WorldWideScience

Sample records for transportation purchasing tickets

  1. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  2. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  3. Purchasing a General Ticket for Public Transport - A Means-End Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland offers a dense network of public transport means. The Swiss General Ticket (GT) is a popular travel pass, which allows the use of most of the public transport facilities in Switzerland. The buying behavior for public transport general tickets underlies a complex decision process. Public transport customers can deal with the complexity in two ways: either one decides on choice heuristics according to ones rather emotional beliefs or decides systematically based on a rational price ...

  4. NFC Solutions for Purchasing Public Transport Tickets at Babahoyo Terrestrial Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rosado Anzules

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Buying tickets at the Babahoyo terrestrial terminal can become a slow process, causing delays and costs for users to queue to be able to mobilize to the different destinations on o er. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the computer system that implements NFC technology through mobile phones and smart cards that allow to speed up the purchase process, all for frequent travelers who must use this service. The data presented in this article were obtained through an exploratory study of qualitative and quantitative nature. The people who participated in the study were the users of the Babahoyo terrestrial terminal transport, who answered questions to determine their level of acceptance to a computer system using NFC technologies and the results determined that a large majority were available to use telephones and smart card readers. About 90% of respondents believe that the software will have a positive impact on the ticketing process at the Babahoyo terrestrial terminal. Even in the country, the advantages of NFC have not been seen, however, it is expected that by 2018 will have a high impact by the use of applications that make use of the benefits provided by this technology. NFC technology emerged about 15 years ago, however, in Ecuador has not yet become popular the use of it.

  5. Purchasing a General Ticket - a Means End Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior or decision making by consumer can be viewed from different perspectives. In the case of the underlying study judgment and decision theory and systematic versus heuristic decision making build bases for the research discussion. The buying behavior of season tickets underlies a complex decision process. The railway customer can deal with complexity in two ways. Either he decides on the based on heuristics of his rather emotional beliefs or systematic based on a rational ca...

  6. Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: increasing risk for problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoff, Katharine M; Norris, Joan E

    2009-06-01

    Instant ticket purchase gambling (ITPG) is pervasive in Ontario and has features that mimic slot machine play. Previous researchers have reported that ITPG is one preferred activity for at-risk/problem gamblers. In the general Canadian population, rate of participation in ITPG is second only to lottery ticket gambling. Both are particularly favored by youth and seniors. The next cohort of seniors will be Canada's baby boomers, one-third of whom live in Ontario. Secondary analysis of Statistics Canada data revealed that adults in this cohort who buy instant gambling tickets (N = 1781) are significantly different from the complete group of their age peers (N = 4266) in number of activities pursued and frequency of involvement. At-risk/problem gambling prevalence was 10.2% amongst Ontario baby boomers who participate in instant ticket gambling, significantly higher than the 6.7% found amongst the total group of baby boom gamblers. For those who reported experiencing one or more of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index indicators for problem gambling (N = 237), 73% were buying instant tickets. Future research should consider cohort effects and explore combinations of preferred gambling activities that may increase risk for problem gambling. Social policy recommendations include the use of all ITPG venues as key locations for promoting awareness of problem gambling treatment services.

  7. Improvement of urban passenger transport ticketing systems by deploying intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jakubauskas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main advantages and disadvantages of conventional and intelligent ticketing systems and possible positive outcomes when introducing intelligent transport solutions – namely smart cards or e‑ticketing instead of conventional ones (paper tickets and magnetic cards are analysed in the paper. Two ideas of creating an intelligent ticketing system in an urban public transport are scrutinized. The first is electronic ticket and related equipment, the second – e-ticket and functional areas of it. In the article analysis has also been made on practical outcomes related with introduction of smart cards and e-ticketing. Practical tests and trials as well as a subsequent implementation of electronic tickets have proved unchallenged advantages of contactless smart cards against the contact ones. Nevertheless, a new age of modern technologies calls even for more effective solutions – namely virtual-ticketing systems that might be achieved through introduction of mobile technologies. Therefore, the main focus in the paper is made on the analysis of e-ticket.

  8. INTEGRATED TICKETING SYSTEM OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN JAKARTA VS VÄRMLAND, SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Himawan Ronggosusanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The heightened mobility of people in the DKI Jakarta province and surrounding area requires balance of the development public transport services. One of service attributes in public transportation is ticketing system. Currently, the ticketing system in Jakarta needs to be improved and still not integrated. Therefore, the importance to develop and implement a new integrated ticketing system to increase the competitiveness and attractiveness of public transports. It also gives an opportunity to the operators in order to implement several of ticket prices. There are some of barriers that faced by operators in development a new integrated ticketing system such as; institutional issue, resources integration, and financial problems. In order to describe and analyze the development of a new integrated ticketing system, this thesis uses a qualitative research approach and five sources of evidence i.e. documentation, archival records, an interview, direct and participant observations through a survey using the form of questionnaires that distributed to the public transport users. Further, this study also uses the case of Värmlandstrafik AB as the comparative study and the theoretical basis of the new services development as an approach to assess the possibility of implement a new integrated ticketing system. It aims to investigate the ticketing system phenomenon using information and data observations as materials to analyze, explore, and provide depth explanation. By analyzing data from a survey of passengers, this study gave a description and explanation related the characteristic and the travel behavior of passenger, also an assessment of ticketing system that underlies the development a new integrated ticketing system. Then, using the comparative case study of Värmlandstrafik AB that already implement an integrated ticketing system and the self-services in provision of public transport services gave an analysis what needs to prepare for implement a

  9. Scheduling of inspectors for ticket spot checking in urban rail transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Clausen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A central issue for operators of passenger transportation in urban rail is balancing the income from tickets against the cost of the operation. The main part of the income except for governmental subsides comes from sales of tickets. There are various ways to ensure that all passengers carry valid...

  10. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  11. Free Rides in Denmark: Lessons from Improperly Generated Mobile Transport Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustolisi, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    The term security ceremony describes a technical system extended with its human users. In this paper, we examine the inspection ceremony for the mobile transport ticket in Denmark. We find several security weaknesses that are ascribable to both human and computer components of the ceremony...

  12. Optimal decisions of sharing rate and ticket price of different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoping Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper concerns competition of different transportation modes coexist in inter-city transportation corridor. The purpose of this paper is to express the competitive relationship by building mathematical model and obtain the best sharing rate and the optimal ticket price of different transportation modes. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, analyzing influencing factors of passenger choice about transportation modes, we designed an utility function of transportation modes. Secondly, referring to the game theory and logit modle, a non-cooperative game model between railway and highway was built. Finally, the model was applied to Nanchang-Jiujiang transportation corridor in China for an empirical analysis. Findings: The results indicate that the proposed non-cooperative game model is rational and reliable, and it supplies a scientific method to determine the optimal ticket price and passenger sharing rate of different transportation modes, and can be applied to the competition study on different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to built the non-cooperative game model, which can consider the needs of different travelers, and achieve reasonable passenger divergence of different transportation modes and coordinated development of whole transport market.

  13. .: Risk sharing in the paper ticket distribution system on the example of municipal transport union of the upper Silesian industrial district in Katowice

    OpenAIRE

    Anna URBANEK

    2015-01-01

    Properly organized ticket distribution is a crucial tool to realize tariff policy of public passenger transport provider in the given area, as well as the factor influencing the ticket sale profits. Providing the proper accessibility of public communication ticket sale network requires signing contracts with third parties, which is consequently connected with the necessity to divide the tasks and responsibilities among them, which generates certain risk for each of the parties. In the article...

  14. .: Risk sharing in the paper ticket distribution system on the example of municipal transport union of the upper Silesian industrial district in Katowice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna URBANEK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Properly organized ticket distribution is a crucial tool to realize tariff policy of public passenger transport provider in the given area, as well as the factor influencing the ticket sale profits. Providing the proper accessibility of public communication ticket sale network requires signing contracts with third parties, which is consequently connected with the necessity to divide the tasks and responsibilities among them, which generates certain risk for each of the parties. In the article the types of risks have been discussed, as well as the methods of its sharing in case of agreements concerning public communication paper ticket distribution. Based on the example of the Municipal Transport Union of the Upper Silesian Industrial District in Katowice, the types of such agreements have been presented as well as their influence on organizing urban communication ticket distribution system in Silesian agglomeration. The paper presents a new approach to risk management as an important part of integration strategy of urban transport organizer.

  15. Modelling Preference Heterogeneity for Theatre Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the behavioural choice for theatre tickets using a rich data set for 2010–2013 from the sale system of the Royal Danish National Theatre. A consumer who decides to attend a theatre production faces multiple sources of price variation that involves a choice by the consumer...... among different ticket alternatives. Three modelling approaches are proposed in order to model ticket purchases: conditional logit with socio-demographic characteristics, nested logit and latent class. These models allow us explicitly to take into account consumers’ preference heterogeneity with respect...... of behaviour in the choice of theatre ticket....

  16. The potential of e-ticketing for public transport planning: the Piedmont region case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnone, M.

    2016-07-01

    In the Piedmont region (Italy) the electronic ticketing system called BIP, is currently active across much of its territory, and thedata collected in the Province of Cuneo since the full activation of the system (2014) provide today a sound source ofinformation. Two different travel documents are available, travel passes and pay-per-use, with different validation rules: check-inonly for travel passes and check-in and check-out for pay-per-use. Data produced by this electronic ticketing system employingsmart cards allow to perform a detailed analysis of each user’s behaviour, and calculate time and space distributions of eachpassenger trip. In detail, data originating from smart card transactions allow to trace back the trip chains, establish journey originsand destinations, and produce a “travel diary” for each passenger. Based on this data, performance indicators (i.e. load factor) aswell as user mobility patterns and origin-destination matrices can be calculated in an automated and reliable way. This articlepresents a methodology for assessing the quality of the data collected when information about boarding and alighting stops isavailable from the (on board) validation system. It also presents an algorithm to assign a destination for each trip where only theboarding information is available. In the case study of the Province of Cuneo, it was found that 91% of the pay-per-use journeydata are reliable and can be used for further analysis, whereas with the use of the proposed algorithm it was possible to estimatethe destinations for 82% of the travel pass trips. (Author)

  17. On the disclosure of ticket sales in charitable lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damianov, Damian S.; Peeters, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We show that a policy of disclosing the ticket sales during a fundraising lottery raises total revenue when there are more than two bettors. The optimal timing of the disclosure is when about half of the players have purchased lottery tickets.

  18. 14 CFR 158.45 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... travel ticket, issuing air carriers and their agents shall collect a PFC from a passenger only for the.... (3) Issuing carriers and their agents shall collect PFCs based on the itinerary at the time of... travel on a nonrefundable or expired ticket is not a change in itinerary. If the ticket purchaser is not...

  19. SURVEY ON E-FINGERPRINT TICKET

    OpenAIRE

    Zakkam Solomon; Meghana K M; Manjula; Roshini B

    2017-01-01

    Earlier work has demonstrated that when going in a transport the installment accomplished for ticket is with money .The transport ticket has such an installment figure which makes the voyager or the conductor shy of cash as far as change. This makes the conductor to keep the change with himself .This makes bother to the explorers. Subsequently there is a requirement for better workplace. To conquer this issue we are making utilization of fingerprints of the voyager which are connected to the ...

  20. Modelling Preference Heterogeneity for Theatre Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine

    This paper analyzes the behavioural choice for theatre tickets using a rich dataset for 2010-2013 from the sale system of the Royal Danish National Theatre. A consumer who decides to attend a theater production faces multiple sources of price variation that depends on: socio-economic characterist......This paper analyzes the behavioural choice for theatre tickets using a rich dataset for 2010-2013 from the sale system of the Royal Danish National Theatre. A consumer who decides to attend a theater production faces multiple sources of price variation that depends on: socio......-economic characteristics, quality of the seat, day of the performance and timing of purchase. Except for the first case, factors of price differentiation involves a choice by the consumer among different ticket alternatives. Two modelling approaches, namely multinomial logit (with socio-demographic characteristics......) and latent class are proposed in order to model ticket purchase behaviour. These models allow us explicitly to take into account consumers' preference heterogeneity with respect to the attributes associated to each ticket alternative In addition, the distribution of the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of choice...

  1. PUC review of LDC gas purchasing practices and transportation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, R.

    1992-01-01

    The optimal paradigm for the PUC review of LDC purchasing and contracting starts with a regulatory paradigm that assigns risk upon the LDC. There are profits and risks in a market economy. Being exposed to risk causes firms to expend costs to minimize the risk, including lowering costs and altering input combinations. The transition within the industry implies greater need for planning, for optimization based on both economics and engineering, and less upon political directives. But the transition is far more encompassing than adding a new layer of regulatory oversight at the state level. States must revise their regulation to get out front - to give those incentives. The management audits will be internally profitable to the firms. If LDCs don't adjust, there will be other firms that will evaluate where poor management exists within this industry, and they will buy them out and lower the costs both for the profit they can obtain and to the betterment of ratepayers who experience lower rates. An a priori incentive process needs to govern PUC review of purchasing practices and transportation agreements. Lessons can be learned from the competitive market on how to structure this dynamic process which yields consumer benefits. This paper is organized as follows. First it identifies the forces which drive change - both historical bias and new options stemming from federal policy. Second, problems with 'improved' traditional regulatory review are discussed. Third, dimensions to an optimal PUC review process are set forth

  2. Design and implementation of ticket price forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuling; Li, Zhichao

    2018-05-01

    With the advent of the aviation travel industry, a large number of data mining technologies have been developed to increase profits for airlines in the past two decades. The implementation of the digital optimization strategy leads to price discrimination, for example, similar seats on the same flight are purchased at different prices, depending on the time of purchase, the supplier, and so on. Price fluctuations make the prediction of ticket prices have application value. In this paper, a combination of ARMA algorithm and random forest algorithm is proposed to predict the price of air ticket. The experimental results show that the model is more reliable by comparing the forecasting results with the actual results of each price model. The model is helpful for passengers to buy tickets and to save money. Based on the proposed model, using Python language and SQL Server database, we design and implement the ticket price forecasting system.

  3. An integrated Markov decision process and nested logit consumer response model of air ticket pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Feng, T.; Timmermans, H.P.J.; Yang, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The paper attempts to propose an optimal air ticket pricing model during the booking horizon by taking into account passengers' purchasing behavior of air tickets. A Markov decision process incorporating a nested logit consumer response model is established to modeling the dynamic pricing process.

  4. American Samoa Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1990 the local government made it mandatory for local vendors to participate in this monitoring program and it is continuing. The Department of Marine and...

  5. Free Rail Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Nielsen, Thomas Thomas Alexander Sick

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the potential of Bluetooth and WiFi sensor network tracking to estimate the flow of passengers on rails. The article shows that this technology makes it possible to estimate the relative flow in the network, even when used in a setup with a minimum of sensors on selected...... railway stations, and also how free tickets influence the relative flow on routes in the network. This paper presents the first contribution where Bluetooth and WiFi tracking data has been used to estimate the impact of free tickets on railways in Denmark....

  6. Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket mobilization to increase seat belt use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is an intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2005 Mobilization involved approximately $33 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the Nation reported issuing mo...

  7. Event Ticketing Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the virtual world nowadays is an environment more favorable and in full up as regards the evolution of our cultural and technological development. Due to the possibility of online promotion, Internet-based business technology was born, a new, still moving process, representing companies and suppliers of goods and services a unique way to win as many potential customers as possible. The paper analyzes system requirements for online shopping in general and the specific requirements for on-line event ticket sales systems. The paper insists on the critical design and implementation issues for an Event Ticketing System and the potential problems for such a fully automated, high-availability system

  8. TICKETS ARE NOW AVAILABLE!

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Replay of the Rudra-Béjart Ballet for the CERN Staff on Tuesday 5 December 2000 at 8.00 pm sharp at the Geneva ARENA This private performance will be given for you. It will last longer than the original performance at CERN: 1 hour 20 instead of 35 minutes. I encourage you all to attend this performance-bring in great numbers yourselves, members of your family, and your friends. 2,020 places are available, for which tickets will be obtained from Monday 27 November at the Staff Association Secretariat, whom I sincerely thank for having kindly accepted to distribute the tickets. To regulate the distribution, a contribution of 5 francs will be asked for each ticket: this sum is symbolic, as I intend this ballet-representation foremost as a recognition by CERN of its gratitude to you. Luciano Maiani Director-General               Dancing,      &n...

  9. AIR TICKETS RATES MONITORING: INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article conduct analysis of preconditions of air tickets fares dynamics. Monitoring informational system formation in aim of public regulation of air transport on base of an assessment of the current state and development prospects of Russian civil aviation, and formed the conceptual basis for information system architecture at the levels of the presentation layer, business-logic and data access layer.

  10. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  11. Everyone Deserves a Speeding Ticket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Harold

    1993-01-01

    Presents a first day physics activity having students determine the fine for a speeding ticket if the speeds considered include the earth's rotation and revolution speed, and the movement through the galaxy. (MDH)

  12. 14 CFR 158.47 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued outside the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and... required to collect a PFC on air travel tickets issued on its own ticket stock unless it serves a point or... public agency controlling the last airport at which the passenger is enplaned prior to departure from the...

  13. Crying wolf? On the price discrimination of online airline tickets

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, Thomas; Nikiforakis, Nick; Bielova, Nataliia; Joosen, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Price discrimination refers to the practice of dynamically varying the prices of goods based on a customer's purchasing power and willingness to pay. In this paper, motivated by several anecdotal ac-counts, we report on a three-week experiment, conducted in search of price discrimination in airline tickets. Despite presenting the companies with multiple opportunities for discriminating us, and contrary to our expectations, we do not find any evidence for systematic pri...

  14. Plane Ticket Price Dispersion in the Online Selling System in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stanisław Szopiński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have studied the influence exerted by tourism on the economy. Today, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are an important factor influencing competitiveness in the tourism sector and consumers’ decision-making concerning tourism purchases. Along with the expansion of the European Union, the revolution in passenger air transportation has spread over new member states in Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland. The authors of this study analyzed ticket prices on Internet websites that aggregate offers from different carriers and on the websites managed by the carriers themselves, specifically studying offers for the most popular flight connections from F. Chopin airport in Warsaw to London, Frankfurt, Munich, and Paris. For each connection, the study examined flights operated by the Polish carrier, i.e., LOT Polish Airlines, and by a carrier originating from a destination country. The analysis of the particular coefficients illustrating the price dispersion for each flight operated by a foreign carrier in comparison to the offer from LOT Polish Airlines points to the conclusion that the tickets offered by the latter were marked by a much narrower price dispersion in contrast to the connections offered by foreign carriers on the same route.

  15. Evaluation of the ticketing aggressive cars and trucks (TACT) program in Pennsylvania (071408).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    The Pennsylvania State Police and Pennsylvania Department of Transportation implemented the "Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT)" media and enforcement initiative on a portion of Interstate 81 in southern Pennsylvania, in late 2008. This repo...

  16. Ticket-to-talk-television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Marcus Sanchez; Sokoler, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    on a moment-to-moment basis throughout everyday life beyond the TV screens. We take the phenomenon of ticket-to-talk as our point of departure when analyzing observations made during a study of the ways senior citizens go about socializing in everyday face-to-face situations. We then discuss how this analysis...

  17. Electronic Ticketing System As a Process of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increased complexity in the competitive landscape, innovation is the keyword of the post-industrial era, and in order to be attained by the enterprises, it requires new strategies, capabilities and competencies. Considering this scenario this study included analysis of improvements achieved with the implementation of the e-ticketing system in a case of public transport in major cities of southern Brazil categorized as cases β and γ. Furthermore, it aimed to ascertain whether the improvements in information management provided by electronic ticketing qualify it as an innovation. The research was based on the theoretical model of innovation described in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 in order to guide the research activities described. Qualitative data was collected through interviews and document analysis. The collected information was analyzed using content analysis and the amount of vehicles and passengers in the cities covered by the survey were used as secondary data. The characteristic effects of innovation were found to be in line with the results of e-ticketing in the cases analyzed, making this system a way to attain innovation. In accordance with the guidelines set for this study, it is worth emphasizing that the impacts of the e-ticketing system were considered innovative, not the system itself, because electronic billing was a means to achieve innovation and not an innovation per se.

  18. 78 FR 45452 - Mailing of Tickets Under the Ticket To Work Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Security Online, at www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Congress established the Ticket... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 411 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0034] RIN 0960-AH34 Mailing of Tickets Under the Ticket To Work Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule...

  19. Improving The Performance of Customer Loyalty of Online Ticketing in Indonesia's Showbiz Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachyar, M.; Athory, E. S.

    2015-06-01

    Currently the entertainment industry is adopting online ticketing for supporting business from main products to profitability improvement. E-loyalty needs to be examined because are deals with less loyal customer characteristic. The sample are 249 customers whom have purchased for tickets online at least once. Data was gathered by questionnaires and analyzed by Path Analysis and Importance - Performance Analysis. The findings of the research indicate that satisfaction has the strongest relationship to e-loyalty. This study provides four improvement alternatives as a form of new business development strategy for showbiz industry in Indonesia.

  20. An inventory model of purchase quantity for fully-loaded vehicles with maximum trips in consecutive transport time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pоуu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Products made overseas but sold in Taiwan are very common. Regarding the cross-border or interregional production and marketing of goods, inventory decision-makers often have to think about how to determine the amount of purchases per cycle, the number of transport vehicles, the working hours of each transport vehicle, and the delivery by ground or air transport to sales offices in order to minimize the total cost of the inventory in unit time. This model assumes that the amount of purchases for each order cycle should allow all rented vehicles to be fully loaded and the transport times to reach the upper limit within the time period. The main research findings of this study included the search for the optimal solution of the integer planning of the model and the results of sensitivity analysis.

  1. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered to...

  2. APPLICATION OF NFC TECHNOLOGY IN PASSENGER RAIL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk KOMSTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of the application of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport. The NFC (Near Field Communication technology is a wireless and contactless technology of transmission of radio data over short distances (max. 5 cm. This technology is very similar to the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. It is assumed that this technology will spread rapidly and that already in 2015 around 85% of the payments in the EU will be made via mobile phones. This paper presents a research of passenger interest in this method of payment for tickets in the passenger rail transport in Slovakia. Further, an analysis of the applications of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport, including the protection of data in mobile phones, the processes in case of losing a mobile phone and ensuring the communication between both parties was presented in the article. The last part of this analysis shows the possibility of purchasing tickets regardless of the carrier and the transport type.

  3. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale, acquisition...

  4. Click It or Ticket Evaluation, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilization followed a typical selective traffic enforcement program (STEP) sequence, involving paid media, earned media, and enforcement. A nationally representative telephone survey indicated that the mobilizatio...

  5. Click It or Ticket Evaluation, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The 201 Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilization followed a typical elective traffic enforcement program TEP) sequence, involving paid media, earned media, and enforcement. A nationally representative telephone survey indicated that the mobilization wa...

  6. Electronic Tickets, Smart Cards, and Online Prepayments: When and How to Advance Sell

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhong Xie; Steven M. Shugan

    2001-01-01

    Advance selling occurs when sellers allow buyers to purchase at a time preceding consumption (Shugan and Xie 2000). Electronic tickets, smart cards, online prepayments, and other technological advances make advance selling possible for many, if not all, service providers. These technologies lower the cost of making complex transactions at a greater distance from the seller's site. They also give sellers more control over advance selling by decreasing arbitrage. As technology enhances the capa...

