WorldWideScience

Sample records for transportation project delivery

  1. How can innovative project delivery systems improve the overall efficiency of GDOT in transportation project delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The USDOT and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recommend the smart use of innovative project : delivery systems, such as design-build, to improve efficiency and effectiveness of developing transportation : projects. Although design-build provide...

  2. Transportation risk management : international practices for program development and project delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Managing transportation networks, including agency : management, program development, and project : delivery, is extremely complex and fraught with : uncertainty. Administrators, planners, and engineers : coordinate a multitude of organizational and ...

  3. 75 FR 75532 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report AGENCY: Federal Highway... participating in the Pilot Program, 23 U.S.C. 327(g) mandates semiannual audits during each of the first 2 years of State participation. This notice announces and solicits comments on the fifth audit report for the...

  4. 76 FR 5237 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...] Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report AGENCY: Federal Highway... participating in the Pilot Program, 23 U.S.C. 327(g) mandates semiannual audits during each of the first 2 years of State participation. This final report presents the findings from the fifth FHWA audit of the...

  5. 77 FR 26355 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ...] Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report AGENCY: Federal Highway... participating in the Pilot Program, 23 U.S.C. 327(g) mandates semiannual audits during each of the first 2 years of State participation. This final report presents the findings from the sixth FHWA audit of the...

  6. Efficient and effective implementation of alternative project delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Over the past decade, the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway : Administration (MDOT SHA) has implemented Alternative Project Delivery (APD) methods : in a number of transportation projects. While these innovative practices have produ...

  7. Effective and efficient implementation of alternative project delivery : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Alternative project delivery (APD) methods such as Design Build (DB) and Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR), are used by state departments of transportation to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of project delivery. The Maryland Department of ...

  8. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  9. Project consistency with transportation plans and air quality conformity workshops : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This implementation project supports streamlined project delivery, one of the goals outlined by the Texas : Department of Transportation (TxDOT) leadership to achieve an efficient and effective transportation system : in Texas. The project benefits T...

  10. 30 CFR 208.8 - Transportation and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation and delivery. 208.8 Section 208... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.8 Transportation and delivery. (a) The lessee... delivery point at no additional cost to the purchaser or the Government. The purchaser must have physical...

  11. 0-6758 : maintaining project consistency with transportation plans through the project life cycle with an emphasis on maintaining air quality conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Streamlined project delivery is a federally : mandated goal that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) leadership supports to : achieve a more efficient and effective : transportation system in Texas. : Federal and state transportation pla...

  12. 33 CFR 385.17 - Project Delivery Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project Delivery Team. 385.17... Processes § 385.17 Project Delivery Team. (a) In accordance with the procedures of the Corps of Engineers...,” the Corps of Engineers and the non-Federal sponsor shall form a Project Delivery Team to develop the...

  13. Reaching Rural Handicapped Children: The Transportation Situation in Rural Service Delivery. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jamie; And Others

    Almost everyone who responded to three transportation surveys of rural Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) projects identified transportation as a critical problem in the delivery of services to handicapped children in rural areas. Transportation problems encountered were attributed to environmental/geographic factors,…

  14. Streamlining project delivery through risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Project delivery is a significant area of concern and is subject to several risks throughout Plan Development : Process (PDP). These risks are attributed to major areas of project development, such as environmental : analysis, right-of-way (ROW) acqu...

  15. Analysis of architect’s performance indicators in project delivery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, A.

    2018-03-01

    Architect as a professional in the construction industry should possess a good performance in project delivery process. As a design professional, architect has an important role to ensure that the process is well-conducted by delivering a high-quality product for the clients. Thus, analyzing architect’s performance indicators is crucial in the project delivery process. This study aims to analyze the relative importance of architect performance indicators in project delivery process among registered architects in North Sumatera, Indonesia. A total of five indicators that measure architect performance in project delivery process were identified and 110 completed questionnaires were obtained and used for data analysis. A relative importance index is used to rank the relative importance of architect performance indicators. Results indicate that focus on the clients is the most important indicator of architect performance in project delivery process. This study demonstrates project communication as one of crucial indicators perceived by the architects for measuring their performance, and fills a knowledge gap on the importance of identifying the most important indicator for measuring architect performance from their own perspectives which previous studies have overlooked to improve performance assessment in project delivery process.

