorized medical centers, while simultaneously protecting patient confidentiality among unauthorized agents. These policy requirements resulted in the creation of numerous technical solutions which the above documents described. While the mathematical concepts and algorithms in those papers are as valid today as they were then, recent increases in the complexity of computer criminal applications (and defensive countermeasures) and the pervasiveness of Internet connected devices have raised the bar. This work examines how a medical center can adapt to these evolving threats.

  11. Post 9-11 Security Issues for Non-Power Reactor Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaffuts, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the legal and practical issues arising out of the design and implementation of a security-enhancement program for non power reactor nuclear facilities. The security enhancements discussed are derived from the commercial nuclear power industry's approach to security. The nuclear power industry's long and successful experience with protecting highly sensitive assets provides a wealth of information and lessons that should be examined by other industries contemplating security improvements, including, but not limited to facilities using or disposing of nuclear materials. This paper describes the nuclear industry's approach to security, the advantages and disadvantages of its constituent elements, and the legal issues that facilities will need to address when adopting some or all of these elements in the absence of statutory or regulatory requirements to do so

  12. Post 9-11 Security Issues for Non-Power Reactor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaffuts, P. J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper addresses the legal and practical issues arising out of the design and implementation of a security-enhancement program for non power reactor nuclear facilities. The security enhancements discussed are derived from the commercial nuclear power industry's approach to security. The nuclear power industry's long and successful experience with protecting highly sensitive assets provides a wealth of information and lessons that should be examined by other industries contemplating security improvements, including, but not limited to facilities using or disposing of nuclear materials. This paper describes the nuclear industry's approach to security, the advantages and disadvantages of its constituent elements, and the legal issues that facilities will need to address when adopting some or all of these elements in the absence of statutory or regulatory requirements to do so.

  13. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, J.E.; Shaw, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration

  14. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems. A review of the security and privacy related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in literature. Ensuring secure health information exchange across organizations requires a standardization of security measures that goes beyond organizational boundaries, such as global definitions of professional roles, global standards for patient consent and semantic interoperable audit logs. As to be able to fully address the privacy and security issues in interoperable EHRs and the long-life virtual EHR it is necessary to realize a paradigm shift from storing all incoming information in a local system to retrieving information from external systems whenever that information is deemed necessary for the care of the patient.

  15. Ukraine stalls on START I vote; presses US on aid, security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-01-01

    In early January, a Ukrainian delegation came to Washington to discuss issues related to Ukrainian ratification of START I and accession to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The issues discussed at the meeting (US security assurances and economic aid), which were not resolved, have serious implications for START I, the NPT, and the flow-on START II agreement

  16. Inhibiting and driving forces for the digitalization of security systems: security officers’ view on the issue

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Markus

    2007-01-01

    This memo reports on factors that drive and inhibit the digitalization of security systems. The reported factors are as follows: Technology-push factors • Need to lower costs on the end-user side, i.e. replacing labour with technology • Perceived convenience and ease-of-use of digital systems • Digital products can be connected to the current enterprise network; enabling an expanding set of security features • Firms holding the IP-capability (IP=Internet Protocol) and not h...

  17. Marketing and security issues in e-business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Marija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedant development of the IT influenced the development of the electronic business and internet. Introducing the electronic business into companies worldwide and accepting the new global media - internet, have enabled the development of the new area of the marketing practice - electronic marketing. Electronic marketing has kept the basics of the traditional marketing, but it has also adapted to the new standards in the business and, together with internet, it has opened up remarkable opportunities for the small and big companies, through the global accessibility of their offers. Electronic business is become the imperative of the modern business under the conditions of today's economic and political globalization, which dictates the rules of conduct among the world market players. The usage of internet has enabled direct, interactive communication, but has also started questions regarding security of that communication and protection of company's or individual's data. It is certain that the area of the electronic business and electronic trade, has unstoppable and unpredictable directions of development and so many potential users, while globalization has unique goal, but many interested masters. How the world will look like in the future, what countries will fit in, and what countries will dictate the tempo of the further development, remains to be seen.

  18. Comparative Discourse Analysis of the Security-Privacy Dilemma: Salience of Security Issues in Printed Media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guasti, Petra; Mansfeldová, Zdenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2015), s. 127-156 ISSN 0254-0223 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 285223 - SECONOMICS Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : security * media * stuxnet Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2015

  19. Internet of Things in Marketing: Opportunities and Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashidze, Irakli; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) affects different areas of human activities: everyday life of ordinary citizens, work style of marketing teams, factories and even entire cities. Large companies try to implement the technology in their marketing strategy that reshapes not only communication style and product promotion but consumers' expectations, perceptions and requirements towards companies. IoT is expected to become a huge network that will encompass not only smart devices but significantly influence humans' behavior, in this particular case - decision making style in different phases of purchase process. Therefore, the need for comprehensive scientific research is necessary. The issue needs to be reviewed from various points of view, such as opportunities, advantages, disadvantages, legal and technical considerations. The paper is an attempt to review different aspects of using Internet of Things for marketing purposes, identify some of the major problems and present possible ways of solution.

  20. INTERNET OF THINGS IN MARKETING: OPPORTUNITIES AND SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli ABASHIDZE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT affects different areas of human activities: everyday life of ordinary citizens, work style of mar-keting teams, factories and even entire cities. Large companies try to implement the technology in their marketing strat-egy that reshapes not only communication style and product promotion but consumers’ expectations, perceptions and requirements towards companies. IoT is expected to become a huge network that will encompass not only smart devic-es but significantly influence humans’ behavior, in this particular case – decision making style in different phases of pur-chase process. Therefore, the need for comprehensive scientific research is necessary. The issue needs to be reviewed from various points of view, such as opportunities, advantages, disadvantages, legal and technical considerations. The paper is an attempt to review different aspects of using Internet of Things for marketing purposes, identify some of the major problems and present possible ways of solution.

  1. MISTRAL: A game-theoretical model to allocate security measures in a multi-modal chemical transportation network with adaptive adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarico, Luca; Reniers, Genserik; Sörensen, Kenneth; Springael, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-modal security-transportation model to allocate security resources within a chemical supply chain which is characterized by the use of different transport modes, each having their own security features. We consider security-related risks so as to take measures against terrorist acts which could target critical transportation systems. The idea of addressing security-related issues, by supporting decisions for preventing or mitigating intentional acts on transportation infrastructure, has gained attention in academic research only recently. The decision model presented in this paper is based on game theory and it can be employed to organize intelligence capabilities aimed at securing chemical supply chains. It enables detection and warning against impending attacks on transportation infrastructures and the subsequent adoption of security countermeasures. This is of extreme importance for preventing terrorist attacks and for avoiding (possibly huge) human and economic losses. In our work we also provide data sources and numerical simulations by applying the proposed model to a illustrative multi-modal chemical supply chain. - Highlights: • A model to increase the security in a multimodal chemical supply chain is proposed. • The model considers adaptive opponents having multi-attribute utility functions. • The model is based on game theory using an attacker–defender schema. • The model provides recommendations about where to allocate security measures. • Numerical simulations on a sample multimodal chemical supply chain are shown

  2. 17 CFR 239.23 - Form N-14, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-14, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions by investment companies and business... N-14, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions by investment...

  3. 17 CFR 230.488 - Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination transactions. 230.488 Section... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Investment Companies; Business Development Companies § 230.488 Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination...

  4. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239.34 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE...

  5. Geographic Resolution Issues in RAM Transport Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Transport risk analyses based on the RADTRAN code have been met with continual demands for increased spatial resolution of variations in population densities and other parameters employed in the calculation of risk estimates for transport of radioactive material (RAM). With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs) large quantities of data required to describe transport routes, which may extend to hundreds of kilometers, with high resolution (e.g. 1 km segments) can be handled without inordinate expense. This capability has raised a question concerning the maximum resolution of available input data and compatibility with RADTRAN computational models. Quantitative examinations are presented of spatial resolution issues in the calculation of incident-free doses and accident dose risks. For incident-free calculations, the effect of decreasing route-segment length on accuracy, in view of the model employed, is examined, and means of reducing total data input to the RADTRAN calculations, without loss of meaningful resolution of population concentrations, are presented. In the case of accident-risk calculations, the ability to detail population density under very large dispersal plumes permits comparison of plume modelling to actual data. In both types of calculations, meaningful limits to geographic extent are suggested. (author)

  6. The security of gas supply-a critical issue for Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, Hellmuth

    2007-01-01

    Gas is competing with oil for being the dominant energy source. In electricity generation gas is to play as pivotal a role as oil in transportation. The security equation of gas and electricity become unseparably interrelated. Energy disruptions have considerable influence on the national accounts far beyond the direct cost of market participants (asymmetry). The present gas supply to the EU depends dangerously on too few sources and venues. There is a decided lack of optionality. The EU directly or through its members needs a clear proactive policy on 'Security of Gas Supply' with a strong multilateral direction. The measures developed for the oil industry over the last 30 years can at least serve as a starting point for a constructive debate. When discussing security of supply dependence it is useful to clearly define the various risks one wishes to protect against. Free riders relying on alternative fuels without participating in their security systems are not permissible

  7. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.

    2009-01-01

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  8. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S. [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  9. Germany and energy security in the 2000s: Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S., E-mail: duffield@gsu.ed [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future.

  10. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part VI--Investments in Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The sixth in a series of theory-based essays, this article presents accounting for investments in debt and equity securities along with some related conceptual and measurement issues. Additional coverage is devoted to potential ethical dilemmas and both theoretical and empirical literature related to this asset. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  11. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  12. 13 CFR 107.1505 - Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing Participating Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity requirements for... (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1505 Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing... liquidity to avoid a condition of Liquidity Impairment. Such a condition will constitute noncompliance with...

  13. The Identity Crisis. Security, Privacy and Usability Issues in Identity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpár, G.; Hoepman, J.H.; Siljee, B.I.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the current "identity crisis" caused by the substantial security, privacy and usability shortcomings encountered in existing systems for identity management. Some of these issues are well known, while others are much less understood. This paper brings them together in a single,

  14. 78 FR 73868 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... security screening and identity verification of individuals, including identification media and identifying... undergoing screening of their person (including identity verification) or property; individuals against whom... addresses, phone numbers); Social Security Number, Fingerprints or other biometric identifiers; Photographs...

  15. As for the Question of the Relationship Between the Concepts of «Security» and «Transport Security»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita S. Ryazanov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problems of determining transport security, the correlation of this category with a generic notion of security and its other types. This paper examines the formation and development of modern legislative model for transport security. Threats to the safe and sustainable functioning of the transport complex are indicated by their types are also analyzed. In addition, the Author explores the terms «transport security» and «transport safety», which, despite the similarity of language, are the different contents in the regulations, and, consequently, definition. On the results of the analysis of national legislation, the problems of legal regulation of transportation security pointed out are pointed out and suggestions are made on ways to minimize these problems. According to the results of the research, the Author develops a unified definition of transport security and its object, which is relevant today.

  16. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed. - Highlights: • The hazards associated to the use of radioactive sources must be taken into account. • Security issues are of paramount importance in the use of radioactive sources. • Radiation sources can be used to perpetrate terrorist acts (RDDs, INDs, REDs). • DSRS and orphan sources trigger radiological protection, safety and security concerns. • Regulatory control, from cradle to grave, of radioactive sources is mandatory.

  17. Indian space transportation programme: Near term outlook and issues for commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Narayan Prasad

    2015-05-01

    The Indian space transportation programme has grown from strength to strength with the launching of sounding rockets in the 60's to the development of heavy lift vehicles for telecommunication satellites in the present decade. With the growing market confidence in Indian Space Research Organisation's ability to reliably deliver payloads to low Earth orbit with its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, there is an inherent opportunity for India to cater to the commercial market. The present work assesses the current launch capacity of India in retrospect of international launches and provides India's outlook for the space transportation in the current decade. Launch capacity correlation with the requirements within the Indian space programme as well as the current space transportation infrastructure have been considered to identify bottlenecks in catering to the current national requirements alongside securing a greater market share in the international launch market. The state of commercialisation of launch vehicle development has been presented to provide an overview of policy and organisational issues for commercialisation of space transportation in India.

  18. Action at sea: Transport security exercise conducted off the coast of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Stig; Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    As in an action movie, ships, helicopters and uniformed people set the scene off the coast of Sweden on 6 May 2015 when national authorities conducted an exercise on security while transporting spent nuclear fuel. The exercise was part of a joint project with the IAEA to test and evaluate a new IAEA guide on planning, conducting and evaluating transport security exercises. The test subject and model was the security framework of Sweden’s national nuclear transport system, which regularly ships used fuel from power plants along the coast to the country’s interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel.

  19. THE PROBLEM OF PROPER CARGO SECURING IN ROAD TRANSPORT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CIEŚLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of improper security of cargo in trucks as the cause of about 25% of the accidents that takes place in road transport. Attention was drawn to aspects of legal liability for errors resulting from incorrect load securing according to polish law. Article was enriched with practical examples illustrating the effects of improper cargo securing on transport unit and shows how it had to be prepared properly. When planning the proper transport protection of metal sheets rolled both calculation methods and computer applications were used.

  20. Beam transport physics issues for the recirculating linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokair, I.R.

    1992-11-01

    The Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) utilizes the Ion Focused Regime (IFR) of beam transport plus a ramped bending field to guide the beam around the curved sections. Several issues of beam transport are considered. Beam transverse perturbations that could result in growth of the ion hose instability are analyzed. It is found that transverse kicks due to bending field errors, energy mismatches and fringe fields are the most important. The scaling of these perturbations with beam and channel parameters is derived. The effect of ramping of the bending field on the preformed plasma channel is then considered. For RLA experimental parameters the effect is found to be very small. For high energies however, in addition to axial heating, it is found that ramping the field causes compression of the plasma channel along the radius of curvature. This compression results in a quasi-equilibrium plasma electron temperature along the field lines which leads to collisionless transport towards the walls. The analysis of compression is done in an approximate way using a single particle picture and the channel expansion is analyzed using an envelope solution which gives a simple expression for the expansion time. This solution is then verified by Buckshot simulations. For a bending field of 2 kG ramped in 2 μ-secs and an argon channel (RLA parameters) we estimate that the channel radius doubling time (along field lines) is of the order of 0.5 μ-secs. Finally the effect of electron impact ionization due to axially heated electrons by the action of the inductive field is estimated. It is found that in Argon gas the electron avalanche time could be as low as 0.5 μ-sec which is smaller than the field ramp time

  1. Spent nuclear fuel transportation: public issues and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The court-ordered shipping of 750 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from West Valley, New York back to their utility owners has generated considerable public and media interest. This paper discusses the specific concerns of the general public over the West Valley shipments, the issues raised by opposition groups, the interest of public officials and emergency preparedness teams as well as the media coverage generated. An analysis is performed on the effectiveness of the West Valley and utility public information programs utilized in addressing these issues, concerns and interests. Emphasis is placed on communications which work to facilitate the shipments and generate fuel transport acceptance. Information programs are discussed which increase preparedness for nuclear shipments by emergency response teams and build public confidence in their safety. The paper also examines communications which could have further enhanced the shipping campaign to date. Finally, plans are discussed for media preparation with interview training and press conferences. Emphasis is placed on materials provided for the media which have served to generate more favorable print and air time

  2. Spent nuclear fuel transportation: Public issues and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The court-ordered shipping of 750 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from West Valley, New York back to their utility owners has generated considerable public and media interest. This paper discusses the specific concerns of the general public over the West Valley shipments, the issues raised by opposition groups, the interests of public officials and emergency preparedness teams as well as the media coverage generated. An analysis is performed on the effectiveness of the West Valley and utility public information programs utilized in addressing these issues, concerns and interests. Emphasis is placed on communications which work to facilitate the shipments and generate fuel transport acceptance. Information programs are discussed which increase preparedness for nuclear shipments by emergency response teams and build public confidence in their safety. The paper also examines communications which could have further enhanced the shipping campaigns to date. Finally, plans are discussed for media preparation with interview training and press conferences. Emphasis is placed on materials provided for the media which has served to generate more favorable print and air time

  3. Does science have the answer to most issues of food security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Musolino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, the attention to food security has grown with the awareness of resources’ scarcity, earth excessive exploitation, population growth and climate change, all factors that are associated with an impelling food emergency. A plethora of theoretical perspectives adopted in analysing food security issue reflects in diverse normative approaches. Some focus on the rapport between population demand and food supply, seeking to reduce the former or increase the latter in order to achieve food security. Applying the technological progress of scientific research will have its positive outcomes: production will increase, keeping prices low; the limited resources will be used more efficiently, decreasing the consumption of water, energy and land; the environment will benefit from a more sustainable production. However, scientific solutions, such as population control, that do not restore individuals’ entitlement to food will be ineffective in preventing food insecurity. Therefore, food security it is not achievable by the sole means of science. A greater quantity of food does not guarantee a more equal distribution of resources. Increasing food production without altering its uneven distribution will only augment this inequality, making who has access to food more secure but not helping who is currently affected by the food insecurity issues. Science can play its role, but development towards the solutions to food insecurity must be led by politics.