  7. Quantifying the purchasing power of public transportation in Texas : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Investments in public transportation in Texas contribute to the state and local economy by improving : transportation options, which in turn creates benefits for individuals, businesses, and governments. Many : different agencies provide public trans...

  8. 49 CFR 374.305 - Ticketing and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.305 Ticketing and information... where tickets are sold shall provide telephonic information to the traveling public, including current... schedules shall be provided to the traveling public at all facilities where tickets for such services are...

  9. 7 CFR 46.19 - Sales tickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales tickets. 46.19 Section 46.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER...

  10. Asymmetrical Problem About the Lucky Tickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vеlichko Igor Gеorgiеvich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a set of tickets with numbers from 000001 to 999999. The lucky ticket is called, in which the sum of the first three digits equals the sum of the last three digits. The problem of lucky tickets is counting their number. The generalization of the classical problem of the lucky ticket to the case when the number of terms in comparable amounts and different radix arbitrarily. To count the number of solutions of linear diophantine equations, the terms of which are bounded by a constant, we introduced a discrete analogue of the delta function, written as the definite integral. We wrote out the formula for the number of tickets in the form of multiple sums comprising administering function. We prove several auxiliary identities for the end of trigonometric sums, it is a generalization of identities. After changing the order of summation and integration we obtain the desired formula for the number of solutions of this diophantine equation. With an equal number of terms in the sum written out expression obtained previously known classical result, which is known to the author sources obtained using more sophisticated techniques of integration in the complex domain. In this paper we use the same kind of method of trigonometric sums I.M. Vinogradov, and all the arguments are on the set of real numbers. To obtain an exact expression as an integral of the oscillating function method of stationary phase estimates are obtained, containing radicals and exponents. The results of the comparisons of calculations on the exact and approximate formulas are given.

  11. Purchasing practices in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge and understanding of purchasing practices of SMEs in Denmark. The paper is based on the results from a survey among 94 Danish SMEs, mainly within machinery, electronics and electrical, transportation equipment, and medical equipment industries....... The results are compared with a similar study encompassing 224 SMEs in Indiana, USA. First, the level of purchasing complexity is discussed. There are similarities between the two surveys in terms of purchasing's influence on product quality and productivity, and percentage of total costs. However, the degree...... on the results from the two surveys, we discuss the managerial and research implications for purchasing practices in SMEs....

  12. REVERSE CHARGING PURCHASES TO INTRA-TRANSPORTATION MEANS IN THE CONTEXT OF NEW TAX REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecobici Nicolae

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available New tax rules with effect from 1 May 2009 with a series of changes on the tax deductibility of the value added acquisitions related to transport and fuel use. The measure is very obvious nature of politics in order to bring the state budget amounts as required under the current government crisis in the financial world. The book focuses on not commenting policy modifications as required on the implications that they bring in on the accounting chargeback. Therefore, in the paper we will address the resolution of these legal provisions in the economic accounts.

  13. NFC Secure Payment and Verification Scheme with CS E-Ticket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important techniques in IoT, NFC (Near Field Communication is more interesting than ever. NFC is a short-range, high-frequency communication technology well suited for electronic tickets, micropayment, and access control function, which is widely used in the financial industry, traffic transport, road ban control, and other fields. However, NFC is becoming increasingly popular in the relevant field, but its secure problems, such as man-in-the-middle-attack and brute force attack, have hindered its further development. To address the security problems and specific application scenarios, we propose a NFC mobile electronic ticket secure payment and verification scheme in the paper. The proposed scheme uses a CS E-Ticket and offline session key generation and distribution technology to prevent major attacks and increase the security of NFC. As a result, the proposed scheme can not only be a good alternative to mobile e-ticket system but also be used in many NFC fields. Furthermore, compared with other existing schemes, the proposed scheme provides a higher security.

  14. Travel ticket sales optimization at Prague Main Railway Station

    OpenAIRE

    Kuběnová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This Master's Thesis concerns the travel ticket sales at Prague Main Railway Station. Based on a detailed analysis of provided data, its aim is to put forward suggestions on how to optimize travel ticket sales. Through evaluating the volume of travel tickets sold within the given time period and the number of open cash-desks, along with a cost analysis of sales channels, this thesis reaches its final conclusions. Microsoft Excel was the main analysis tool for compiling graphs. A sound knowled...

  15. Click it or ticket evaluation, 2008–2009 : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is a high-visibility enforcement : program to increase seat belt use. Click It or Ticket was : adopted as a national program in 2003 and is credited : with steady increases in seat belt use across the Nation. : In 2009, seat...

  16. Ticket consumption forecast for Brazilian championship games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    Full Text Available Abstract For the efficiency of sales and marketing management of athletic clubs, it is crucial to find a way to appropriately estimate the level of demand for sporting events. More precise estimates allow for an appropriate financial and operational plan and a higher quality of service delivered to the fans. The focus of this study is to analyze and forecast the ticket consumption for soccer games in Brazilian stadiums. We compare the results of the regression model with normally distributed errors (benchmark, the TOBIT model and the Gamma generalized linear model. The models include explanatory variables related to the economic environment, product quality, as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives that people are given to attend sporting events at stadiums. We show that most of these variables are statistically significant to explain the amount of fans that go to stadiums. We used different measures of accuracy to evaluate the performance of demand forecasts and concluded that Gamma generalized linear model presented better results to forecast the ticket consumption for Brazilian championship games, when compared to a benchmark.

  17. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchases, sales, acquisitions... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.55 Purchases, sales... ticket. If the actual weight used is not obtained on the date and at the place of transfer of possession...

  18. Evaluation of Kentucky's "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report was to document the results of the "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign in Kentucky. The campaign involved a combination of earned media, paid media, and enforcement. : The evaluation of the campaign included documenting th...

  19. Click It or Ticket evaluation : 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, widely publicized enforcement efforts used to improve seat belt use. Annual national mobilizations have been conducted in May every year since 2003. National and State expenditures ...

  20. Latest from TPG - annual tickets for sale at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Starting in early 2013, TPG’s annual tickets will be for sale at CERN for 650 CHF, instead of the typical 700 CHF. Further details on their sale will be communicated as soon as possible.   With effect from 9 December, the TPG (Transports publics genevois) network will be introducing several improvements to its services:  - The existing 14 tram service (CERN - Bel-Air) will become the 18 (CERN - Stand), and its frequency will be increased to a tram every 10 minutes; - The Y bus service (Ferney-Voltaire-Mairie - Val-Thoiry via CERN and Geneva airport) will also be improved: • from Monday to Friday, there will be a bus every 15 minutes at rush hours (between 6.30 a.m. and 9.30 a.m. and between 4.30 p.m. and 7 p.m.), i.e. an increase of 50%, • on Saturdays, the frequency of this service will be increased to a bus every 45 minutes, • on Sundays, there will be one bus per hour throughout the day between 6 a.m. and midnight. You can consult t...

  1. Impact of the european emission trading scheme for the air transportation industry on the valuation of aircraft purchase rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarradellas-Espuny, J.; Salamero-Salas, A.; Martinez-Costa, C.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission issued a legislative proposal in December 2006, suggesting a cap on CO 2 emissions for all planes arriving or departing from EU airports, while allowing airlines to buy and sell pollution credits on the EU carbon market (Emission Trading Scheme, or ETS). In 2008 the new scheme got the final approval. Real options appear to be ab appropriate methodology to capture the extra value brought by the new legislation on new airplane purchase rights: The airline will surely have the purchase right to the new plane if the operation of the plane generates unused pollution credits that the airline can sell at a minimum price in the carbon market. This paper tries to determine if the impact of ETS in the valuation of aircraft purchase rights is significant enough in monetary terms to include the new legislation in a complex real-option model already proposed by the authors recently. The research concludes that even the impact of ETS justifies its inclusion in the model, the quality of the available sets of historical data still raises some questions. Particularly, the assumption of market efficiency for the Carbon Pool over the recent years needs to be treated with caution. (Author) 9 refs

  2. 41 CFR 301-75.202 - What must we do if the interviewee exchanges the ticket he or she has been issued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL Obtaining Travel Services and Claiming Reimbursement § 301-75... either the ticket or the travel authorization as provided in U.S. Government Passenger Transportation...

  3. The Research on Ticket Fare Optimization for China’s High-Speed Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant deepening of the railway reform in China, the competition between railway passenger transportation and other modes of passenger transportation has been getting fiercer. In this situation, the existing unitary and changeless fare structure gradually becomes the prevention of railway revenue increase and railway system development. This paper examines a new method for ticket fare optimization strategy based on the revenue management theory. On the premise that only one fare grade can be offered for each OD at the same time, this paper addresses the questions of how to determine the number of fare grades and the price of each fare grade. First, on the basis of piecewise pricing strategy, we build a ticket fare optimization model. After transforming this model to a convex program, we solve the original problem by finding the Kuhn-Tucker (K-T point of the convex program. Finally, we verify the proposed method by real data of Beijing-Shanghai HSR line. The calculating result shows that our pricing strategy can not only increase the revenue, but also play a part in regulating the existing demand and stimulating potential demand.

  4. 48 CFR 252.237-7016 - Delivery tickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), and (e) to the basic clause: (c) Before the Contractor picks up articles for service under this... of serviced laundry on the delivery ticket. The Contracting Officer will ensure that this weight and... articles for service under this contract, the Contracting Officer will ensure that each bag is weighed and...

  5. Understanding the factors that attract travellers to use airline websites for purchasing air tickets

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Saleh Mohammed Fadel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London In order for e-commerce businesses to attract customers and consequently increase revenue, it is essential to understand the behaviour of online consumers. This involves understanding how consumers react to website elements, and what could influence the adoption of online channels. Given the applied nature of this research area, a number of studies have been carried out by marketers ...

  6. GOC-TX: A Reliable Ticket Synchronization Application for the Open Science Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Soichi; Gopu, Arvind; Quick, Robert

    2011-12-01

    One of the major operational issues faced by large multi-institutional collaborations is permitting its users and support staff to use their native ticket tracking environment while also exchanging these tickets with collaborators. After several failed attempts at email-parser based ticket exchanges, the OSG Operations Group has designed a comprehensive ticket synchronizing application. The GOC-TX application uses web-service interfaces offered by various commercial, open source and other homegrown ticketing systems, to synchronize tickets between two or more of these systems. GOC-TX operates independently from any ticketing system. It can be triggered by one ticketing system via email, active messaging, or a web-services call to check for current sync-status, pull applicable recent updates since prior synchronizations to the source ticket, and apply the updates to a destination ticket. The currently deployed production version of GOC-TX is able to synchronize tickets between the Numara Footprints ticketing system used by the OSG and the following systems: European Grid Initiative's system Global Grid User Support (GGUS) and the Request Tracker (RT) system used by Brookhaven. Additional interfaces to the BMC Remedy system used by Fermilab, and to other instances of RT used by other OSG partners, are expected to be completed in summer 2010. A fully configurable open source version is expected to be made available by early autumn 2010. This paper will cover the structure of the GOC-TX application, its evolution, and the problems encountered by OSG Operations group with ticket exchange within the OSG Collaboration.

  7. GOC-TX: A Reliable Ticket Synchronization Application for the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Soichi; Gopu, Arvind; Quick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    One of the major operational issues faced by large multi-institutional collaborations is permitting its users and support staff to use their native ticket tracking environment while also exchanging these tickets with collaborators. After several failed attempts at email-parser based ticket exchanges, the OSG Operations Group has designed a comprehensive ticket synchronizing application. The GOC-TX application uses web-service interfaces offered by various commercial, open source and other homegrown ticketing systems, to synchronize tickets between two or more of these systems. GOC-TX operates independently from any ticketing system. It can be triggered by one ticketing system via email, active messaging, or a web-services call to check for current sync-status, pull applicable recent updates since prior synchronizations to the source ticket, and apply the updates to a destination ticket. The currently deployed production version of GOC-TX is able to synchronize tickets between the Numara Footprints ticketing system used by the OSG and the following systems: European Grid Initiative's system Global Grid User Support (GGUS) and the Request Tracker (RT) system used by Brookhaven. Additional interfaces to the BMC Remedy system used by Fermilab, and to other instances of RT used by other OSG partners, are expected to be completed in summer 2010. A fully configurable open source version is expected to be made available by early autumn 2010. This paper will cover the structure of the GOC-TX application, its evolution, and the problems encountered by OSG Operations group with ticket exchange within the OSG Collaboration.

  8. The Role of Involvement and Pride in Price Bundling Consumption Decisions: A Study on Soccer Match Tickets in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hoffmann Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of price bundling on decision to buy and consume soccer match tickets in Brazil, also testing the effect that pride and involvement play in purchase decisions. The marketing literature shows solid evidence that price bundling influences consumers decisions. Therefore, studies found the occurrence of a phenomenon called transaction decoupling which involves the level of coupling of costs and benefits of consumption situations and could be a strong motivational factor moderating in this relationship. In the sports context, another variable that may influence on fans is pride. This sentiment is the keystone of sports consumption and the fans are driven by it. Thereby, the involvement and pride variables are tested as possible moderating effects on soccer matches tickets consumption. We designed an experiment to test these relationships. Results indicate a direct effect of involvement on transaction decoupling, but not of price bundling or pride. People more highly involved with soccer game were more likely to attend matches due to their greater attention to irrecoverable costs, and experience more pain, regret, repurchase intention and sense of waste than less involved individuals. Performance does not seem to influence people’s decision-making process, as it is merely one of the antecedents in rooting for a team. The main contribution of this paper is show that coupling of transaction costs and benefits can be motivated by the intensity of the relationship between an individual and a sports objective.  

  9. Open Science Grid (OSG) Ticket Synchronization: Keeping Your Home Field Advantage In A Distributed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Kyle; Hayashi, Soichi; Teige, Scott; Quick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Large distributed computing collaborations, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), face many issues when it comes to providing a working grid environment for their users. One of these is exchanging tickets between various ticketing systems in use by grid collaborations. Ticket systems such as Footprints, RT, Remedy, and ServiceNow all have different schema that must be addressed in order to provide a reliable exchange of information between support entities and users in different grid environments. To combat this problem, OSG Operations has created a ticket synchronization interface called GOC-TX that relies on web services instead of error-prone email parsing methods of the past. Synchronizing tickets between different ticketing systems allows any user or support entity to work on a ticket in their home environment, thus providing a familiar and comfortable place to provide updates without having to learn another ticketing system. The interface is built in a way that it is generic enough that it can be customized for nearly any ticketing system with a web-service interface with only minor changes. This allows us to be flexible and rapidly bring new ticket synchronization online. Synchronization can be triggered by different methods including mail, web services interface, and active messaging. GOC-TX currently interfaces with Global Grid User Support (GGUS) for WLCG, Remedy at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), and Request Tracker (RT) at the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT). Work is progressing on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) ServiceNow synchronization. This paper will explain the problems faced by OSG and how they led OSG to create and implement this ticket synchronization system along with the technical details that allow synchronization to be preformed at a production level.

  10. Open Science Grid (OSG) Ticket Synchronization: Keeping Your Home Field Advantage In A Distributed Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kyle; Hayashi, Soichi; Teige, Scott; Quick, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Large distributed computing collaborations, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), face many issues when it comes to providing a working grid environment for their users. One of these is exchanging tickets between various ticketing systems in use by grid collaborations. Ticket systems such as Footprints, RT, Remedy, and ServiceNow all have different schema that must be addressed in order to provide a reliable exchange of information between support entities and users in different grid environments. To combat this problem, OSG Operations has created a ticket synchronization interface called GOC-TX that relies on web services instead of error-prone email parsing methods of the past. Synchronizing tickets between different ticketing systems allows any user or support entity to work on a ticket in their home environment, thus providing a familiar and comfortable place to provide updates without having to learn another ticketing system. The interface is built in a way that it is generic enough that it can be customized for nearly any ticketing system with a web-service interface with only minor changes. This allows us to be flexible and rapidly bring new ticket synchronization online. Synchronization can be triggered by different methods including mail, web services interface, and active messaging. GOC-TX currently interfaces with Global Grid User Support (GGUS) for WLCG, Remedy at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), and Request Tracker (RT) at the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT). Work is progressing on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) ServiceNow synchronization. This paper will explain the problems faced by OSG and how they led OSG to create and implement this ticket synchronization system along with the technical details that allow synchronization to be preformed at a production level.

  11. Public transport subsidies. The impacts of regional bus cards on the travel demand and energy use in Finish urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Pekkarinen, S [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This study is a part of a larger Finnish project financed by the Ministry of Transport and Communications concerned with evaluating the impacts of new integrated fare and ticket policies. The objective of the policy is to encourage a modal shift from cars to public transport, thereby reducing energy use and the harmful environmental effects of transport. The regional bus card systems (RBC) provide the opportunity to purchase a monthly ticket, at a substantial discount of normal fares, which is valid on all buses in an area covering a city centre and the smaller independent communities surrounding. RBC systems are subsidized by both Local Authorities and the state government and are currently operating in over ten urban areas in Finland. The objectives of this research project are: (1) to estimate the fare elasticities of the demand of bus services and the price elasticities of RBC demand, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted subsidizing policy and (3) to assess the consequences of the fares policy on energy use in transport. This paper deals specifically with the latter two issues. (EG)

  12. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Ba-Rayyan, Faten A.

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  13. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  14. Data Bank 1B - Ticket Dollar Value Origin and Destination - Public Version : second quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This CD presents the same data as Data Bank 1B and also includes dual codes for the operating and ticketed carrier and incorporates data as reported each quarter by participating air carriers from the continuous 10% sample of airline tickets. It incl...

  15. Data Bank 1B - Ticket Dollar Value Origin and Destination - Public Version : fourth quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This CD presents the same data as Data Bank 1B and also includes dual codes for the operating and ticketed carrier and incorporates data as reported each quarter by participating air carriers from the continuous 10% sample of airline tickets. It incl...

  16. Data Bank 1B - Ticket Dollar Value Origin and Destination - Public Version : first quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This CD presents the same data as Data Bank 1B and also includes dual codes for the operating and ticketed carrier and incorporates data as reported each quarter by participating air carriers from the continuous 10% sample of airline tickets. It incl...

  17. Ticket Office Sexism: The Gender Gap in Pricing for NCAA Division I Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Laura; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    Tickets to college sports--and men's and women's Division I college basketball in particular--may appear on the surface no different than tickets members of the public may buy to attend professional sporting events. But unlike professional franchises, colleges are non-profit organizations and, in many cases, public institutions. Decisions around…

  18. Data Bank 1B - Ticket Dollar Value Origin and Destination - Public Version : first quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This CD presents the same data as Data Bank 1B and also includes dual codes for the operating and ticketed carrier and incorporates data as reported each quarter by participating air carriers from the continuous 10% sample of airline tickets. It incl...

  19. Data Bank 1B - Ticket Dollar Value Origin and Destination - Public Version : third quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This CD presents the same data as Data Bank 1B and also includes dual codes for the operating and ticketed carrier and incorporates data as reported each quarter by participating air carriers from the continuous 10% sample of airline tickets. It incl...

  20. Purchasing and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...... show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities....

  1. Purchasing portfolio usage and purchasing sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have caused considerable controversy in literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing a strong disagreement on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question whether or not the use of purchasing portfolio models should

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  3. Big Data in Transport Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    for studies that explicitly compare the quality of this new type of data to traditional data sources. With the current focus on Big Data in the transport field, public transport planners are increasingly looking towards smart card data to analyze and optimize flows of passengers. However, in many cases...... it is not all public transport passengers in a city, region or country with a smart card system that uses the system, and in such cases, it is important to know what biases smart card data has in relation to giving a complete view upon passenger flows. This paper therefore analyses the quality and biases...... of smart card data in Denmark, where public transport passengers may use a smart card, may pay with cash for individual trips or may hold a season ticket for a certain route. By analyzing smart card data collected in Denmark in relation to data on sales of cash tickets, sales of season tickets, manual...

  4. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  5. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  6. Revolution through electronic purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Lamming, R.C.; Grickus, I.

    1998-01-01

    Automation is finding its way in the world of purchasing. This development could evoke dramatic effects in the long term, not only on purchasing but even on the market place itself. Nowadays, EDI and CD-ROM are examples of automation applications that purchasing departments use frequently. Internet

  7. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  8. International Green Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  9. A Moderator’s Perspective From Service Quality and Purchase Intentions Relationship: A Case Study of AirAsia Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Meysam Salimi; Hamid Reza Hadjali; Shahryar Sorooshian

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the relationships between service quality, brand loyalty and intention to buy among AirAsia passengers in Malaysia. The results obtained indicate that there is a positive relationship between service quality, brand loyalty and purchase intentions, while there is a moderator effect of ticket price affecting the relationship between service quality and intention to buy among customers. With more scrutinizing, it was revealed that the effect of service qual...

  10. Collaborative Optimization of Stop Schedule Plan and Ticket Allotment for the Intercity Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As regards the ticket allotment issue of the intercity passenger corridor designed for different train grades, the matching relationship between the ticket allotment and the passenger flow demand is studied. The passenger flow conversion equation which is based on the collaborative optimization of the intercity train stop schedule plan and ticket allotment is established. Then the mathematical model aiming at the maximum revenue of intercity train system and the highest satisfaction from the passengers is established. The particle swarm harmony search algorithm is designed to solve the model. The example verifies the effectiveness of the model and algorithm, which indicates that, through the collaborative optimization of the stop schedule plan and ticket allotment for different grades intercity trains, the sectional utilization rate of the train can be improved; meanwhile, the optimum matching between the intercity train revenue and the passenger satisfaction can be realized.

  11. The impact of e-ticketing technique on customer satisfaction: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Kamal Qteishat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, internet technology is considered to be the most used information and communication technology by organizations: it can ease the process of transactions and reinforce the relation between companies and customers. This investigation empirically examines the impact of e-ticketing technique on customer satisfaction; a convenience sample of Jordanian airline passengers that had booked flights in the last 12 months through companies offering e-ticketing services was acquired. The findings indicate that customer satisfaction with e-ticketing services was influenced by all of the independent variables measured (Data security, Customer and Technical Support, and User-Friendliness were noted to have significant impact on customer satisfaction with e-ticketing services.

  12. Dynamically Switching among Bundled and Single Tickets with Time-Dependent Demand Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important market segmentation in sports and entertainment industry is the competition between customers that buy bundled and single tickets. A common selling practice is starting the selling season with bundled ticket sales and switching to selling single tickets later on. The aim of this practice is to increase the number of customers that buy bundles, which in return increases the load factor of the events with low demand. In this paper, we investigate the effect of time dependent demand on dynamic switching times from bundled to single ticket sales and the potential revenue gain over the case where the demand rate of events is assumed to be constant with time.

  13. The 2007 click it or ticket high-visibility seat belt mobilization : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In May 2007 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : sponsored the fifth national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) : high-visibility seat belt enforcement mobilization, which followed : the CIOT program model of earned and paid media : publicizi...

  14. The Click It or Ticket evaluation, 2012 : traffic safety facts : research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are national, State, and local high-visibility enforcement (HVE) efforts designed to encourage motorists to buckle up. They have been conducted at the national level each year around Memorial Day since 2003. : ...