  16. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  17. The hands-on project office guaranteeing ROI and on-time delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Kesner, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    THE THREE PILLARS OF IT DELIVERY - PROBLEM RESOLUTION, SERVICE REQUESTS, AND PROJECTSIntroduction The Business Context The Internal Economy for Investing in IT Services and ProjectsThe Three Pillars of IT Delivery Managing Service DeliveryManaging Project Commitments IT Metrics and Reporting Tools THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE BUSINESS MODELIntroduction: Revisiting the IT Organization IT Service and Project Delivery RolesThe Role of the Project Management Office: Measuring its ROI The PMO Value Proposition: An Initial ROI Estimate ALIGNMENT AND PLANNING - DOING THE RIGHT THINGS Introduction Ge

  18. Project Delivery System Mode Decision Based on Uncertain AHP and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaishan, Liu; Huimin, Li

    2017-12-01

    The project delivery system mode determines the contract pricing type, project management mode and the risk allocation among all participants. Different project delivery system modes have different characteristics and applicable scope. For the owners, the selection of the delivery mode is the key point to decide whether the project can achieve the expected benefits, it relates to the success or failure of project construction. Under the precondition of comprehensively considering the influence factors of the delivery mode, the model of project delivery system mode decision was set up on the basis of uncertain AHP and fuzzy sets, which can well consider the uncertainty and fuzziness when conducting the index evaluation and weight confirmation, so as to rapidly and effectively identify the most suitable delivery mode according to project characteristics. The effectiveness of the model has been verified via the actual case analysis in order to provide reference for the construction project delivery system mode.

  19. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems.

  20. Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickson Martyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents into selected populations of CNS (Central Nervous System neurons is an extremely compelling goal. Currently, systemic methods are generally used for delivery of pain medications, anti-virals for treatment of dermatomal infections, anti-spasmodics, and neuroprotectants. Systemic side effects or undesirable effects on parts of the CNS that are not involved in the pathology limit efficacy and limit clinical utility for many classes of pharmaceuticals. Axonal transport from the periphery offers a possible selective route, but there has been little progress towards design of agents that can accomplish targeted delivery via this intraneural route. To achieve this goal, we developed a tripartite molecular construction concept involving an axonal transport facilitator molecule, a polymer linker, and a large number of drug molecules conjugated to the linker, then sought to evaluate its neurobiology and pharmacological behavior. Results We developed chemical synthesis methodologies for assembling these tripartite complexes using a variety of axonal transport facilitators including nerve growth factor, wheat germ agglutinin, and synthetic facilitators derived from phage display work. Loading of up to 100 drug molecules per complex was achieved. Conjugation methods were used that allowed the drugs to be released in active form inside the cell body after transport. Intramuscular and intradermal injection proved effective for introducing pharmacologically effective doses into selected populations of CNS neurons. Pharmacological efficacy with gabapentin in a paw withdrawal latency model revealed a ten fold increase in half life and a 300 fold decrease in necessary dose relative to systemic administration for gabapentin when the drug was delivered by axonal transport using the tripartite vehicle. Conclusion Specific targeting of selected subpopulations of CNS neurons for drug delivery by axonal

  1. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  2. Evaluation on Collaborative Satisfaction for Project Management Team in Integrated Project Delivery Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Li, Y.; Wu, Q.

    2013-05-01

    Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a newly-developed project delivery approach for construction projects, and the level of collaboration of project management team is crucial to the success of its implementation. Existing research has shown that collaborative satisfaction is one of the key indicators of team collaboration. By reviewing the literature on team collaborative satisfaction and taking into consideration the characteristics of IPD projects, this paper summarizes the factors that influence collaborative satisfaction of IPD project management team. Based on these factors, this research develops a fuzzy linguistic method to effectively evaluate the level of team collaborative satisfaction, in which the authors adopted the 2-tuple linguistic variables and 2-tuple linguistic hybrid average operators to enhance the objectivity and accuracy of the evaluation. The paper demonstrates the practicality and effectiveness of the method through carrying out a case study with the method.

  3. Experiences of operational costs of HPV vaccine delivery strategies in Gavi-supported demonstration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Taylor; Nanda, Shreya; Bloem, Paul; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Sidibe, Anissa; Hutubessy, Raymond C. W.