  4. 17 CFR 239.25 - Form S-4, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form S-4, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions. 239.25 Section 239.25 Commodity and... business combination transactions. This form may be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933...

  5. Exercise handbook : what transportation security and emergency preparedness leaders need to know to improve emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has provided extensive general guidance on developing training and exercise programs for public entities, but little had been done to focus that material on the transportation sector specifically. Transp...

  6. Transportation management and security during the 2004 Democratic National Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-05

    The transportation operations plan for the 2004 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Boston, Massachusetts, was not a typical transportation plan driven by goals such as mobility and air quality. The DNC was the first national political convention...

  7. Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

  8. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  9. A transportation security system applying RFID and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijian Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is about developing a centralized, internet based security tool which utilizes RFID and GPS technology to identify drivers and track the load integrity. Design/methodology/approach: The system will accomplish the security testing in real-time using the internet and the U.S. Customs’ database (ACE. A central database and the interfaces and communication between the database and ACE will be established. After the vehicle is loaded, all openings of the tanker are sealed with disposable RFID tag seals. Findings/value: An RFID reader and GPS tracker wirelessly connected with the databases will serve as testing grounds for the implementation of security measures that can help prevent future terrorist attacks and help in ensuring that the goods and products are not compromised while in transit. The system will also reduce the labor work of security check to its minimum. 

  10. Safeguard and security issues for the U.S. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Moya, R.W.; Duggan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Materials Disposition (MD) is analyzing long-term storage and disposition options for fissile materials, preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), preparing for a Record of Decision (ROD) regarding this material, and conducting other related activities. A primary objective of this program is to support U.S. nonproliferation policy by reducing major security risks. Particular areas of concern are the acquisition of this material by unauthorized persons and preventing the reintroduction of the material for use in weapons. This paper presents some of the issues, definitions, and assumptions addressed by the Safeguards and Security Project Team in support of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The discussion also includes some preliminary ideas regarding safeguards and security criteria that are applicable to the screening of disposition options

  11. An Analysis of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grid Software Architectures on Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Cao, Baohua; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2011-07-09

    Power utilities globally are increasingly upgrading to Smart Grids that use bi-directional communication with the consumer to enable an information-driven approach to distributed energy management. Clouds offer features well suited for Smart Grid software platforms and applications, such as elastic resources and shared services. However, the security and privacy concerns inherent in an information rich Smart Grid environment are further exacerbated by their deployment on Clouds. Here, we present an analysis of security and privacy issues in a Smart Grids software architecture operating on different Cloud environments, in the form of a taxonomy. We use the Los Angeles Smart Grid Project that is underway in the largest U.S. municipal utility to drive this analysis that will benefit both Cloud practitioners targeting Smart Grid applications, and Cloud researchers investigating security and privacy.

  12. Safeguards and security issues for the U.S. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Moya, R.W.; Duggan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Materials Disposition (MD) is analyzing long-term storage and disposition options for fissile materials, preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), preparing for a Record of Decision (ROD) regarding this material, and conducting other related activities. A primary objective of this program is to support US nonproliferation policy by reducing major security risks. Particular areas of concern are the acquisition of this material by unauthorized persons and preventing the reintroduction of the material for use in weapons. This paper presents some of the issues, definitions, and assumptions addressed by the Safeguards and Security Project Team in support of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The discussion also includes some preliminary ideas regarding safeguards and security criteria that are applicable to the screening of disposition options

  13. Ministerial Decree of 16 February 1976 relating to approval of the model certificate of financial security for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Decree by the Minister of Industry, Commerce and Crafts, in consultation with the Minister of Transport, approves the model certificate of financial security for the transport of nuclear materials. This type of certificate issued by nuclear insurers is intended to provide detailed information on the nature of the financial security for damage likely to be caused by the materials in the course of transport; it is required to supply the certificate according to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, ratified by Italy in 1975. The standardised presentation of this certificate enables it to be used in international transport between countries parties to the Paris Convention as proof of the existence of the financial security. (N.E.A.)

  14. 78 FR 55270 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... their official duties. The computer system also maintains a real-time audit of individuals who access... Secure Flight Program regulations \\4\\ for the purpose of enhancing the security of air travel in the... detection of individuals on federal government watch lists who seek to travel by air, and to facilitate the...

  15. Goal system for comparative assessments of nuclear fuel transport under security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, V.; Schwieren, G.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the great hazard potential of nuclear fuel transports the possibility always exists during transportation that either a single perpetrator or a group of perpetrators will try to get possession of the nuclear fuel. One can assume that at the end of such illegal actions there will be a politically (or otherwise) motivated extortion. Thinking about security one has to face things like sabotage, attacks from inside or outside the system, robbery and/or dispersion of the transported goods. In respect to the security of nuclear transports we carried out an investigation for the German Ministry of the Interior in order to review the different levels of security of different transport systems. This paper deals with the methodological approach, especially with the goal system and the way we executed the investigation

  16. Security And Privacy Issues in Health Monitoring Systems: eCare@Home Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wearing, Thomas; Dragoni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Automated systems for monitoring elderly people in their home are becoming more and more common. Indeed, an increasing number of home sensor networks for healthcare can be found in the recent literature, indicating a clear research direction in smart homes for health-care. Although the huge amount...... of sensitive data these systems deal with and expose to the external world, security and privacy issues are surpris-ingly not taken into consideration. The aim of this paper is to raise some key security and privacy issues that home health monitor systems should face with. The analysis is based on a real world...... monitoring sensor network for healthcare built in the context of the eCare@Home project....

  17. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  18. Security Issues in Cross-Organizational Peer-to-Peer Applications and Some Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Awasthi, Lalit K.

    Peer-to-Peer networks have been widely used for sharing millions of terabytes of content, for large-scale distributed computing and for a variety of other novel applications, due to their scalability and fault-tolerance. However, the scope of P2P networks has somehow been limited to individual computers connected to the internet. P2P networks are also notorious for blatant copyright violations and facilitating several kinds of security attacks. Businesses and large organizations have thus stayed away from deploying P2P applications citing security loopholes in P2P systems as the biggest reason for non-adoption. In theory P2P applications can help fulfill many organizational requirements such as collaboration and joint projects with other organizations, access to specialized computing infrastructure and finally accessing the specialized information/content and expert human knowledge available at other organizations. These potentially beneficial interactions necessitate that the research community attempt to alleviate the security shortcomings in P2P systems and ensure their acceptance and wide deployment. This research paper therefore examines the security issues prevalent in enabling cross-organizational P2P interactions and provides some technical insights into how some of these issues can be resolved.

  19. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 12, September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Nuclear Security Report 2009; G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group (NSSG); Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team (UPSAT); New Entrant Nuclear Power Programmes Safety Guide on the Establishment of the Safety Infrastructure (DS424)

  20. FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) issues new accounting rules for debt and equity securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Bayou, M E

    1994-10-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued a new statement that requires all companies to change their methods of accounting for debt and equity securities. Rather than allowing organizations to use a historical cost approach in accounting for such financial instruments, FASB Statement No. 115 requires organizations to adopt a market value approach. The provisions of this statement will affect significantly organizations in the healthcare industry that have large investment portfolios.

  1. Dynamic security issues in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, I.D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2011-01-01

    Asynchronous Generator (DFAG) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) – are applied and issues regarding interaction with the power system are investigated. This paper provides conclusions about the dynamic security of non-interconnected power systems with high wind power penetration based...... on a complete model representation of the individual components of the system; three different types of conventional generators are included in the model, while the protection system is also incorporated. The load shedding following faults is finally discussed....

  2. Individual social security accounts: issues in assessing administrative feasibility and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L

    1998-11-01

    Whether to add individual accounts (IAs) to the Social Security system is a highly political issue. But almost lost in the debate so far have been any practical considerations about how to administer such accounts. Any discussion of whether to create individual accounts must also address the basic but critical questions of how they would work: Who would run them? What would they cost? Logistically, are they even possible? This EBRI Issue Brief provides an overview of the most salient administrative issues facing the current Social Security reform debate--issues that challenge proponents to carefully think through how their proposals could be implemented so as to achieve their policy goals. The options and difficulties in administering IAs raise concerns that cut across ideology. The object of this report is neither to dissuade the advocates nor support the critics of individual accounts. Rather, it is to bring practical considerations to a political debate that has largely ignored the pragmatic challenges of whether IAs would be too complex for participants to understand or too difficult for record keepers to administer. The major findings in this analysis include: Adding individual accounts to Social Security could be the largest undertaking in the history of the U.S. financial market, and no system to date has the capacity to administer such a system. The number of workers currently covered by Social Security--the largest single entitlement program in the nation--is at least four times higher than the combined number of all tax-favored employment-based retirement accounts in the United States, which are administered by hundreds of entities. Direct comparisons between employment-based retirement savings plans and Social Security reform are tenuous at best. Social Security covers workers and businesses that are disproportionately excluded from employment-based plans. Because of these differences, a system of individual Social Security accounts would be more

  3. Exploring transportation, employment, housing, and location issues for New Jersey veterans with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Working-age veterans with disability face myriad responsibilities when they seek to rejoin civilian life. They must secure housing : and employment while coping with health care concerns and one or more disabilities. Access to transportation part...

  4. Workshop on ''Climate change and environmental issues in transportation''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothengatter, Werner; Ott, Anselm; Scholz, Aaron (and others)

    2008-07-15

    The workshop covers the following issues: 1. Recommendations - action list: raking responsibility; analyzing the areas of impact; designing the instruments. 2. Climate change and necessary responses: challenges for the economy and the transportation sector; external cost of transportation and climate change. 3. Taking responsibility in the transportation sector: global responsibility; strategy in air transportation, strategies in road transportation; strategies in rail transportation, strategies in shipping.

  5. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  6. Safety and security in transportation of radioactive material- the perception of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, A.M.; Jaernry, C. [AMC Konsult AB, Bromma (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Since the event of September 11, 2001, the way most people look at transportation risk has changed. There is now a lot more focusing on the security concerns related to the transportation of radioactive material. Most people are now more concerned about the risk of terrorist actions or sabotage than of accidents. This is probably due to the fact that the safety record for transportation of radioactive material has so far been very good and that most people experience terrorism and sabotage more scaring and less controllable than general accidents. This paper will compare the safety and the security regulations and discuss synergies and contradictions between the sets of regulations.

  7. Safety and security in transportation of radioactive material- the perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.; Jaernry, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since the event of September 11, 2001, the way most people look at transportation risk has changed. There is now a lot more focusing on the security concerns related to the transportation of radioactive material. Most people are now more concerned about the risk of terrorist actions or sabotage than of accidents. This is probably due to the fact that the safety record for transportation of radioactive material has so far been very good and that most people experience terrorism and sabotage more scaring and less controllable than general accidents. This paper will compare the safety and the security regulations and discuss synergies and contradictions between the sets of regulations

  8. Issues of Safety and Security: New Challenging to Malaysia Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayob Norizawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety and security issues nowadays become one of the forces causing changes in tourism industry in era of millennium. The main concern of this issues more focus on crime rates, terrorism, food safety, health issues and natural disaster. This topic gained the popularity in tourism research after 9/11 tragedy and since then the academicians and practitioners started seeking the best solution in ways to mitigate these negative impacts. For Malaysia, the image as safety and secure destination was tarnished a few years lately and new unfortunates incident in this year bring more damage to Malaysia image. Healthy issues, terrorism, Lahad Datu intrusion, repeated kidnapping and shooting in Sabah, twin airlines incident, riot and illegal demonstration and false reporting by international media brings new challenging to Malaysia. Although some incident may be had short-term impact to Malaysia tourism industry, but it’s still gave the big impact to Malaysia branding process. Many travellers and Malaysian itself still believe that Malaysia is a one of safer destination and country to visit and stayed in, but more outstanding efforts was require to make sure Malaysia tourism industry was capable to recover from this negative impact as soon as possible.

  9. 49 CFR 1544.305 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessment or to a specific threat against civil aviation, TSA issues a Security Directive setting... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  10. Third-year medical students' knowledge of privacy and security issues concerning mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Elizabeth C; Allgood, Kacy L; Larue, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    The use of mobile devices are ubiquitous in medical-care professional settings, but information on privacy and security concerns of mobile devices for medical students is scarce. To gain baseline information about third-year medical students' mobile device use and knowledge of privacy and security issues concerning mobile devices. We surveyed 67 third-year medical students at a Midwestern university on their use of mobile devices and knowledge of how to protect information available through mobile devices. Students were also presented with clinical scenarios to rate their level of concern in regards to privacy and security of information. The most used features of mobile devices were: voice-to-voice (100%), text messaging (SMS) (94%), Internet (76.9%), and email (69.3%). For locking of one's personal mobile phone, 54.1% never physically lock their phone, and 58% never electronically lock their personal PDA. Scenarios considering definitely privacy concerns include emailing patient information intact (66.7%), and posting de-identified information on YouTube (45.2%) or Facebook (42.2%). As the ease of sharing data increases with the use of mobile devices, students need more education and training on possible privacy and security risks posed with mobile devices.

  11. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.A. [International Transport, BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Hartenstein, M. [Transport External Affairs, Marketing, Sales and Projects Div., Cogema Logistics, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Nawano, M. [Transport Headquarters, Overseas Reprocessing Committee, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11{sup th} 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security.

  12. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.A.; Hartenstein, M.; Nawano, M.

    2004-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11 th 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security

  13. Special Issue on Entropy-Based Applied Cryptography and Enhanced Security for Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James (Jong Hyuk Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a basic and important concept in information theory. It is also often used as a measure of the unpredictability of a cryptographic key in cryptography research areas. Ubiquitous computing (Ubi-comp has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm. In this special issue, we mainly selected and discussed papers related with ore theories based on the graph theory to solve computational problems on cryptography and security, practical technologies; applications and services for Ubi-comp including secure encryption techniques, identity and authentication; credential cloning attacks and countermeasures; switching generator with resistance against the algebraic and side channel attacks; entropy-based network anomaly detection; applied cryptography using chaos function, information hiding and watermark, secret sharing, message authentication, detection and modeling of cyber attacks with Petri Nets, and quantum flows for secret key distribution, etc.

  14. Investigating the issue of copyright and security measures in digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ahmadi Fasih

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, digital libraries have been the primary source of retrieving necessary information. IT helps many scholars have the access to recently published value added researches around the world. However, information security and copyright concerns are among the most important issues and there must be good rules and regulation to protect authors against any sort of copyright violation. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find out about the status of copyright issues in one of Iranian libraries. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 96 librarian experts. Cronbach alpha is equal to 0.76, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results of our investigation indicate that although expert believe the status of copyright is in desirable level when the level of significance is five percent, there are some concerns on some issues. In other words, experts believed that all copyrights are not well protected and digital libraries do not follow governmental rules and regulation on fully protecting authors’ rights. In addition, experts believed that the security of sources available on digital libraries is not well protected.

  15. Editorial of the Special Issue “Intelligent Transportation Systems”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems are very important in modern life; therefore, massive research efforts have been devoted to this field of study in the recent past. Effective vehicular connectivity techniques can significantly enhance efficiency of travel, reduce traffic incidents and improve safety, and alleviate the impact of congestion, constituting the so-called Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS experience.[...

  16. Current issues in the impacts of transport on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, M C I; Mindell, J S

    2018-03-01

    Transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Health on the Move 2; Journal of Transport and Health. Benefits of travel for access and physical activity. Harms include health impacts of air and noise pollution; injuries and fatalities from falls or collisions; sedentary behaviour with motorized transport; community severance (barrier effect of busy roads and transport infrastructure); global climate change; impacts on inequalities; transport's role in facilitating spread of communicable diseases. Biofuels; cycle safety; driving by older people. Effects of default 20 mph speed limits; impacts of autonomous vehicles on health and inequalities.