  15. Ergonomic Assessment and Design of Electronic Ticket Booths in Mashhad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Razavi

    2015-04-01

    .Conclusion: Vendors of electronic ticket booths are exposed to musculoskeletal and environmental health threats, in Mashhad. Relocating the booths, adjustingcounterand desk height can significantly reduce the risk of mentioned hazards

  16. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  17. Analisis Fitur M-Ticketing PT. Kereta Api Indonesia sebagai Bagian dari Customer Relation Management (CRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Hijrih, Fatchul; Prasetyo, Taufan Harry

    2015-01-01

    Sebagai Perusahaan jasa tranportasi darat yaitu kereta api, PT. Kereta Api Indonesia perlu memperhatikan aspek pelayanan terhadap pelanggan dengan memperhatikan fitur-fitur Customer Relation Management dalam membuat dalam membuat aplikasi-aplikasi yang berhubungan langsung dengan pelanggan, salah satunya m-ticketing. Kemunculan m-ticketing KAI saat ini digunakan sebagai alat penjualan tiket saja. Hal ini dapat terlihat dari menu atau fitur-fitur yang disematkan kedalam aplikasi tersebut. Adan...

  18. Uranium purchases report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs

  19. Designing a ticket to ride with the Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Jenkins, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive work analysis has been applied in the design of numerous sociotechnical systems. The process used to translate analysis outputs into design concepts, however, is not always clear. Moreover, structured processes for translating the outputs of ergonomics methods into concrete designs are lacking. This paper introduces the Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit (CWA-DT), a design approach which has been developed specifically to provide a structured means of incorporating cognitive work analysis outputs in design using design principles and values derived from sociotechnical systems theory. This paper outlines the CWA-DT and describes its application in a public transport ticketing design case study. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the process provide promising early evidence that the toolkit fulfils the evaluation criteria identified for its success, with opportunities for improvement also highlighted. The Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit has been developed to provide ergonomics practitioners with a structured approach for translating the outputs of cognitive work analysis into design solutions. This paper demonstrates an application of the toolkit and provides evaluation findings.

  20. The impact of local government cultural policies on the sales of tickets for private music concerts in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    谷口, みゆき

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the effect of public cultural policy on the sales of tickets for private music concerts in Japan. In particular, it focuses on how the introduction of the Designated Manager System (DMS) in 2006 influenced the sales of tickets for private music concerts. The hypothesis that both local governments' cultural investments and the DMS have increased the sales of tickets for private music concerts is examined. Data from the Private Music Live Entertainment 2000-2008 i...

  1. Horizontal cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2007-01-01

    Purchasing in groups is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular in both the private and public sector. Often, the advantages such as lower purchase pricese, learning from each other, and reduced transaction costs outweigh set-up and management costs and drawbacks such as disclosure of

  2. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  3. Gambling-Related Attitudes and Behaviors in Adolescents Having Received Instant (Scratch) Lottery Tickets as Gifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Priya V.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Instant (scratch) lottery ticket gambling is popular among adolescents. Prior research has not determined whether adolescents’ gambling behavior and attitudes toward gambling are influenced by the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 2,002 Connecticut high school students with past-year gambling were analyzed using bivariate approaches and logistic regression analyses. Interactions between gambling-problem severity and lottery-gift status were examined in relation to multiple outcomes. Results Adolescents who received a scratch lottery ticket as a gift compared with those who did not were more likely to report features of problem gambling, buy scratch lottery tickets for themselves, and buy and receive other types of lottery tickets; they were also less likely to report parental disapproval of gambling and to see gambling prevention efforts as important. Later (≥15 years) age-at-gambling-onset was inversely linked to gambling-problem severity in the lottery gift group (odds ratio [OR] = .38) but not in the nongift group (OR = .91), yielding a significant severity by gift status interaction. Other academic, health, and gambling-related correlates of gambling-problem severity were similar in the gift and nongift groups. Conclusions For adolescents, the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts during childhood or adolescence was associated with risky/problematic gambling and with gambling-related attitudes, behaviors, and views suggesting greater gambling acceptability. The extent to which the receipt of scratch lottery tickets may promote gambling behaviors and the development of gambling problems warrants consideration. Education, prevention, and treatment strategies should incorporate findings relating to receipt of gambling products by underage individuals. PMID:23299004

  4. Product Purchases by DLC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains a list of items in case units by category and supplier that have been purchased by the Department of Liquor Control in the past month. Update...

  5. Mastering one's electricity purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)

  6. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  7. Predicting Online Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    W.R BUCKINX; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the contribution of different types of predictors to the purchasing behaviour at an online store. We use logit modelling to predict whether or not a purchase is made during the next visit to the website using both forward and backward variable-selection techniques, as well as Furnival and Wilson’s global score search algorithm to find the best subset of predictors. We contribute to the literature by using variables from four different categories in predicting...

  8. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  9. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  10. Biletul de intrare şi marketingul muzeal / Entrance ticket and museum marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ploşniţa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today the museum as an institution serving society is recognized as one of the largest educational and cultural resources, open to the public and having a huge impact on people. But nowadays the museum is also perceived as the market of cultural values. The activities of the modern museums are increasingly measured by economic criteria: profitability, efficiency, number of visitors, the cost of a visit, demand, cultural product, etc. And this happens not only in USA or Western Europe, but throughout the world, including the Republic of Moldova. In order to survive in the society of market economy, museums use marketing strategy, and marketing is increasingly seen as a very useful tool for the successful execution of their duties in the public interest. The purpose of marketing is to attract visitors by finding the best ways to meet their needs and desires. Since the entrance to most museums is paid, the author of this article examines the marketing function of a museum ticket as a museum product. For analysis several tickets of the museums of the Republic of Moldova, as well as from a number of European countries were taken. The objectives of the museum ticket are the same everywhere: little information for visitors, promotion of the museum, the museum advertising, and so on. Its development is a complex process that must be monitored and evaluated step by step. In fact, the ticket is a document of strict accountability, containing several mandatory attributes such as name, logo of the museum, contact information, and so on. As a result of the analysis, the author concludes that the ticket can do a lot of marketing functions: to promote the museum, to inform visitors, to promote public relations, act as a souvenir. One of the main functions of an entrance ticket is communication.

  11. Exploring the potential of open big data from ticketing websites to characterize travel patterns within the Chinese high-speed rail system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wei

    Full Text Available Big data have contributed to deepen our understanding in regards to many human systems, particularly human mobility patterns and the structure and functioning of transportation systems. Resonating the recent call for 'open big data,' big data from various sources on a range of scales have become increasingly accessible to the public. However, open big data relevant to travelers within public transit tools remain scarce, hindering any further in-depth study on human mobility patterns. Here, we explore ticketing-website derived data that are publically available but have been largely neglected. We demonstrate the power, potential and limitations of this open big data, using the Chinese high-speed rail (HSR system as an example. Using an application programming interface, we automatically collected the data on the remaining tickets (RTD for scheduled trains at the last second before departure in order to retrieve information on unused transit capacity, occupancy rate of trains, and passenger flux at stations. We show that this information is highly useful in characterizing the spatiotemporal patterns of traveling behaviors on the Chinese HSR, such as weekend traveling behavior, imbalanced commuting behavior, and station functionality. Our work facilitates the understanding of human traveling patterns along the Chinese HSR, and the functionality of the largest HSR system in the world. We expect our work to attract attention regarding this unique open big data source for the study of analogous transportation systems.

  12. The Use of a Consumer Survey to Determine the Relevant Market – Case Study for public transport between Prague and Most

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinová Eliška

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define a relevant market in the passenger transportation industry for the route between Prague and Most. A rising number of bus companies operating on this particular market suggests competition pressures. On the basis of European Commission legislation and its common practice we apply a demand-side substitution analysis in the form of the so called SSNIP test. Data for the empirical analysis were collected by means of a customer survey, which captured reactions to a 10% increase in the price of purchased tickets. The survey outcomes were then used to calculate an own price elasticity of demand and to carry out a critical loss analysis in order to define the relevant market.

  13. Uranium purchases report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B,'' Uranium Marketing Activities,'' are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year's report. The report contains a glossary of terms

  14. Uranium purchases report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data

  15. SmartCop: Enabling Smart Traffic Violations Ticketing in Vehicular Named Data Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various applications for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs have been proposed and smart traffic violation ticketing is one of them. On the other hand, the new Information-Centric Networking (ICN architectures have emerged and been investigated into VANETs, such as Vehicular Named Data Networking (VNDN. However, the existing applications in VANETs are not suitable for VNDN paradigm due to the dependency on a “named content” instead of a current “host-centric” approach. Thus, we need to design the emerging and new architectures for VNDN applications. In this paper, we propose a smart traffic violation ticketing (TVT system for VNDN, named as SmartCop, that enables a cop vehicle (CV to issue tickets for traffic violation(s to the offender(s autonomously, once they are in the transmission range of that CV. The ticket issuing delay, messaging cost, and percentage of violations detected for varying number of vehicles, violators, CVs, and vehicles speeds are estimated through simulations. In addition, we provide a road map of future research directions for enabling safe driving experience in future cars aided with VNDN technology.

  16. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEPUASAN WISATAWAN DOMESTIK TERHADAP KUALITAS PELAYANAN TICKETING PADA PT. INDONESIA AIR ASIA CABANG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Nugraheni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourists are given to choose many airlines which have their excellence. Tourist want to choose the cheaper price, but on the other hand they also want to have convenience on their travelling. Therefore, the competition among low cost carrier airlines caused many airlines begin to increase their facilities for their passangers such as, PT. Indonesia Air Asia. Datas in this research were collected by observation, interview, questionnaire and literature. Using accidental sampling with 65 domestic tourist respondences. While quality service dimentions are using tangibles, empathy, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. The result shows that factor of ticketing staffs performance in handling complaint is major priority with correspond to level 51,06% , the ability of ticketing staffs to give response to tourist needs become the second priority with correspond to level 54,38%. And the third priority is ability of ticketing staffs to give clear information with correspond to level 55,47%. Those factors have the lowest correspond level and have to take into priority for improvement process. While the factor which has the highest rate is the grooming performance of ticketing staffs with correspond to level 98,16%.

  17. Ticket Fare Optimization for China’s High-Speed Railway Based on Passenger Choice Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although China’s high-speed railway (HSR is maturing after more than ten years of construction and development, the load factor and revenue of HSR could still be improved by optimizing the ticket fare structure. Different from the present unitary and changeless fare structure, this paper explores the application of multigrade fares to China’s HSR. On the premise that only one fare grade can be offered for each origin-destination (O-D at the same time, this paper addresses the questions of how to adjust ticket price over time to maximize the revenue. First, on the basis of piecewise pricing strategy, a ticket fare optimization model is built, which could be transformed to convex program to be solved. Then, based on the analysis of passenger arrival regularity using historical ticket data of Beijing-Shanghai HSR line, several experiments are performed using the method proposed in the paper to explore the properties of the optimal multigrade fare scheme.

  18. 14 CFR 399.80 - Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.80 Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents. It is the policy of the Board to regard any of... are available, when such discounts or reductions are not specific in the lawful tariffs of the air...

  19. 20 CFR 411.245 - What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program? 411.245 Section 411.245 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... formats. For purposes of this section, accessible format means by media that is appropriate to a...

  20. Bicycle Purchaser Training Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, William

    A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…

  1. Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.

  2. Professionalising purchasing organisations : towards a purchasing development model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.; Rozemeijer, F.A.; Rietveld, G.; Lamming, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    How does purchasing develops as a discipline over time in large international organisations? What are the drivers and enablers behind the development of purchasing? Is there an ideal growthpath for purchasing in organisations? These subjects are discussed in this paper by, firstly, providing an

  3. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  4. Decision support for contemporary purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenborg, van R.H.A.; Boer, de L.; Cox, A.; Lamming, R.

    1996-01-01

    The new business environment has confronted purchasing with an increasingly dynamic and un-predictable environment. While purchasing fonnerly could afford to be reactive to changes in demand specifications, supply markets and supply performance results, the new business environment requires

  5. REAL ESTATE PURCHASE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujorel FLOREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented herein represents a field with good present and future perspectives, especially because real estate property is not under the incidence of a single normative act regarding the sale-purchase agreement of such goods, and given the fact that there are specific legal provisions with respect to various real estate categories and the localization of such property. The article deals with the sale-purchase agreement of various real estate categories, such as fields, buildings, the correspondent lots, urban area, farm, and forests fields, focusing on some particularities. A special care is attributed to examining the applicable laws with regard to the purchase agreements of field lands, the special conditions to be taken into account, the persons that may act as buyers, including foreigners, those without citizenship, and legal persons of a nationality other than Romanian. Finally, a special concern is given to the formalities required for legally exerting the pre-emptive right and the applicable sanctions in that respect.

  6. Code it rite the first time : automated invoice processing solution designed to ensure validity to field ticket coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2010-03-15

    An entrepreneur who ran 55 rigs for a major oilfield operator in Calgary has developed a solution for the oil industry that reduces field ticketing errors from 40 per cent to almost none. The Code-Rite not only simplifies field ticketing but can eliminate weeks of trying to balance authorization for expenditure (AFE) numbers. A service provider who wants a field ticket signed for billing purposes following a service call to a well site receives all pertinent information on a barcode that includes AFE number, location, routing, approval authority and mailing address. Attaching the label to the field ticket provides all the invoicing information needed. This article described the job profile, education and life experiences and opportunities that led the innovator to develop this technology that solves an industry-wide problem. Code-Rite is currently being used by 3 large upstream oil and gas operators and plans are underway to automate the entire invoice processing system. 1 fig.

  7. Real and hypothetical endowment effects when exchanging lottery tickets: Is regret a better explanation than loss aversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Christoph; Kühberger, Anton; Gilhofer, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    The endowment effect is the finding that possession of an item adds to its value. We introduce a new procedure for testing this effect: participants are divided into two groups. Possession group participants inspect a numbered lottery ticket and know it is theirs, while inspection group participants only inspect a lottery ticket without being endowed with it. Subsequently participants choose between playing the lottery with this (possessed or inspected) ticket, or exchanging it for another one. Our procedure tests for the effect of endowment while controlling for the influence of transaction costs as well as for inspection effects and the influence of bargaining roles (buyer vs. seller), which often afflict experimentation with the endowment effect. In a real setting, tickets in possession were valued significantly higher than inspected tickets. Contrary to some findings in the literature participants also correctly predicted these valuation differences in a hypothetical situation, both for themselves as well as for others. Furthermore, our results suggest that regret rather than loss aversion may be the source of the endowment effect in an experimental setting using lottery tickets. Applying our procedure to a setting employing riskless objects in form of mugs revealed rather ambiguous results, thus emphasizing that the role of regret might be less prominent in non-lottery settings.

  8. Research on Automatic Ticketing Interface Design of Tianjin South Station under the Background of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenghui, Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Based on the context of increasingly serious aging problem in China, the psychological characteristics of elders in using public self-service facilities and the development status and the future trend of public self-service ticketing service. The approach is analysing physiological and psychological characteristics, education level of the elderly and studying its characteristics of consumer psychology and regional cultural characteristics profoundly before conducting comprehensive analysis and research in combination with the interface features of public self-service ticketing machine. The interface design will be more personalized, intelligent, regional and international. Strategies of caring for the elderly in the regional public self-service facility interface design innovation develops the concept of taking care of the elderly in the entire region as an indispensable people-benefiting optimization system in the modern social services.

  9. The Awakening of Feminist Consciousness in D. H. Lawrence’s Tickets, Please

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lin-hui

    2016-01-01

    D. H. Lawrence’s“Tickets, Please”displays a wartime love story between Coddy and Annie. In their love affairs, Cod-dy, the man of impotence deems his freedom much as before while Annie switches back to the traditional female role to consider marriage as the ultimate goal. In“Tickets, Please”, the incidental effects of progress on humanity are shown through the Lawren-tian central theme of the relationship between men and women. Here, the weaker sex and the stronger sex are respectively and ironically embodied by Annie Stone and John Thomas Raynor. This paper analyzes the wartime setting, the tram girls and the love struggle between Annie and Coddy. Through these analyses, the paper reveals the awakening of feminist consciousness in the story.

  10. Revisiting purchasing competence - In a project context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    2015-01-01

    purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...

  11. What factors influence online brand trust: evidence from online tickets buyers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Alam, Syed; Mohd Yasin, Norjaya

    2010-01-01

    This study examines online brand trust and its influencing factors in the specific context of online air ticket buyers in Malaysia. Summarizing academic literature on online brand trust drivers, it was found that there is a need to conduct research on online brand trust. Accordingly our hypotheses is that word-of-mouth, online experience, security/privacy, perceived risk, brand reputation and quality information have significant influence on online brand trust. Our hypothesis is being tested ...

  12. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  13. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pazirandeh, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  14. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  15. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  16. Solar results purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-01-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  17. Solar results purchasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-07-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  18. Achieving Consumer Purchase Payoffs: A Used Car Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)

  19. The fundamentals of power purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The challenges facing Ontario consumers in the year 2000 regarding the purchase of electricity are the focus of this paper. As Ontario's electric power industry changes from a monopoly based public service to a competition-driven supply and demand marketplace, consumers in the province will be faced with the complex and difficult task of buying electricity in an open market. Electricity products will be available as commodities in a desegregated state. That is, consumers will be able to buy electricity from a power generator, as well as arranging its transportation and distribution. Consumers will have to understand the cost factors involved and the components which factor into the pricing of electricity. In this context, the paper defines electricity as a commodity and discusses issues such as supply and demand (given that electricity cannot be stored), energy losses, regional markets, impact of externalities, demand elasticity, and hourly pricing. Non-commodity cost factors such as stranded debt, ancillary services, infrastructure and personnel, metering, electricity trading and futures contracts are also reviewed. 19 refs., 2 figs

  20. New Price, New Hope? An Examination of the Effects of Doubling the Ticket Price in UK Lotto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; Gulley, O David

    2018-03-01

    The UK Lotto game was introduced in November 1994 with a standard 6/49 format and an entry fee of £1 per ticket. After several years, revenue began to fall despite extensive publicity and a variety of inducements. By 2013, nominal weekly revenue was less than half the 1995 level. In October 2013, the operator doubled the price of a ticket to £2 and made a number of changes to the pay-out structure of smaller prizes. The intent of the changes was to reverse the long downward trend in game revenue by encouraging higher jackpots and offering more pay-out opportunities for each ticket. We use draw by draw revenue and other data to evaluate how players responded to these changes and find that, while ticket sales fell dramatically, total revenue rose following the changes. Primarily this appears to have been the consequence of increased frequency of rollovers (and therefore of more frequent high jackpot draws) rather than ticket price inelasticity. However, although there was a short-term gain in revenue, the changes did not arrest, and indeed seem to have accentuated, the long-run trend decrease in the revenue generated by the game.

  1. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  2. Purchasing practice in dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Telgen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The purchasing function is of great importance for the business community as well as for governmental organizations. In industrial companies purchasing already accounts for 60 to 90 percent of total turnover. This share is expected to grow as companies tend to increasingly outsource their non-core

  3. L’accesso alle chiese aperte al culto: fruizione cultuale, fruizione turistica, questione del ticket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioneSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. Posizione del problema - 2. La duplice natura della chiesa-edificio: bene liturgico e bene culturale ecclesiale. Problematiche discendenti dal possibile interagire, in ordine alla fruibilità degli edifici di culto monumentali, della dimensione cultuale e di quella culturale - 3. Il ticket d’ingresso e la “gestione museale” delle chiese: alcuni dati sulla diffusione del fenomeno - 4. Le ragioni a favore del ticket d’ingresso. I benefici ricavabili dagli introiti della bigliettazione. Considerazioni critiche - 5. Le ragioni contrarie: a il necessario rispetto delle esigenze di natura religiosa e pastorale - 6. (segue b le motivazioni giuridiche: elementi di contrasto con la normativa canonica e civile sulle chiese aperte al culto pubblico - 7. (segue c le ragioni di opportunità: l’odiosità della prassi del ticket nella percezione dell’opinione pubblica - 8. I richiami della Commissione paritetica e le iniziative della Conferenza Episcopale Italiana - 9. La nota del Consiglio Episcopale Permanente della CEI: cosa cambia (ma qualcosa cambia davvero? - 10. Riflessioni a margine della nota. Valore giuridico del documento e valenza del richiamo, in esso contenuto, all’osservanza del principio dell’accesso gratuito alle chiese aperte al culto.  Il turismo religioso-culturale come opportunità pastorale (prima ancora che economica - 11 (segue Eliminazione della prassi del ticket e valorizzazione di altre possibili forme di introito legate al turismo religioso - 12. (segue Offerte volontarie, fund raising, sfruttamento dell’indotto - 13. Fruizione differenziata degli edifici di culto monumentali in ragione dei diversi possibili utenti e ipotesi straordinarie di possibile mantenimento del ticket - 14. Promozione e valorizzazione, anche in senso economico, degli edifici di culto monumentali e ruolo delle comunità cristiane. Il volontariato come strumento per garantire il

  4. Mobile Context-Aware Support for Public Transportation Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Buchwald, Esben; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Murray-Smith, Roderick

    2012-01-01

    compass bearing, in addition to a distance range chosen by a physical gesture. The main application tested in this paper is a system to support public transport users in Copenhagen. Users can point at any bus-stop or train station and be given timetables, next departure times, and buy a ticket via SMS...

  5. SPLC Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  6. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is part of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) long-standing effort to link Medicares payment system to a...

  7. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... reject the unit root hypothesis in real exchange rates may simply be due to the shortness ..... Violations of Purchasing Power Parity and Their Implications for Efficient ... Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market:.

  8. Value creation and purchasing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, as European manufacturers face fierce competition from new Asian sources, suppliers are looked to as sources of competitive advantage. This article discusses the strategic role that differentiated purchasing and supply management represents in support of companies overall

  9. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  10. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  11. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  12. Effectiveness of the Ticket to Work Program for Beneficiaries Who Are Blind or Have Low Vision: Comparisons with Other Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella-McDonnall, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The Ticket to Work (TTW) program is a federally funded program meant to assist persons who receive disability benefits from the Social Security Administration (SSA) in obtaining employment, with the ultimate goal of terminating SSA benefits and thereby providing a cost savings for the government. With its focus on employment, the TTW program would…

  13. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that all purchased or otherwise received product and...

  14. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  15. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  16. The newly expanded KSC Visitors Complex features a new ticket plaza, information center, exhibits an

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The newly added Robot Scouts exhibit at the KSC Visitor Complex is situated next to the Rocket Garden. Part of the $13 million expansion to the Visitor Complex, the exhibit helps describe for visitors the accomplishments of unsung space heroes - space probes - and their role in space exploration. It also includes a display of how data from robotic probes might be used to build a human habitat for Mars. Visitors can witness a simulated Martian sunset. Other additions include a new foyer, films, and an International Space Station-themed ticket plaza, featuring a structure of overhanging solar panels and astronauts performing assembly tasks. The KSC Visitor Complex was inaugurated three decades ago and is now one of the top five tourist attractions in Florida. It is located on S.R. 407, east of I-95, within the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  17. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  18. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised...... or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...... typological theory of purchasing and (strategic) sourcing organisation....

  19. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  20. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  1. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  2. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA

    2017-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...

  3. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  4. Purchasing management experience of Haiyang nuclear power project construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing is one of the important aspects to ensure the safety and quality of the nuclear power plant. This paper, combining the purchasing peculiarity and purchasing process of Haiyang nuclear power project, summarizes experiences of Haiyang nuclear power project in promoting its purchasing management level in aspects of purchasing method choosing, purchasing plan management, purchasing process optimization, purchasing contract implementation and purchasing surveillance, etc. (author)

  5. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal...

  6. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Purchasing, one of the most highly specialized activities in school administration, involves securing material or service in the right quantity and quality, at the right time, and for the right price. This handbook, intended as a guide for purchasing agents, details principles essential for operating a school purchasing office in New York State.…

  7. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  8. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among all...