    2017-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, provided support for countries to conduct small-scale demonstration projects for the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine, with the aim of determining which human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies might be effective and sustainable upon national scale-up. This study reports on the operational costs and cost determinants of different vaccination delivery strategies within these projects across twelve countries using a standardized micro-costing tool. The World Health Organization Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool was used to collect costing data, which were then aggregated and analyzed to assess the costs and cost determinants of vaccination. Across the one-year demonstration projects, the average economic and financial costs per dose amounted to US$19.98 (standard deviation ±12.5) and US$8.74 (standard deviation ±5.8), respectively. The greatest activities representing the greatest share of financial costs were social mobilization at approximately 30% (range, 6–67%) and service delivery at about 25% (range, 3–46%). Districts implemented varying combinations of school-based, facility-based, or outreach delivery strategies and experienced wide variation in vaccine coverage, drop-out rates, and service delivery costs, including transportation costs and per diems. Size of target population, number of students per school, and average length of time to reach an outreach post influenced cost per dose. Although the operational costs from demonstration projects are much higher than those of other routine vaccine immunization programs, findings from our analysis suggest that HPV vaccination operational costs will decrease substantially for national introduction. Vaccination costs may be decreased further by annual vaccination, high initial investment in social mobilization, or introducing/strengthening school health programs. Our analysis shows that drivers of cost are dependent on

  4. Project configured supply networks: Governance of delivery and failures in operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2008-01-01

    of delivery types; parts, components and subsystems. The project configuration and orchestrated governance forms are not always successful, and failures emerge. The paper aims at studying governance forms in delivery networks using operational failures as litmus. Operation management approaches is used...... failures occurred during three month observation. The costs were 8 pct. of the production budget. None of the mobilised governance forms fully prevented failures, especially subsystem delivery and internal integration was underperforming.......  Supply networks in complex B2B- construction deliver knowledge, materials, components, subsystems, competences, workforce and management. The delivery network and its governance forms are partly permanent, partly project specific. Integration upstream varies by project, constituting a range...

  5. Uncertainties in Transport Project Evaluation: Editorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    University of Denmark, September 2013. The conference was held under the auspices of the project ‘Uncertainties in transport project evaluation’ (UNITE) which is a research project (2009-2014) financed by the Danish Strategic Research Agency. UNITE was coordinated by the Department of Transport......This following special issue of the European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (EJTIR) containing five scientific papers is the result of an open call for papers at the 1st International Conference on Uncertainties in Transport Project Evaluation that took place at the Technical...

  6. The interplay between formal and informal contracting in integrated project delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bygballe, L.E.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Levitt, R.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the interplay between formal and informal contracting in integrated project delivery (IPD). It investigates how the interplay enables parties in health-care construction projects to cope with uncertainty and complexities, due to, among others, changing demands. New delivery

  7. Benchmarking Sustainability Practices Use throughout Industrial Construction Project Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungmin Yun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts for sustainability studies in building and infrastructure construction, the sustainability issues in industrial construction remain understudied. Further, few studies evaluate sustainability and benchmark sustainability issues in industrial construction from a management perspective. This study presents a phase-based benchmarking framework for evaluating sustainability practices use focusing on industrial facilities project. Based on the framework, this study quantifies and assesses sustainability practices use, and further sorts the results by project phase and major project characteristics, including project type, project nature, and project delivery method. The results show that sustainability practices were implemented higher in the construction and startup phases relative to other phases, with a very broad range. An assessment by project type and project nature showed significant differences in sustainability practices use, but no significant difference in practices use by project delivery method. This study contributes to providing a benchmarking method for sustainability practices in industrial facilities projects at the project phase level. This study also discusses and provides an application of phase-based benchmarking for sustainability in industrial construction.