  17. A review of tsp as one of the transportation security aspects of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiryono

    2013-01-01

    A review has done for the Transportation Safety Plan (TSP) as one of the aspects of safety in the transport of nuclear materials. The review is necessary to harmonize national regulations with international practice. International practice of using TSP as one of the security requirements in addition to the Radiation Protection Program as a requirement of safety in the transport of nuclear materials. TSP is intended to ensure sound implementation of the transport of nuclear materials. TSP evaluation process can be done with a prescriptive approach, performance, and combinations. TSP contains information about administrative requirements, delivery security and response planning. TSP can be used to ensure the security of the implementation of the transport of nuclear materials effectively and efficiently. BAPETEN should require the applicant to submit the TSP as one document security requirements prior approval transporting nuclear materials. BAPETEN need to define the approach to the formulation and evaluation of TSP. BAPETEN need to set up an evaluation and inspection procedures for the implementation of TSP. (author)

  18. General Approaches and Requirements on Safety and Security of Radioactive Materials Transport in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.N.; Buchel'nikov, A.E.; Komarov, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Development and implementation of safety and security requirements for transport of radioactive materials in the Russian Federation are addressed. At the outset it is worth noting that the transport safety requirements implemented are in full accordance with the IAEA's ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2009 Edition)''. However, with respect to security requirements for radioactive material transport in some cases the Russian Federation requirements for nuclear material are more stringent compared to IAEA recommendations. The fundamental principles of safety and security of RM managements, recommended by IAEA documents (publications No. SF-1 and GOV/41/2001) are compared. Its correlation and differences concerning transport matters, the current level and the possibility of harmonization are analysed. In addition a reflection of the general approaches and concrete transport requirements is being evaluated. Problems of compliance assessment, including administrative and state control problems for safety and security provided at internal and international shipments are considered and compared. (author)

  19. Physical Layer Secret-Key Generation Scheme for Transportation Security Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2017-06-28

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are widely used in different disciplines, including transportation systems, agriculture field environment monitoring, healthcare systems, and industrial monitoring. The security challenge of the wireless communication link between sensor nodes is critical in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a new physical layer secret-key generation scheme for transportation security sensor network. The scheme is based on the cooperation of all the sensor nodes, thus avoiding the key distribution process, which increases the security of the system. Different passive and active attack models are analyzed in this paper. We also prove that when the cooperative node number is large enough, even when the eavesdropper is equipped with multiple antennas, the secret-key is still secure. Numerical results are performed to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  20. Cyber security issues, challenges and solutions for the emerging smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westlund, D. [N-Dimension Solutions Inc., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper explored the technology and business issues and challenges associated the smart grid's tolerance of physical and cyber security attacks and proposed a framework that provides practical solutions for the electric operator. The 7 characteristics of a smart grid were described. Notably, a smart grid is self healing; supports client equipment and usage behaviour; tolerates physical and cyber security attacks; delivers high-quality power to customers; supports various power generation technologies; supports competitive power markets; and, delivers capital asset optimization while minimizing operational costs. According to the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), power capacity will increase by 6 per cent in the United States and 9 per cent in Canada, while the demand for electricity is expected to rise by 19 and 13 per cent respectively. In addition, total transmission miles are projected to increase by less than 7 per cent in the U.S. and by only 3.5 per cent in Canada. A Smart Grid, with distributed monitoring and control, is therefore needed to meet the increased demand. However, the power and energy sectors are targets for cyber attackers. Cyber security in real-time grid operations is a complex matter. Cyber risks include unauthorized access to control systems; interception of control data; attack on system components; interception of monitoring data; intentional and unintentional human intervention; and, impairment to application software. The proposed solution framework is based on a roadmap developed by the United States Homeland Security organization, the United States Department of Energy, and the Canadian Energy Infrastructure Protection Division. NERC reliability standards and framework are also integrated into this framework. The technical aspects of the framework include: ease of use; defence-in-depth characteristics; extensive monitoring within electronic security perimeters; protection of legacy systems; auditing, logging

  1. 49 CFR 1570.13 - False statements regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. 1570.13 Section 1570.13 Transportation Other... regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. (a) Scope. This... employee of a public transportation agency or a contractor or subcontractor of a public transportation...

  2. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  3. Network Security Issues in The Internet of Things (IoT)

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    This paper surveys a broad range of other research works in order to discuss network security issues in the Internet of Things (IoT). We begin with setting the scene generally with an outline of IoT, followed by a discussion of IoT layer models and topologies. After this, IoT standardization efforts and protocols are analysed, before we discuss in depth vulnerabilities, attacks and mitigations with regard IoT. It is concluded that ample research and narrative exists for protocols and vulnerab...

  4. Risk in the Clouds?: Security Issues Facing Government Use of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    Cloud computing is poised to become one of the most important and fundamental shifts in how computing is consumed and used. Forecasts show that government will play a lead role in adopting cloud computing - for data storage, applications, and processing power, as IT executives seek to maximize their returns on limited procurement budgets in these challenging economic times. After an overview of the cloud computing concept, this article explores the security issues facing public sector use of cloud computing and looks to the risk and benefits of shifting to cloud-based models. It concludes with an analysis of the challenges that lie ahead for government use of cloud resources.

  5. Technical issues affecting the transport of dual purpose casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Brimhall, J.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuel storage pools at many nuclear reactors in the US have already or will soon be filled to maximum capacity. Approximately 50,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) spent fuel will be discharged by the projected 2003 start-up date of a federal disposal system. Of this, approximately 6,000 MTU will require storage outside existing or projected pool storage capabilities (DOE, 1988). At-reactor dry storage of spent fuel, including vault, caisson, and cask systems, is being considered as an alternative to accommodate this excess fuel. Two dry storage cask concepts are among those under consideration. One involves placing spent fuel in storage-only casks (SOC) until a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility or repository is open when the spent fuel would be transferred to a transport-only cask (TOC) for shipment. The second option, the dual purpose or transportable storage cask (TSC), is a system that would serve for both storage and later transport without requiring the spent fuel to be unloaded. To carry out its purpose, a TSC must be shipped directly from a storage facility to a disposal facility without first being opened to evaluate the cask or the fuel. To assure that both the fuel and the cask are in a transportable condition after 20 to 40 years of storage requires: (1) a definition of expected storage conditions; (2) an assessment of the impact of expected storage conditions on the reliability of the components and functions of the TSC during transport; and (3) the development of an overall TSC system design and operational strategy which ensures that TSC transport reliability meets or exceeds that of a transport-only cask. The later requirement is related to defining what appropriate design features, pre-shipment inspections, and/or alternative fuel and cask monitoring requirements are necessary during long-term storage to ensure the cask will meet transport requirements during later transport

  6. Technical issues affecting the transport of dual purpose casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Brimhall, J.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 60,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) spent fuel will be discharged by the projected 2003 startup date of a federal disposal system. Of this, approximately 15,000 MTU will require storage outside existing or projected pool storage capabilities (Orvis et al., 1984). At-reactor dry storage of spent fuel, including vault, caisson, and cask systems, is being considered as an alternative to accommodate this excess fuel. Two dry storage cask concepts are among those under consideration. One involves placing spent fuel in storage-only casks (SOC) until a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility or repository is open, when the spent fuel would be transferred to a transport-only cask (TOC) for shipment. The second option, the dual purpose or transportable storage cask (TSC), is a system that would serve for both storage and later transport. To carry out its purpose, a TSC must be shipped directly from a storage facility to a disposal facility without first being opened to evaluate the cask or the fuel. To assure that both the fuel and the cask are in a transportable condition after 20 to 40 years of storage requires: (1) a definition of expected storage conditions; (2) an assessment of the impact of expected storage conditions on the reliability of the components and functions of the TSC during transport; and (3) the development of an overall TSC system design and operational strategy which ensures that TSC transport reliability compares to that of a transport-only cask. The later requirement is related to defining what appropriate design features, pre-shipment inspection, and/or alternative fuel and cask monitoring requirements are necessary during long-term storage to ensure the cask will meet transport performance requirements during later transport. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  8. 19 CFR 0.2 - All other CBP regulations issued under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false All other CBP regulations issued under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security. 0.2 Section 0.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSFERRED OR DELEGATED AUTHORITY...

  9. Current issues in the transport of radioactive waste and spent fuel: work by the World Nuclear Transport Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)

  10. Substantiating the Target Level of Economic Security of Transport Enterprises and the Instrumentarium for Its Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedko Sergiy A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the methodology for assessing the economic security of transport enterprises, determining the target level and the instrumentarium for its provision. The proposed methodical approach to the assessment of the level of economic security of transport enterprises includes the determination of the level of counteracting threats and is based on the principles of integral estimation. The formed integrated indicator includes both indicators of counteracting the internal (human, managerial and technological, force majeure, financial and external threats (market, stakeholder, power-based, natural, infrastructural. Each measure of counteracting threats is determined by results of assessment of dynamics of the three indicators. A practical testing of the proposed approach is carried out in the case of transport enterprises. Based on the established equation of the regression relationship between the level of economic security and the financial strength, a target level of economic security of transport enterprises has been substantiated. The instrumentarium to provide a targeted level of economic security according to the threat types, including preventive and reactive measures, has been developed.

  11. Evaluation of issues around road materials for sustainable transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to a number of other factors (social, economic, etc) sustainable transport requires the sustainable supply and use of construction materials. This includes the use of marginal materials, waste materials, novel / innovative materials...

  12. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of... consumer protection and civil rights laws and regulations related to air transportation. The Enforcement... travelers, and to ensure safe and adequate service in air transportation. Filing a complaint using a web...

  13. Environmental degradation, population displacement and global security: An overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    An initial investigation is presented on the interrelationship between environmental degradation and population displacements, in the broader context of how this linkage affects human security. Emphasis is placed on both the causes and effects of population movements, with specific examples drawn from Southeast Asia. Types of migrants, the importance of environmental degradation with respect to other contributing factors, and the effects on origin and destination regions are considered. A key issue is the multi-causality of population displacements and the importance of improving understanding of the issues in order to develop appropriate policies. It is clear from the study that the discussion of environment as a cause or contributing factor to population displacement has, to date, been speculative, and the information provided largely anecdotal. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  15. 17 CFR 259.206 - Form U-6B-2, for notification of security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act. 259.206 Section 259.206 Commodity and... security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act. This form shall be filed pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act as the certificate of notification of the issue, sale, renewal, or guaranty of securities...

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Methodology for Homeland Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teagarden, Grant A.; Canavan, Kenneth T.; Nickell, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    In response to increased interest in risk-informed decision making regarding terrorism, EPRI was selected by U.S. DHS and ASME to develop and demonstrate a nuclear sector specific methodology for owner / operators to utilize in performing a Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP) assessment for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The objective is to characterize SNF transportation risk for risk management opportunities and to provide consistent information for DHS decision making. The method uses a characterization of risk as a function of Consequence, Vulnerability, and Threat. Worst reasonable case scenarios characterize risk for a benchmark set of threats and consequence types. A trial application was successfully performed and implementation is underway by one utility. (authors)

  17. Safety and security considerations for the transport of spent teletherapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, Mario; Paez, Jose; Huatay, Luis; Cruz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Among the applications of nuclear technology, a practice widely used and generates many benefits to society are teletherapy applications. Many of the teletherapy units used contain a source of cobalt-60 and after their useful life they have to be dismantled and transported to a safe place. In this case were transported two units with an activity of more than 75 TBq . This paper presents safety and security considerations for the transport of the teletherapy units according to the recommendations of actual state of art. It is described all facets of safe transport by means of a set of technical and administrative safety requirements and controls, including the actions required by the consignor and carrier. The main emphasis was put on the stages of transport operations that give rise to exposure to radiation like packing, preparation, loading, handling, storage in transit and movement of packages of radioactive material. On the other side some security actions were considered in order to prevent theft, sabotage or other malicious acts during the transport of the packages. As a conclusion it must be mentioned that both safety and security considerations are very important aspects that must be taking in account for the transport of high activity radioactive material. (author)

  18. The At Issue Maturity of Corporate Bonds: The Influence of Credit Rating, Security Level, Duration and Macreoconomic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Geetajali Bali; Frank Skinner

    2003-01-01

    We examine the determinants of the at issue time to maturity of corporate bonds. We find evidence that corporations partly determine the at issue maturity of bonds by responding to economic conditions. They also appear to immunize by matching the maturity of assets with the at issue maturity of bonds regardless of credit quality. Finally, we find evidence that the security level (our proxy for the recovery rate) is inversely related to the at issue time to maturity. This suggests that lenders...

  19. Valuation of Urban Commercial Properties in Nigeria for Secured Lending: Issues and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namnso Bassey Udoekanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation for secured lending is required when an interest in real property is used as security for a loan. The outcome of such valuation will help the lending institution to achieve commercial prudence in lending as well as avoid taking undue risk. This paper examines the issues and developments in the valuation of urban commercial properties in Nigeria for secured lending purposes. It argues that due to the volatile nature of the Nigerian economy, coupled with the linkage between the economy and commercial property markets, the maximum amount of loan to be granted by lenders in the country using interest in commercial property as collateral should be based on the Mortgage Lending Value (MLV and not the Market Value (MV of the property, although the market value should also be reported in the valuation. A case study is used to demonstrate the valuation. It further contends that since the inputs for determining the MLV of a commercial property must be derived from long-term trends in the property and financial markets, it is more stable than MV when used to determine the maximum amount of mortgage loan to be granted by a lender. It concludes that the stability of the MLV makes it more reliable than the MV in achieving commercial prudence in mortgage lending as it fits into the long-term nature of mortgage loan repayment.

  20. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  1. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  2. Security of Supply of Hydrocarbonates and Differences in Approach to the Issue Definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, T.

    2006-01-01

    Security of Supply became an issue during the First World War when First Lord of Admiralty, W. Churchill, decided to modernize the Navy by replacing coal with oil as a propelling fuel for ships. Crude oil that arrived from the then Persia opened up the question of Security. First Lord of Admiralty defined it in the following way: S afety and certainty in oil lie in variety and variety alone... . This concept of diversification of supply became topical again during the oil crises in 1973. It is topical even today as the world faces disruptions in supply caused by war intervention in Iraq, Al-Qaeda terrorist threats, hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico or difficulties in natural gas supply caused by disputes between Russia and Ukraine. The important element of security of supply is the own oil and gas production from domestic fields or foreign concessions. The countries that have their own oil industry regard highly the strategic importance of their own reserves. Private ownership of shares in oil companies or sources of capital does not diminish this strategic importance. Participation of renewable energy sources is important not only for environmental protection but for mitigating dependence on energy imports. Croatian energy strategy should be adjusted to new challenges and conditions on the energy market, taking also into account the relevant EU regulations.(author)

  3. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  4. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  5. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  6. Survey on Security Issues in Cloud Computing and Associated Mitigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Rohit; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-06-01

    Cloud Computing holds the potential to eliminate the requirements for setting up of high-cost computing infrastructure for IT-based solutions and services that the industry uses. It promises to provide a flexible IT architecture, accessible through internet for lightweight portable devices. This would allow multi-fold increase in the capacity or capabilities of the existing and new software. In a cloud computing environment, the entire data reside over a set of networked resources, enabling the data to be accessed through virtual machines. Since these data-centers may lie in any corner of the world beyond the reach and control of users, there are multifarious security and privacy challenges that need to be understood and taken care of. Also, one can never deny the possibility of a server breakdown that has been witnessed, rather quite often in the recent times. There are various issues that need to be dealt with respect to security and privacy in a cloud computing scenario. This extensive survey paper aims to elaborate and analyze the numerous unresolved issues threatening the cloud computing adoption and diffusion affecting the various stake-holders linked to it.

  7. Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually form a large part of these examinations. The psychologist must understand various forms of non-credible behavior during the PCE, and how malingering might be considered among other non-credible presentations. Issues pertaining to symptom validity testing in low-functioning claimants are further explored. SSA policy with respect to symptom validity testing is carefully examined, with an attempt to answer specific concerns and show how psychological science can be of assistance, particularly with evidence-based practice. Additionally, the nature and importance of techniques to avoid the mislabeling of claimants as malingerers are examined. SSA requires the use of accepted diagnostic techniques with which to establish impairment, and this article describes the implementation of that requirement, particularly with respect to validating the findings.

  8. Foreword for the special issue of selected papers from the 1st ECML/PKDD Workshop on Privacy and Security issues in Data Mining and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis; Yucel Saygin; Vassilios S. Verykios

    2011-01-01

    The first Workshop on Privacy and Security issues in Data Mining and Machine Learning (PSDML 2010) was organized on September 24, 2010 at Barcelona, Spain, in conjunction with the European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML PKDD). Privacy and security-related aspects of data mining and machine learning have been the topic of active research during the last decade due to the existence of numerous applications with privacy and/or...

  9. Oil and international security: old and new issues; Petrole et securite internationale: de nouveaux enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-09-01

    This paper questions the effectiveness of the link between international oil and (inter)national security. First, it explains an acknowledge the rise and decline of the traditional case of this link: the threat that so called ''oil dependence'' inflicts upon the national economy, hence the problem it raises for government. The reason for that decline is looked for in the emergence of multiple forms of competition in oil and energy markets, making the ''oil weapon'' less credible and its use less desirable and less possible. In oil like in any other commodity, the normal situation is the competition between suppliers for access to markets. For all basic economics tells us and experience has confirmed, analyses and policies (at least in France) are still strongly influenced by the ''oil security'' thinking shaped in the eve of the 1970 crises. Yet, those fallacies may be the strongest obstacle to the acknowledgment of the real oil security issues we face. The main one is the possible political destabilization of the Middle East due to oil competition between its members in an increasingly competitive world market. The consequences on regional antagonisms of the come back of Iraqi oil to the market on one hand, the internal stability of Iran and Saudi Arabia in a situation of lasting low oil revenues on the other hand, are reviewed as the main possible factors of regional destabilization in a context of strong competition in the world oil market. A large scale political burst with major oil producers concerned would certainly hurt developed and developing economy. That leads us to this paradoxical situation: the very cause of the decline of the traditional oil dependence issue is, due to Middle East situation, the main cause of possible destabilization of world oil market today. (author)

  10. On Issue of Algorithm Forming for Assessing Investment Attractiveness of Region Through Its Technospheric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, L. A.; Skvortsova, N. K.