  9. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  10. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  11. 78 FR 37946 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... purchasing credit union may have years of experience dealing with only one or a few originators. These credit...; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and Assumption of Liabilities AGENCY... reorganize the loan participation rule and focus on the purchase side of loan participation transactions. The...

  12. The Viral Concept: the Winning Ticket of the Romanian Online Advertising Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection between the steady development of the Internet in Romania in the last five years, as channel of transmitting the marketing message, and the viral concept, as method of transmitting the message, may become the winning ticket for the Romanian online advertising market. Thus, in the current socio-economic context, any company who wishes to be successful in the virtual space cannot ignore the viral marketing techniques for several reasons. Firstly, we are talking about the profile of Internet users who tend to constitute a new social group. Secondly, we are talking about the thirst for information. And, last but not least, we are talking about the appetite for online chatting, statistics showing that 62% of the Roma-nian Internet users consider it a very "savory" information channel. This article tries to explain, in brief, what viral marketing is, which are its peculiarities, advantages, risks, as well as the limitations of its use, and which the strategies of a viral marketing campaign are. We will illustrate by giving successful examples from the Romanian online market.

  13. Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Ritsuko; Sevastyanova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    What makes consumers adopt energy-sustainable innovations? The uptake of such products and technologies is of importance, particularly at a time when climate change, diminishing energy resources and energy security are urgent issues. This paper reports on a case study of consumer adoption of hybrid vehicles, a green innovation that has been in the market since the late 1990s. The study is based on a questionnaire survey, conducted in 2009 in collaboration with Toyota GB, to investigate the dimensions that constitute motivations to purchase the Prius and to examine how policy can encourage hybrid adoption. The survey yielded 1484 responses, 1263 of which were used for the analysis; the results of the exploratory factor analyses provide information on consumer purchase motivations. The financial benefits related to transport policy are an important factor in consumer hybrid purchase motivations, and social norms and consumers' willingness to comply with the norms of their groups influence the purchase decision. We also find that various meanings are attached to hybrid vehicle ownership, and practical, experiential and affective values need to be communicated to consumers in terms of value added.

  14. Purchasing behavior of Fairtrade customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ambrožová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities is increasing worldwide; the European Union considers CSR to be one of the ways to achieve the most competitive economy and CSR awareness is also rising among companies in the Czech Republic, their customers, and the public. Bearing this in mind, Fairtrade goods, a subset of CSR and sustainable development, is an attractive step for vendors to take towards their customers. In this paper, we try to learn who the buyers of Fairtrade products are and what their motivation is in order to help Fairtrade dealers know their target group better, while at the same time helping expand this target group for organizations such as Fairtrade Czech Republic. We utilize an empirical survey and employ both univariate and bivariate statistical analyses (descriptives, associations, correlations for this purpose. While some previous findings were confirmed, such as (the influence of age and education on Fairtrade purchasing behavior, moral principles and quality of the product being stated as the most important motives to buy Fairtrade products, the significance of the Fairtrade logo and certificate for the buyers’ awareness one was disproved. According to the gathered data, the economic situation of a household does not affect Fairtrade purchasing behavior.

  15. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  16. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.’s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.’s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client’s privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay. PMID:27171160

  17. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ming Lai

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.'s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.'s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs, and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client's privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay.

  18. Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Stephan; Dobbelstein, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers’ willingness to purchase new store brands. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3 £ 3 design to investigate the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy. Data are analyzed with analysis...

  19. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA SIMA; GEORGE BĂLAN

    2014-01-01

    The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for...

  20. A computer-based purchase management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Subramani, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The details of a computer-based purchase management system developed to meet the specific requirements of Madras Regional Purchase Unit (MRPU) is given. Howe ver it can be easily modified to meet the requirements of any other purchase department. It covers various operations of MRPU starting from indent processing to preparation of purchase orders and reminders. In order to enable timely management action and control facilities are provided to generate the necessary management information reports. The scope for further work is also discussed. The system is completely menu driven and user friendly. Appendix A and B contains the menu implemented and the sample outputs respectively. (author)

  1. Library Purchasing Consortia in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of library purchasing consortia across the United Kingdom is uneven and sector-dependent. Only higher education libraries show a well developed regional infrastructure of purchasing consortia covering virtually all eligible libraries. While there are clear sectoral disparities amongst the library purchasing consortia surveyed, the size of consortium expenditure seems to determine whether procurement professionals are involved. Thus in those whose spend consistently exceeds European Commission guidelines’ thresholds, the involvement of purchasing professionals is much more likely, and also crucial to the successful navigation of such procedures.

  2. Evolving Purchasing and Supply Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    2018-01-01

    this challenge, a comprehensive contingency framework of PSO structures is presented. The framework is based on existing literature on PSO contingency factors as well as analysis of two case companies. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective for understanding the PSO...... and combining a detailed view of macro-level structural dimensions with micro-level characteristics. These macro-level dimensions comprise category, business unit, geography and activity. The micro-level characteristics comprise centralization, formalization, specialization, participation and standardization....... From a theoretical perspective, the contingency framework opens up insights that can be leveraged in future studies in the fields of hybrid PSOs, global sourcing organizations, and International Purchasing Offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies...

  3. Impact of the european emission trading scheme for the air transportation industry on the valuation of aircraft purchase rights; Impacto de la ley de comercio europeo de emisiones de CO{sub 2} para el sector del transporte aereo en la valoracion de los derechos de compra de aviones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarradellas-Espuny, J.; Salamero-Salas, A.; Martinez-Costa, C.

    2009-07-01

    The European Commission issued a legislative proposal in December 2006, suggesting a cap on CO{sub 2} emissions for all planes arriving or departing from EU airports, while allowing airlines to buy and sell pollution credits on the EU carbon market (Emission Trading Scheme, or ETS). In 2008 the new scheme got the final approval. Real options appear to be ab appropriate methodology to capture the extra value brought by the new legislation on new airplane purchase rights: The airline will surely have the purchase right to the new plane if the operation of the plane generates unused pollution credits that the airline can sell at a minimum price in the carbon market. This paper tries to determine if the impact of ETS in the valuation of aircraft purchase rights is significant enough in monetary terms to include the new legislation in a complex real-option model already proposed by the authors recently. The research concludes that even the impact of ETS justifies its inclusion in the model, the quality of the available sets of historical data still raises some questions. Particularly, the assumption of market efficiency for the Carbon Pool over the recent years needs to be treated with caution. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. POINT-OF-PURCHASE SIGNS, IMPULSE PURCHASES, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE "DESIRE TO TOUCH"

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Joann; Childers, Terry

    2000-01-01

    What is the role of touch in consumer behavior? Consumers are especially motivated to touch some products before buying them, and for some people, those high in "desire to touch", touching before buying is especially important. In addition, some situations encourage consumers to touch goods before purchasing them. How do these relate to impulse purchases? People high in their "desire to touch" are more likely to make impulse purchases. Point-of-purchase signs that encourage touching a product...

  5. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  6. Analisis Faktor-faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Pembelian E-Ticket Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian pada PT. Indonesia Air Asia (Studi Kasus pada Mahasiswa Universitas Sumatera Utara)

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Evans

    2015-01-01

    Problem discussion in this research is whether the factors of product, price, promotion and ease of obtaining the product are in a positive and significant effects toward e-ticket buying decisions of PT. Indonesia AirAsia. This research aims to determine and analyze how much the effects from factor of product, price, promotion and ease of obtaining the product in a positive and significant effects on e-ticket buying decisions of PT. Indonesia AirAsia. The hypothesis in this researchis the ...

  7. Non-cooperative and cooperative solutions of government subsidy on public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Hennie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two models of government subsidy given to a public transport operator: (i the subsidy for buying bus from an appointed public transport manufacturer, and (ii the subsidy for reimbursing reduced ticket price for passengers. The models are developed to determine the maximum profit for both the public transport operator and the manufacturer. Since we consider two parties – the public transport operator and the manufacturer of the bus, then we use game theoretical approach by considering non-cooperative and cooperative solutions. Furthermore, since the bus is repairable we consider virtual age to model the preventive maintenance and we consider minimal repair to model the corrective maintenance. We analyse both type of subsidy models and give some numerical examples which show the effects of different subsidies to the profit of operator and manufacturer. The result of the numerical examples indicates that reducing ticket price would give a higher profit both to the operator and the manufacturer.

  8. Purchasing portfolio models: a critique and update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have spawned considerable discussion in the literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing considerable divergence in opinion on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question of whether or not the use of purchasing

  9. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  10. Exploring purchasing involvement in product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.; Weele, van A.J.

    2003-01-01

    With increasing outsourcing and the growing importance of product innovation as a means for creating competitive advantage, the integration of purchasing and product development processes has become a key issue for many firms. Although, consequently, the integration of purchasing and suppliers in

  11. Critical success factors for managing purchasing groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; de Boer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we identify critical success factors for managing small and intensive purchasing groups by comparing successful and unsuccessful purchasing groups in a large-scale survey. The analysis of our data set suggests the following success factors: no enforced participation, sufficient

  12. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.202 Section 13.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Threshold 13.202 Purchase guidelines. (a) Solicitation, evaluation of quotations, and award. (1) To the...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases. (a...

  14. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A DEA Approach for Selecting a Bundle of Tickets for Performing Arts Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    tackle the issue of identifying the most efficient subset of the events scheduled to offer as a bundle. We formulate this problem following the choice-based network Revenue Management approach. Assuming the price as fixed on two types of events, lowbrow and highbrow, proposed by the theatre, the purchase...... decision is modelled on the basis of two random variables: the available time and the reservation price per perfomance. The super-efficiency DEA model will be implemented in order to find the most efficient combination of events to be bundled, defined as the one that offers the most favourable trade...

  16. New models intensify the purchase of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesimaeki, P.; Lampinen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Models, designed for planning and optimisation of the purchase of energy, combined with high-quality expertise have an impact on the costs of energy companies. Optimisation has a significant role in power plant investments and in planning the power distribution of wholesale electric power. After the liberation of the electricity markets, the planning of the electricity purchase and the optimisation have obtained totally new roles in estimating the cost effects of present and new customers. Electrowatt-Ekono has developed a windows-based COPSIM software for planning of electric power purchase. The software is in active use in Electrowatt-Ekono. The energy purchase is optimised on yearly basis or on a shorter period by one hour steps based on hourly variation of energy purchase, power plant characteristics, power consumption rates and the prices of the fuels, power and heat. COPSIM takes the effect of external temperature on the power generation of backpressure and gas turbine plants into account. The software optimises also the power distribution of wholesale power. By the software it is possible to model different types of power plants, purchase of power, power sales, different power plant shares, thermal power stations, purchase and sales of heat, heat storage and heat transfer between different heating networks

  17. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  18. 48 CFR 970.4402 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system. ...

  19. Exploring Customer Purchasing Intention over Online Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Samadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the correlation among perceived benefits, perceived risks and perceived website quality towards online purchasing intention with one of the online store in Singapore. This study used online questionnaire survey to collect 180 completed responses of male and female Singaporean aged 20 and above. The findings showed that there was a significant correlation between perceived benefits, perceived website quality and online purchasing intention while there was no significant correlation between perceived risks and online purchasing intention. Implication and limitation of this study also discussed.

  20. Perbedaan Post Purchase Regret Berdasarkan Perilaku Pada Konsumen Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Fardhani, Diah

    2014-01-01

    Post purchase regret is a negative emotion of consumer after evaluating the purchase decision has been made, the evaluation is conducted based on the outcome and process of consumer decision making. This study was a comparative quantitative study aimed to determine differences on post purchase regret based on unplanned and substitute purchasing behavior. The research hypothesis was the differences in post purchase regret based on unplanned behavior and substitute purchasing. The study involve...

  1. DEMAND AND QUALITY UNCERTAINTY IN PECAN PURCHASING DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized Heckman model of purchase decisions incorporating perceived consumer quality attributes, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets as factors influencing pecan purchases is estimated. Marketing efforts that encourage consumers to expand expenditures on nut products increase both the probability of pecan purchases and the amount purchased. Consumers who use all types of nuts in a wider variety of foods tend to purchase pecans more frequently. A diverse set of marke...

  2. 14 CFR 240.2 - Obligation of air carriers, foreign air carriers, and ticket agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF ACCOUNTS AND PROPERTY... auditor to inspect and examine all accounts, records, memorandums, documents, papers and correspondence...

  3. The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P

    2005-01-01

    To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...

  4. Finding purchase activity patterns in small & medium enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Geert J.

    2015-01-01

    Finding purchase activity patterns in Small & Medium Enterprises in a research program to enable SMEs to improve their purchase and company performance. Posterpresentatie KCO conferentie, 16 november 2015.

  5. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  6. European Union Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  7. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  8. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  9. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef (Joost); G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands

  10. INFLUENCE OF THE BRAND ON PURCHASE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS MARTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the brand on purchase decision has been and is still extensively studied by marketers, researchers, economists, manufacturers (especially the multinational companies. In the present study we aimed to find out if the brand influences the purchase decision of consumers in general (brand products/services. A survey has been conducted in September 2016 on a number of 225 people, residents of Tîrgu Mureş city, from Romania, aged between 15 and 65+. The collected data were analyzed to comply with the obiectives and also to draw conclusions. From the study it is reveal that the purchase decision of a potencial buyer is influenced by a number of factors, in particularly by the quality and price. We chose to study the influence of brand on purchase decision, a very topical subject that can never be fully exhausted.

  11. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  12. Purchasing social responsibility : a conceptual study

    OpenAIRE

    Mørk, Eirik; Solheim, Kristian Hauge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on Purchasing Social Responsibility (PSR). Suppliers play an important role in the overall corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts of the purchasing firm. The purpose of this paper is to explore potential firm performance effects from PSR, which contributes to an area of research that is limited at this point. The aim is to develop a survey instrument based on a set of formulated hypotheses and a conceptual framework. These are grounded in a literature review of core ...

  13. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Jovanović; Tamara Vlastelica; Slavica Cicvarić Kostić

    2016-01-01

    Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional an...

  14. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Matea; Puh, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...

  15. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  16. Strategic Capacity Rationing to Induce Early Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Liu; Garrett J. van Ryzin

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic pricing offers the potential to increase revenues. At the same time, it creates an incentive for customers to strategize over the timing of their purchases. A firm should ideally account for this behavior when making its pricing and stocking decisions. In particular, we investigate whether it is optimal for a firm to create rationing risk by deliberately understocking products. Then, the resulting threat of shortages creates an incentive for customers to purchase early at higher price...

  17. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  18. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  19. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, H.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of

  20. 48 CFR 52.207-5 - Option To Purchase Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option To Purchase....207-5 Option To Purchase Equipment. As prescribed in 7.404, insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option To Purchase Equipment (FEB 1995) (a) The Government may purchase the equipment...

  1. 7 CFR 1753.68 - Purchasing special equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchasing special equipment. 1753.68 Section 1753.68... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Purchase and Installation of Special Equipment § 1753.68 Purchasing special equipment. (a) General. (1) Equipment purchases are...

  2. 36 CFR 223.101 - Determination of purchaser responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and the...

  3. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  4. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  5. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  6. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  7. THE USE OF PARTNERSHIP IN PURCHASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA SIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The partnership is now increasingly used in all areas thanks to the synergy it implies and of the benefits demonstrated. And in today's economy benefits of the partnership are widely recognized. Partnership in purchase makes no exception. This paper presents the benefits of a partnership-based purchases compared to those of traditional purchasing. Less well known is that a partnership built and/or implemented incorrectly and may result in additional costs and thus lead to disadvantages for both companies. For this reason, the paper aims to present what a partnership is, to show which steps should be taken to build a successful partnership and to exemplify through companies which have implemented correctly this type of collaboration, obtaining exceptional results.

  8. Mathematic Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Adaptive Congestion Control in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, Rola; Université de Versailles

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a preventive congestion control mechanism applied at highway entrances and devised for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The proposed mechanism provides a vehicular admission control, regulates input traffic and performs vehicular traffic shaping. Our congestion control mechanism includes two classes of vehicles and is based on a specific priority ticket pool scheme with queue-length threshold scheduling policy, tailored to vehicular networks. In an attempt t...

  9. Outcomes of road traffic injuries before and after the implementation of a camera ticketing system: a retrospective study from a large trauma center in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghnam, Suliman; Alkelya, Muhamad; Alfraidy, Moath; Al-Bedah, Khalid; Albabtain, Ibrahim Tawfiq; Alshenqeety, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the third leading cause of death in Saudi Arabia. Because speed is a major risk factor for severe crash-related injuries, a camera ticketing system was implemented countrywide in mid-2010 by the traffic police in an effort to improve traffic safety. There are no published studies on the effects of the system in Saudi Arabia. To examine injury severity and associated mortality at a large trauma center before and after the implementation of the ticketing system. Retrospective, analytical. Trauma center of a tertiary care center in Riyadh. The study included all trauma registry patients seen in the emergency department for a crash-related injury (automobile occupants, pedestrians, or motorcyclists) between January 2005 and December 2014. Associations with outcome measures were assessed by univariate and multivariate methods. Injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and mortality. The study included all trauma registry patients seen in the emergency department for a crash-related injury. All health outcomes improved in the period following implementation of the ticketing system. Following implementation, ISS scores decreased (-3.1, 95% CI -4.6, -1.6) and GCS increased (0.47, 95% CI 0.08, 0.87) after adjusting for other covariates. The odds of death were 46% lower following implementation than before implementation. When the data were log-transformed to account for skewed data distributions, the results remained statistically significant. This study suggests positive health implications following the implementation of the camera ticketing system. Further investment in public health interventions is warranted to reduce preventable RTIs. The study findings represent a trauma center at a single hospital in Riyadh, which may not generalize to the Saudi population.

  10. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  11. PERAN PRODUCT CUES AND RISK AVERSION PADA PURCHASE INTENTION DAN POST PURCHASE FEELINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rejeki Ekasasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research aimed to investigate the influence of extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues and risk aversion towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. This research study collected data from two populations which are students and employee. Approximately 128 respondents involved to give respond for the survey. The analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM show that product cues and risk aversion give different significant impact towards purchase intention and post-purchase feeling of counterfeited computer software and music CD. The research concluded that risk aversion and extrinsic cues has a significant influence to purchase intention of counterfeited computer software while it does not appear similar result to music CD. Moreover, the study revealed that for both counterfeited computer software and music CD, the purchase intention is proven to have negative significant influence towards post-purchase feelings.Keywords: risk aversion, extrinsic cues, intrinsic cues, purchase intention, post-purchase feelingsAbstrakTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh atribut ekstrinsik dan intrinsic produk serta aspek menolak resiko terhadap niat beli dan perasaan paska beli software computer dan CD music bajakan. Penelitian ini diharapkan akan memperoleh sebuah model dengan pendekatan cultural dan strategi bisnis untuk memblokir atau mengurangi produk bajakan yang dapat diakses konsumen di pasar. Data primer akan dikumpulkan dari dua populasi, kelompok mahasiswa dan kelompok pekerja, dari empat kota besar di Indonesia yaitu Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, dan Yogyakarta. Lebih kurang 128 responden terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek atribut produk yang bersifat ekstrinsik dan aspek menolak resiko terbukti memiliki hubungan signifikan mempengaruhi niat beli software computer, akan tetapi lain tidak demikian pada niat beli CD music bajakan

  12. Consumer purchase intention towards environmentally friendly vehicles: an empirical investigation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia; Islam, Md Ashraful; Duasa, Jarita Bt

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines whether attitudes towards electric vehicles (ATEVs), subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) have significant associations with consumer purchase intention (PI) and the purchase behaviour of environmentally friendly vehicles (EFVs). The results from the survey questionnaires are analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings of this paper indicate that ATEV, SN and PBC significantly influence PI. This finding also indicates that environmental consequence and individual preferences do not influence the PI of the respondents. We found that Malaysian car owners are largely unaware of the greenhouse effects on the environment or attach to it little importance, which is reflected in their PI towards EFVs. The outcomes of this study could help policymakers design programmes to influence attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and purchase behaviour to prevent further air pollution and reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector.

  13. Obesity prevention at the point of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I

    2016-05-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. © 2016 World Obesity.

  14. Impact of Advertising Appeals on Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Jovanović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional and rational advertising appeals on the purchase intention. The results of the empirical research, conducted using the focus groups method, are shown in this paper and the focus group participants were members of the student population.The research results indicate that different advertising appeals may have a different impact on the consumer’s purchase intention; in case of women, the emotional appeal has a stronger impact while for men it is the rational appeal, while “fear appeal” proved to be effective to a certain point, after which it causes selective perception and rejection. This implies that depending on the product, its purpose and target group, advertisers can choose the type of appeal, combination of the appeals and their creative presentation, based on the empirical confirmation of the efficiency the approach.

  15. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  16. Purchase Behavior of Consumers for Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..

  17. Marketing occupational health: exploring the purchaser perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes-Evans, O; Woods, A

    2013-01-01

    There may be scope for providers of occupational health (OH) services to improve their communication and marketing to those who purchase their services, but the research literature contains little information about purchasers' perceptions of OH. There is no documented overview that fully captures the purchasers' perspective. To explore current and potential purchasers' thinking about OH. Iterative purposive sampling was carried out to identify participants for semi-structured interviews. Respondents were obtained through progressively wider networking, starting with personal and organizational contacts and networking events. This was continued until no major new information was appearing. Health issues were not always recognized as related to OH. Some respondents had little understanding of OH or perceived it with very negative connotations. Some also sought information at first from the internet and personal contacts. The giving of expert advice on a situation was generally seen as a central feature of OH services. Most believed OH included sickness absence management. Respondents spoke of problems such as insufficient, inappropriate or partisan recommendations and also process or turnaround time problems. Clarity and building good working relationships were identified as positive factors. OH providers should review their various activities to address these points, as well as reviewing the knowledge and skills that their staff can contribute.

  18. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J E; Li, Q; Abrams, S M; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K M

    2005-04-01

    To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts.

  19. Parental influence on consumer and purchase behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Parental influence on consumer and purchase behaviour of Generation Y. 21 ... Department of Marketing Management. University of Pretoria ... The decision, however, in making ... exactly what role social environment and ... influences on the younger Generation Y are very .... as parents, peers, the mass media, retail stores,.

  20. Purchasing Power Parity and Heterogeneous Mean Reversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the properties of multivariate tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) that fail to take heterogeneity in the speed of mean reversion across real exchange rates into account. We compare the performance of homogeneous and heterogeneous unit root testing methodologies.

  1. Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes purchasing power parity (PPP) for the euro area. We study the impact of the introduction of the euro in 1999 on the behavior of real exchange rates. We test the PPP hypothesis for a panel of real exchange rates within the euro area over the period 1973-2003. Our

  2. Purchasing to improve health systems performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Ray; Jakubowski, Elke; Figueras, Josep

    2005-01-01

    ... as they formulate purchasing strategies so that they can increase effectiveness and improve performance in their own national context An assessment of the intersecting roles of citizens, the government and the providers * * * Written by leading health policy analysts, this book is essential reading for health policy makers, planners and managers as well as resear...