  8. Efficient Project Delivery Using Lean Principles - An Indian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovvuri, P. Ramachandra Reddy; Sawhney, Anil; Ahuja, Ritu; Sreekumar, Aiswarya

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry in India is growing at a rapid pace. Along with this growth, the industry is facing numerous challenges that are making delivery of projects inefficient. Experts believe that capacity constraints in the industry need to be addressed immediately. Government has recommended `introduction of efficient technologies and modern management techniques' to increase the productivity of the industry. In this context, lean principles can act as a lever to make project delivery more efficient and provide the much needed impetus to the Indian construction sector. Around the globe lean principles are showing positive results on the projects. Project teams are reporting improvements in construction time, cost and quality along with softer benefits of enhanced collaboration, coordination and trust in project teams. Can adoption of lean principles provide similar benefits in the Indian construction sector? This research was conducted to answer this question. Using an action research approach a key lean construction tool called Last Planner System (LPS) was tested on a large Indian construction project. The work described in this work investigates the improvements achieved in project delivery by adopting LPS in Indian construction sector. Comparison in pre- and post-implementation data demonstrates increase in the certainty of work-flow and improves schedule compliance. This is measured through a simple LPS metric called percent plan complete. Explicit improvements in schedule performance are seen during 8 week LPS implementation along with implicit improvements in coordination, collaboration and trust in the project team. This work reports the findings of LPS implementation on the case study project outlining the barriers and drivers to adoption, strategies needed to ensure successful implementation and roadmap for implementation. Based on the findings the authors envision that lean construction can make project delivery more efficient in India.

  9. Towards a project-based service delivery approach : Uncovering organisational tensions

    OpenAIRE

    12330841 - Van der Waldt, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    In line with the modernizing, re-inventing and alternative service delivery paradigm, governments increasingly utilise project-based methodologies to improve service delivery. There is general agreement that projects are becoming increasingly important for government institutions to operationalise strategic objectives and policy programmes. This approach is commonly known as ‗Management-by-Projects‘. To adopt this approach requires of public institutions to adjust their existing structures...

  10. Effect of bond administration on construction project delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oke Ayodeji Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction bond administration involves management of bond issues from inception of obtaining bond from guarantor to the point of release of contractor by the client. This process has posted a lot of challenges to construction stakeholders; it is therefore, necessary to examine the relationship between bond administration and project success. Archival data of completed bonded building projects were gathered through a pro forma developed for this purpose. Using Pearson product moment of correlation, it was revealed that the cost of securing a construction bond has a positive and significant effect on the initial and final costs of the project, while the number of days needed to secure a construction bond has no significant effect on the initial and final durations of the construction project. In order to establish the relationship between project delivery indices of cost and time and the construction bond administration variables, iteration of linear regression was adopted to arrive at the best-fit equation. Factors affecting the cost of securing construction bonds from guarantors should be identified and given adequate attention by construction stakeholders in order to minimize the effect of construction bond administration on project delivery.

  11. EPR trademark project delivery. The value of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverenz, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    We are building the EPR trademark reactor fleet. Together. With four EPR trademark projects under construction in the world, AREVA has unrivalled experience in the delivery of large-scale nuclear projects, including more than a thousand lessons learned captured from Olkiluoto 3 and Flamanville 3 projects. This book of knowledge as well as the return of experience of AREVA's and EDF's teams are now being fully leveraged on ongoing projects, especially on Flamanville 3 and Taishan, and will be incorporated in all future EPR TM projects.

  12. Analysis of the project parameters of the fixed price projects in the IT services delivery organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kral

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of IS/IT projects is low. Thus, in response, a large variety of methods and approaches to managing IS/IT projects has been developed over the years. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationships between the project parameters of fixed-price projects that take place within an IT service delivery organization. There is some evidence that simply using traditional project parameters (such as project duration, costs, reserves, and so on isn't enough to increase the success of projects; rather, new approaches and methods, including our applied systems approach, should also be considered. This paper aims to highlight issues from the perspective of an IT services delivery organization from the CEE region. The output of the paper should be a contribution to the project management of IS/IT projects and to systems research, as well.

  13. Integrated project delivery : The designer as integrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, J.W.F.; Koolwijk, J.S.J.; van Doorn, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Process innovation related to integrated project delivery is an important topic in the building industry. Studies on process innovation through the use of integrated contracts usually focus on contractors, and particularly on the possibility of forward integration into the building process. Three

  14. Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N.