    2017-11-01

    The article examines the problematic aspects of assessing the investment attractiveness of a region associated with the consideration of methodological issues that require refinement from the point of view of its technospheric security. Such issues include the formation of a sound system of indicators for the assessment of man-made risk which has a particular impact on the level of investment attractiveness of the region. In the context of the instability of the economic situation in Russia, the problem of man-made risks assessing in the context of the regional investment attractiveness based on an integrated approach and taking into account such principles as flexibility, adaptability, innovative orientation has not only lost its relevance but was also transformed into one of the most important conditions for ensuring the effective management of all spheres of the regional activities. The article poses the classical problem of making decisions on the results of the assessment of the investment attractiveness of the region in a matrix format evaluating the utility function. The authors of the article recommended a universal risk assessment model with its subsequent synthesis into technospheric security for the comprehensive assessment of regional investment attractiveness. The principal distinguishing feature of the study results are the schemes for manipulation in the evaluation activity associated with the selection of the optimality criteria groups and models for their study. These iterations make it possible to substantiate the choice of the solution for preserving the technospheric security of the region, a field of compromises or an “ideal” solution to the problem of the regional investment attractiveness loss.

  11. Oil and international security: old and new issues; Petrole et securite internationale: de nouveaux enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-09-01

    This paper questions the effectiveness of the link between international oil and (inter)national security. First, it explains an acknowledge the rise and decline of the traditional case of this link: the threat that so called ''oil dependence'' inflicts upon the national economy, hence the problem it raises for government. The reason for that decline is looked for in the emergence of multiple forms of competition in oil and energy markets, making the ''oil weapon'' less credible and its use less desirable and less possible. In oil like in any other commodity, the normal situation is the competition between suppliers for access to markets. For all basic economics tells us and experience has confirmed, analyses and policies (at least in France) are still strongly influenced by the ''oil security'' thinking shaped in the eve of the 1970 crises. Yet, those fallacies may be the strongest obstacle to the acknowledgment of the real oil security issues we face. The main one is the possible political destabilization of the Middle East due to oil competition between its members in an increasingly competitive world market. The consequences on regional antagonisms of the come back of Iraqi oil to the market on one hand, the internal stability of Iran and Saudi Arabia in a situation of lasting low oil revenues on the other hand, are reviewed as the main possible factors of regional destabilization in a context of strong competition in the world oil market. A large scale political burst with major oil producers concerned would certainly hurt developed and developing economy. That leads us to this paradoxical situation: the very cause of the decline of the traditional oil dependence issue is, due to Middle East situation, the main cause of possible destabilization of world oil market today. (author)

  12. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2007-01-01

    Why this book on the Physics of Societal Issues? The subdivisions of physics - nuclear physics, particle physics, condensed-matter physics, biophysics - have their textbooks, while the subdivision of physics and society lacks an equation-oriented text on the physics of arms, energy and the environment. Physics of Societal Issues is intended for undergraduate and doctoral students who may work on applied topics, or who simply want to know why things are the way they are. Decisions guiding policies on nuclear arms, energy and the environment often seem mysterious and contradictory. What is the science behind the deployment of MIRVed ICBMs, the quest for space-based beam weapons, the fear of powerline EM fields, the wholesale acceptance of SUVs, the issues of climactic change, and the failure of the pre-embargo market to produce buildings and appliances that now save over 50 power plants? Physics of Societal Issues is three "mini-texts" in one: National Security (5 chapters): Weapons, offense, defense, verificat...

  13. Membrane transporters and drought resistance – a complex issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Jarzyniak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved complex adaptation strategies to survive changes in water status in the environment. Understanding the molecular nature of such adaptive changes allows the development of rapid innovations to improve crop performance. Plant membrane transport systems play a significant role when adjusting to water scarcity. Here we put proteins participating in transmembrane allocations of various molecules in the context of stomatal, cuticular and root responses, representing a part of the drought resistance strategy. Their role in the transport of signaling molecules, ions or osmolytes is summarized and the challenge of the forthcoming research, resulting from the recent discoveries, is highlighted.

  14. Environment issues and the future of the transport industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiller, J W [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    1992-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry must make the necessary investment in products and technology to meet the competitive and environmental challenges of the future. Discussion is presented of: the history of motor vehicles, the relationship of motor vehicles to the environment, the state of climate change knowledge, future economic development and the transport sector, the changing structure of the motor vehicle fleet, traffic congestion, alternative fuels, investments in transport, the European Energy Charter, The US Energy Strategy, the North American free trade agreement, and the economics of the automobile industry in Japan/South East Asia and the developing countries. 61 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  16. Making choices about hydrogen: Transport issues for developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12.6 Malaysian government hydrogen fuel-cell research, development and ...... Policies, promises and practices: The application of hydrogen fuel cells in the transport ... This contrasts with the internal combustion engine, whose principles were ..... through annual registration fees and taxes on motor vehicles and motor fuel.

  17. Issues in tokamak/stellarator transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1990-08-01

    At present, the mechanism for anomalous energy transport in low-β toroidal plasmas -- tokamaks and stellarators -- remains unclear, although transport by turbulent E x B velocities associated with nonlinear, fine-scale microinstabilities is a leading candidate. This article discusses basic theoretical concepts of various transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms as well as experimental ramifications which would enable one to distinguish among them and hence identify a dominant transport mechanism. While many of the predictions of fine-scale turbulence are born out by experiment, notable contradictions exist. Projections of ignition margin rest both on the scaling properties of the confinement mechanism and on the criteria for entering enhanced confinement regimes. At present, the greatest uncertainties lie with the basis for scaling confinement enhancement criteria. A series of questions, to be answered by new experimental/theoretical work, is posed to resolve these outstanding contradictions (or refute the fine-scale turbulence model) and to establish confinement enhancement criteria. 73 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  18. The Issue of Data Protection and Data Security in the (Pre-Lisbon EU Third Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Neill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The key functional operability in the pre-Lisbon PJCCM pillar of the EU is the exchange of intelligence and information amongst the law enforcement bodies of the EU. The twin issues of data protection and data security within what was the EU’s third pillar legal framework therefore come to the fore. With the Lisbon Treaty reform of the EU, and the increased role of the Commission in PJCCM policy areas, and the integration of the PJCCM provisions with what have traditionally been the pillar I activities of Frontex, the opportunity for streamlining the data protection and data security provisions of the law enforcement bodies of the post-Lisbon EU arises. This is recognised by the Commission in their drafting of an amending regulation for Frontex , when they say that they would prefer “to return to the question of personal data in the context of the overall strategy for information exchange to be presented later this year and also taking into account the reflection to be carried out on how to further develop cooperation between agencies in the justice and home affairs field as requested by the Stockholm programme.” The focus of the literature published on this topic, has for the most part, been on the data protection provisions in Pillar I, EC. While the focus of research has recently sifted to the previously Pillar III PJCCM provisions on data protection, a more focused analysis of the interlocking issues of data protection and data security needs to be made in the context of the law enforcement bodies, particularly with regard to those which were based in the pre-Lisbon third pillar. This paper will make a contribution to that debate, arguing that a review of both the data protection and security provision post-Lisbon is required, not only in order to reinforce individual rights, but also inter-agency operability in combating cross-border EU crime. The EC’s provisions on data protection, as enshrined by Directive 95/46/EC, do not apply

  19. The DOE transportation strategy: Public information, communications network and issue resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philpott, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The OCRWM plans to issue a draft ''comprehensive transportation plan'' in the fall of 1987 that combines the Institutional Plan, the Transportation Business Plan (DOE/RW-0046, January 1986), and a framework for transportation operational procedures. This paper reviews the major elements of the OCRWM's institutional strategy. The OCRWM's strategy for addressing transportation issues relies on the development of public information to foster public understanding and acceptance of program activities and goals, and active communication and interaction with all parties having an interest in the development and operation of the NWPA transportation program. The OCRWM's goal in conducting such activities is to foster cooperative effort in addressing transportation issues, and to focus on communication and constructive interaction rather than conflict

  20. Problems and issues for short-haul air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of developing an efficient short-haul air system are not primarily technical, but economic and political. The key issues are whether the community will accept new and expanded air facilities, what standards of service the passengers will demand and how the system will evolve. The solutions recommended are national in scope and require the federal government to take a leading role.

  1. Training on Transport Security of Nuclear/Radioactive Materials for Key Audiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Ronald; Liu, Yung; Shuler, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Packaging Certification Program (PCP), Office of Packaging and Transportation, Office of Environmental Management has sponsored a series of three training courses on Security of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials during Transport. These courses were developed and hosted by Argonne National Laboratory staff with guest lecturers from both the U.S. and international organizations and agencies including the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE national laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), and the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS). Each of the three courses held to date were one-week in length. The courses delved in detail into the regulatory requirements for transport security, focusing on international and U.S.-domestic requirements and guidance documents. Lectures, in-class discussions and small group exercises, including tabletop (TTX) and field exercises were designed to enhance the learning objectives for the participants. For example, the field exercise used the ARG-US radio frequency identification (RFID) remote surveillance system developed by Argonne for DOE/PCP to track and monitor packages in a mock shipment, following in-class exercises of developing a transport security plan (TSP) for the mock shipment, performing a readiness review and identifying needed corrective actions. Participants were able to follow the mock shipment on the webpage in real time in the ARG-US Command Center at Argonne including “staged” incidents that were designed to illustrate the importance of control, command, communication and coordination in ensuring transport security. Great lessons were learned based on feedback from the participant’s course evaluations with the series of the courses. Since the

  2. ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices - Summary and recommendations of the 12. European ALARA network workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Crouail, P.; Drouet, F.

    2010-01-01

    The 12. European ALARA Network (EAN) workshop on 'ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices' took place in Vienna (Austria) in October 2009. The aim of that workshop was to consider how the implementation of ALARA3, in terms of planned and emergency situations, involving worker and public doses, is affected by the introduction of security-related measures. In the case of new equipment and procedures, there was also the question of whether exposures arising from security screening devices can be justified and optimised. This workshop consisted of invited oral presentations, which highlighted the main issues, and half of the programme was devoted to discussions within working groups on specific topics. During their discussions, the working groups identified recommendations dealing with the following topics: the implementation of the Code of Conduct and HASS4 - ensuring ALARA; balancing security and safety - how to achieve an optimum solution; the management of an emergency exposure situation from an ALARA perspective; the justification and optimisation of the use of security devices. The objective of this paper is to present the main conclusions and recommendations produced during the workshop. Individual presentations (papers and slides) as well as the reports from the working groups are available to download on the EAN web site (http://www.eu-alara.net). (authors)

  3. THE EU APPROACH TO THE WESTERN BALKANS: A SECURITY OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth FERERRO-TURRIÓN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the policies developed by the European Union towards the Western Balkans, especially those related to human mobility and visa liberalization. The main target of the paper will be to show how the conditionality policies towards these countries have been developed related to security, geopolitical needs and interests, instead of the objective/technical criteria stated in the communitarian official documents. We will see how the last enlargements of the Union have affected considerably the different positions adopted by member states in their approach toward the Balkan countries, especially in relation to chapters 23 and 24 of the negotiation agreements, dealing with issues of Justice and Home Affairs. Since then, the pragmatic approach of the Union has been reinforced, so that the accession of candidates has been delayed in time. However, some things might change, if we take into consideration the current refugee and Ukraine crises, the new relationships that have been developed with Russia (especially by Serbia, and Greece’s approach towards Moscow on the verge of the economic crisis. If the European Union has, until now, followed a stick-and-carrot approach towards the Balkans in order to maintain a security belt on its southeast border, this approach might change within a new geopolitical context. In this paper we will analyse the visa liberalization process and its developments since Thessaloniki 2003, to show how the decisions taken by the Union have been more linked to political matters related to security than to technical reasons related to passport design.

  4. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 10, March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The current issue contains information about the following meetings: Application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors (the 'Code'). Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS II); Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention). The document also gives an overview on International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ)

  5. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 11, June 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2008; Feedback from IRS Topical Studies and Events Applied to Safety Standards; Education and Training Programmes at the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security; Peer Review of Operational Safety Performance (PROSPER)

  6. Measurement issues associated with using survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul S; Fisher, T Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Researchers using survey data matched with administrative data benefit from the rich demographic and economic detail available from survey data combined with detailed programmatic data from administrative records. The research benefits of using these matched data are too numerous to mention. But there are drawbacks as well, and those drawbacks have received less systematic attention from researchers. We focus on survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration and address the strengths and weaknesses of each in four specific areas: (1) program participation and benefits, (2) disability and health information, (3) earnings, and (4) deferred compensation. We discuss the implications of these strengths and weaknesses for decisions that researchers must make regarding the appropriate data source and definition for the concepts in question. From this discussion, some general conclusions are drawn about measurement issues associated with using matched survey and administrative data for research, policy evaluation, and statistics.

  7. Transuranic waste transportation issues in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Rodgers, J.C.; Neill, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin disposal of defence transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico before the end of 1988. Approximately 25,000 truck shipments involving 35 million vehicle kilometers will be required to transport about 175,000 m 3 of contact-handled transuranic waste. Up to 5,000 shipments of remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) will also be shipped to WIPP in shielded casks. This paper addresses the shipment of CH-TRU wastes

  8. 75 FR 7978 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Security Administration, 601 South 12th Street, Arlington, VA 20598-6036. For privacy issues please contact... Secretary 6 CFR Part 5 [Docket No. DHS-2009-0137] Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions... Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 76 FR 14115 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., Telephone (202) 267-3168, Fax (202) 267-5075, or e-mail at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Rulemaking Advisory Committee [[Page 14116

  10. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  11. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  12. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills G, Scott; Neuhauser, Sieglinde

    2000-01-01

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale

  13. Modelling of Security Principles Within Car-to-Car Communications in Modern Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Durech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS bring advanced applications that provide innovative services for various transportation modes in the area of traffic control, and enable better awareness for different users. Communication connections between intelligent vehicles with the use of wireless communication standards, so called Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs, require ensuring verification of validity of provided services as well as services related to transmission confidentiality and integrity. The goal of this paper is to analyze secure mechanisms utilised in VANET communication within Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS with a focus on safety critical applications. The practical part of the contribution is dedicated to modelling of security properties of VANET networks via OPNET Modeler tool extended by the implementation of the OpenSSL library for authentication protocol realisation based on digital signature schemes. The designed models simulate a transmission of authorised alert messages in Car-to-Car communication for several traffic scenarios with recommended Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES. The obtained results of the throughput and delay in the simulated network are compared for secured and no-secured communications in dependence on the selected digital signature schemes and the number of mobile nodes. The OpenSSL library has also been utilised for the comparison of time demandingness of digital signature schemes based on RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman, DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm and ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm for different key-lengths suitable for real time VANET communications for safety-critical applications of C-ITS.

  14. The issue resolution process in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.A.; Denny, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program consists of various technical and institutional program activities which engender concern from the general public and from policymakers at federal, state, and local levels. Most familiar are the concerns centered around selection of a site for a repository; however, the transportation portion of the OCRWM program also engenders similar concerns for safety, efficiency and effectiveness. The major Transportation institutional issues were detailed in the Institutional Plan, issued in 1986, and include topics such as liability, defense waste, routing, emergency response, risk identification and mitigation, cash integrity, inspection and enforcement of high-level waste shipments and use of overweight trucks as part of the modal mix. This paper will define the process being used to identify and resolve institutional issues, show how the technical and institutional issues interface and are addressed, and briefly describe four specific activities which illustrate the process of resolving institutional issues in the Transportation program

  15. Physical security and cyber security issues and human error prevention for 3D printed objects: detecting the use of an incorrect printing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    A wide variety of characteristics of 3D printed objects have been linked to impaired structural integrity and use-efficacy. The printing material can also have a significant impact on the quality, utility and safety characteristics of a 3D printed object. Material issues can be created by vendor issues, physical security issues and human error. This paper presents and evaluates a system that can be used to detect incorrect material use in a 3D printer, using visible light imaging. Specifically, it assesses the ability to ascertain the difference between materials of different color and different types of material with similar coloration.