  3. Surgical lights. Making a purchase decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M M

    1987-11-01

    Based on the preceding factors, a profile can be made for each light. The profile should include the following information: product literature with detailed information about the light, the average score from each of the six categories on the questionnaire, a summary of positive and negative comments from the questionnaire (recurring comments can identify significant factors), recommendations from other hospitals using the light, warranty and service information and any pertinent information about the vendor and manufacturer, information or comments from the clinical engineer, the purchasing agent, and the architect/engineer, and information about possible purchase agreements. Once the profiles of the lights are finished, present them to the OR committee or group charged with making the final decision. The information will enable the group to compare the lights and will serve as a basis for either the final purchase or a detailed bid specification. If cost is a major factor in the decision, the evaluation results can be used to justify purchasing lights that are more expensive but that the users believe are clearly superior. This constitutes the "professional justification" that some government institutions require to circumvent regulations that require buying the low-bid product. Although the result of this selection process is clearly a subjective decision, it is an informed subjective decision. Once the lights are installed, the staff members' satisfaction with the lights will not be based on objective criteria but on the same subjective opinions that were used to justify the selection.

  4. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  5. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GNND Sales Program: (a) The person must be employed as a law enforcement officer (as described in § 291... in § 291.530) at the time he/she submits a bid to purchase a home through the program and at the time... to continue employment as a law enforcement officer (as described in § 291.520), teacher (as...

  6. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  7. Job profile research for the purchasing profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Wesselink, R.; Bruijstens, H.Chr.J.

    2005-01-01

    The study reported in this article is based on theories about job and competence analysis and a project in which job profiles were developed that were aimed at providing a framework of reference for evaluating in-service training programmes for purchasing professionals (professional buyers of goods

  8. 30 CFR 208.8 - Transportation and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation and delivery. 208.8 Section 208... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.8 Transportation and delivery. (a) The lessee... delivery point at no additional cost to the purchaser or the Government. The purchaser must have physical...

  9. Leveraging fuel purchasing and management activities within a competitive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallard, S.; Anderson, A.; Schick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, one can see that competition, deregulation, or at a minimum, a closer focus on the overall economies of power generation is stimulating change within the power sector. Power generation markets are becoming liberalized providing for independent power producers and, in some cases, providing third-party access to the grid. In the US, fuel costs are being transformed from a pass-through expense to the consumer to one of a strategic asset or liability. In every case, fuel quality, fuel-related costs, and managing the fuel purchasing process are key factors in the overall efficiency and financial performance on the power generator. This paper illustrates how effective fuel management requires that the utility or GenCo improve upon historical fuel management/purchasing practices to lower overall generation costs and address the opportunities present in the power and fuel markets. Key framework/principles to be discussed include: Tighter coupling of fuel purchasing, short-term planning, and dispatch functions. Effective planning to link purchased fuel to system demand forecasts, consider contract/transportation constraints/economics, evaluate alternative sources, and consider fuel mix strategies (e.g., between sport, contract, and various regions/qualities). Tools and processes needed to support the new business environment such as fuel impact analysis, application of integrated fuel evaluation/management systems, market forecasting, purchasing, and the role of fuel management in energy trading. Flexibility to support optimal purchasing strategies including shorter purchase cycles, special buys, buys for third parties, and coal tolling. This framework would be discussed using examples from the US, UK, European, and Pacific Rim markets

  10. Purchasing green to become greener: Factors influence consumers’ green purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vazifehdoust

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.

  11. Estimates of the Demand for Freight Transport in the Nigerian Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... fail to consider the interdependence between the transport type choice and the shipment size ... of selecting purchased transport increases with transport costs and travel time.

  12. A STUDY OF ONLINE PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR- INVESTIGATING SOCIAL MEANING OF ONLINE PURCHASE IN TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Che-wen

    2008-01-01

    To justify the applicability of previous researches of online purchase in the Eastern culture, 237 samples in Taiwan are examined with questionnaire adapted from previous researches. Based on the assumption of rational behaviour that online purchase intention leads to behaviour, factors influencing them are examined and discussed. The result indicates that demographic attributes, perceived consequence, conspicuous meaning, information sources and reference group are confirmed to impact online...

  13. The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

  14. Post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.

  15. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  16. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    .... First, the contracting community did not have a comprehensive, detailed database of contingency purchases that would allow analyses of the types and amounts of goods and services purchased to support...

  17. Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer-purchasing Motives in Nigerian Cellular Phone Market: An Empirical Investigation. ... Nigerian consumers to identify their motives for purchasing new mobile phones on one hand, and factors affecting operator choice on the other.

  18. Webinar: Simplifying Sustainable Purchasing Through Guidelines and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar will cover EPA’s effort to simplify green purchasing through recommendations of specifications, standards, and ecolabels. EPA’s work in this area is intended to help federal purchasers identify and procure environmentally sustainable products.

  19. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Purchasing Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arceneaux, Alan

    1997-01-01

    .... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...

  20. An agency theory perspective on the purchase of marketing services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, W.L.; Ellram, L.M.; Bals, L.; Hartmann, E.; Valk, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    The purchase of business services has become an important part of organizations' acquisition of external resources, and is therefore receiving growing scholarly attention. The supply management function is increasingly supporting more complex service purchases, including a wide range of marketing

  1. Children's influence on family purchase decision in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tanvi

    2008-01-01

    The importance of children in purchase decision making has grown over the years. They not only make purchase decisions for personal consumption but they also influence family purchase decision-making (Kaur and Singh, 2006). This research looks at available literature, which is discussed with respect to children influence on product categories, decision-making stages, socialising agents like parents, peers and media and role of family communication in purchase decision making. Demographic vari...

  2. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  3. Logistic strategies in purchasing process of metallurgical companies

    OpenAIRE

    Grzybowska, K.; Gajdzik, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents some selected logistic strategies concerning purchasing process in production companies. Costs referring to realizing and organizing purchasing process are a substantial part of total costs of a company. In order to make a company’s purchasing and supply processes efficient, it is necessary to take some steps to prepare purchasing strategy. This operation was the reason for presenting the subject in this study.

  4. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  5. Determinants of intention to purchase leisure travel over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moital, Miguel; Vaughan, Roger; Edwards, Jonathan; Peres, Rita

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 years on since the launch of the Internet, there are clear differential levels of adoption of the Internet for purchasing leisure travel across countries. In some countries, such as Portugal, only a minority of travel purchasing is conducted over the Internet. This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of adoption of purchasing over the Internet by evaluating the determinants of intention to adopt the Internet for purchasing leisure travel. A number of variables are...

  6. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision problems. New quantitative models are developed for these decision problems using a range of mathematical techniques, thereby contributing to the further development of purchasing theory and its appliati...

  7. Scaling Consumers' Purchase Involvement: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kraigher-Krainer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional scale, called ECID Scale, is presented in this paper. The scale is based on a comprehensive model and captures the two antecedent factors of purchase-related involvement, namely whether motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic and whether risk is perceived as low or high. The procedure of scale development and item selection is described. The scale turns out to perform well in terms of validity, reliability, and objectivity despite the use of a small set of items – four each – allowing for simultaneous measurements of up to ten purchases per respondent. The procedure of administering the scale is described so that it can now easily be applied by both, scholars and practitioners. Finally, managerial implications of data received from its application which provide insights into possible strategic marketing conclusions are discussed.

  8. The Corporate Sector Purchase Programme (CSPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Large-scale asset purchase programmes are a form of monetary policy in which market interest rates are reduced by different amounts at different maturities – and lower them at the long rates that affect investment and consumption decisions. They are designed to stimulate spending by increasing...... liquidity, raising asset prices, creating wealth effects, lowering borrowing costs and increasing investment. Corporate bond purchases (CSPP) are complementary to, not an alternative to standard QE policies. They increase the impact of QE policies; widen the pool of (potentially) high quality assets...... that can be used (itself a risk reducing measure that reduces the pressure on reserves); and make it easier to steer economic performance by reducing risk premia, that is sectoral or regional interest spreads. That not only reduces average borrowing costs; it delivers better economic performance where...

  9. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  10. Consumer Purchase Behaviour for Green Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Sharma; J. Sonwalkar; Maohar Kapse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concern for climate change and global warming is increasing at global level which results in stimulating the interest of firms toward environmental protection and sustainable development. Many firms have started developing green products to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. These firms are now interested in finding the determinants of environmentally conscious consumers’ behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy to ensure the green purchase ...

  11. Purchasing power parity a different approach

    OpenAIRE

    Σακελλής, Παναγιώτης

    2001-01-01

    Historically, Purchasing Power Parity (henceforth PPP) provides the simplest explanation of long-run exchange rate determination, according to which the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies equals the ratio between domestic and foreign prices. A few years ago, PPP validity theory seemed like a fairly dull research topic. On the one hand the unavoidable effects of floating exchange rates made it obvious to even its most stubborn defenders that PPP is not a short-ru...

  12. Nonlinear Trend and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    luo, yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the evidence on the purchasing power parity (PPP) in the long run is still a matter of debate. The difficulties of the problem are the possible nonstationarity of relative price indices and nominal exchange rates. The traditional ways to deal with nonstationarity such as unit root model and cointegration have some problems. In this paper, to deal with nonstationarity, we apply the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) trend-cycle filter in real busine...

  13. Comparison of Cooperative and Noncooperative Purchasing in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Beth W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Shelly, Mark C.; Arendt, Susan; Gregoire, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare food cost and public school foodservice directors' satisfaction between districts participating in school foodservice cooperatives or group purchasing arrangements and districts purchasing independently. It also assessed the prevalence of purchasing cooperatives in school foodservice and…

  14. 5 CFR 4001.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets... SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION § 4001.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System...

  15. 5 CFR 4101.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 4101.105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System institution. No covered employee, or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets...

  16. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

    OpenAIRE

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Findings Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation...

  17. Move of Purchasing Offices TS – AB* – AT*

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The TS – AB* - AT* Purchasing Offices and the Purchasing Pool have moved to Building 5 – 2nd and *3rd floors. The phone and fax numbers are unchanged. We apologize for any inconvenience caused by the move. Thank you for your understanding. Finance Department – Purchasing Service.

  18. Quantitative analysis of strategic and tactical purchasing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision

  19. 13 CFR 120.641 - Disclosure to purchasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to purchasers. 120.641 Section 120.641 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Miscellaneous Provisions § 120.641 Disclosure to purchasers. (a) Information to purchaser. Prior...

  20. Designing ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Looman, Arnold; Ruffini, F.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a method for redesigning the ordering and inventory management methodologies for purchased parts in a manufacturing firm. The method takes the perspective of the purchasing and logistics manager, defines clusters of purchased items, and subsequently assigns each cluster to a

  1. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased ...

  2. 48 CFR 970.5244-1 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5244-1 Contractor purchasing system. As prescribed in 970.4403 insert the following clause: Contractor Purchasing System (AUG 2009) (a) General. The Contractor...

  3. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase plan must conform to the definition of a pension plan in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of § 1.401-1, or the.... Accordingly, even though a qualified bond purchase plan is designed as a pension plan, it need not provide... apply in a nondiscriminatory manner. (ii) A qualified bond purchase plan which is designed as a pension...

  4. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the specific... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f...

  6. Implications of a classification of forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Dittrich, K.; Jaspers, F.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Our main objective is to classify different forms of cooperative purchasing, i.e. purchasing groups. Based on a literature review, empirical findings, and new institutional economics we employ a classification: the highway matrix. In this matrix we distinguish five forms of cooperative purchasing

  7. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  8. Operating years 1993 through 1995 power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is obligated to supply electric power to its contractual customers. Based on a forecast of growing customer loads and assuming Critical Period water conditions in the Columbia River Basin, BPA is planning to meet a firm energy deficit during the four operating years (OY) 1992 through 1995, i.e., August 1991 through July 1995. BPA has executed several power purchase agreements to cover the projected OY 1992 deficit. The proposed action is to extend two existing one-year power purchase agreements for an additional three years to cover the four-year Critical Period energy deficit. The extension of these two one-year power purchase agreements would: (1) increase BPA's firm energy load-carrying capability; (2) allow BPA to meet its firm energy contractual commitments over the remaining three years of the four-year Critical Period from August 1, 1992, to July 31, 1995; (3) provide flexibility for BPA's use of hydroelectric resources over the Critical Period; and (4) increase system reliability. Under Critical Period water conditions, absent the proposed action, projected loads would exceed the capability of the Federal power system to serve those loads. The purpose of BPA's proposed action is to assure consistency with its statutory responsibilities, including those found in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act)

  9. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  10. Consumers and green electricity : profiling potential purchasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Scott, D.; Parker, P.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity markets around the world are being opened to competition and environmental concerns are prompting consumers to consider buying electricity that has been generated by renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. This report profiles the potential purchaser of such green electricity. It presents 3 sets of hypotheses, each drawing upon the literature on green product purchasers. It is suggested that those who are willing to pay higher premiums for green electricity are likely to have certain demographic characteristics and social values. This study is based on a case-study of a survey conducted in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario, Canada, the objective of which was to determine what kind of people are potential green electricity purchasers. Results were presented to power managers and marketers. A 158-item survey was sent to 1,110 individuals, between September 2000 and April 2001. A total of 474 questionnaires were answered, for a response rate of 43 per cent. It was noted that although the response rate was high, the survey may not be representative because the respondents were older, better educated, and wealthier than the general population. In addition, the respondents had previously indicated they were willing to pay $25 for a home energy evaluation, suggesting a special interest in issues regarding energy and the environment. It was determined that attitudinal characteristics, such as liberalism and perceived consumer effectiveness, ideally identify the potential green electricity buyer. 34 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  12. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Green brand awareness and customer purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Braimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.

  14. ANTESEDEN PERCEIVED RISK PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Rejeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of perceived risk to purchase intention  private label products in Indonesia modern market. This study used primary data sources obtained directly by distributing questionnaires using purposive sampling techniques, gathered 200 respondents with minimum criteria of period at least 18 years while maximum of period is > 61 years and have bought private label products. The dependent variable in this study is purchase intention, while independent variables are considered functional risk, perceived financial risk, physical risk, and perception of psychological risk. Data analysis use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results indicate that there was a negative effect on financial risk, the perceived physical risk to buy an interest in functional perception, the psychological risk has no effect on purchase intention on private label product. The implications for the manager is to increase consumer buying intentions by taking into account factors such as perceptions of financial risk and perceptions of physical risk.

  15. Photovoltaic power: the inadequate purchase price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2009-01-01

    The current policy of guaranteed purchase prices applied to photovoltaic power lacks rationality: prices are not graduated, commitment times are too long, there is no capping to capacity developed, subsidies (tax credit, direct subsidy, etc) are complex and give too favourable a return time. The lack of differentiation between products may also delay the emergence of new PV technologies. As a result, it is legitimate to envisage a cost/benefit analysis of future subsidies and to wonder about Frances ability, as a second rank player, to catch up with the leaders (Germany, Japan, United States). The report does not criticize policy based on purchase prices in itself: this is suitable or technology close to commercial operation in that it guarantees stable terms close to wholesale electricity market prices. It does, however, criticize adequacy in terms of less advanced PV technology, which results in purchase prices five times that of wind power. The report proposes re-targeting the system to take account of the significant stakes in PV power. Costly incentives for installing land PV cells and units should be quickly reduced, while industrial demonstration budgets deserve increases to further the development of new technologies (improved crystal silicon and thin layers). The demonstration phase and industrial development should be the primary focus, where a large part of potentially promising reductions in costs are likely to be achieved. (author)

  16. Research on organic food purchase in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research findings based on the research conducted on a representative sample of respondents using a highly structured questionnaire. The first part of the paper focuses on the theoretical background and overview of the research results related to the research problem in the world and in Croatia. The results of the research which has been conducted indicate that respondents are not familiar with the definition of organic food. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the Croatian consumers’ perception of organic food and conventional food. The research on organic food purchase places a special emphasis on regular buyers of organic food who were asked to evaluate the importance of individual characteristics in choosing a place of sale for organic food. Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency of organic food purchases by regular buyers was found to correlate with the perception of organic food and the importance of characteristics of a place of sale for organic food. The research also identified the main reasons for not buying organic food, and it sets out the guidelines which may be useful to organic producers, marketers and retailers in encouraging further purchases of organic food.

  17. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Should general practitioners purchase health care for their patients? The total purchasing experiment in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Mays, Nicholas; Street, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; McLeod, Hugh; Goodwin, Nick

    2003-09-01

    Until relatively recently, general practitioners (GPs) have been allowed to work independently, with no requirement to consider the resource implications of their referral and prescribing decisions. In order to align the interests of GPs with the overall objectives of health systems a number of countries have introduced primary care based capitation, funds pooling and budget holding either as experiments or as an overall policy. Are these experiments and policies likely to work? This paper presents evidence from the UK total purchasing experiment, which was the first major quasi-market development in the NHS to be independently evaluated from the outset. Total purchasing gave volunteer groups of practices freedom to purchase all hospital and community health services for their patients. The evidence suggests that whilst GPs have great potential as purchasers, they also have considerable limitations. The expectation that they will be able to improve the quality of patient experience of care, or to alter the use of resources, may not be generally realised. GP-based purchasing may be more appropriate where the task is to alter the balance or location of care between hospital and extramural settings. However, budgetary incentives are not 'magic potions' which have similar effects on behaviour wherever they are introduced. Holding budgets and having independent contracts, while important pre-requisites for being taken seriously in a quasi-market, were not sufficient for effective total purchasing. The paper concludes that health systems should not only value innovation and experimentation and encourage learning from evaluative research; they should also recognise the importance of supportive circumstances for any innovation to effect real and sustained change.

  19. MANU. Purchase of Bentonite. Process Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the entire bentonite purchasing process accurately. This will enable efficient and focused use of information related to the purchasing phase and to each individual bentonite batch. This work continues from the work started in the report by Ahonen et al. (2008), Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material, Posiva Working Report 2008-33. The current work includes a short enquiry for all relevant and at the time known producers or re-sellers of bentonite. Questions about relevant products suitable for civil engineering use, more specifically nuclear waste disposal site use, were asked together with test methods, typical test results and test standards. The following aspects and opinions have been processed from the results that were obtained during the project. Each seller/producer has a quality management system, QMS (typically ISO 9001), and ability to perform the basic tests, but there is not an established common set of properties to be tested. Some producers are willing to test according to customers' specifications. Posiva could arrange a network of capable laboratories to carry out tests according to its selected standards. This activity should then be accredited with a reasonable testing volume. Before starting the purchase of bentonite at a large scale, Posiva should go through negotiations and audits with each seller in order to make sure that both parties are testing with the same methods and both understand the range where the values of key parameters may lie. A database is needed for gathering statistically relevant information from the bentonite material parameters over the long run. This is needed for determining the limits within which the material parameters should remain in order to be acceptable. Posiva is encouraged to create a process to optimize the test types and the amount of tests should be identified for immediate and long term use. This process ensures the required quality and costs involved. (orig.)

  20. 78 FR 69932 - Tedesco Family ESB Trust, et al.-Purchase of Certain Assets and Membership Interests-Evergreen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon Coach Lines, et al. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice... Franmar's purchase of certain motor coach and non- motor coach assets of Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a... (Family Trust), on behalf of Franmar Leasing, Inc. (Franmar), together with the Francis Tedesco Revocable...

  1. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  2. Management of purchase process in realization of building investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radoń

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In building companies process of product and service purchase is one of the main processes of quality management system [1]. Because ofshort time-limits of contract realization, high specialization of works, necessity of fulfillment of high quality requirements and assurance of profitable financial effects the management of purchase process becomes very important element of work of the building company. The serious problem in creating and keeping the efficient system of purchase management is special type of purchase in building companies. Particular investments are realized in different country regions, objects are built based on the individual design documentations and each building becomes independent organization unit that organize purchase necessary for investment realization.An example of the management system of purchase process in building company is described in the paper. Just In Time system is widelyused during the realization of building investment. This system is especially useful in buildings because some investments, especially inbig cities, are characterized by restriction in building site. This makes impossible storing the products. In such cases close synchronization between times of delivery and requirements of purchase schedule and schedule of building realization is very important. Criteria of supplier selection as well as the methods of choosing the supplier are also presented in the paper. Special attention is paid to necessity of valuation of the purchase efficiency and the purchase risk. Basic coefficients of purchase efficiency are also described in the paper.

  3. BHI Purchase Card System user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehden, P. von der.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of the purchase card system (P-Card System) is to apply enhanced acquisition tools for increased return on ERC internal resources, and to reduce the cost of off-the-shelf commercial items through the use of credit cards by authorized personnel. The P-Card may be used to make transactions either over the counter, by mail, or via telephone. For Project employees, the P-Card provides and easier, direct method of acquisition that requires less process time than requisitioning. The P-C eliminates the involvement of the procurement organization in low value-added acquisitions and low-risk transactions. Controller reduces the expenditure of resources in the support of low dollar value products and services acquisition. The P- Card System has been initiated in agreement with American Express Travel Related Services, Inc.; the credit card is and American Express Corporate Purchasing Card. The integrated network application for cardholder reconciliation and reallocation of costs was originally government furnished software developed by the U.S. DOE. Currently, the software application (version 3.0 and beyond) is copyrighted by a Bechtel Hanford, Inc. subcontractor

  4. Purchasing control, compliance and the box: purchasing management based on hard data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Purchasing management is often approached as a qualitative art. Experience, insight and managerial qualities may indeed make useful contributions. However, in addition to this, the possibilities of an approach based on hard data and figures should not be underestimated. This does not only apply to

  5. The interrelationship between purchasing maturity, internal customer satisfaction and purchasing performance : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Poucke, E.; Weele, van A.J.; Matthyssens, P.

    2014-01-01

    So far, academic literature has paid extensive attention to the importance of purchasing development within the context of the current business environment, emphasizing value creation and delivery and integrated supply chain management. In addition, the contribution of purchasing’s (internal

  6. 76 FR 79548 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ..., a FICU purchasing a loan participation pool might perform statistical sampling in evaluating the..., since 2007, FISCUs- overall experienced a higher delinquency rate in their loan participation portfolios. At year-end 2010, the delinquency rate for the FISCU-participated portfolio was 4.11 percent...

  7. Defining Project Purchasing Activities - Exemplified by the Purchasing Practices in Offshore Wind Farm Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    and limited learning outcomes from one project to another. Furthermore, the study reveals the importance of a more holistic approach to project purchasing practices by focusing on the entire life cycle of a project. Managerially it helps selling companies to understand the peculiar buying phases...

  8. A Usability Study of the Automatic Ticket Vending Machines for the Middle-aged and Elderly Patrons: The Case of the Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the usability problems for the middle-aged and elderly users of the automatic ticket vending machines of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System. Thirty two middle-aged and elderly users (16 men and 16 females were observed in their actual uses of the machines, and 9 of them (6 men and 3 women were interviewed afterwards. The results show that, first, most senior users observed in this study made mistakes at the first step of touching the screen that initiates the ticket buying process. Second, the feedback and voice guidance design need further improvement to facilitate the senior users’ operation of the machines. Based on the findings, this study recommends that: (1 the operation instruction may be improved by enhancing the color contrast and graphics complementing of caption and voice guidance; (2 the transaction interface should be simplified, avoiding using button symbol to show information, and the visual instruction should be supplemented with voice instructions; (3 operation feedback should be strengthened and in line with previous use experience. [Article content in Chinese

  9. THE NEW PURCHASING SERVICE PAGE NOW ON THE WEB!

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2000-01-01

    Users of CERN's Purchasing Service are encouraged to visit the new Purchasing Service web page, accessible from the CERN homepage or directly at: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/ There, you will find answers to questions such as: Who are the buyers? What do I need to know before creating a DAI? How many offers do I need? Where shall I send the offer I received? I know the amount of my future requirement, how do I proceed? How are contracts adjudicated at CERN? Which exhibitions and visits of Member State companies are foreseen in the future? A company I know is interested in making a presentation at CERN, who should they contact? Additionally, you will find information concerning: The Purchasing procedures Market Surveys and Invitations to Tender The Industrial Liaison Officers appointed in each Member State The Purchasing Broker at CERN

  10. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  11. Purchasing power parity and interest parity in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Eric O'N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes purchasing power parity and uncovered interest parity in the laboratory. It finds strong evidence that purchasing power parity, covered interest parity, and uncovered interest parity hold. Subjects are endowed with an intrinsically useless (green) currency that can be used to purchase another useless (red) currency. Green goods can be bought only with green currency, and red goods can be bought only with red currency. The foreign exchange markets are organized as call mark...