    1992-02-01

    There are 122 commercial nuclear facilities from which spent nuclear fuel will be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). Since some facilities share common sites and some facilities are on adjacent sites, 76 sites were identified for the Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) project. The objective of the NSTI project was to identify the options available for transportation of spent-fuel casks from each of these commercial nuclear facility sites to the main transportation routes -- interstate highways, commercial rail lines and navigable waterways available for commercial use. The near-site transportation infrastructure from each site was assessed, based on observation of technical features identified during a survey of the routes and facilities plus data collected from referenced information sources. The potential for refurbishment of transportation facilities which are not currently operational was also assessed, as was the potential for establishing new transportation facilities

  15. Compartmental transport model of microbicide delivery by an intravaginal ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geonnotti, Anthony R.; Katz, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Topical antimicrobials, or microbicides, are being developed to prevent HIV transmission through local, mucosal delivery of antiviral compounds. While hydrogel vehicles deliver the majority of current microbicide products, intravaginal rings (IVRs) are an alternative microbicide modality in preclinical development. IVRs provide a long-term dosing alternative to hydrogel use, and might provide improved user adherence. IVR efficacy requires sustained delivery of antiviral compounds to the entire vaginal compartment. A two-dimensional, compartmental vaginal drug transport model was created to evaluate the delivery of drugs from an intravaginal ring. The model utilized MRI-derived ring geometry and location, experimentally defined ring fluxes and vaginal fluid velocities, and biophysically relevant transport theory. Model outputs indicated the presence of potentially inhibitory concentrations of antiviral compounds along the entire vaginal canal within 24 hours following IVR insertion. Distributions of inhibitory concentrations of antiviral compounds were substantially influenced by vaginal fluid flow and production, while showing little change due to changes in diffusion coefficients or ring fluxes. Additionally, model results were predictive of in vivo concentrations obtained in clinical trials. Overall, this analysis initiates a mechanistic computational framework, heretofore missing, to understand and evaluate the potential of IVRs for effective delivery of antiviral compounds. PMID:20222027

  16. Project Delivery Acquisition and Contracting Plan for the Tank Farm Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MERCADO, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a plan presenting the process, strategies and approaches for vendor contracting by the Tank Farm Contractor. The plan focuses on contracting structures, practices, methods, and desired approaches in contracting. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted with the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), as the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC), to support vitrification of Hanford Site tank waste by the Privatization Contractor. During Waste Feed Delivery Phase 1, waste will be retrieved from certain double-shell tanks and delivered to the Privatization Contractor to meet contract feed delivery requirements. Near-term project goals include upgrading infrastructure systems; retrieving and delivering the waste; and accepting the waste packages for interim onsite storage and disposal. Project Delivery includes individual projects assigned to provide the infrastructure and systems responsible to provide engineering, design, procurement, installation/construction, and testing/turnover of systems for retrieval of waste from Hanford double-shell tanks. This plan sets the requirements for projects work scope, contracting practices, structures, methods, and performance measurements. The plan is designed to integrate Life-Cycle Projects acquisitions and provide a consistent contracting approach. This effort will serve as a step improvement in contract reform implementing commercial practices into DOE projects

  17. Governance Impact Assessment on Large Infrastructure Project (LIP Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Zarewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The linkage of failures of many projects, including Large Infrastructure Projects (LIPs, to governance problems by previous studies implies that governance impacts projects’ performance. Identification and understanding of the impacts have therefore become necessary in order to ensure that projects are governed in a way that will ensure their successful delivery. This study assessed impact of governance on delivery of Large Infrastructure Projects (LIPs through a three phase research approach. The first phase involved literature review followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders/role players in the governance of eight LIPs in different locations in Nigeria in the second phase. A thematic data analysis of the study’s findings was finally conducted in the third phase to identify themes and sub-themes after which conclusions were drawn. The study established that governance impacts LIPs delivery both positively and negatively depending on how the governance is approached. Four LIPs were successful due to proper initiation, setting aside funds for the projects at the onset, proactive risk management, top management support, and simple governance policies and structures. Intuitive initiation on political exigencies, tying funding to erratic sources of funding without contingency arrangement, Procuring Authorities’ (PAs disregard for due process and consultants’ advice, failure of a Procuring Authority (PA to meet contractual obligations and change of government were identified by the study as major governance aspects that led to the abandonment of 4 LIPs. The study concluded that there was a need for significant improvement and standardisation of approaches to governance of LIPs particularly in developing countries like Nigeria and accordingly recommends the development of a governance framework containing guidelines, including sanctions for violators, to guide the governance of the projects in the country.