  16. Cascade: a review of heat transport and plant design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, K.A.; McDowell, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop for Cascade, a centrifugal-action solid-breeder reaction chamber, has been investigated and results are presented. The Cascade concept, a double-cone-shaped reaction chamber, rotates along its horizontal axis. Solid Li 2 O or other lithium-ceramic granules are injected tangentially through each end of the chamber. The granules cascade axially from the smaller radii at the ends to the larger radius at the center, where they are ejected into a stationary granule catcher. Heat and tritium are then removed from the granules and the granules are reinjected into the chamber. A 50% dense Li 2 O granule throughput of 2.8 m 3 /s is transferred from the reaction chamber to the steam generators via continuous bucket elevators. The granules then fall by gravity through 4 vertical steam generators. The entire transport system is maintained at the same vacuum conditions present inside the reaction chamber

  17. Energy and Environmental Issues, 1991. Transportation research record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Mitigation of Traffic Mortality of Endangered Brown Pelicans on Coastal Bridges; Cooperation Between State Highway and Environmental Agencies in Dealing With Hazardous Waste in the Right-of-Way; Comparison of Intersection Air Quality Models' Ability to Simulate Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in an Urban Area; Model Calculation of Environment-Friendly Traffic Flows in Urban Networks; Sensitivity Analysis for Land Use, Transportation, and Air Quality; Special Events and Carbon Monoxide Violations: TSM, Crowd Control, Economics, and Solutions to Adverse Air Quality Impacts; Mode Split at Large Special Events and Effects on Air Quality; Internal Consistency and Stability of Measurements of Community Reaction to Noise; Impact and Potential Use of Attitude and Other Modifying Variables in Reducing Community Reaction to Noise; Techniques for Aesthetic Design of Freeway Noise Barriers; Effects of Road Surface Texture on Traffic and Vehicle Noise; Electrokinetic Soil Processing in Waste Remediation and Treatment: Synthesis of Available Data; Site Remediation by In Situ Vitrification

  18. Applicants' preference for impression management tactic in employment interviews by Transportation Security Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Joseph N; Lamude, Kevin G

    2009-04-01

    Following past findings on employment interviews, this study hypothesized applicants would have a preference for using self-promoting tactics of impression management over other focuses. Self-reports of impression management tactics were collected from 124 applicants who had interviews for screener positions with the Transportation Security Administration. Contrary to the hypothesis, analysis indicated participants reported they used more ingratiation tactics attempting to praise the interviewer than self-promotion tactics which focused on their own accomplishments. Special qualifications for security jobs which required well-developed perceptual abilities and the controlling structure of the interview context were perhaps responsible for present results differing from prior findings.

  19. Security Issues for Intelligence Information System based on Service-Oriented Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ackoski, Jugoslav; Trajkovik, Vladimir; Davcev, Danco

    2011-01-01

    Security is important requirement for service-oriented architecture (SOA), because SOA considers widespread services on different location and diverse operational platforms. Main challenge for SOA Security still drifts around “clouds” and that is insufficient frameworks for security models based on consistent and convenient methods. Contemporary security architectures and security protocols are in the phase of developing. SOA based systems are characterized with differences ...

  20. Research on Issues concerning Social Security for Migrant Workers in Harmonious Society

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China, and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security, social security, equality and the right to development, political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant worker...

  1. A joint FED watermarking system using spatial fusion for verifying the security issues of teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, P; Krishna, P Venkata

    2014-05-01

    Teleradiology allows transmission of medical images for clinical data interpretation to provide improved e-health care access, delivery, and standards. The remote transmission raises various ethical and legal issues like image retention, fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc. A joint FED watermarking system means a joint fingerprint/encryption/dual watermarking system is proposed for addressing these issues. The system combines a region based substitution dual watermarking algorithm using spatial fusion, stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key, and fingerprint verification algorithm using invariants. This paper aims to give access to the outcomes of medical images with confidentiality, availability, integrity, and its origin. The watermarking, encryption, and fingerprint enrollment are conducted jointly in protection stage such that the extraction, decryption, and verification can be applied independently. The dual watermarking system, introducing two different embedding schemes, one used for patient data and other for fingerprint features, reduces the difficulty in maintenance of multiple documents like authentication data, personnel and diagnosis data, and medical images. The spatial fusion algorithm, which determines the region of embedding using threshold from the image to embed the encrypted patient data, follows the exact rules of fusion resulting in better quality than other fusion techniques. The four step stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key for encrypting the patient data with fingerprint verification system using algebraic invariants improves the robustness of the medical information. The experiment result of proposed scheme is evaluated for security and quality analysis in DICOM medical images resulted well in terms of attacks, quality index, and imperceptibility.

  2. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. Issue no. 4, June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    allow a broad discussion and to form a consolidated opinion. This should apply to requests for assistance from recipient states as well from donor states/organizations. Participation in the RSTCG is based on competencies and responsibilities. Currently the following divisions/sections within the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety and Security with responsibilities related to the control and management of radioactive sources are represented: Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety with responsibilities in radiation safety related to sealed radioactive sources, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, with responsibilities in recovery, conditioning, storage and/or repatriation and Office of Nuclear Security with responsibilities in the protection against malicious acts (through the whole life cycle of sources)

  3. Housing and Transport: Access Issues for Disabled International Students in British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorenian, Armineh

    2013-01-01

    This article explores two disabled people's "Seven Needs" to independent living, those of "housing" and "transport" issues, in relation to disabled international students in British universities. Firstly, students' living arrangements, including issues related to the suitability of university accommodation to their…

  4. A framework for the formulation of security issues in the field of e-learning using Meta-Synthesis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Arabsorkhi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Application development and e-learning services in the context of communication networks and information along with qualitative and quantitative improvements of activities and services can expand some of threats which emergence in the networks of this infrastructure of telecommunications. Consequently, this is an inevitable necessity attention to accuracy and efficiency payment issues and security concerns to managers and decision makers. Based on other researches and effective experiences in the field of e-learning security, this research attempts to define a logical structure to security contents in this field. We have presented a three-dimensional model for security issues and requirements of e-learning, based on the findings of research. Actuarial three-dimensional model are infrastructure-oriented viewpoint; service-oriented viewpoint and customer-oriented viewpoint. Each of these three dimensions in this model has described in the form of model with two fields: e-learning issues and security of e-learning issues.

  5. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred C. [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  6. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, Fred C.; Ballard, James D.; Halstead, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  7. [Research and implementation of the TLS network transport security technology based on DICOM standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    With the development of medical information, Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS), Hospital Information System/Radiology Information System(HIS/RIS) and other medical information management system become popular and developed, and interoperability between these systems becomes more frequent. So, these enclosed systems will be open and regionalized by means of network, and this is inevitable. If the trend becomes true, the security of information transmission may be the first problem to be solved. Based on the need for network security, we investigated the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Standard and Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol, and implemented the TLS transmission of the DICOM medical information with OpenSSL toolkit and DCMTK toolkit.

  8. Dealing with security of supply issues in natural gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    To avoid huge losses in a market where commodity prices can rise dramatically, gas marketers have developed a portfolio of contractual and non-contractual structures to avoid such losses. These structures had the effect of providing a sense of security that have proven to be false, or potentially false pending the outcome of decisions of appeal courts. This paper reviews these structures and examines some of the current issues. Non-contractual strategies employed by gas marketers include corporate warranty, dealing only with financially strong and reputable parties, limiting the dollar amount of exposure, and making short-term deals only. Contractual strategies include dedication of reserves (committing the gas produced from certain specified lands), requiring guarantee from corporate parent, letters of credit, or performance bonds. The concept of 'material adverse change' (MAC) a common method for dealing with the potential need for future security and its consequences, bankruptcies, receivership and set-off are explored and the manner in which the availability of set-off has changed following the recent Blue Range decision. In this decision the Court held that Enron's Master Agreement with Blue Range was not an 'eligible financial contract' because it contemplated the physical delivery of gas. Based on this decision it is possible to argue that set-off is no longer available for contracts intended for the physical delivery of natural gas. The collective consequence of these events and the recent spate of marketing failures require the gas marketing industry to review their forms of agreement and to reconsider their market exposure to any particular purchaser or supplier. The significant losses to companies that resulted from recent bankruptcies and insolvencies provide ample evidence that assuming a safe, closed position based on conventional gas marketing contracts is a risky proposition

  9. Security in the transport of radioactive material: Implementing guide. Spanish edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks

  10. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  11. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  12. Issues related to the transport of a transportable storage cask after storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Brimhall, J.L.; Creer, J.M.; Gilbert, E.R.; Sanders, T.L.; Jones, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation was performed to assess whether the reliability of a transportable storage cask system and the risks associated with its use are comparable to those associated with existing transport cask systems and, if they are not, determine how the transportable storage cask system can be made as reliable as existing systems. Reliability and failure mode analyses of both transport-only casks and transportable storage casks and implementation options are compared. Current knowledge regarding the potential effects of a long-term dry storage environment on spent fuel and cask materials is reviewed. A summary assessment of the consideration for deploying a transportable storage cask (TSC) system with emphasis on preliminary design, validation and operational recommendations for TSC implementations is presented. The analyses conclude that a transportable storage cask can likely be shipped upopened by applying a combination of design considerations and operational constraints, including environmental monitoring and pretransport assessments of functional reliability of the cask. A proper mix of these constraints should yield risk parity with any existing transport cask

  13. Leveraging Service Oriented Architecture to Enhance Information Sharing for Surface Transportation Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Fire and Emergency Management Services, Suffolk County Sheriff’s Department, the U.S. Attorney’s Office, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms...mass transit services. These include express and regular bus service, a downtown Skyway monorail , a trolley service and the Stadium Shuttle for various...safety related incidents rather than security, including transportation disruptions due to derailments, accidents, fires , hazardous materials spills

  14. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL INNOVATIVE BUSINESS SOLUTIONS AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF ECONOMIC SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Senin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work lies in the fact that it attempts to disclose the key theoretical and practical issues of economic security solutions, taking into account the problems of global transformations taking place in the global economy. As part of the article we have been studied various aspects that characterize global economic, environmental trends that will shape the future of modern civilization. The article also addresses the problem of exit from the raw model of the economy, the formation of economic mechanisms that take into account environmental costs, proposed internalization of environmental externalities.The purpose/goal. The purpose of this article and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policies, which will ensure the further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy.Methods. In this article, based on content analysis of theoretical and empirical basic conceptual provisions of economic security were formulated in the context of eco-oriented production, the transition to which world civilization is currently implementing. It was concluded that the economic, energy, environmental and social issues of sustainable development of modern civilization is directly linked, so the transition to ecooriented production is possible, firstly, it provided aggressive reduction of production and wasteful use of traditional hydrocarbon resources, and, secondly, on the condition of rational replacement of traditional energy sources with renewable energy.Results. This article outlines the basic solutions that can be used to provide environmentally responsible operation and development of Russian business and corporate structures. Also offered in the basic decisions that are to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a

  16. Security for the digital information age of medicine: Issues, applications, and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Michael A.; Pasieka, Michael S.; Lord, William P.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.

    1997-01-01

    Privacy and integrity of medical records is expected by patients. This privacy and integrity is often mandated by regulations. Traditionally, the security of medical records has been based on physical lock and key. As the storage of patient record information shifts from paper to digital, we find new security concerns. Digital cryptographic methods provide solutions to many of these new concerns. In this paper we discuss the new security concerns, new legislation mandating secure medical reco...

  17. Security of supply in liberated electricity markets - key issues and experiences in OECD countries (work in progress)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridbaek, Ulrik

    2005-06-01

    Security of supply of electricity could in principle refer to any parts of the value chain from fuel input to delivery of electricity to the final costumer with the expected quality. Concerns about security of supply are usually focused on three aspects: Timely and adequate supply of the input fuel for electricity generation is a prerequisite - security of energy supply. There has to be timely and adequate infrastructure in place to transform the input fuel into electricity and transport it to the final costumer - adequacy of generation and transmission capacity. Finally, it is an operational challenge to make the electricity system work and deliver at the expected quality - secure operation of the electricity system. Security of supply becomes relevant in a policy context from concerns about market failures in any parts of the value chain or, indeed, from the perspective that policy will set the framework for markets to serve as an instrument to secure the supply. This paper discusses some of the experiences with security of supply concerns and market failures in these three basic segments of the value chain; fuel input, adequate generation and transmission capacity and secure operation of the system, with an emphasis on the role of the market to serve as an efficient instrument. In the aftermath of the large black outs of electricity systems in North America, Italy and Sweden/Denmark IEA initiated a project on 'Transmission Reliability and Power System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets'. The results of this work will be published towards the end of 2005. After a decade with liberalised electricity markets in some pioneer regions, IEA now also finds it timely to analyse some of the lessons in a forthcoming publication. Recent and ongoing IEA-work thereby covers all the main aspects of security of supply. This paper summarises the key findings and messages, with a focus on the work in progress on lessons from liberalisation

  18. 77 FR 20536 - Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps Issued by Certain Clearing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... provisions of the Securities Act, other than the Section 17(a) anti-fraud provisions, as well as exempt these... swaps from all provisions of the Securities Act, other than the Section 17(a) anti-fraud provisions, as... the Securities Act, except the anti-fraud provisions of Section 17(a), subject to certain conditions...

  19. 76 FR 34920 - Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps Issued by Certain Clearing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... from all provisions of the Securities Act, other than the Section 17(a) anti-fraud provisions, as well... provisions of the Securities Act, except the anti- fraud provisions of Section 17(a), subject to certain... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 230, 240 and 260 [Release Nos. 33-9222; 34-64639...

  20. Security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks for healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Liu, Jingwei; Kwak, Kyungsup

    2012-02-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in healthcare applications is growing in a fast pace. Numerous applications such as heart rate monitor, blood pressure monitor and endoscopic capsule are already in use. To address the growing use of sensor technology in this area, a new field known as wireless body area networks (WBAN or simply BAN) has emerged. As most devices and their applications are wireless in nature, security and privacy concerns are among major areas of concern. Due to direct involvement of humans also increases the sensitivity. Whether the data gathered from patients or individuals are obtained with the consent of the person or without it due to the need by the system, misuse or privacy concerns may restrict people from taking advantage of the full benefits from the system. People may not see these devices safe for daily use. There may also possibility of serious social unrest due to the fear that such devices may be used for monitoring and tracking individuals by government agencies or other private organizations. In this paper we discuss these issues and analyze in detail the problems and their possible measures.

  1. [Security Management in Clinical Laboratory Departments and Facilities: Current Status and Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Haku; Nakamura, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaru; Inoue, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding the current activities for protecting patients' privacy and the security of information systems (IS) related to the clinical laboratory departments of university hospitals, certified training facilities for clinical laboratories, and general hospitals in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The response rate was 47% from 215 medical institutions, including three commercial clinical laboratory centers. The results showed that there were some differences in management activities among facilities with respect to continuing education, the documentation or regulation of operational management for paper records, electronic information, remaining samples, genetic testing, and laboratory information for secondary use. They were suggested to be caused by differences in functions between university and general hospitals, differences in the scale of hospitals, or whether or not hospitals have received accreditation or ISO 15189. Regarding the IS, although the majority of facilities had sufficiently employed the access control to IS, there was some room for improvement in the management of special cases such as VIPs and patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, there were issues regarding the login method for computers shared by multiple staff, the showing of the names of personnel in charge of reports, and the risks associated with direct connections to systems and the Internet and the use of portable media such as USB memory sticks. These results indicated that further efforts are necessary for each facility to continue self-assessment and make improvements.

  2. Trusted Data Communication and Security Issues in Gnss Network of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakici, S.; Erkek, B.; Manti, V.; Altekin, A.

    2017-11-01

    There are three main activities of General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. These are Mapping, Land Registry and Cadastre. Geomatic Department is responsible for mapping activities. The most important projects like TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr), Metadata Geoportal, Orthophoto Production and orthophoto web services and preparation of Turkish NSDI Feasibility Report have been conducted and completed by this department's specialists since 2005. TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr) System, serves location information at cm level accuracy in Turkey and TR Nortern Cyprus in few seconds, where adequate numbers of GNSS satellites are observed and communication possibilities are present. No ground control points and benchmarks are necessary. There are 146 permanent GNSS stations within the CORS-Tr System. Station data are transferred online to the main control center located in the Mapping Department of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre and to the control center located in the General Command of Mapping. Currently CORS-Tr has more than 9000 users. Most of them are private companies working for governmental organization. Providing data communication between control center and both GNSS station and users via trusted and good substructure is important. Additionally, protection of the system and data against cyber attacks from domestic and foreign sources is important. This paper focuses on data communication and security issues of GNSS network named TUSAGA-Aktif.

  3. Making US Soil Taxonomy more scientifically applicable to environmental and food security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David L.; Wysocki, Doug; Schoeneberger, Phil; Libohova, Zamir

    2017-04-01

    US Department of Agriculture began mapping soils in the 1890s on a county-by-county basis until most of the conterminous United States was mapped by the late 1930s. This first-generation mapping was followed by a second-generation that re-mapped the US beginning in the 1940s. Soil classification during these periods evolved into the current system of Soil Taxonomy which is based on (1) soil features as natural phenomena and on (2) soil properties important for agriculture and other land uses. While this system has enabled communication among soil surveyors, the scientific applicability of Soil Taxonomy to address environmental and food security issues has been under-utilized. In particular, little effort has been exerted to understand how soil taxa interact and function together as larger units—as soil systems. Thus, much soil-geomorphic understanding that could be applied to process-based modeling remains unexploited. The challenge for soil taxonomists in the United States and elsewhere is to expand their expertise and work with modelers to explore how soil taxa are linked to each other, how they influence water, nutrient, and pollutant flow through the landscape, how they interact with ecology, and how they change with human land use.