  12. THE ROLE OF MINDFULNESS IN UNETHICAL PURCHASING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hui; Lin, Chieh-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Negotiation occurs all the time in purchasing practices ofbusinesses, and is inevitable for purchasing professionals when encounteringpurchasing conflict. Ethical negotiation is considered the vital requirement inmaintaining long-term and close buyer-supplier relationships. This study aimsto explore the relationship between mindfulness and unethical negotiation. Methodology- This study will take purchasing professionals inTaiwan as research subjects to investigate the relationship be...

  13. Conceptualization of the Relationship between Brand Equity and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunnaike, Olaleke Olusye; Kehinde, Oladele Joseph; Omoyayi, Oluwadamilola Oluwatosin; Popoola, Oluwamakinde Oluwamayowa; Amoruwa, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the customer perspective of brand equity will provide deep understanding of how brands influence purchase behaviour of customers. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework that will provide an understanding of the relationship existing between the elements of brand equity and that of purchase behaviour. The adoption of Aaker’s brand equity model will serve as a guide for conceiving associations between brand equity and purchase behaviour for this study. Litera...

  14. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Zendehdel; Laily Hj Paim; Syuhaily Bint Osman

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vi...

  15. Marketing Mix and Purchasing Behavior for Japanese Motorcycle Brand in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Susilowati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing population in Indonesia leads to increasing demand for motorcycles as one of transportation means. Ease of operation and affordable prices cause motorcycles as a very popular transportation means in Indonesia, especially in big cities. This is because of the traffic density and the people's desire to arrive at their destination quickly. One of the Japanese brands, Honda Beat is the highest selling motorcycle brand in Indonesia based on the data from The Indonesian Motorcycle Industry Association. In this study, we investigate the relationship of marketing mix with consumer purchasing behavior of this specific brand. A judgmental sampling was applied to 100 consumers in Greater Jakarta. Multiple linear regression was employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that promotions have the highest influence on consumer purchasing behaviors of the brand (coeff. = 0.503, then followed by products (coeff. = 0.320, and price perceptions (coeff. = 0.224. This study contributes to the marketing literature by adding a new empirical evidence on how marketing mix can generate perception and preference of brand personality, especially in motorcycle brands. The findings of this study will assist managers of motorcycle brand to maximize specific factors from marketing mix analysis to increase consumer purchasing behavior. Finally, in terms of the method employed in marketing studies, this study contributes to the literature by adding a new combination of a quantitative study of multiple linear regression and personal opinion of consumers.

  16. Modeling Terrorism Risk to the Air Transportation System: An Independent Assessment of TSA’s Risk Management Analysis Tool and Associated Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    considered under RMAT, expanding the range of attack pathways available to attackers, and inclusion of off-airport freight pro- cessing, catering ...perspectives on risk from Boeing and from consultations with Randy Harris of Delta Airlines , Eric Thacker of the Air Transport Association, and Chris...multiple first-class airline tickets) and, as a result, less attractive than publicly available information, which is relatively inexpensive. It

  17. Strategic Purchasing in Practice: Comparing Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2018-02-05

    Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The value of group purchasing organizations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the valuable role of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in hospital purchasing in the United States. For over 100 years old GPOs have helped hospitals and other health care providers realize savings and create contracting efficiencies by aggregating purchasing volume to negotiate discounts with manufacturers, distributors and other vendors. The US has recently enacted a series of healthcare reforms to correct some of the historical concerns regarding cost, quality and access. GPOs are expected to continue to play a critical role in the business of hospital purchasing and may potential export that other countries may wish to examine.

  19. Ethical issues in purchasing: a field study of Midwest hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, K; Motwani, J

    1995-01-01

    A large sum of money is spent annually by salespeople on gifts and favors for purchasing executives. The provision of gifts and favors to buyers remains a common practice despite the fact that it often leads to ethical conflicts for purchasing executives, sales managers, and salespeople. This paper investigates the perceptions of 51 purchasing executives of midwest hospitals regarding their behavior towards certain buying practices, the favors offered by vendors, favors actually accepted, as well as purchasers' discomfort and repayment levels regarding indebtedness. Based on the data analysis, this paper provides conclusions and directions for future research.

  20. Purchase Unwillingness and Willingness of Indonesian Consumers towards Israeli Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Suhud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to measure factors influencing purchase willingness and purchase unwillingness on Israeli products. Four predictor variables including consumer animosity, product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation were used. Data were collected by an online survey, and it attracted 337 participants. Three stages of data analysis were applied, those were exploratory analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and Structural Equation Model (SEM. In total, there were seven hypotheses tested. This research finds a significant impact of animosity on product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation. Furthermore, product judgment and boycott participation significantly affect purchase willingness. Meanwhile, boycott participation and boycott motivation significantly affect purchase unwillingness.

  1. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."

  2. Purchase intention behavior of Syariah financial product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Agus Setyawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores purchase intention of Syariah financial product. The purpose of the study is to identify factors of consumer’s intention to use Syariah financial product. Framework of the study is TRA model proposed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980. The design of this study is qualitative approach. This study employs focus group discussion and in depth interview in data collection. Focus group discussion in this study involves 6 Syariah financial products. In depth interview has been accomplished with 3 different managers from Syariah financial institutions. Findings in this study are consumers evaluate Syariah financial product by comparing benefits of the product with conventional financial products. The concept of non economic benefit and religious aspect is also discussed in this study.

  3. Electronic commerce can cut purchasing costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.

  4. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  5. The influence of marketing communications on the consumer path to purchase for both online and in-store purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Pallant, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the way online browsing and online or in-store purchasing behaviours evolve across the purchases customers make from a brand, and how this is influenced by the marketing communications that customers receive from that brand and its competitors. A sample of customers of three different retail brands are tracked over a two year period, and changes to browsing and purchase behaviour are observed. A model is developed which predicts the way customers are most likely to evolve...

  6. Purchase rates and energy content of nutritionally promoted and traditional fast foods purchased at lunchtime in Australia - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Louise F; Palmer, Michelle A

    2012-03-01

    Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing these foods resulted in reduced energy, and increased vegetable, content of lunches compared with those who purchased traditional fast foods. A survey collecting lunchtime fast-food purchases and demographic details was administered over two months. Nutritionally promoted products included the McDonalds' 'Heart Foundation Tick Approved' range and Subway's 'Six grams of fat or less' range. Energy and vegetable contents were estimated using information from fast-food companies' websites. Differences in demographics, energy and vegetable contents between individuals purchasing nutritionally promoted and traditional lunches were assessed using χ2 and t tests. Queensland, Australia. Lunchtime diners aged over 16 years at Subway and McDonalds. Surveys were collected from 927 respondents (58 % male, median age 25 (range 16-84) years; 73 % response rate). Only 3 % (n 24/910) of respondents who ordered a main option had purchased a nutritionally promoted item. Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods were ∼13 years older, predominantly female (79 %), and more often reported involvement in a health-related profession (29 % v. 11 %) than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods ordered 1·5 fewer megajoules and 0·6 more vegetable servings than purchasers of traditional foods (P < 0·05). Nutritionally promoted fast foods may reduce lunchtime energy content, however these foods were infrequently chosen.

  7. Ticket To Work

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Captures information on disability beneficiaries that are participating in one of the "the return to work initiative"; to help become self sufficient, and to limit...

  8. Estimating DoD Transportation Spending: Analyses of Contract and Payment Transactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Nancy Y; Chenoweth, Mary E; Reardon, Elaine; Grammich, Clifford A; Bullock, Arthur M; Mele, Judith D; Kofner, Aaron; Unger, Eric J

    2007-01-01

    .... This analysis of combined individual contracting action report (DD350) and PowerTrack (PT) data indicates that DoD has additional opportunities to leverage transportation spending, particularly where it uses tenders to purchase transportation services...

  9. Attitude towards the purchase of counterfeits: Antecedents and effect on intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Viot , Catherine; Le Roux , André; Kremer , Florence

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Counterfeiting is a major issue for companies, public institutions and consumers. Despite extensive literature on the subject in marketing, an instrument for measuring the wide variety of the determinants of attitude towards and intention to purchase counterfeit products is lacking. A second-order model comprising thirteen determinants, grouped into three latent constructs, is validated. This model includes a dimension related to the societal consequences of counterfei...

  10. Analysis of the purchase and consumer behaviour towards direct purchase of food

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner, Silvia; Wirthgen, Bernd; Altmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented the methodic as well as selected results of own empiric research (face-to-face questionings in seven different questioning regions, n = 1488) to the analysis of the shopping behaviour and the attitudes towards direct purchase. To the analysis of the buying patterns a Kaufverhaltensindex (KVI) was introduced. In the regional comparison will be clear that the questioning regions of Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia show KVI by far highest, while the eastern questi...

  11. Concerns regarding Direct-to-Consumer Hearing Aid Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Suzanne H.

    2010-01-01

    An individual over age 18 can purchase a hearing aid online or through mail order if they sign a waiver declining a medical evaluation, while those under 18 are required to be seen by a physician to obtain medical consent. However, in many states there is nothing to prevent a parent or caregiver from purchasing hearing aids for their child from a…

  12. Developing a typology of organisational forms of cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a typology for purchasing groups. In the typology, five main forms of cooperative purchasing are distinguished based on seven main dimensions. The forms are positioned in a matrix according to two distinguishing dimensions. These two dimensions are the ‘influence by all members

  13. Multi-agent simulation of purchasing activities in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; de Boer, L.; Sitar-Pop, C.E.; Yucesan, E.; Chen, C.H.; Snowdon, J.L.; Charnes, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-agent simulation model to investigate purchasing activities in an organizational environment. The starting point is the observation that the majority of purchasing activities in organizations are usually performed without any involvement of the organization's

  14. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if... timber is appraised and sold on such basis, purchaser credit for road construction, not to exceed the estimated construction cost of such roads or other developments specified in the timber sale contract, shall...

  15. Interactive operational decision making : Purchasing situations & mutual liability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three chapters of this dissertation deal with three different types of interactive purchasing situations, in which multiple buying organizations interact with similar (or possibly the same) suppliers for the procurement of the same commodity. Decisions to be made in interactive purchasing concern if

  16. 75 FR 1541 - Purchasing of Property and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... persons; and to develop further the basis for the Postal Service's purchasing decisions and the... decision process. The SDR Official will promptly provide a copy of a disagreement to the contracting... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 601 Purchasing of Property and Services AGENCY: Postal Service TM...

  17. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Chua, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. 5 CFR 2634.303 - Purchases, sales, and exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchases, sales, and exchanges. 2634.303 Section 2634.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH....303 Purchases, sales, and exchanges. (a) In general. Except as indicated in § 2634.308(b) of this...

  19. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers buying merchandise for resale, selecting vendors, bargaining for prices, and purchasing supplies for commercial food and beverage service establishments. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Merchandise Buying and (2) Food and Beverage Purchasing.…

  20. Social modeling of food purchases at supermarkets in teenage girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Ample experimental research has demonstrated the impact of peer influence on food intake in adolescents and adults. However, none of these studies focused social modeling effects on food purchases in supermarkets. This study investigated whether the food purchase behavior of a confederate peer would

  1. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer, purchase...

  2. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  3. Buying business services : towards a structured service purchasing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Rozemeijer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to uncover the specific difficulties associated with buying services and proposes a structured purchasing process which can help organisational buyers to overcome the problems associated with services purchasing. Design/methodology/approach – The authors

  4. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Robert A.

    Purchasing is a practical science and one of the most highly specialized activities of the school administration. Simply stated, it is the process of having the right material or service from the right source, in the right quantity, at the right place, at the right time, and at the right price. The purchasing agent is faced with a formidable task…

  5. Understanding online purchase intentions: contributions from technology and trust perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.G.M.; Verhagen, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores factors that influence consumer's intentions to purchase online at an electronic commerce website. Specifically, we investigate online purchase intention using two different perspectives: a technology-oriented perspective and a trust-oriented perspective. We summarise and review

  6. Assessment of perception and intention in pesticide purchase in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jong Chao; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-05-01

    Environmental chemical agents such as pesticides can be purchased easily at a relatively low price, and this has resulted in high concern of environmental toxicity to human health, due to their persistence in various environmental bodies. Hence, this study aims to propose important factors influencing pesticide purchase intentions, including consumers' perceptions of the brand image and the ecological health risk. Since consumers are primary users, the seller knows the product's features but not the psychology of those who purchase it. Therefore, we attempted to clarify purchase intentions and perceptions using structural equation modeling techniques to empirically analyze survey data from 324 pesticide consumers in Taiwan. Our results demonstrate that perceived brand image positively affects perceived quality of a product, whereas perceived risk negatively affects perceived quality and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that perceived quality positively affects purchase intentions. These relationships suggest that perceived quality mediates both the positive association between brand image and purchase intentions and the negative association between perceived risk and purchase intentions. Based on such outcomes, we propose that consumers need to be informed of pesticides related to costs and environmental benefits.

  7. 7 CFR 760.104 - Risk management purchase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be eligible... available from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA)) obtained catastrophic coverage or better under a...

  8. Household Portfolio Choice Before and After House Purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Ran Sun; Zhou, Jie

    2017-01-01

    around 61% of them to down payments when buying a house. Liquid wealth stay low after a house purchase and start to increase 3 years later; (ii) the risky asset participation rate drops 2 percentage points – a 6.2% decline – at the year of house purchase. The drop is larger for households with wealth...... above the median level; and (iii) conditional on participation, the risky asset share decreases and reaches the lowest point 1 year before a house purchase, but it jumps immediately after. This suggests that of the three channels identified in the literature that could affect the conditional risky share......We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...

  9. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muiznieks, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  10. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  11. Customer Satisfaction with Goods and Services Purchased on Deal Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    influence whether customers are more prone to purchase problematic goods and services on deal sites, i.e. to experience problems with purchased coupons. Methodology/Approach: The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. Respondents were university students. Data were...... and mistrust. All these statements were measured on a Likert scale. Additional independent variables are age, and gender. In the first model, the dependent variable is if and if so, what problem the respondent experienced with purchased goods or services, such as the company did not exist, it was not possible...... cases. In the second model, the dependent variable is the percentage (predefined intervals) of problematic purchases. Ordinal logistic regression was used to test the model. In the third model, the dependent variable is if the purchased goods or services were of lower quality. Binomial logistic...

  12. The effects of material and experiential discretionary purchases on consumer happiness: moderators and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca; Millar, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Experiential purchases are differentiated from material purchases in terms of objective; experiential purchases serve the purpose of acquiring a life experience, while material purchases serve the purpose of acquiring an object. Research has demonstrated that experiential purchases are associated with more happiness than material purchases. The current study investigated two explanations for this relationship that focused on the how the purchase influenced the self and how the purchase influenced interpersonal relationships. In addition, the study explored whether social economic status would influence the strength of the relationship between the type of purchase and happiness. Participants were required to recall either a recent experiential or material purchase and rate their happiness with the purchase. Then participants completed scales designed to measure the purchase's impact on the self and interpersonal relationships. Last, participants completed a scale to measure social economic status. It was found that Impacts on the Self mediated the relationship between purchase type and happiness and Socioeconomic Status moderated the relationship.

  13. 14 CFR 399.83 - Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to... orally confirming to prospective passenger reserved space on scheduled flights. It is the policy of the... transportation or the sale thereof within the meaning of section 411 of the Act, unless the tariff of the...

  14. From point-of-purchase to path-to-purchase : How pre-shopping factors drive unplanned buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, D.R.; Corsten, D.; Knox, G.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Many retailers believe that a majority of purchases are unplanned, so they spend heavily on in-store marketing to stimulate these types of purchases. At the same time, the effects of “preshopping” factors—the shoppers' overall trip goals, store-specific shopping objectives, and prior marketing

  15. 43 CFR 30.164 - What must I do to purchase at probate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEARINGS PROCEDURES Purchase at Probate § 30.164 What must I do to purchase at probate? Any eligible purchaser must submit a written request to OHA to purchase at probate before the decision or order is issued. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do to purchase at probate? 30...

  16. ERP Correlates of Simulated Purchase Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Drizinsky, Jessica; Zülch, Joachim; Falkenstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3) was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2), intensify response evaluation (r-P3) and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV). These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making.

  17. ERP correlates of simulated purchase decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Darius Gajewski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. But in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for more money than the average price or not to buy a product despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3 was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2, intensify response evaluation (r-P3 and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV. These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making.

  18. Value-based purchasing of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obremskey, William T; Dail, Teresa; Jahangir, A Alex

    2012-04-01

    Health care in the United States is known for its continued innovation and production of new devices and techniques. While the intention of these devices is to improve the delivery and outcome of patient care, they do not always achieve this goal. As new technologies enter the market, hospitals and physicians must determine which of these new devices to incorporate into practice, and it is important these devices bring value to patient care. We provide a model of a physician-engaged process to decrease cost and increase review of physician preference items. We describe the challenges, implementation, and outcomes of cost reduction and product stabilization of a value-based process for purchasing medical devices at a major academic medical center. We implemented a physician-driven committee that standardized and utilized evidence-based, clinically sound, and financially responsible methods for introducing or consolidating new supplies, devices, and technology for patient care. This committee worked with institutional finance and administrative leaders to accomplish its goals. Utilizing this physician-driven committee, we provided access to new products, standardized some products, decreased costs of physician preference items 11% to 26% across service lines, and achieved savings of greater than $8 million per year. The implementation of a facility-based technology assessment committee that critically evaluates new technology can decrease hospital costs on implants and standardize some product lines.

  19. SaskEnergy small volume customers - direct gas purchase stakeholder discussion and public input report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    With the approval of the Provincial Government of Saskatchewan, SaskEnergy, the provincial utility decided to extend the premise of natural gas deregulation to all sizes of customers by opening the core market for natural gas commodity sales to private sector natural gas agents, brokers and marketers (ABMs). SaskEnergy will continue to provide natural gas transportation and storage related services. Before doing so, the Utility sought to discuss with various stakeholders the terms and conditions that would need to be met by industry to enter into the Saskatchewan market. To assure a balanced interest during the discussions that would include a perspective on consumer protection requirements, the Utility contracted KPMG Regina to chair the stakeholders discussion table and facilitate a public input process for interested individuals to channel comments and seek responses to questions. This report contains the edited summary of the four meetings held by stakeholders. The stakeholders were successful in providing SaskEnergy with insight and suggestions to ensure that a direct purchase market will be developed in Saskatchewan, and that consumers will have objective information to make informed choices about their natural gas purchase options. The meetings also produced an ABMs Code of Conduct, a Direct Purchase 'Enrollment Agreement' and a 'Disclosure Agreement' and delivery terms and conditions for the core market that are similar to industry requirements in the rest of Canada. Copies of the draft forms are included in appendices to this summary report

  20. Stakeholder challenges in purchasing medical devices for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Saba; Dickerson, Terry; Clarkson, John

    2013-03-01

    This study identifies the stakeholders who have a role in medical device purchasing within the wider system of health-care delivery and reports on their particular challenges to promote patient safety during purchasing decisions. Data was collected through observational work, participatory workshops, and semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analyzed and coded. The study takes a systems-based and engineering design approach to the study. Five hospitals took part in this study, and the participants included maintenance, training, clinical end-users, finance, and risk departments. The main stakeholders for purchasing were identified to be staff from clinical engineering (Maintenance), device users (Clinical), device trainers (Training), and clinical governance for analyzing incidents involving devices (Risk). These stakeholders display varied characteristics in terms of interpretation of their own roles, competencies for selecting devices, awareness and use of resources for purchasing devices, and attitudes toward the purchasing process. The role of "clinical engineering" is seen by these stakeholders to be critical in mediating between training, technical, and financial stakeholders but not always recognized in practice. The findings show that many device purchasing decisions are tackled in isolation, which is not optimal for decisions requiring knowledge that is currently distributed among different people within different departments. The challenges expressed relate to the wider system of care and equipment management, calling for a more systemic view of purchasing for medical devices.

  1. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Eliminating the "I hate you" in the supplier-purchasing relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    1996-05-01

    Throughout time there has always been a supplier of some service or goods, and there has always been a purchaser of that service or goods. The one thing that has remained constant throughout that time is that they have an agreement not to like each other. This article will approach the subject in the "today" sense using current practical approaches that are used in all industries and will not deal with the relationships of the future. To cover this complex arena, the article will deal with four areas: (1) where we are now, (2) supplier-based concentration, (3) single sourcing, and (4) transportation techniques.

  3. Time Charters with Purchase Options in Shipping: Valuation and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; De Giovanni, Domenico

    The paper studies the valuation and optimal management of Time Charters with Purchase Options (T/C-POPs) which is a specific type of asset lease with embedded options that is common in shipping markets. T/C-POPs are economically significant and sometimes account for more than half of the stock...... market value of listed shipping companies. The main source of risk in markets for maritime transportation is the freight rate, and we therefore specify a single-factor continuous time model for the dynamic evolution of freight rates which allows us to price a wide variety of freight rate related...

  4. Time Charters with Purchase Options in Shipping: Valuation and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The article studies the valuation and optimal management of Time Charters with Purchase Options (T/C-POPs), which is a specific type of asset lease with embedded options that is common in shipping markets. T/C-POPs are economically significant and sometimes account for more than half of the stock...... market value of listed shipping companies. The main source of risk in markets for maritime transportation is the freight rate, and we therefore specify a single-factor continuous time model for the dynamic evolution of freight rates that allows us to price a wide variety of freight rate...

  5. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  6. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  7. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  8. 77 FR 51783 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods...

  9. Investigating the role of commercialization on purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to determine the role of commercialization on purchase intention in auto industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who lived in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors including competitive condition, product development strategy, competitive advantage and economic growth on customers’ intention to purchase. Using structural equation modeling the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between each four components and purchase intention. In our study, the highest impact belongs to competitive condition followed by product development strategy.

  10. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  11. Beyond cost: 'responsible purchasing' of managed care by employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, A T; Perloff, L; Schield, J; Murphy, J J; Mortimer, J D; Budetti, P P

    1999-01-01

    We explore the extent of "responsible purchasing" by employers--the degree to which employers collect and use nonfinancial information in selecting and managing employee health plans. Most firms believe that they have some responsibility for assessing the quality of the health plans they offer. Some pay attention to plan characteristics such as the ability to provide adequate access to providers and services and scores on enrollee satisfaction surveys. A more limited but still notable number of firms take specific actions based on responsible purchasing information. Because of countervailing pressures, however, it is not clear whether or not the firms most involved in responsible purchasing are signaling a developing trend.