  18. Risk variables in evaluation of transport projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vařbuchta, Petr; Kovářová, Hana; Hromádka, Vít; Vítková, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Depending on the constantly increasing demands on assessment of investment projects, especially assessment of large-scale projects in transport and important European projects with wide impacts, there is constantly increasing focus on risk management, whether to find mitigations, creating corrective measures or their implementation in assessment, especially in the context of Cost-Benefit analysis. To project assessment is often used implementation of certain risk variables, which can generate negative impacts of project outputs in framework of assess. Especially in case of transportation infrastructure projects is taken much emphasis on the influence of risk variables. However, currently in case of assessment of transportation projects is in Czech Republic used a few risk variables, which occur in the most projects. This leads to certain limitation in framework of impact assessment of risk variables. This papers aims to specify a new risk variables and process of applying them to already executed project assessment. Based on changes generated by new risk variables will be evaluated differences between original and adapted assessment.

  19. Transporter-Guided Delivery of Nanoparticles to Improve Drug Permeation across Cellular Barriers and Drug Exposure to Selective Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfa Kou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted nano-drug delivery systems conjugated with specific ligands to target selective cell-surface receptors or transporters could enhance the efficacy of drug delivery and therapy. Transporters are expressed differentially on the cell-surface of different cell types, and also specific transporters are expressed at higher than normal levels in selective cell types under pathological conditions. They also play a key role in intestinal absorption, delivery via non-oral routes (e.g., pulmonary route and nasal route, and transfer across biological barriers (e.g., blood–brain barrier and blood–retinal barrier. As such, the cell-surface transporters represent ideal targets for nano-drug delivery systems to facilitate drug delivery to selective cell types under normal or pathological conditions and also to avoid off-target adverse side effects of the drugs. There is increasing evidence in recent years supporting the utility of cell-surface transporters in the field of nano-drug delivery to increase oral bioavailability, to improve transfer across the blood–brain barrier, and to enhance delivery of therapeutics in a cell-type selective manner in disease states. Here we provide a comprehensive review of recent advancements in this interesting and important area. We also highlight certain key aspects that need to be taken into account for optimal development of transporter-assisted nano-drug delivery systems.

  20. Digital Modeling, Integrated Project Delivery and Industry Transformation: An Australian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A. Kraatz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on realizing productivity benefits for the delivery of transport infrastructure in the Australian construction industry through the use of building information modeling (BIM, virtual design and construction (VDC and integrated project delivery (IPD. Specific objectives include: (I building an understanding of the institutional environment, business systems and support mechanisms (e.g., training and skilling which impact on the uptake of BIM/VDC; (II gathering data to undertake a cross-country analysis of these environments; and (III providing strategic and practical outcomes to guide the uptake of such processes in Australia. Activities which will inform this research include a review of academic literature and industry documentation, semi-formal interviews in Australia and Sweden, and a cross-country comparative analysis to determine factors affecting uptake and associated productivity improvements. These activities will seek to highlight the gaps between current-practice and best-practice which are impacting on widespread adoption of BIM/VDC and IPD. Early findings will be discussed with intended outcomes of this research being used to: inform a national public procurement strategy; provide guidelines for new contractual frameworks; and contribute to closing skill gaps.

  1. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  2. Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimised project delivery methods forsocial housing energy renovations European Social Housing Organisations (SHOs are currently facing challenging times. The ageing of their housing stock and the economic crisis, which has affected both their finances and the finances of their tenants, are testing their capacity to stick to their aim of providing decent and affordable housing. Housing renovation projects offer the possibility of upgrading the health and comfort levels of their old housing stock to current standards and improve energy efficiency, and this solution also addresses the fuel poverty problems suffered by some tenants. Unfortunately, the limited financial capacity of SHOs is hampering the scale of housing renovation projects and the energy savings achieved.  At the same time, the renovation of the existing housing stock is seen as one of the most promising alternative routes to achieving the ambitious CO2 emissions reduction targets set by European authorities – namely, to reduce EU CO2 emissions to 20% below their 1990 levels by 2020. The synergy between European targets and the aims of SHOs has been addressed by the energy policies of the member states, which focus on the potential energy savings achievable by renovating social housing. In fact, the European initiatives have prioritised energy savings in social housing renovations to such an extent that these are referred to as ‘energy renovations’. Energy renovation is therefore a renovation project with higher energy savings target than a regular renovation project. In total, European SHOs own 21.5 million dwellings representing around 9.4% of the total housing stock. Each SHO owns a large number of dwellings, which means there are fewer people to convince of the need to make energy savings through building renovations, maximising the potentially high impact of decisions. Moreover, SHOs are responsible for maintaining and upgrading their properties in order to continue