  4. TRUSTED DATA COMMUNICATION AND SECURITY ISSUES IN GNSS NETWORK OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are three main activities of General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. These are Mapping, Land Registry and Cadastre. Geomatic Department is responsible for mapping activities. The most important projects like TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr, Metadata Geoportal, Orthophoto Production and orthophoto web services and preparation of Turkish NSDI Feasibility Report have been conducted and completed by this department’s specialists since 2005. TUSAGA-Aktif (CORS-Tr System, serves location information at cm level accuracy in Turkey and TR Nortern Cyprus in few seconds, where adequate numbers of GNSS satellites are observed and communication possibilities are present. No ground control points and benchmarks are necessary. There are 146 permanent GNSS stations within the CORS-Tr System. Station data are transferred online to the main control center located in the Mapping Department of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre and to the control center located in the General Command of Mapping. Currently CORS-Tr has more than 9000 users. Most of them are private companies working for governmental organization. Providing data communication between control center and both GNSS station and users via trusted and good substructure is important. Additionally, protection of the system and data against cyber attacks from domestic and foreign sources is important. This paper focuses on data communication and security issues of GNSS network named TUSAGA-Aktif.

  5. Aviation security : TSA is increasing procurement and deployment of the advanced imaging technology, but challenges to this effort and other areas of aviation security remain : testimony before the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    The attempted bombing of Northwest flight 253 highlighted the importance of detecting improvised explosive devices on passengers. This testimony focuses on (1) the Transportation Security Administrations (TSA) efforts to procure and deploy advance...

  6. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-19

    The Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) at www.nrel.gov/tsdc provides free, web-based access to detailed transportation data from a variety of travel surveys conducted across the nation. While preserving the privacy of survey participants, this online repository makes vital transportation data broadly available to users from the comfort of their own desks via a secure online connection. Data Available through the TSDC: Maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the TSDC houses data from travel surveys and studies conducted using global positioning system (GPS) devices. It features millions of data points - second-by-second GPS readings, vehicle characteristics (if applicable), and demographics - for all modes of travel. NREL screens the initial data for quality control, translates each data set into a consistent format, and interprets the data for spatial analysis. NREL's processing routines add information on vehicle fuel economy and road grades and join data points to the road network.

  7. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posy Bidwell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration – it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Results: Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses felt they had become ‘de-skilled’. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Conclusions: Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major

  8. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Posy; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Blacklock, Claire; Hayward, Gail; Willcox, Merlin; Peersman, Wim; Moosa, Shabir; Mant, David

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration--it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses) felt they had become 'de-skilled'. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major concerns over security, crime, and racial tensions are resolved

  9. Experiences for the Safe and Secure transport of Radioactive Material in Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajizadeh, B.; Eshraghi, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Kardan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA) has been addressed the actions to be taken in respect of the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. Firstly, INRA translated TS-R-1 and approved it as national standard and imparted it to all entities that engage in transport of radioactive material. Training course was provided for the designers, consignors, carriers and consignees based on their actions in transport of radioactive material. All radioactive material carrier companies were enforced to observe all aspects of national standard and receive an authorized license of National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD). The NRPD has written procedures to regain control of the radiation sources together with the National Waste Management Department. Transport arrangements are in place for imported and exported sources. According to the Code of Conduct on safety and security, the sources category I, II and III have been registered in data bases carefully so far. All the licensees are obligated to inform the Regulatory Authority for any changes in position, application, possession, transfer or waste of radiation sources. There is a formal agreement with the National Security Council to permit the import of scrap metal at major entry points on the borders. Scrap metal importers are required to use these points of entry which are monitored by officers of the NRPD and portal gate monitors which are installed at the main entry points and be controlled from unique centre. If required, the NRPD will supply staff to other border entry points. Presently some portal gate monitors are in progress at the borderline customs also. All the major metal recycling facilities in IRAN have installed portal gate monitors to recheck their scrap metal imports. (author)

  10. Experiences for the Safe and Secure Transport of Radioactive Material in Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajizadeh, B.; Eshraghi, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Kardan, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA) has been addressed the actions to be taken in respect of the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. Firstly, INRA translated TS-R-1 and approved it as national standard and imparted it to all entities that engage in transport of radioactive material. Training course was provided for the designers, consignors, carriers and consignees based on their actions in transport of radioactive material. All radioactive material carrier companies were enforced to observe all aspects of national standard and receive an authorized license of National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD). The NRPD has written procedures to regain control of the radiation sources together with the National Waste Management Department. Transport arrangements are in place for imported and exported sources. According to the Code of Conduct on safety and security, the sources category I, II and III have been registered in data bases carefully so far. All the licensees are obligated to inform the Regulatory Authority for any changes in position, application, possession, transfer or waste of radiation sources. There is a formal agreement with the National Security Council to permit the import of scrap metal at major entry points on the borders. Scrap metal importers are required to use these points of entry which are monitored by officers of the NRPD and portal gate monitors which are installed at the main entry points and be controlled from unique centre. If required, the NRPD will supply staff to other border entry points. Presently some portal gate monitors are in progress at the borderline customs also. All the major metal recycling facilities in IRAN have installed portal gate monitors to recheck their scrap metal imports. (author)

  11. THE MASS MEDIA’S BEARING ON THE RESOLUTION OF POST-INDEPENDENCE SECURITY ISSUES IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osakue Stevenson Omoera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualising national security continues to be a taxing undertaking as a range of factors point up its capacity at all levels of perception, and thus, cannot be restricted to a single definition due to its changing nature from one nation-state to another. Therefore, national security remains dynamic, fluid and multi-directional, but it is critical to the survival of any nation-state. In post-independence Nigeria, security threats to its national interests not only involve conventional threats such as the ones from other nation-states but also non-state actors and activities such as terrorists, arms dealers, pirates, heists, drug traffickers, kidnappers, street gangster insurgencies, border disputes and ethnic militias. Over the past fifty six years or so, traditional threats to national security in Nigeria have metamorphosed into grave security behemoths, which apparently cannot be eliminated by military forces or security institutions alone. The mass media have been suggested to have the capacity to contribute meaningfully towards assisting security institutions in eliminating or checking the security challenges, which the country is confronted with.  Perhaps, this is because the media are an integral part of the soft power infrastructure, which could facilitate the dissemination of information in a fast and effective way, thereby helping a nation such as Nigeria to put together the appropriate political action that is aimed at entrenching the desired national security. Deploying the agenda setting and framing theories, this article undertakes an appraisal of whether or not the Nigerian mass media (specifically, Daily Trust and The Punch have made impactful contributions toward the resolution of security issues in post-independence Nigeria, with a particular reference to the Boko Haram sect(s’ insurgencies. It employs analytic, in-depth interviews (IDIs and historical methods to look at some media reports on the insurgencies with the aim

  12. Example of a single national regulator responsible for both transport safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhu, P.; Lahkola, A.; Markkanen, M.; Hellstén, S.

    2016-01-01

    Safety and security in the use of nuclear energy and in the use of radiation, including the transport of nuclear and other radioactive material, share a common objective: to protect people, society, environment, and future generations from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Some measures for safety contribute to those for security, and vice versa, while some requirements of one conflict with those of the other. The differences in the requirements arise from the difference in the threat against which the measures are designed: accident vs. intent. A coordinated approach endeavours to take advantage of the similarities and to avoid the problems caused by the differences. One way to implement it is to have one competent authority responsible for the regulatory control of safety and security. It is the experience in Finland that this enables an efficient regulatory system. From the operators’ point of view, a one-stop shop regulatory authority ensures that requirements for safety and security are consistent. Both safety and security require the involvement of and cooperation between several authorities—regulatory, rescue, law enforcement—and operators. The approach in Finland is built on cooperation and a clear division of competences and responsibilities. One regulatory authority provides a fixed point of contact within the professional cooperation network as well as for the public. The one regulatory authority is also easily identifiable, as appropriate, as a point of contact in international cooperation in implementing nuclear and radiation safety and security. Whatever the national regulatory framework and the assignment of responsibilities between authorities, cooperation is essential in house, nationally, and internationally. (author)

  13. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  14. The uranium institute transport working group: a common approach to global issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Colle, C.

    1998-01-01

    With more than 442 nuclear power plants in operation all over the world delivering clean and safe electricity on a daily basis, nuclear energy is and will undoubtedly be one of the most promising way to cope with present and future economic, demographic, and environmental challenges. Nuclear materials transportation business links the various nuclear actors: research institutes, utilities, fuel cycle industries, and waste management agencies. As pipelines or tankers for the petroleum industry, transportation gives nuclear energy its consistency. Still, conversely to other industrial areas, transportation volumes and figures are rather low in the nuclear business. For instance, transport of dangerous goods in France represents around 15 million packages per year. Out of this, only 15,000 or 0.1 % are nuclear fuel cycle materials. When applied to the USA, this figure is even more striking: 100 million of dangerous goods containers are shipped each year. Only 10,000 pertains to nuclear fuel cycle materials. Even so, in our world of economic and cultural globalization, transport of nuclear materials is no longer a domestic issue. It crosses boundaries and appeals to various areas ranging from safety to communication. That is why the Uranium Institute decided, in 1995, to set up a working group dedicated to transport issues. This paper covers the Uranium Institute Transport Working Group, from its creation to its most recent achievements. (author)

  15. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security traffic and transportation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding and safety and security elements in traffic and transportation theory, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between different research approaches and through laying the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both ways – this book puts forward new congestion models, breaking new ground by introducing game theory and safety/security. Addressing the multiple actors who may hold different concerns regarding system reliability; e.g. one or several terrorists, a government, various local or regional government agencies, or others with stakes for or against system reliability, this book describes how ...

  16. Survey on Security Issues in File Management in Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Udit

    2015-06-01

    Cloud computing has pervaded through every aspect of Information technology in past decade. It has become easier to process plethora of data, generated by various devices in real time, with the advent of cloud networks. The privacy of users data is maintained by data centers around the world and hence it has become feasible to operate on that data from lightweight portable devices. But with ease of processing comes the security aspect of the data. One such security aspect is secure file transfer either internally within cloud or externally from one cloud network to another. File management is central to cloud computing and it is paramount to address the security concerns which arise out of it. This survey paper aims to elucidate the various protocols which can be used for secure file transfer and analyze the ramifications of using each protocol.

  17. Security and privacy issues in implantable medical devices: A comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Carmen; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2015-06-01

    Bioengineering is a field in expansion. New technologies are appearing to provide a more efficient treatment of diseases or human deficiencies. Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) constitute one example, these being devices with more computing, decision making and communication capabilities. Several research works in the computer security field have identified serious security and privacy risks in IMDs that could compromise the implant and even the health of the patient who carries it. This article surveys the main security goals for the next generation of IMDs and analyzes the most relevant protection mechanisms proposed so far. On the one hand, the security proposals must have into consideration the inherent constraints of these small and implanted devices: energy, storage and computing power. On the other hand, proposed solutions must achieve an adequate balance between the safety of the patient and the security level offered, with the battery lifetime being another critical parameter in the design phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of satisfaction factors at urban transport interchanges: Measuring travelers’ attitudes to information, security and waiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois Garcia, D.; Monzon de Caceres, A.; Hernandez del Olmo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Transport interchanges can be considered as a node, where people transfer from one mode to another, and as a place to stay, using facilities and services as well as waiting areas. Reducing disruption of transfer in multimodal trips is a key element for assuring seamless mobility in big cities. Based on previous research (Hernández & Monzón, 2016) this paper aims to explore the predictive capacity of attitudes towards several service factors on general satisfaction with transport interchange. Complementary, it was analyzing how personal and trip characteristics are related to evaluation of some variables, and examining the influence of waiting time on the perceived quality. To that end, a two steps methodology was conducted (personal and on-line interview) in a representative sample of 740 users (54% female, 55% work purpose trip). We performed path analysis to test the model showing a satisfactory statistical fit. The model developed show good performance for predicting general satisfaction at Moncloa Transport Interchange (Madrid, Spain). The outputs of the model indicate that Information and Safety and Security factors predicted 49% of general satisfaction. Furthermore, the results showed also a strong association between evaluation of Design and Environmental quality, factors that not affect directly general satisfaction but do so through Information and Safety & Security perception, acting the last as mediator variables. Nevertheless, spending time queuing inside the interchange show a negative influence on Information and Safety & Security, while age of participants affect negatively to Information, which mean that elder have some cognitive accessibility problems. Moreover, our data shows gender differences in safety perception, since women feel less safe (particularity the youngest) inside the interchange. The results indicate a number of priority measures to enhance. (Author)

  19. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 8, September 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Workshops on Denial of Shipments raise awareness of suppliers, recipients, regulators, carriers/consignors and international organizations of the problems relating to denials of radioactive shipments to determine effective measures to prevent or reduce the instances of shipment denials and delays. 2) Communication and knowledge Management in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security (NS). 3) Nuclear Security at the Beijing Olympics - an excellent example of the IAEA's work in protecting large scale public events. 4) The Incident and Emergency Centre's Participation in the ConvEx 3 Exercise, 9-10 July 2008, which took place at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant in Mexico. During the 43 hour long exercise, the Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) was fully activated. Staff members participating in the exercise represented different departments within the IAEA and the diversity of their knowledge and experience ensured an effective response

  20. 75 FR 10551 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ..., Telephone (202) 267-3168, Fax (202) 267-5075, or e-mail at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... participating by telephone, PLEASE CONTACT Ralen Gao by e-mail or phone for the teleconference call-in number... Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  1. 76 FR 60115 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... (202) 267-5075, or e-mail at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... by October 12, 2011. For persons participating by telephone, please contact Ralen Gao by e-mail or... Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  2. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses.

  3. Cyber-Security Challenges with SMEs in Developing Economies: Issues of Confidentiality, Integrity & Availability (CIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    The essence of this study is first to highlight the cyber-security challenges confronting SMEs in developing economies, and to model a framework for safeguarding their assets, to ensure continuous optimal business operations, and to participate and compete securely in the ubiquitous cyber......, to develop customer-centric strategies. While connectivity is indispensable for achieving business success, being connected also implies being exposed to a myriad of cyber-security challenges, such as vulnerabilities of confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA). As vulnerabilities are exploited...... cognitive map (FCM) approach is also used to show the implications of vulnerabilities amongst SMEs asset disposal policies....

  4. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  5. Transports of radioactive materials. Legal regulations, safety and security concepts, experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Guenther

    2012-01-01

    In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)

  6. A Modular, Reusable Latch and Decking System for Securing Payloads During Launch and Planetary Surface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient handling of payloads destined for a planetary surface, such as the moon or mars, requires robust systems to secure the payloads during transport on the ground, in space and on the planetary surface. In addition, mechanisms to release the payloads need to be reliable to ensure successful transfer from one vehicle to another. An efficient payload handling strategy must also consider the devices available to support payload handling. Cranes used for overhead lifting are common to all phases of payload handling on Earth. Similarly, both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with comparable functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. A first generation test-bed of a new high performance device that provides the capabilities of both a crane and a robotic manipulator, the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS), has been designed, built and field tested and is available for use in evaluating a system to secure payloads to transportation vehicles. A payload handling approach must address all phases of payload management including: ground transportation, launch, planetary transfer and installation in the final system. In addition, storage may be required during any phase of operations. Each of these phases requires the payload to be lifted and secured to a vehicle, transported, released and lifted in preparation for the next transportation or storage phase. A critical component of a successful payload handling approach is a latch and associated carrier system. The latch and carrier system should minimize requirements on the: payload, carrier support structure and payload handling devices as well as be able to accommodate a wide range of payload sizes. In addition, the latch should; be small and lightweight, support a method to apply preload, be reusable, integrate into a minimal set of hard-points and have manual interfaces to actuate the latch should a problem occur. A latching system which meets these requirements has been

  7. State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 110th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reese, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    ... for both terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Two potential activities that Congress might choose to focus on are the certification of state and urban area homeland security plans and the conduct of exercises to test the plans...

  8. State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reese, Shawn

    2006-01-01

    ... for both terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Two potential activities that Congress might choose to focus on are the certification of state and urban area homeland security plans, and the conduct of exercises to test the plans...

  9. Biometric Identifiers and Border Security: 9/11 Commission Recommendations and Related Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Daniel; Krouse, William

    2005-01-01

    In its final report, the 9/11 Commission concluded that funding and completing a "biometric entry-exit screening system" for travelers to and from the United States is essential to U.S. national security...

  10. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Serafino, Nina M

    2007-01-01

    .... From the information available in published sources, this apparently is the first time that the United States has depended on contractors to provide such extensive security in a hostile environment...

  11. Editors' Preface to Special Issue on Drinking Water Safety, Security, and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing these needs, researchers from Zhejiang University (China), the US EPA and the University of Alberta (Canada) organized the “International Conference on Drinking Water Safety, Security and Sustainability” in October 2011 in Hangzhou, China. The conference was attended...