  12. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  13. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  15. National Association of State Procurement Officials - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  16. United Nations Environment Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  17. Purchasing Supplies, Equipment and Services Under EPA Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this guidance to help ensure you meet EPA requirements when making such necessary purchases. With very few exceptions, you must follow a competitive process when you use EPA grant funds to acquire equipment and professional services.

  18. Who is the purchaser of nutrition-labeled products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Koch-Hansen, Pia

    2017-01-01

    and in the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach We estimate probit models using a representative panel of households registering all their daily purchases during a year, three years after the introduction of a nutrition symbol in Denmark and the Netherlands (the Keyhole and the Choices). The purchase data is matched...... with information about labelling status. Other product and purchase characteristics, such as store-type and organic, are controlled for. Findings Households with children tend to have a lower probability of purchasing labelled products compared to other household types, while urbanity increases the probability...... that other aspects as the underlying attitudes and general health awareness may be of greater importance in identifying these consumers. Originality/value There is a lack of studies analyzing the effect of Front-of-Pack symbols on households’ product choices based on observed data as most previous studies...

  19. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods ... household economy in many countries. Ethiopia has ... Among these are mentioned skull morphology and size, body length, wither height, ear and tail length ...

  20. DoD Purchase Card Program Audit Coverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... We prepared this summary report at the request of the Director, Defense Procurement to provide a central repository of purchase card audit report findings and to identify misuse trends and problems...

  1. U.S. Green Building Council - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  3. ANTESEDEN CUSTOMER SATISFACTION DAN DAMPAKNYA PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Banjarnahor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the effects of service quality and customer experience to customer satisfaction and its impact on purchase intention of costumer internet services in West Jakarta. This research used hypothesis testing as a research design. The primary data were obtained through questionnaire distributed to 180 respondents who should be users of internet services from Telkomsel, Telkomsel Grapari West Jakarta. Data was anlyzed by Structural Equation Method (SEM. The results showed there were positives service qualities and customer experience effects to customer satisfaction. There were positive customer satisfaction effects to purchase intention. There were positive effects of service quality and customer experience to purchase intention. Implications for managers are to increase purchase intention through fulfilled customer satisfaction led from good service quality and customer experience. For reasearch, it can be done in other service providers and by adding extra variables, such as coporate image and brand trust.

  4. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Meilia Fitriyani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to show their agreements about 40 items of 5 constructs. A partial least square - structural equation modeling by Smart-PLS software used to test the model. The results of this research also comes to conclusion that motivation and stimulus factor had significant affects on consumer involvement, consumer involvement had significant influence to product knowledge as well as ONS purchasing behavior, however product knowledge did not have significant affects on purchasing behavior. The results also showed that the product involvement has an important influence on consumers behavior.

  5. 14 CFR 399.39 - Equipment purchase deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.39... for this purpose. It is the policy of the Board not to recognize equipment purchase deposits in an air...

  6. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  7. Determinants of Insurance Purchase Decision Making in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbinaite, Aurelija; Kucinskiene, Marija; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the examination of insurance consumer behaviour in Lithuania. The purpose of the work is to determine the factors that explain the insurance service purchase decision of the Lithuanian citizens. To this end, a structured 5-point Likert scale questionnaire-based survey...... is employed to collect data. A research model composed of two main stages (purchase inclination and decision) is proposed. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to determine how the factors are formed and what their relative weights are. Five factors are identified: the acceptability...... to decide to actually purchase them; the higher degree or education acquired by the individuals, the fewer factors impact their insurance purchase decision: masters and doctors of science evaluate only the insurance service provider’s competence, while bachelors, besides the insurer’s competence, are also...

  8. Electronic word of mouth influence on consumer purchase intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This type of e-marketing affects consumer on its purchase intention of product or service. ... influence and how these factors influence the buying decisions of consumers. ... This paper is expedient for marketers in creating effective promotional ...

  9. 76 FR 34229 - Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... costs incurred at the Site, the settlement would require the Purchasers to, among other things, conduct... available only in hard copy form. Additionally, the PPA Amendment and additional background information are...

  10. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    that could inform such strategic purchasing decisions. 14 We used the unique contract identification number to check for cross -organization...beds, mattresses, dressers , footlockers) Other (stools, rugs, seats, cabinets, tables, folding chairs, paintings) Generators Various power generators

  11. Purchasing efficiency in a mining food service organisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 27: No 2, 1999. 85. Purchasing ... Although the pro- curement process for all types of food service units, ... Clients are more satisfied and management control improves ...

  12. Purchasing preferences for sports shoes: An investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have ... A sample (N=120) of University of Botswana sport marketing students ... purchasing preferences in order to develop better marketing strategies.

  13. Tax credits and purchasing pools: will this marriage work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, S; Ginsburg, P B

    2001-04-01

    Bipartisan interest is growing in Congress for using federal tax credits to help low-income families buy health insurance. Regardless of the approach taken, tax credit policies must address risk selection issues to ensure coverage for the chronically ill. Proposals that link tax credits to purchasing pools would avoid risk selection by grouping risks similar to the way large employers do. Voluntary purchasing pools have had only limited success, however. This Issue Brief discusses linking tax credits to purchasing pools. It uses information from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 communities as well as other research to assess the role of purchasing pools nationwide and the key issues and implications of linking tax credits and pools.

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.501-3 - Consolidated purchase program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT..., purchased in the aggregate by group to the extent practical. These procurements are designed to obtain the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... price quotations, and the like may be used to minimize paperwork. Retention in the purchase files of these documents and of written quotations received, or references to catalogs or printed price lists...

  16. Exploring risk profiles and emergency frequency of purchasers and non-purchasers of personal emergency alarms: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Miguel, Kristen; Lewin, Gill; Burton, Elissa; Toye, Christine; Boldy, Duncan; Howat, Peter

    2015-10-27

    Personal alarms support independent living and have the potential to reduce serious consequences after a fall or during a medical emergency. While some Australian states have government funded personal alarm programs, others do not; but user-pays services are available. Although several studies have examined the profiles of alarm users, little is known about the risk profile of non-users. Specifically, whether there are "at risk" individuals who are unable, or choose not to purchase a service, who experience a home-based emergency in which an alarm could have mitigated an adverse outcome. This study aimed to describe the 'risk profile' of purchasers and non-purchasers of alarms; explore the reasons behind the decision to purchase or not to purchase and identify how often emergency assistance was needed and why. Purchasers and non-purchasers were followed for one year in this prospective cohort study. Demographic, decision-making and risk factor data were collected at an initial face-to-face interview, while information about emergencies was collected by monthly calls. One hundred and fifty-seven purchasers and sixty-five non-purchasers completed the study. The risk profiles between the groups were similar in terms of gender, living arrangements, fall history and medical conditions. Purchasers (Mean = 82.6 years) were significantly older than non-purchasers (Mean = 79.3 years), (t(220) = -3.38, p = 0.000) and more functionally dependent on the IADL (z = -2.57, p = 0.010) and ADL (z = -2.45 p = 0.014) function scores. Non-purchasers (Mean = 8.04, SD = 3.57) were more socially isolated with significantly fewer family networks than purchasers (Mean = 9.46, SD = 3.25) (t(220) = -2.86, p = 0.005). Both groups experienced similarly high numbers of emergencies, 38.2 % of purchasers and 41.5 % of non-purchasers had at least one emergency where an alarm could have assisted. Main reasons for non-purchase were: cost (77 %), limited alarm range (51 %), no need (39 %) and lack

  17. Using GPS and activity tracking to reveal the influence of adolescents' food environment exposure on junk food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Richard C; Clark, Andrew F; Wilk, Piotr; O'Connor, Colleen; Gilliland, Jason A

    2016-06-09

    This study examines the influence of adolescents' exposure to unhealthy food outlets on junk food purchasing during trips between home and school, with particular attention to how exposure and purchasing differ according to child's biological sex, mode of transportation, and direction to or from school. Between 2010 and 2013, students (n = 654) aged 9-13 years from 25 schools in London and Middlesex County, ON, completed a socio-demographic survey and an activity diary (to identify food purchases), and were observed via a global positioning system for 2 weeks (to track routes for trips to/from school). Spatial data on routes and purchase data were integrated with a validated food outlet database in a geographic information system, and exposure was measured as the minutes a child spent within 50 m of an unhealthy food outlet (i.e., fast food restaurants, variety stores). For trips involving junk food exposure (n = 4588), multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between exposure and purchasing. Multilevel analyses indicated that adolescents' duration of exposure to unhealthy food outlets between home and school had a significant effect on the likelihood of junk food purchasing. This relationship remained significant when the data were stratified by sex (female/male), trip direction (to/from school) and travel mode (active/car), with the exception of adolescents who travelled by bus. Policies and programs that mitigate the concentration of unhealthy food outlets close to schools are critical for encouraging healthy eating behaviours among children and reducing diet-related health issues such as obesity.

  18. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  19. Effect of Store Atmosphere on Consumer Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Riaz; Ali, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed at identifying the effects of atmosphere on the consumer purchase intention in international retail chain outlets of Karachi, Pakistan. This was the first study, which investigated the collective impact of atmospheric variables at one point in time on purchase intention. This research was causal in nature. A sample of 300 consumers was taken who usually visited these outlets. Data was collected through a well-structured questionnaire and analyzed through regression a...

  20. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-12-03

    In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and -10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing.

  1. The importance of personal norms for purchasing organic milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Klöckner, Christian; Ohms, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply a structured approach to understand the importance of personal ecological norms in purchasing organic food. The norm‐activation‐model by Schwartz is used to predict self‐reported and observed purchase behaviour of organic milk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports the results of a field study with 63 customers of a German supermarket. A combination of covert observation and in‐store interviews was applied to obtain reli...

  2. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  3. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  4. Investigating shopper behaviour in a routine food purchasing situation.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Decision-making is more complex and even more important for consumers today than in the past. Today’s consumers has a wealth of information sources to their disposal, through advertising, news articles, direct mailings and word of mouth , in addition, there is a variety of stores and shopping malls that has broaden the sphere for consumer choice, and in the process complicated decision - making. Consumers purchase intentions and decision that lead to the purchase are closely related to their ...

  5. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriyani, Dwi Meilia; Yuliati, Lilik Noor; Simanjuntak, Megawati

    2017-01-01

    The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements) for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor) influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to ...

  6. Competitive Effects of Purchase-Based Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiang Zhang; Weijun Zhong; Shue Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a two-period sales model to investigate the competitive effects of purchase-based targeted advertising. In the model, two competing firms gain consumer information during the first period sales, which allows them to target advertising based on consumer purchase history. Advertising is assumed to be persuasive in terms of consumer valuation enhancing and product differentiation increasing. The authors find that the firm’s ability to target can damage industry profits, con...

  7. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING PURCHASE INTENTION IN MUSIC INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    AĞAOĞLU, Mustafa; YURTKORU, Emine Serra; ŞAHİN, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors, ethical behavior, product involvement, attitude, perceived sacrifice, and perceived benefit, impact on purchase intention in music industry. A model is constructed and tested empirically. A sample of 255 individuals are collected and a multi-item questionnaire is used. It is found that purchase intention is relatively low for both CD/DVD and digital music whereas illegal downloading is perceived as an acceptable behavior in the society. The...

  8. Consumer Purchasing Behaviour : Case study of Etisalat Nig.

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olaitan

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at elicit attention to present marketing environment in Nigeria and as regard the importance of consumer purchasing behavior and this is also to ascertain if product brand, taste, personal income, and price and the what relationship it also have on consumer behavior toward Etisalat product. However, every company must develop new products that suite consumer pur-chase decision. This informed behavior affects how certain consumers react to new products and thereby af...

  9. Building brand awareness for products with low purchase frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Kenneth; Bjørnstad, Tord Røise

    2014-01-01

    The importance of marketing and information flow is growing every year, and in increasingly competitive markets, it is more important than ever for brands to be present in the customers mind in the purchase decision. Therefore, to build and maintain brand awareness is important as this is the first step in creating brand equity. Most studies have focused on building brand awareness for products with high purchase frequency. In this thesis, it is identified drivers of brand awareness for pr...

  10. VIRTUAL PURCHASE INTENTION: INFLUENCE OF SECURITY AND TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    Asma javed*, Dr Wasif Ali Waseer, Dr Babak Mehmood

    2018-01-01

    The fast growth of online transaction and e-commerce inspired many companies to setup their business on web pages. It is fact that online purchasing is still poor as compared to other online activities. Research study will explore factors that affect consumer’s virtual purchase intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Theory Acceptance Model (TAM) are the groundwork theories that are used in research to investigate those factors that affect the virtual...

  11. Evaluating mergers and acquisitions with a purchase investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E A; Giniat, E J

    1988-04-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are risk transactions. Therefore, a well-planned and executed purchase investigation that considers financial, personnel, legal and risk management, third-party payer, and medical staff issues is imperative. Organizations that can successfully complete a purchase investigation will be able to make better informed, lower risk, financial decisions, and will have a competitive advantage in achieving strategic goals. This article is the third in a series on mergers and acquisitions. Other articles will include legal issues and capital planning.

  12. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Fátima; Amaral, Marta; Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. This was done through a simple and easy-to-apply methodology to estimate salaries' capitalization rate, by means of the accumulated inflation rate, after taking wage revisions into account. All the career categories in the Ministry of Health and affiliated public sector institutions were considered. Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. These results seem to contradict a commonly held assumption that health sector pay has deteriorated over the years, and with substantial damage for the poorest. Further studies appear to be needed to design a more accurate methodology to better understand the evolution and impact of public sector health workers' remunerations across the years.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  14. Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Nora; Mast, Fred W; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Purchases are driven by consumers' product preferences and price considerations. Using caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS), we investigated the role of vestibular-affective circuits in purchase decision-making. CVS is an effective noninvasive brain stimulation method, which activates vestibular and overlapping emotional circuits (e.g., the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Subjects were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation while they performed two purchase decision-making tasks. In Experiment 1 subjects had to decide whether to purchase or not. CVS significantly reduced probability of buying a product. In Experiment 2 subjects had to rate desirability of the products and willingness to pay (WTP) while they were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation. CVS modulated desirability of the products but not WTP. The results suggest that CVS interfered with emotional circuits and thus attenuated the pleasant and rewarding effect of acquisition, which in turn reduced purchase probability. The present findings contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the neural basis of purchase decision-making.

  15. Acute sleep deprivation increases food purchasing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Emil K; Nilsson, Victor C; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-12-01

    To investigate if acute sleep deprivation affects food purchasing choices in a mock supermarket. On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after one night of sleep, 14 normal-weight men were given a fixed budget (300 SEK-approximately 50 USD). They were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods (>2 kcal/g) and 20 low-caloric foods (foods were then varied (75%, 100% (reference price), and 125%) to determine if TSD affects the flexibility of food purchasing. Before the task, participants received a standardized breakfast, thereby minimizing the potential confound produced by hunger. In addition, morning plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured under fasting conditions. Independent of both type of food offered and price condition, sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep (both P food purchasing. This experiment demonstrates that acute sleep loss alters food purchasing behavior in men. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. ADOLESCENT INFLUENCE ON FAMILY PURCHASING DECISIONS: RESEARCH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tor Kadioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.

  17. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Purchases of food in youth. Influence of price and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Handley, Elizabeth A; Dearing, Kelly K; Cho, David D; Roemmich, James N; Paluch, Rocco A; Raja, Samina; Pak, Youngju; Spring, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    One way to increase choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is to increase the cost of less healthy alternatives or reduce the cost of healthier alternatives. The influence of price on purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods was evaluated in two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, thirty-two 10- to 12-year-old youth were given $5.00 and allowed to purchase multiple portions of a healthy food (fruit or vegetable) and a less healthy food (higher-fat snack). The price of one type of food varied from $0.50 to $2.50, while the price of the other type was held at $1.00. Increasing the price of a type of food reduced purchases of that type of food, but did not lead to substitution with the alternative type of food. In Experiment 2, twenty 10- to 14-year-old youth were given $1.00, $3.00, and $5.00 to purchase healthy and unhealthy foods. The price of each food was raised and lowered by 25% and 50%. Raising the price of healthy or unhealthy foods resulted in decreased purchases of those foods, and income available interacted with price to predict the pattern of substitution of alternative foods. These results show the potential for controlled laboratory studies of price and food purchases, and show that the substitution of healthier for unhealthy food is related to available money.

  19. Comparing Risks and Benefits for Value Enhancement of Online Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sinha

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available In a developing economy, the acceptability of e–retailing is not very new, but the potential of online marketing in market research and analysis is still largely unexplored. This article is an attempt to understand the psyche of Indian online consumers. As consumers have their own preconceived notions toward this growing purchasing environment, it becomes important for e-retailers to understand the consumers’ perceptions and attitudes toward online purchases. This paper integrates the dimensions of the risks and benefits with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to understand how consumers adopt their online purchase processes. Four hundred and sixty-eight valid responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling on AMOS 21 to identify the relationship between the different factors and the intention to purchase online. The paper concludes that consumers’ purchase intentions are jointly determined by their attitude towards online purchases and the subjective norm. Furthermore, their attitude is determined by the sub-dimensions of perceived benefits (hedonic benefit, convenience benefit, economic benefit and variety and the sub-dimensions of perceived risk (product risk and financial risk.

  20. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: → Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. → These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. → Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. → Tax revenues will fall too. → The exchequer cost per tonne of CO 2 avoided is very high.

  1. How private car purchasing trends offset efficiency gains and the successful energy policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Howley, Martin; Cunningham, Stephen; Bazilian, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, energy-related CO 2 emissions from transport energy in Ireland were 168% above 1990 levels. Private cars were responsible for approx 45% of transport energy demand in 2006 (excluding fuel tourism). The average annual growth of new cars between 1990 and 2006 was 5.2%. This paper focuses on these new cars entering the private car fleet, in particular the purchasing trend towards larger size cars. This has considerably offset the improvements in the technical efficiency of individual car models. The analysis was carried out on the detailed data of each individual new vehicle entering the fleet in 2000-2006. The average CO 2 emissions per kilometre for new petrol cars entering the Irish fleet grew from 166 to 168 g CO 2 /km from 2000 to 2005 and reduced to 164 in 2006. For diesel cars the average reduced from 166 in 2000 to 161 in 2006. The paper also discusses how a recent change in vehicle registration taxation and annual motor tax had a significant impact purchasing trends by supporting lower emission vehicles. Cars with emissions up to 155 g CO 2 /km represented 41% of new private cars sold in Ireland in 2007 compared with 84% during the period July-November 2008.

  2. 49 CFR 37.71 - Purchase or lease of new non-rail vehicles by public entities operating fixed route systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public entities operating fixed route systems. 37.71 Section 37.71 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating fixed route systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a fixed route system making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new bus...

  3. 49 CFR 37.73 - Purchase or lease of used non-rail vehicles by public entities operating fixed route systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public entities operating fixed route systems. 37.73 Section 37.73 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating fixed route systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a fixed route system purchasing or leasing, after August 25, 1990, a used bus or other used...

  4. 49 CFR 37.81 - Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.81 Section 37.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system which, after August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a used rapid or...

  5. Crew Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  6. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimates of the Demand for Freight Transport in the Nigerian Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tested on data gathered by means of a sample survey conducted to Nigerian enterprises belonging to the food industry. The empirical findings showed that, all else equal, public transport is favored over private transport and that the probability of selecting purchased transport increases with transport costs and travel time.

  8. Midstream purchases and other transaction structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The value of midstream companies in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin was discussed. Midstream business in Canada was created about a decade ago with the deregulation of the natural gas industry. Some of the unique values that a midstream company offers, besides a financing arrangement, are described. A midstream company allows producers to do what they do best, explore and develop the natural resources through drilling of wells, while a midstream company provides the full marketing services for the natural gas including transportation and distribution. Some midstream transaction structure options such as direct cash sale, cash sale with incentive, facility/capacity lease, operating cost guarantee, 'earn in' arrangement are described, with brief summaries of the pros and cons to both producer and midstreamer company

  9. At first sight - How is SME purchasing organised? : Discussing research process, the role of customer strategies & personality of owners and purchasing improvement, based on students’ purchasing case studies within four Dutch manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Paper for the WION - Werkgemeenschap Inkoop Onderzoek Nederland - 2015, 3rd version. Purchasing within Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is important for the overall SME firm performance. However, purchasing within SMEs is not the same as purchasing within larger organisations and there is

  10. 16 CFR 1401.5 - Providing performance and technical data to purchasers by labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POINT OF PURCHASE OF PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA § 1401.5 Providing performance and technical data to... the time of original purchase and to the first purchaser for purposes other than resale. The data... to be read and understood by ordinary individuals under normal conditions of purchase. This...

  11. Consumer and purchasing agent response to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2007-01-01

    This study surveys 204 consumers and purchasing agents and reports their reaction to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska. Although 67 percent of the respondents would purchase products from old-growth trees, purchasing agents were more likely to refuse to purchase such products (negative response from 12 percent of consumers vs. 29 percent for...

  12. Consumer attitudes toward food consumption and purchase in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Asli; Ozdoğan, Yahya; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ≥ 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age.

  13. Advertising, marketing and purchase behavior for energy-related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, K.; Nelson, D.

    1998-07-01

    Energy conservation programs have relied heavily on incentives and regulatory standards to reduce residential energy consumption. However, in the changing market environment characterized by competitive pressures, alternative mechanisms such as marketing and promotions may increase substantially in importance compared to the demand-side management programs which have been the focus of most research. This paper describes the role of marketing and promotions in encouraging energy efficiency at the household level in British Columbia. The paper examines three related issues: first, the purchase process for energy-related products; second, the criteria used by customers in making purchase decisions; and third, the impact and effectiveness of alternative marketing tools. A key finding is the energy-related purchases do not fall into the impulse purchase category. There are two reasons for this: first, most of these products require installation and this requires a high level of commitment on the part of the purchaser; second, many energy-related products require a significant outlay of funds and this reduces impulse buying.

  14. Investigating Young Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Green Housing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of energy crisis, environmental degradation, and climate change present a severe challenge to the sustainable development in China. The development of green building (GB is considered one of the most popular strategies toward a sustainable construction industry. Apart from advanced green technologies, consumers’ purchasing intention toward green housing (GH plays a crucial role in the large-scale promotion of GB. However, which determinants significantly affect consumers’ purchasing intention remain unclear, especially for the young generation in developing countries. This study attempts to investigate young consumers’ purchasing intention of GH in China. On the basis of extended theory of planned behavior (TPB, seven constructs are identified, and nine hypotheses are proposed. A total of 241 responses were collected from the questionnaire survey, and structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Governmental incentives are affirmed to be the most important determinant, followed by consumers’ attitude toward behavior and subjective norm. Perceived behavioral control is an insignificant determinant for young consumers to purchase GH. In addition, subjective knowledge has an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior. Environmental concern also confirms an indirect effect through attitude toward behavior and subjective norm toward purchasing intention, respectively. Thus, the government is implied to play a crucial role in GH promotion at this stage.

  15. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-07-12

    Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories.Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216-409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information.