  12. Security of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Standards, Threats Analysis and Cryptographic Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyes Ben Hamida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads worldwide, road traffic accidents are currently recognized as a major public safety problem. In this context, connected vehicles are considered as the key enabling technology to improve road safety and to foster the emergence of next generation cooperative intelligent transport systems (ITS. Through the use of wireless communication technologies, the deployment of ITS will enable vehicles to autonomously communicate with other nearby vehicles and roadside infrastructures and will open the door for a wide range of novel road safety and driver assistive applications. However, connecting wireless-enabled vehicles to external entities can make ITS applications vulnerable to various security threats, thus impacting the safety of drivers. This article reviews the current research challenges and opportunities related to the development of secure and safe ITS applications. It first explores the architecture and main characteristics of ITS systems and surveys the key enabling standards and projects. Then, various ITS security threats are analyzed and classified, along with their corresponding cryptographic countermeasures. Finally, a detailed ITS safety application case study is analyzed and evaluated in light of the European ETSI TC ITS standard. An experimental test-bed is presented, and several elliptic curve digital signature algorithms (ECDSA are benchmarked for signing and verifying ITS safety messages. To conclude, lessons learned, open research challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  13. Cobenefits of replacing car trips with alternative transportation: a review of evidence and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Zhang, Ying; Crabb, Shona; Shah, Pushan

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  14. Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  15. Keeping current, June 1998. Issues 98: Securing the value of the federal Columbia River power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management

  16. Securing the Value of the Federal Columbia River Power System, Keeping Current, June 1998, Issue 98.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management.

  17. United States Security Assistance 1977-1980: Human Rights Issues Affecting Arms Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    police attempted to break up the gathering, the crowd became enraged and proceeded to destroy a number of banks, cinemas , and hotels (Brown:296...According to Carter’s National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, the Peruvian government released over 300 prisoners in April 1977; "disappearances

  18. Compliance Issues and Homeland Security with New Federal Regulations for Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcik, Nicolas A.

    2010-01-01

    Research advancements into different fields of study have increased the risks for accidents, criminal acts, or a potential breach of national security, and the types of hazardous materials (HAZMAT) stored and used at universities and colleges are under new scrutiny. Before, a chemistry laboratory might only have basic substances such as sulfur,…

  19. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    College, K-12, and Early Childhood Education ............................................................. 25 Science, Technology, Engineering, and...to democratize because democracies were more likely than dictatorships to have shared values and to keep the peace; and • Western culture was...ahead of the United States in all three categories.57 College, K-12, and Early Childhood Education58 The 2010 National Security Strategy proposes that

  20. Career Obsolescence and Social Security: Emerging Education Policy Issues in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandow, Stuart A.

    This document is the second in a series of studies designed to examine the legal aspects of various potential educational problems in our society. This particular study deals with the case of a highly trained aerospace technician who sues the social security trust for loan benefits, arguing that he is economically disabled and has been retired by…

  1. Review on the NEI Methodology of Debris Transport Analysis in Sump Blockage Issue for APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Uk; Lee, Jeong Ik; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Bang, Young Seok

    2007-01-01

    Since USNRC (United State Nuclear Regulatory Committee) initially addressed post-accident sump performance under Unresolved Safety Issue USI A-43, sump blockage issue has gone through GSI-191, Regulation Guide 1.82, Rev. 3 (RG. 1.82 Rev.3), and generic Letter 2004-02 for PWRs (Pressurized Water Reactors). As a response of these USNRC's activities, NEI 04-07 was issued in order to evaluate the post-accident performance of a plant's recirculation sump. The baseline methodology of NEI 04-07 is composed of break selection, debris generation, latent debris, debris transport, and head loss. In analytical refinement of NEI 04-07, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is suggested for the evaluation of debris transport in emergency core cooling (ECC) recirculation mode as guided by RG. 1.82 Rev.3. In Korea nuclear industry also keeps step with international activities of this safety issue, with Kori 1 plant as a pioneering edge. Korean nuclear industry has been also pursuing development of an advanced PWR of APR1400, which incorporates several improved safety features. One of the key features, considering sump blockage issue, is the adoption of IRWST (In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank). This device, as the acronym implies, changes the emergency core cooling water injection pattern. This fact makes us to review the applicability of NEI 04-07's methodology. In this paper we discuss the applicability of NEI 04- 07's methodology, and more over, new methodology is proposed. And finally the preliminary debris transport is analyzed

  2. Assessment of Performance Measures for Security of the Maritime Transportation Network. Port Security Metrics: Proposed Measurement of Deterrence Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoaglund, Robert; Gazda, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this analysis is to provide ASCO and its customers with a comprehensive approach to the development of quantitative performance measures to assess security improvements to the port system...

  3. OBSTACLES TO ONLINE SHOPPING: IMPACT OF GENDER AND INTERNET SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHU GENİS-GRUBER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the latest technology era, the widespread usage of internet enabled individuals to interact continuously and led to altered buying behavior patterns. Literature focuses on the critical effects in the field. Among many antecedents to online shopping, previous studies point out two important obstacles:  (i acceptance and tendency to use technology in accordance with gender perceptions and (ii internet security problems. This study analyzes the impact of these two prominent factors on e-commerce utilization by studying the effects of these factors through primary and secondary data; a survey designed specifically for this analysis and the cross-country data from Eurostat. The findings show that while internet security problems significantly impact online shopping behavior, the evidence is mixed for the impact of gender. The results of this paper provide insights for a successful e-commerce transaction and identify important obstacles to be avoided for an efficient e-commerce system.

  4. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Security Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    reaction border forces. The Georgian Border Police responded that there were no terrorists in the Gorge and retorted that “the Russian side has never...106 N.Bogdanova, “Azerbaijan, U.S. Develop Package of Proposals During Security Dialogue,” Trend News, November 5, 2009...Georgia since the August [2008] conflict. No part of the $1 billion U.S. assistance package went to the Ministry of Defense.”129 In addition, no FMF

  5. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hoon-Jae Lee; Pardeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are ...

  6. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-29

    reporting procedures, bad investigation methods and unfair double standards amongst employees should not be condoned." Tom Jackman , “Security Contractor...Cleared in Two Firings”, Washington Post, August 2, 2007. p. A-15. 43 Tom Jackman . “U.S. Contractor Fired on Iraqi Vehicles for Sport, Suit Alleges...Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Karen Hughes , speaking before the Council on Foreign Relations, New York City, N.Y., on May 10, 2006, said of the new

  7. Data Security, Privacy, Availability and Integrity in Cloud Computing: Issues and Current Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Aldossary; William Allen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing changed the world around us. Now people are moving their data to the cloud since data is getting bigger and needs to be accessible from many devices. Therefore, storing the data on the cloud becomes a norm. However, there are many issues that counter data stored in the cloud starting from virtual machine which is the mean to share resources in cloud and ending on cloud storage itself issues. In this paper, we present those issues that are preventing people from adopting the cl...

  8. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  9. Learners’ Perception on Security Issues in M-learning (Nigerian Universities Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibu Adekunle Shonola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of modern technology, mobile phones and smartphones are used not only for calling and text messages but also for banking and social networking. Recent developments in technology have made the use of mobile devices feasible in other sectors such as education and government. While educators are using mobile devices as teaching aids, students are also using them as learning tools.  In some cases the developers of mobile learning in universities are making m-learning apps without serious consideration for security aspects whereas the handheld devices pose a serious threat to confidentiality, integrity and privacy of users including the learners. As a case study, this paper investigates the security concerns that students may have with the introduction of m-learning in higher education institutions in Nigeria and how this impacts on their learning. It examines the effects of security threats in m-learning on students and provides recommendations for alleviating these threats. Photo credit: "Sysop actions of la cabale camembière - croped" by PierreSelim - Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sysop_actions_of_la_cabale_camembi%C3%A8re_-_croped.jpg#mediaviewer/

  10. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 9, December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) IRRS Lessons Learned Workshop held on 3-5 November 2008, Seville. The main purpose of the workshop was to provide information to interested Member States regarding the IRRS, to discuss their experiences and lessons learned from the regulatory review conducted at the CSN and to explore further improvements in the planning and implementation of the IRRS, including the establishment of a network of experts from regulatory authorities. 2) Highlights of the 52 General Conference. 3) The 2008 IAEA General Conference welcomed the endorsement of the new International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) User's Manual. 4) Safety and Security Infrastructure for Countries Embarking on Nuclear Power Programmes

  11. Biometric Identifiers and Border Security: 9/11 Commission Recommendations and Related Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Daniel; Krouse, William

    2005-01-01

    .... This report provides an overview of biometric technologies and the major U.S. biometric border screening systems, including US-VISIT, and discusses issues such as cost, performance, and user acceptance...

  12. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods . Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized and of drinking water. Results . Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80% and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions, mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51% were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12% everywhere except Evenki AO (27%, and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly. The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages

  13. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2

  14. Food and water security issues in Russia II: water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M

    2013-01-01

    Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000-2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized--underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40-80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32-90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5-12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages--0.2-2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus

  15. Surface transportation security : TSA has taken actions to manage risk, improve coordination, and measure performance, but additional actions would enhance its efforts, April 21, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    Terrorist attacks on surface transportation facilities in Moscow, Mumbai, London, and Madrid caused casualties and highlighted the vulnerability of such systems. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA), within the Department of Homeland Secu...

  16. Security in Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very good method that can be used to protect a private network is the implementation of a firewall between Internet and Intranet. This firewall will filter the packets that transit the network according with the security policy defined at the system level. The SSL protocol allows verifying the identity of a WEB server based on a digital certificate issued by a certification authority. Secure data transport over the Internet is done by using encryption methods.

  17. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  18. Development of Self-Remediating Packaging for Safe and Secure Transport of Infectious Substances.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilinger, Terry Rae; Gaudioso, Jennifer M; Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Lowe, Kathleen M.; Tucker, Mark D; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2006-11-01

    As George W. Bush recognized in November 2001, "Infectious diseases make no distinctions among people and recognize no borders." By their very nature, infectious diseases of natural or intentional (bioterrorist) origins are capable of threatening regional health systems and economies. The best mechanism for minimizing the spread and impact of infectious disease is rapid disease detection and diagnosis. For rapid diagnosis to occur, infectious substances (IS) must be transported very quickly to appropriate laboratories, sometimes located across the world. Shipment of IS is problematic since many carriers, concerned about leaking packages, refuse to ship this material. The current packaging does not have any ability to neutralize or kill leaking IS. The technology described here was developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide a fail-safe packaging system for shipment of IS that will increase the likelihood that critical material can be shipped to appropriate laboratories following a bioterrorism event or the outbreak of an infectious disease. This safe and secure packaging method contains a novel decontaminating material that will kill or neutralize any leaking infectious organisms; this feature will decrease the risk associated with shipping IS, making transport more efficient. 3 DRAFT4

  19. Impact of Environmental Issues on the High-Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impact of environmental issues on the design and operation of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This proposal for a new generation commercial supersonic transport is being pursued by NASA and its US industry partners in the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program. A second related paper describes the overall HSR Program, including a history of supersonic transport development that led to the present program, and a brief outline of the structure of the two-phase program and its management structure. The specific objectives are to address the four major barrier environmental issues and show their impact on the design of the airplane and potentially, its mode of operation. A brief historical perspective shows how HSR Phase I addressed these environmental topics and, with the successful completion of that program, led to the successful advocacy for the Phase II effort that followed. The Phase II program elements were discussed in the earlier paper and addressed technology programs to enhance the economic viability of the HSCT. Since many of the regulations that may effect the certification and operation of the HSCT are either not in place or well documented, a brief treatise is provided to address the status of the rules and the potential impact on the viability of the HSCT.

  20. Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) Negotiation Skill Requirements in Afghanistan: Afghanistan Security Issues Final Research Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    culture shock” that soldiers experienced as “the anxiety and physical and emotional discomfort that can occur when a person moves to an unfa- miliar...Afghanistan. Don‟t Believe it.” Newsweek, 14 December 2009, 48. Jalali, Ali A. “The Future of Security Institutions.” In Warfare Studies AY10 Coursebook ...62-69. Rubin, Barnett R. “The Transformation of the Afghan State.” In Warfare Studies AY10 Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, 351-356. Maxwell

  1. Data security issues arising from integration of wireless access into healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, John C

    2003-04-01

    The versatility of having Ethernet speed connectivity without wires is rapidly driving adoption of wireless data networking by end users across all types of industry. Designed to be easy to configure and work among diverse platforms, wireless brings online data to mobile users. This functionality is particularly useful in modern clinical medicine. Wireless presents operators of networks containing or transmitting sensitive and confidential data with several new types of security vulnerabilities, and potentially opens previously protected core network resources to outside attack. Herein, we review the types of vulnerabilities, the tools necessary to exploit them, and strategies to thwart a successful attack.

  2. Initiating communication about parental mental illness in families: an issue of confidence and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, Heljä; Sandlund, Mikael; Cederström, Anita

    2012-05-01

    Beardslee's family intervention (FI) is a family-based intervention to prevent psychiatric problems for children of mentally ill parents. The parents' experiences are of importance in family-based interventions. Twenty five parents were interviewed about their experiences of FI. Data were analysed by qualitative methods. Confidence and security in the professionals and in FI as a method were prerequisites for initiating communication about the parents' mental illness with the children. FI provides a solid base for an alliance with the parents and might be a practicable method when parenthood and children are discussed with psychiatric patients.

  3. New security measures are proposed for N-plants: Insider Rule package is issued by NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    New rules proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will require background investigations and psychological assessments of new job candidates and continual monitoring of the behavior of all power plant workers with access to sensitive areas. Licensees will have to submit an ''access authorization'' program for approval describing how they will conduct these security activities. The employee checks will go back five years to examine credit, educational, and criminal histories. Implementation of the rules could involve the Edison Electric Institute as an intermediary to funnel criminal checks from the Justice Department and FBI. The NRC is also considering a clarification of areas designated as ''vital'' because current designations may be too strict

  4. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-18

    polonium 210 from Moscow, through Germany, to London, apparently carried by one of the Russians Litvinenko met November 1. Russian authorities deny...Russia’s needs — food and food processing, oil and gas extraction technology, computers, communications, transportation, and investment capital — are

  5. The experience of the Republic of Belarus in the field of safe and secure transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashka, R.; Kronava, Z.; Prykhodzka, A.; Tkachonak, I.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of the safe and secure transport of radioactive material of the Republic of Belarus includes domestic and international movements. Transit is a substantial part of international movements taking into account the location of the country. Legislative and regulatory requirements on safety and security of radioactive material transport being in force in the country include the demands making by such state structures as the Department on Nuclear and Radiation Safety, the Department on supervision for the safe industrial activities, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. At the same time response to accidents and security events belongs to the scope of activity of special subdivisions of the Ministry for Emergency Situations and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. For safety purposes all the above-mentioned structures are executing their duties in close collaboration with each other and are following the IAEA safety and security recommendations. The regulatory infrastructure concerning the safe and secure transport of radioactive material of the Republic of Belarus is the subject of the contributed paper. (author)

  6. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea

  7. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  8. 'You get the quickest and the cheapest stuff you can': Food security issues among low-income earners living with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz, Cuesta-Briand; Sherry, Saggers; Alexandra, McManus

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide. More than 800,000 Australians live with diabetes, and there are stark inequities in prevalence and clinical outcomes among Indigenous people and low socio-economic groups. This paper focuses on food security issues experienced by low-income earners living with type 2 diabetes in Perth, Western Australia. The results presented here are part of a broader qualitative study exploring the impact of socioeconomic disadvantage on diabetes. Data was collected through focus groups and semistructured interviews conducted from October 2008 to November 2009. The sample, comprising 38 participants ( Indigenous and non-Indigenous), was recruited from areas with high indices of socio-economic disadvantage in Perth. Deductive data analysis identified categories from an existing conceptual framework for the relationship between socio-economic position and diabetes health outcomes, while an inductive approach was adopted to identify new themes. Participants had a good understanding of their dietary requirements. However, access to healthy food was not always realised, as many participants depended on others for food provision and meal preparation and had little control over their diets. Furthermore, the majority struggled to accommodate the price of healthy food within a limited budget. In this study, low-income earners living with diabetes faced food security issues. Participants reported cost barriers, but also physical barriers relating to functional limitations and lack of transport. This study highlights that the socioeconomic circumstances in which vulnerable populations experience their disease need to be understood and addressed in order to reduce the inequities surrounding diabetes outcomes.

  9. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  10. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…

  11. 78 FR 55274 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... enforcement, immigration, and intelligence databases, including a fingerprint-based criminal history records... boarding pass printing instruction. If the passenger's identifying information matches the entry on the TSA... enforcement, immigration, intelligence, or other homeland security functions. In addition, TSA may share...

  12. Theoretical issues in tokamak confinement: (i) Internal/edge transport barriers and (ii) runaway avalanche confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Helander, P.; Thyagaraja, A.; Andersson, F.; Fueloep, T.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Romanelli, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises a number of distinct, but related, pieces of work on key confinement issues for tokamaks, in particular the formation of internal and edge transport barriers, both within turbulent and neoclassical models, and radial diffusion of avalanching runaway electrons. First-principle simulations of tokamak turbulence and transport using the two-fluid, electromagnetic, global code CUTIE are described. The code has demonstrated the spontaneous formation of internal transport barriers near mode rational surfaces, in qualitative agreement with observations on JET and RTP. The theory of neoclassical transport in an impure, toroidal plasma has been extended to allow for steeper pressure and temperature gradients than are usually considered, and is then found to become nonlinear under conditions typical of the tokamak edge. For instance, the particle flux is found to be a nonmonotonic function of the gradients, thus allowing for a bifurcation in the ion particle flux. Finally, it is shown that radial diffusion caused by magnetic fluctuations can effectively suppress avalanches of runaway electrons if the fluctuation amplitude exceeds δB/B∼10 -3 . (author)

  13. Critical transport issues for improving the performance of aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Wei, L.

    2017-01-01

    As the fraction of electricity generated from intermittent renewable sources (such as solar and wind) grows, developing reliable energy storage technologies to store electrical energy in large scale is of increasing importance. Redox flow batteries are now enjoying a renaissance and regarded as a leading technology in providing a well-balanced solution for current daunting challenges. In this article, state-of-the-art studies of the complex multicomponent transport phenomena in aqueous redox flow batteries, with a special emphasis on all-vanadium redox flow batteries, are reviewed and summarized. Rather than elaborating on the details of previous experimental and numerical investigations, this article highlights: i) the key transport issues in each battery's component that need to be tackled so that the rate capability and cycling stability of flow batteries can be significantly improved, ii) the basic mechanisms that control the active species/ion/electron transport behaviors in each battery's component, and iii) the key experimental and numerical findings regarding the correlations between the multicomponent transport processes and battery performance.

  14. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  15. International cooperation for the development of consistent and stable transportation regulations to promote and enhance safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.

    2004-01-01

    International commerce of radioactive materials crosses national boundaries, linking separate regulatory institutions with a common purpose and making it necessary for these institutions to work together in order to achieve common safety goals in a manner that does not place an undue burden on industry and commerce. Widespread and increasing use of radioactive materials across the world has led to increases in the transport of radioactive materials. The demand for consistency in the oversight of international transport has also increased to prevent unnecessary delays and costs associated with incongruent or redundant regulatory requirements by the various countries through which radioactive material is transported. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the authority for international regulation of transportation of radioactive materials responsible for promulgation of regulations and guidance for the establishment of acceptable methods of transportation for the international community. As such, the IAEA is seen as the focal point for consensus building between its Member States to develop consistency in transportation regulations and reviews and to ensure the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. International cooperation is also needed to ensure stability in our regulatory processes. Changes to transportation regulations should be based on an anticipated safety benefit supported by risk information and insights gained from continuing experience, evaluation, and research studies. If we keep safety as the principle basis for regulatory changes, regulatory stability will be enhanced. Finally, as we endeavour to maintain consistency and stability in our international regulations, we must be mindful of the new security challenges that lay before the international community as a result of a changing terrorist environment. Terrorism is a problem of global concern that also requires international cooperation and support, as we look for ways to

  16. Maritime transportation risk analysis: Review and analysis in light of some foundational issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Many methods and applications for maritime transportation risk analysis have been presented in the literature. In parallel, there is a recent focus on foundational issues in risk analysis, with calls for intensified research on fundamental concepts and principles underlying the scientific field. This paper presents a review and analysis of risk definitions, perspectives and scientific approaches to risk analysis found in the maritime transportation application area, focusing on applications addressing accidental risk of shipping in a sea area. For this purpose, a classification of risk definitions, an overview of elements in risk perspectives and a classification of approaches to risk analysis science are applied. Results reveal that in the application area, risk is strongly tied to probability, both in definitions and perspectives, while alternative views exist. A diffuse situation is also found concerning the scientific approach to risk analysis, with realist, proceduralist and constructivist foundations co-existing. Realist approaches dominate the application area. Very few applications systematically account for uncertainty, neither concerning the evidence base nor in relation to the limitations of the risk model in relation to the space of possible outcomes. Some suggestions are made to improve the current situation, aiming to strengthen the scientific basis for risk analysis. - Highlights: • Risk analyses in maritime transportation analysed in light of foundational issues. • Focus on definitions, perspectives and scientific approaches to risk analysis. • Probability-based definitions and realist approaches dominate the field. • Findings support calls for increased focus on foundational issues in risk research. • Some suggestions are made to improve the current situation

  17. Russian Federation Opportunities to Participate in Addressing Global Issues of Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelepa A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues of Russia’s presence in the Asia Pacific are studied. Russia’s stance in terms of cooperation in the European and East Asian directions is evaluated. It is shown that for Russia to be actually incorporated into the Asia-Pacific economic space it is essential to develop a new interaction model

  18. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  19. Review of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues for transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Engineering Applications Section (NEAS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been involved for over 25 years with the development and application of computational tools for use in analyzing the criticality safety and shielding features of transportation packages carrying radioactive material (RAM). The majority of the computational tools developed by ORNL/NEAS have been included within the SCALE modular code system (SCALE 1995). This code system has been used throughout the world for the evaluation of nuclear facility and package designs. With this development and application experience as a basis, this paper highlights a number of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues that confront the designer and reviewer of a new RAM package. Changes in the types and quantities of material that need to be shipped will keep these issues before the technical community and provide challenges to future package design and certification

  20. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region: Assessment of trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.F. II

    1992-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the fundamental shift has taken place in international relations, away from a world dominated by the bipolar super-Power confrontation. There is a today to be more concerned about regional instabilities, which are made more threatening by the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Just as every nation was affected by the cold war, regional instabilities and proliferation concern each member of the world community. In the Asia-Pacific region, the goal is clear: safer, more stable military postures; transparency and confidence-building; and stronger non-proliferation norms. In working together towards that goal, there is a need to foster greater security through bilateral and multilateral dialogue. In that way, one could promote the change within and among societies; that is the best hope for defusing regional tensions, preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and building a lasting peace

  2. Peak Phosphorus: Clarifying the Key Issues of a Vigorous Debate about Long-Term Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the latest information and perspectives on global phosphorus scarcity. Phosphorus is essential for food production and modern agriculture currently sources phosphorus fertilizers from finite phosphate rock. The 2008 food and phosphate fertilizer price spikes triggered increased concerns regarding the depletion timeline of phosphate rock reserves. While estimates range from 30 to 300 years and are shrouded by lack of publicly available data and substantial uncertainty, there is a general consensus that the quality and accessibility of remaining reserves are decreasing and costs will increase. This paper clarifies common sources of misunderstandings about phosphorus scarcity and identifies areas of consensus. It then asks, despite some persistent uncertainty, what would it take to achieve global phosphorus security? What would a ‘hard-landing’ response look like and how could preferred ‘soft-landing’ responses be achieved?

  3. An assessment of transportation issues under exceptional conditions : the case of the mass media and the Northridge Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This study explores how the mass media covered transportation issues following the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The mass media were a vital channel for travel information, and they provided considerable information to the public about the safety of tr...

  4. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  5. Environmental law issues: Offshore oil and gas activities and tanker transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental law issues that arise from offshore oil/gas activities and petroleum transport are reviewed, focusing on marine oil pollution and especially on the issues surrounding accidental spills. Some observations are offered on the context of these issues, namely on the risks of oil spills, the difficulty of spill response in the ocean and on shorelines, and the possible environmental damage. Environmental control of petroleum operations is discussed with reference to Canadian regulation, the primary source of which is the Oil and Gas Production and Conservation Act. These regulations require developmental approval for offshore operations, formulation of plans for foreseeable spill emergencies, and compensation to those affected by spills, notably those in the fishing industry. Ship-source oil pollution and spill compensation is discussed with reference to international agreements and the Canada Shipping Act. Some problems and trends with oil spill compensation and recovery for environmental damage are noted in such areas as tanker ship standards, cleanup capabilities, and inadequacy of spill penalties and compensation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  6. Security in the transport of radioactive material: Implementing guide. Spanish edition; La seguridad fisica en el transporte de materiales radiactivos. Guia de aplicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  7. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 7, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Conference on Radioecology and Environmental Radioactivity 15-20 June 2008, Bergen organized by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in cooperation with IAEA, WHO, OECD/NEA, the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Journal of environmental Radioactivity (JER). This conference has evolved from the merging of the series of conferences by ECORAD and of the International Conferences on Radioactivity in the Environment. The primary objective of the conference was to review all scientific themes related to the study of environmental radioactivity and to identify new societal needs and requirements for regulatory bodies and industry. All sources of radiation, from industrial discharges in planned exposure situations through to sources in existing and emergency exposure situations, were included in the scope of the conference. 2) The Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety and Security Regulatory Agencies (the FORO); 3) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant in the earthquake on 16 July 2007 - plant's response and effects and lessons learned

  8. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Muneer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is inevitable for human life and a secure and accessible supply of energy is crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. Continuation of the use of fossil fuels is set to face multiple challenges: depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming and other environmental concerns, geopolitical and military conflicts and of late, continued and significant fuel price rise. These problems indicate an unsustainable situation. Renewable energy is the solution to the growing energy challenges. Renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, biomass, and wave and tidal energy, are abundant, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly. This article provides an overview of the current and projected energy scene. Five countries, that presently have a significant impact on global energy situation, have been studied in this work. These include China, India, Russia, UK and USA. Together the present energy budget of these countries is roughly half that of the globe. Four of the above five countries that are discussed in this work - China, India, UK and USA are all net importers of energy and are heavily dependent on imports of fuel to sustain their energy demands. Their respective local oil reserves will only last 9, 6, 7 and 4 years, respectively. China, the emerging economy in the world, is however making exemplary development in renewable energy - in 2004 renewable energy in China grew by 25% against 7-9% growth in electricity demand. While in the same year, wind energy in China saw a growth of 35%. China is also leading the global solar thermal market as it has already installed solar collectors over 65 million square meters, accounting for more than 40% of the world's total collector area. This article quantifies the period of exhaustion of the current major energy sources, i.e. coal, oil, gas and nuclear fissile material. Projected demand for energy is also presented and a feasibility of switch over to renewable energy is discussed. The article also presents

  10. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâldea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”. This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators. It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively. To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves.

  11. Security in Intelligent Transport Systems for Smart Cities: From Theory to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Awais; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Znaidi, Wassim

    2016-06-15

    Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this concern, both US and European ITS standards have selected Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithms to secure vehicular communications. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking studies on existing security standards in real-world settings. In this paper, we first analyze the security architecture of the ETSI ITS standard. We then implement the ECC based digital signature and encryption procedures using an experimental test-bed and conduct an extensive benchmark study to assess their performance which depends on factors such as payload size, processor speed and security levels. Using network simulation models, we further evaluate the impact of standard compliant security procedures in dense and realistic smart cities scenarios. Obtained results suggest that existing security solutions directly impact the achieved quality of service (QoS) and safety awareness of vehicular applications, in terms of increased packet inter-arrival delays, packet and cryptographic losses, and reduced safety awareness in safety applications. Finally, we summarize the insights gained from the simulation results and discuss open research challenges for efficient working of security in ITS applications of smart cities.

  12. Security in Intelligent Transport Systems for Smart Cities: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Awais; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Znaidi, Wassim

    2016-01-01

    Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this concern, both US and European ITS standards have selected Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithms to secure vehicular communications. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking studies on existing security standards in real-world settings. In this paper, we first analyze the security architecture of the ETSI ITS standard. We then implement the ECC based digital signature and encryption procedures using an experimental test-bed and conduct an extensive benchmark study to assess their performance which depends on factors such as payload size, processor speed and security levels. Using network simulation models, we further evaluate the impact of standard compliant security procedures in dense and realistic smart cities scenarios. Obtained results suggest that existing security solutions directly impact the achieved quality of service (QoS) and safety awareness of vehicular applications, in terms of increased packet inter-arrival delays, packet and cryptographic losses, and reduced safety awareness in safety applications. Finally, we summarize the insights gained from the simulation results and discuss open research challenges for efficient working of security in ITS applications of smart cities. PMID:27314358

  13. Security in Intelligent Transport Systems for Smart Cities: From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais Javed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this concern, both US and European ITS standards have selected Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC algorithms to secure vehicular communications. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking studies on existing security standards in real-world settings. In this paper, we first analyze the security architecture of the ETSI ITS standard. We then implement the ECC based digital signature and encryption procedures using an experimental test-bed and conduct an extensive benchmark study to assess their performance which depends on factors such as payload size, processor speed and security levels. Using network simulation models, we further evaluate the impact of standard compliant security procedures in dense and realistic smart cities scenarios. Obtained results suggest that existing security solutions directly impact the achieved quality of service (QoS and safety awareness of vehicular applications, in terms of increased packet inter-arrival delays, packet and cryptographic losses, and reduced safety awareness in safety applications. Finally, we summarize the insights gained from the simulation results and discuss open research challenges for efficient working of security in ITS applications of smart cities.

  14. Transport - mountain or molehill? The transport of spent fuel - How a minor incident became a major issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifuku, Karen

    1999-01-01

    On May 6, 1998 the national newspaper 'Liberation' published a story revealing that some of the spent fuel casks shipped from Electricite de France's NPPs would arrive at Cogema's rail terminal at Valognes with some surface contamination at levels above the authorized limits. Even though the contamination never represented a health hazard to either the population or to the operatives due to its very low levels, the story turned into a communication crisis for the nuclear industry. Despite the best laid out plans, events can take one by surprise as illustrated in the transport of spent fuel issue. So, it is now a question of anticipating better, putting in place an improved alert system, monitoring events and being able to make the proper analysis in order to prevent benign situations from getting out of hand. Adaptation to an ever evolving environment is another important factor. Knowing your opposition, not just those that are familiar like clearly identified foes such as environmental groups, but also groups or individuals that can be in the mainstream of society, including members of the government. Experience has showed that openness is the key to a relationship of trust at all levels, with the general public, politicians and the media. It does not mean total disclosure at all times because of the risk of overwhelming one's target audience with information without them being able to either evaluate its importance or sometimes fully comprehend it if it is complex. As for the media, it is crucial to built a strong relationship with journalists. It is a painstaking operation not only necessary but crucial. Following-up is a must as it permits to make sure there are no misunderstandings and helps put information into the proper perspective

  15. The issue of safety in the transports of radioactive materials; Le probleme de la securite dans les transports de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallier, Lucien

    1961-11-20

    This report addresses and discusses the various hazards associated with transports of radioactive materials, their prevention, intervention measures, and precautions to be taken by rescuers, notably how these issues are addressed in regulations. For each of these issues, this report proposes guidelines, good practices, or procedures to handle the situation. The author first addresses hazards related to a transport of radioactive products: multiplicity of hazards, different hazards due to radioactivity, hazards due to transport modes, scale of dangerous doses. The second part addresses precautionary measures: for road transports, for air transports, for maritime transports, control procedures. The third part addresses the intervention in case of accident: case of a road accident with an unhurt or not vehicle crew, role of the first official rescuers, other kinds of accidents. The fourth part briefly addresses the case of transport of fissile materials. The fifth part discusses the implications of safety measures. Appendices indicate standards, and give guidelines for the construction of a storage building for radioactive products, for the control and storage of parcels containing radioactive products, and for the establishment of instructions for the first aid personnel.

  16. ENSURING THE SAFETY OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Nikolaevna Andronikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates Russian and foreign regulatory documents, governing the issues of cargo securing in road transport, and sets out recommendations to ensure the safety of road transportation of goods by means of their attachment.

  17. Regional transportation operations collaboration and coordination : a primer for working together to improve transportation safety, reliability, and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This primer was written for transportation professionals and public safety officials from cities, counties, and States who are responsible for day-to-day management and operations within a metropolitan region. It is intended to help agencies and orga...

  18. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. Issue no. 3, April 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This newsletter reports on the manual for first responders to a radiological emergency, the IAEA's testing laboratory for radiation measurement, monitoring and protection, which is the first UN laboratory accredited to the international standard ISO17025, and the International Conference on Lessons Learned fro the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Nuclear Activities. The IAEA, in recognition of this critical need, has developed a Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency with the objective to provide practical guidance for those responding within the first few hours of a radiological emergency. This guidance document is co-sponsored by the Comite technique international de prevention et d'extinction du feu (CTIF), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The Manual for First Responders provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. The guidance also contains practical procedures and tools on the response to a radiological emergency again easily and quickly adaptable by Member States to prepare first responders to respond adequately to a radiological emergency. The Manual can be used for training purposes at the preparedness stage as well as during the response. The Policy and Programme Support Section (PPSS) within the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Security (NSRW) has been operating, for many years, a laboratory (the Testing Laboratory) for radiation safety monitoring of individuals and workplaces. The establishment of a quality management system, as required in the International Basic Safety Standards (the BSS), started in 2000 to cover all measurement methods of the laboratory. This system is based on the international standard ISO17025 (General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories). PPSS

  19. 12 CFR 1.130 - Type II securities; guidelines for obligations issued for university and housing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES Interpretations § 1.130 Type II securities... financing the construction or improvement of facilities at or used by a university or a degree-granting... construction or improvement of facilities used by a hospital may be eligible as a Type II security, if the...

  20. 17 CFR 210.3-16 - Financial statements of affiliates whose securities collateralize an issue registered or being...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-16 Financial...