  16. Family Structure and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one’s own generation, particularly about one’s spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that LTC planning has not occurred yet, or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. PMID:25760583

  17. Online Sellers’ Website Quality Influencing Online Buyers’ Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.

  18. Developing logistic regression models using purchase attributes and demographics to predict the probability of purchases of regular and specialty eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaei, M; Wiseman, K; Cheng, K M

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' interest in specialty eggs appears to be growing in Europe and North America. The objective of this research was to develop logistic regression models that utilise purchaser attributes and demographics to predict the probability of a consumer purchasing a specific type of table egg including regular (white and brown), non-caged (free-run, free-range and organic) or nutrient-enhanced eggs. These purchase prediction models, together with the purchasers' attributes, can be used to assess market opportunities of different egg types specifically in British Columbia (BC). An online survey was used to gather data for the models. A total of 702 completed questionnaires were submitted by BC residents. Selected independent variables included in the logistic regression to develop models for different egg types to predict the probability of a consumer purchasing a specific type of table egg. The variables used in the model accounted for 54% and 49% of variances in the purchase of regular and non-caged eggs, respectively. Research results indicate that consumers of different egg types exhibit a set of unique and statistically significant characteristics and/or demographics. For example, consumers of regular eggs were less educated, older, price sensitive, major chain store buyers, and store flyer users, and had lower awareness about different types of eggs and less concern regarding animal welfare issues. However, most of the non-caged egg consumers were less concerned about price, had higher awareness about different types of table eggs, purchased their eggs from local/organic grocery stores, farm gates or farmers markets, and they were more concerned about care and feeding of hens compared to consumers of other eggs types.

  19. Feasibility Study of Increasing Multimodal Interaction between Private and Public Transport Based on the Use of Intellectual Transport Systems and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Weidmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of intellectual transport systems and services (ITS into the public and private transport sectors is closely connected with the development of multimodality in transport system (particularly, in towns and their suburbs. Taking into consideration the problems of traffic jams, the need for increasing the efficiency of power consumption and reducing the amount of burnt gases ejected into the air and the harmful effect of noise, the use of multimodal transport concept has been growing fast recently in most cities. It embraces a system of integrated tickets, the infrastructure, allowing a passenger to leave a car or a bike near a public transport station and to continue his/her travel by public transport (referred to as ‘Park&Ride’, ‘Bike&Ride’, as well as, real-time information system, universal design, and computer-aided traffic control. These concepts seem to be even more effective, when multimodal intellectual transport systems and services (ITS are introduced. In Lithuania, ITS is not widely used in passenger transportation, though its potential is great, particularly, taking into consideration the critical state of the capacity of public transport infrastructure. The paper considers the possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of public transport system ITS by increasing its interaction with private transport in the context of multimodal concept realization.Article in Lithuanian

  20. DoD and DOS Need Better Procedures to Monitor and Expend DoD Funds for the Afghan National Police Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    charged the Government for unreasonable roundtrip airline tickets, a one day rental car and parking fees of $104 even though other transportation...purchases was based on high dollar values, and the items included equipment, parts, cell phones, catered meals, fuel, and rental vehicles listed on 10

  1. Gas purchasing -- Business, legal, and contracting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krathwohl, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    While the daily newspapers and radio are full of articles and advertisements concerning the impending opening up of the electric industry to customer choice of supplier, little attention is being given to choice in the natural gas markets. The fact is, however, that except for California and some scattered pilot programs, retail electric markets are not yet open and even the imminent deadlines for retail access may prove to be illusory. For example, Rhode Island retail electric markets, by law, were open to competition July 1, 1997 but a month later less than a handful of customers had chosen alternative suppliers. In contrast, customers everywhere are already able to choose their own gas supplier, other than the local gas utility that had supplied all customers for so many years. With this new freedom of choice comes not only a number of benefits, but also risks. This article seeks to provide customers some guidance in obtaining such benefits and avoiding the risks. Ultimately, that is accomplished through a careful selection process, best done by means of an RFP with expert assistance, and through a negotiated gas contract. Before addressing specific contracting issues one must understand the legal and regulatory framework which governs the transportation of the natural gas

  2. CUSTOMER PERCEPTION ON ONLINE PURCHASE INTENTION: THE IMPACT OF ONLINE SHOPPING ORIENTATIONS ON ONLINE BUYING INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouri, Arsalan Mujahid; Ul Haq, Mirza Amin; Khan, Naveed R

    2017-01-01

    This paper endeavorsto recognize the customer perception on online purchase intention among theyouth of Pakistan. Customer perception on online purchase intention, thus ourresearch variables are impulse purchase orientation, brand orientation,and quality orientation were considered along with online trust andprior online purchase experience. The results are focused 292 responses gotfrom the online study. The exploration made that impulse purchase orientation;prior o...

  3. Introduction to Special issue of Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing: Contemporary Purchasing Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hingley, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This conceptual article details the evolution of purchasing research, and describes the increasing integration of purchasing with other strategic functions, in order to identify key trends in purchasing practices, together with their implications for purchasing research. Design/methodology/approach This study takes a conceptual approach and reviews prior literature to describe the field and predict future developments. Findings Purchasing is increasingly integrated wi...

  4. The antecedents of herbal product actual purchase in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to examine the relationships of several antecedents of actual purchase of herbal product in Malaysia. Actual purchase is considered to have a vital link to a business success. The study identified eight antecedents of consumer actual purchase such as intention, attitude, social influence, product safety and culture belief. A total of 473 respondents (about 82% completed and returned the questionnaire. A seven point Likert scale was used to measure responses. The data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS path modeling. The path coefficient results supported the direct influence of intention, attitude, social influence and product safety on actual buying. Moreover, the findings reveal that attitude, social influence, product safety, and culture belief also influenced buying intention.

  5. Understanding Consumer Purchase of Free-of Cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Risborg, Marie Søndergaard; Steen, Christina Donslund

    2012-01-01

    consumers' personal values and their attitude and behaviour associated with purchasing free-of cosmetics. A quantitative online survey of 250 Danish female consumers was conducted using self-administering questionnaires. The findings indicate that consumers' willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics (R......This study concerns the free-of trend on the cosmetics market as expressed by a tendency among consumers to prefer cosmetics that are free of certain ingredients. Combining the Theory of Reasoned Action with a value-driven approach, this study empirically investigates the association between......² = .48) is both influenced by attitude (β = .65) and perceived subjective norm (β = .21) with attitude having the largest predictive power. Moreover, consumers' attitude towards willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics seems to be value driven. Our results indicate that two values, self-transcendence (β...

  6. Customer choice: Purchasing energy in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumann, A.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the detailed guidance on how to effectively purchase deregulated energy, based on first-hand reports from many of the nation's most knowledgeable experts. It is designed to provide the kind of practical advice needed by professionals who are responsible for making energy purchasing decisions. The book gives a ten-step program to guide building owners in purchasing decision making, a state-by-state retail competition update, and guidelines for buying electricity and natural gas over the worldwide web. Other topics include contract renegotiation strategies, an assessment of power pools, the role of aggregators in the energy market, real time pricing issues, where cogeneration fits within today's marketplace, and lessons learned from deregulation experiences in Scandinavia and England

  7. Purchasing and inventory management techniques for optimizing inventory investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, I.; Gehshan, T.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to reduce operations and maintenance costs among nuclear plants, many utilities are taking a closer look at their inventory investment. Various approaches for inventory reduction have been used and discussed, but these approaches are often limited to an inventory management perspective. Interaction with purchasing and planning personnel to reduce inventory investment is a necessity in utility efforts to become more cost competitive. This paper addresses the activities that purchasing and inventory management personnel should conduct in an effort to optimize inventory investment while maintaining service-level goals. Other functions within a materials management organization, such as the warehousing and investment recovery functions, can contribute to optimizing inventory investment. However, these are not addressed in this paper because their contributions often come after inventory management and purchasing decisions have been made

  8. Satisfaction strength and intention to purchase a new product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location wit...... satisfaction level alone. The study argues on the nomological validity of the satisfaction construct and reveals that assessment of satisfaction strength should support the management goal of identifying truly satisfied customers.......This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location...... with 239 randomly selected consumers. Results indicate that (un)certainty, ambivalence, and importance cognitions and feelings significantly moderate the relationship between reported satisfaction and individuals’ intention to purchase. For example, the association between consumers’ reported satisfaction...

  9. THE INFLUENCES IN THE FIRM'S PURCHASING DECISIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Augusto Luna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of anxiety has been strongly discussed in the areas of psychology and marketing, especially when analyzing consumer behavior, however, the subject is still little explored in the processes of purchasing in the area of Operations Management (OM. In this sense, this study explores the topic in an exploratory way. Thus, a 2x2 factorial experiment was performed to understand the emotion phenomenon in purchasing processes in high and low emotional involvement scenarios versus immediate time and distant time for the event. The results obtained by 111 respondents show that the emotion phenomenon does not interfere in the purchasing process in the presented scenarios. However, a reassessment of the scenarios and new studies should be done to confirm the hypotheses presented in the study.

  10. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  11. Using Research Case Studies in eCommerce Marketing Courses: Customer Satisfaction at Point-of-Purchase and Post-Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Noorshella Che; Fong, Michelle; Tatnall, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research case study of Internet apparel marketing by small businesses in Malaysia which can beneficially be included in postgraduate business courses for understanding the importance of measuring customer satisfaction at point-of-purchase and post-purchase in online purchases. The sample size in this research is 154…

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  13. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Car Purchasing Behavior in Beijing : - An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Xuan; Dongyan, Liu

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to give an overview on young Chinese consumers’ car purchase behavior. The results show that car purchasing decision is an important decision for most of Chinese. Consumers get information from different channels. The results of this study also tells us that Chinese consumers take “safety” as the most important characteristic and take “value for money” as the second most important and “riding comfort” as the third important characteristic. Chinese consumers take “after-sale ma...

  15. Evaluating a dental practice for purchase or associateship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diecidue, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    Private dental practice can be achieved through either outright ownership or an associateship in conjunction with senior dentists; the decision depends on personal and professional objectives and goals. Once a decision is made, the time and effort required to identify an appropriate practice, negotiate the terms of purchase or associateship, and transition to the new practice can be daunting. This article reviews the process and provides an overview of the general steps involved in the evaluation of a dental practice for purchase or associateship. With appropriate knowledge and preparation, due diligence, and ethical and sensitive behavior, transitioning to private practice can be successful and lead to professional and personal fulfillment.

  16. Achieving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Purchasing and Supply Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    2017-01-01

    of the most prevalent business practices in various areas, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiatives. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges lies in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we take an organization......As a function with a strategic role, Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) needs to continuously find ways to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. One potential way to specifically addressing efficiency targets is to outsource parts of the purchasing process. While outsourcing remains one...

  17. Determinants of Halal Purchase Intention: Case in Perlis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Afzainiza Afendi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is to determine the factors that influence purchase intention of Halal products among consumers at selected supermarkets around Perlis. 100 were randomly selected to be respondents in this study through the questionnaire. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 19.0. Descriptive analysis and correlation were applied to this study. The results indicated that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control had positive impact on intention to purchase Halal products. It is suggested that future research can be done in fast growing cities and the result that we get will be more comparable and provide workable direction in Halal products.

  18. The ABCs of HIPCs (health insurance purchasing cooperatives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1993-01-01

    HIPCs, or health care purchasing cooperatives, are attracting widespread interest as a key element of the managed competition approach to health reform. HIPCs perform several useful roles for individuals and small employers unable to obtain health insurance coverage in the current system by spreading risk more evenly and purchasing coverage in a given region or market area. While HIPCs are generally associated with managed competition, they are also compatible with reform strategies that require employers to pay for coverage or those that provide incentives for expanded coverage.

  19. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  20. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  1. Accounting for Taste Heterogeneity in Purchase Channel Intention Modeling: An Example from Northern California for Book Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2009-01-01

    This study uses latent class modeling (LCM) to explore the effects of channel-specific perceptions, along with other variables, on purchase channel intention. Using data on book purchases collected from an Internet-based survey of two university towns in Northern California, we develop a latent class model with two segments (final N=373). Age turns out to be the only observed determinant of class membership, and in the intention model, the mostly-younger segment is more cost-sensitive and the...

  2. Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points To Consider. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    This book discusses issues to consider when purchasing an encyclopedia and provides reviews of eight print encyclopedias, six CD-ROM encyclopedias, and one online encyclopedia. Each review provides an address and discusses the history, scope and treatment, and quality and currency of the encyclopedia; for CD-ROM encyclopedias, the database…

  3. Online purchase intentions: A multi-channel store image perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; van Dolen, W.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of the bricks-and-clicks retail format in the battle for the online customer has been widely discussed but empirical research on it has been limited. We applied a multi-channel store image perspective to assess its influence on online purchase intentions. Drawing on a sample of 630

  4. E-Book Purchasing Best Practices for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    This article alerts academic libraries to some of the methods for purchasing electronic books (e-books) and notes that, while they are similar to the models used for journal-evaluation purposes, there are a number of factors important to consider that are different for e-books. Simon notes that, while theoretically there should be some advantages…

  5. Calorie labeling, fast food purchasing and restaurant visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, L Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Postlabeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33% point (P < 0.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. While some consumers report noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  6. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financing purchase of the home. 291.545 Section 291.545 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF HUD-ACQUIRED SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good...

  7. Ilinois Walls: How barring indirect purchaser suits facilitates collusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Tuinstra, J.; Ruggeberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    In its landmark ruling in Illinois Brick Co. v. Illinois in 1977, the U.S. Supreme Court restricted standing to sue for recovery of antitrust damages to direct purchasers. However, antitrust damages are typically (in part) passed on to intermediaries lower in the chain of production and ultimately

  8. Purchasing alignment under multiple contingencies: a configuration theory approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikalef, P.; Pateli, A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Wetering, R. van de

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Strategic alignment is a theory-based state that is considered as crucial for organizations in order to realize performance gains from information technology (IT) investments and deployments. Within the domain of purchasing and supply chain management there has been a growing interest on

  9. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at Electronic Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meents, Selmar; Tan, Yao-Hua; Verhagen, Tibert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer oriented e-business models today. In this paper we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace. Typical for electronic

  10. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at electronic marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Meents, S.; Tan, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer-oriented e-business models today. In this paper, we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace (EM). Typical for EM

  11. Purchase of Catastrophe Insurance by Dutch Dairy and Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzed the impact of risk perception, risk attitude, and other farmer personal and farm characteristics on the actual purchase of catastrophe insurance by Dutch dairy and arable farmers. The specific catastrophe insurance types considered were hail–fire–storm insurance for buildings,

  12. CEA distribution transformer purchasing specifications (DTWG-01,02,03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purchasing specifications for three types of distribution transformers are presented. The specifications were compiled by the Canadian Electricity Association at the suggestion made in 1989 by the Canadian Utilities Material Management Group. The specifications cover pole mounted single phase distribution transformers (DTWG-01), low-profile, single phase, dead-front pad-mounted distribution transformers (DTWG-02), and three phase, dead-front pad-mounted distribution transformers (DTWG-03). The specifications were compiled by a task force of CEA member utilities, using CSA standards as the governing standards in all three cases. The first edition of the purchasing specifications was issued in 1993. The second edition, consisting mainly of revisions based on experiences learned from using the first edition, and the addition of the appropriate clauses of CSA standards, was published in 1998. Based on a three-year average of the number of transformers purchased annually (about 58,000) at an estimated total cost of $ 120 million, use of the Purchasing Specifications is said to have resulted in savings of about 7 per cent or $ 8.4 million

  13. Information Needs for a Purchase of Fairtrade Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Schleenbecker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates what information German Fairtrade coffee consumers search for during pre-purchase information seeking and to what extent information is retrieved. Furthermore, the sequence of the information search as well as the degree of cognitive involvement is highlighted. The role of labeling, the importance of additional ethical information and its quality in terms of concreteness as well as the importance of product price and organic origin are addressed. A set of information relevant to Fairtrade consumers was tested by means of the Information Display Matrix (IDM method with 389 Fairtrade consumers. Results show that prior to purchase, information on product packages plays an important role and is retrieved rather extensively, but search strategies that reduce the information processing effort are applied as well. Furthermore, general information is preferred over specific information. Results of two regression analyses indicate that purchase decisions are related to search behavior variables rather than to socio-demographic variables and purchase motives. In order to match product information with consumers’ needs, marketers should offer information that is reduced to the central aspects of Fairtrade.

  14. A Dialogue Game Protocol for Agent Purchase Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBurney, P.; Eijk, R.M. van; Parsons, S.; Amgoud, L.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a dialogue game protocol for purchase negotiation dialogues which identifies appropriate speech acts, defines constraints on their utterances, and specifies the different sub-tasks agents need to perform in order to engage in dialogues according to this protocol. Our formalism combines

  15. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relationships between different levels of event purchase decision involvement (PDI) segments and their respective event behaviors (e.g., expenditures, travel behavior, event consumption and satisfaction). The specific purpose was to answer two major research questions: 1) Can PDI identify different levels or segments of...

  16. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: Numerous factors to consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purchase of a confocal microscope can be a complex and difficult decision for an individual scientist, group or evaluation committee. This is true even for scientists that have used confocal technology for many years. The task of reaching the optimal decision becomes almost i...

  17. 31 CFR 341.4 - Proof of purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 341.4 Section 341.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... of birth, social security account number and his classification (i.e., self-employed individual or...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1024 - Medical and other purchased services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and other purchased services. 416.1024 Section 416.1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1624 - Medical and other purchased services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and other purchased services. 404.1624 Section 404.1624 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and Requirements...

  20. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  1. Purchasing Power Parity : Evidence from a New Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most economists intuitively consider purchasing power parity (PPP) to be true. Nevertheless, quite surprisingly, the empirical literature is not very supportive for PPP. In this paper, however, we find evidence in favor of PPP using a new test. The test is embedded in a Markov regime-switching model

  2. 12 CFR 7.1020 - Purchase of open accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of open accounts. 7.1020 Section 7.1020 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND... part of the business of banking and within the power of a national bank. (b) Export transactions. A...

  3. Influence of Halal certification on customers' purchase intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The purpose of this study isto investigate the relationship between HALAL awareness, marketing and religiosity that are postulated to influence customers' intention to purchase HALAL certified consumer products. Customers' who visited SABASUN Hypermarket Sdn. Bhd. in Kuala Terengganu were selected as ...

  4. Pengaruh Perceived Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Stella Meiliana; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perceived quality dan perceived valueterhadap purchase intention. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dataprimer.Data dikumpulkan langsung melalui penyebaran kuisioner kepada 160responden.Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakanpurposive sampling.Uji instrumen data menggunakan validitas dan reliabilitas.Uji hipotesismenggunakan Structure Equation Model (SEM).Hasil pengujian hipotesa menunjukkanterda...

  5. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  6. 40 CFR 86.411-78 - Maintenance instructions, vehicle purchaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance instructions, vehicle...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... instructions, vehicle purchaser. (a) The manufacturer shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the ultimate...

  7. Taxing Sugary Beverages Reduces Their Purchase, Especially Among Poor Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Joshi, Shilpi

    2017-06-01

    Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. Colchera MA, Popkin BM, Rivera JA, Ng SW. Br Med J 2016;352:h6704. Bloomberg Philanthropies, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública and Carolina Population Center. Observational study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DIMENSIONS AFFECTING THE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF NEPALI WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Singh Thagunna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the various dimensions of buying behavior of Nepalese women while making purchasing decisions. A total of 100 women of different background were surveyed through a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions related to the buying behavior. Various factors such as Value Identification, Customer Service and Lifestyle are most influential for Nepalese women’s purchasing decisions. So, by providing, at affordable price, high value product that match the personality of the targeted women and by providing superior customer care, Nepalese women can be attracted easily. Besides these, price, brand awareness and accurate information also influence their buying behavior to a certain extent. Age also plays a role in the purchasing decisions she makes, since women of different age group behave differently while purchasing items for their homes, for their offices or for personal use. Difference in the demographic factors such as personal status, religious belief, occupation and income level however do not bring difference in the buying behavior of Nepalese women, in general.

  9. Disentangling purchasing motives from socio-demographic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and presence of children in the household have no significant effects. Combining the purchase data with a questionnaire about attitudes towards organic production issued to the same panel shows that 51 per cent believes that organic production has a positive effect on the environment and 41 per cent believes...

  10. Consumer purchasing behavior towards fish and seafood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, D.; Nocella, G.; Devitiis, De B.; Bimbo, F.; Nardone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies

  11. A Guide to Developing a Sustainable Food Purchasing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Universities, colleges, hospitals and other institutions throughout the United States are starting to think seriously about the impact of purchasing on the environment, human health, labor, animal welfare and other concerns. It is increasingly clear that, as mission-driven organizations committed to the public good, these institutions can be…

  12. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  13. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-10-26

    The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. A community-based sample of 90 households. Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p income households (45% versus 26%, p sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages.

  14. The consequences of unemployment on diet composition and purchase behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Tetens, Inge; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2018-01-01

    as a trend accounting for the duration. SETTING: A household panel which registers daily food purchases combined with detailed nutritional information and registration of the duration of unemployment at individual level. The structure of the data set facilitates the detection of effects or associations...

  15. 7 CFR 1962.13 - Notification to potential purchasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1962.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... requested, to these potential purchasers to protect the Government's security interest. (1) The name and address of the debtor. (2) The name and address of any secured party. (3) The Social Security number or...

  16. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOE may increase the rate of purchases if prices fall below recent price trends or futures markets... accordance with the FAR and the DEAR. (b) Acquisition strategy. (1) DOE solicitations: (i) May be either... availability of ships, pipelines and terminals to move and receive the oil. (3) Based on the market analysis...

  17. Negotiating and structuring the power purchase agreement (PPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both generators and consumers, there are several factors which affect electricity sales that should be considered when negotiating a power purchase agreement. Most importantly, it should be known whether a project is being developed by the end user for its own use, or whether it is being developed by an independent power producer (IPP) for sale to the Power Pool, or directly to others. This paper described a joint venture as being an IPP which can sell power to the Power Pool, an eligible industrial user, or its host (usually to the most economically attractive buyer). Natural gas deregulation provided a big incentive for IPPs to develop new power projects. The things to consider in traditional power purchase arrangements are requests for proposals, the seller's response and a memorandum of understanding. The principle terms of a traditional bilateral power purchase agreement involve the nature of the services to be provided, pricing, termination terms, facilities issues, force majeure and changes in law. This paper also discussed market alternatives to the traditional power purchase agreement. 1 appendix

  18. Unfair allocation of gains under equal price in cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Calvi, R.; Merminod, N.

    2005-01-01

    Cooperative purchasing is becoming more and more common practice. However, many cooperative initiatives end prematurely or do not flourish. Important reasons indi-cated for these problems are directly or indirectly related to the unfair allocation of gains. The purpose of this paper is to analyse

  19. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in writing local buying authority throughout the Postal Service. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal purchasing authority. 601.104 Section 601.104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE...

  20. Double hedge aids commercial terms of upstream asset purchase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years many major oil companies have elected to rationalize their producing assets. Mature production--particularly onshore in developed countries, associated with high costs and small profit margins--has been the major target. The current weakness in oil prices has resulted in many such properties being on the market. However, much production marginal to a major can be highly profitable to a cost-effective independent, particularly if the production fits strategically with the independent's asset portfolio. Although many independents recognize that some of the producing assets on the market could be of potential value to them, in a period of volatile prices two important valuations have to be technically justified and negotiated to enable or persuade them to conclude a purchase agreement for a specific asset. These are: A purchase value for an asset that is acceptable to both seller and buyer; and A loan value for the asset to establish the level of debt that the asset can support for the buyer. In defining these two important values (both of which are usually established as ranges rather than single values) the independent has to protect itself against a downturn in commodity prices and exposing itself to an unserviceable level of debt. The paper discusses reducing risks, purchase price hedge, an example of a hedged purchase price, price elements, loan value analysis, agreement structure, loan value hedge, and an example of a hedged loan value