  3. Glucose Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier: Function, Regulation and Gateways for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, Simon G

    2017-03-01

    Glucose transporters (GLUTs) at the blood-brain barrier maintain the continuous high glucose and energy demands of the brain. They also act as therapeutic targets and provide routes of entry for drug delivery to the brain and central nervous system for treatment of neurological and neurovascular conditions and brain tumours. This article first describes the distribution, function and regulation of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier, the major ones being the sodium-independent facilitative transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. Other GLUTs and sodium-dependent transporters (SGLTs) have also been identified at lower levels and under various physiological conditions. It then considers the effects on glucose transporter expression and distribution of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia associated with diabetes and oxygen/glucose deprivation associated with cerebral ischemia. A reduction in glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier that occurs before the onset of the main pathophysiological changes and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is a potential causative effect in the vascular hypothesis of the disease. Mutations in glucose transporters, notably those identified in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and some recreational drug compounds also alter the expression and/or activity of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier. Approaches for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier include the pro-drug strategy whereby drug molecules are conjugated to glucose transporter substrates or encapsulated in nano-enabled delivery systems (e.g. liposomes, micelles, nanoparticles) that are functionalised to target glucose transporters. Finally, the continuous development of blood-brain barrier in vitro models is important for studying glucose transporter function, effects of disease conditions and interactions with drugs and xenobiotics.

  4. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  5. Firewood processing and delivery logistics; Polttopuun kaesittely- ja jakelulogistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, A [Tulipuu Oy, Juuka (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this research is to develop the processing and the delivery of firewood in order to improve the obtainability of firewood in the urban areas, to increase the user friendliness of the firewood, and to reduce the delivery costs of it. The project consists of development of recycled firewood processing and transportation units, organisation of the delivery and the testing of these in practice

  6. Firewood processing and delivery logistics; Polttopuun kaesittely- ja jakelulogistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, A. [Tulipuu Oy, Juuka (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research is to develop the processing and the delivery of firewood in order to improve the obtainability of firewood in the urban areas, to increase the user friendliness of the firewood, and to reduce the delivery costs of it. The project consists of development of recycled firewood processing and transportation units, organisation of the delivery and the testing of these in practice

  7. BEST Project: bioethanol for sustainable transportation; Projeto BEST: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J R; Velazquez, S M.S.G.; Apolinario, S M; Melo, E H; Elmadjian, P H [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa

    2008-07-01

    The BEST Project BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  8. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limanond, Thirayoot; Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj; Srikaew, Artit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: → Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. → The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. → The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  9. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limanond, Thirayoot, E-mail: tlimanond@yahoo.co [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Srikaew, Artit [School of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: {yields} Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. {yields} The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. {yields} The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  10. Field distribution and DNA transport in solid tumors during electric field-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Joshua W; Yuan, Fan

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential in cancer treatment. However, the efficacy of cancer gene therapy is currently limited by the lack of a safe and efficient means to deliver therapeutic genes into the nucleus of tumor cells. One method under investigation for improving local gene delivery is based on the use of pulsed electric field. Despite repeated demonstration of its effectiveness in vivo, the underlying mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery remain largely unknown. Without a thorough understanding of these mechanisms, it will be difficult to further advance the gene delivery. In this review, the electric field-mediated gene delivery in solid tumors will be examined by following individual transport processes that must occur in vivo for a successful gene transfer. The topics of examination include: (i) major barriers for gene delivery in the body, (ii) distribution of electric fields at both cell and tissue levels during the application of external fields, and (iii) electric field-induced transport of genes across each of the barriers. Through this approach, the review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery and what require further investigations in future studies.

  11. MDOT implementation plan for GPS technology in planning, design, and construction delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers advantages to transportation agencies in the planning, design and construction stages of project delivery. This research study will develop a guide for Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) ...

  12. BEST Project: bioethanol for sustainable transportation; Projeto BEST: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J.R.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G.; Apolinario, S.M.; Melo, E.H.; Elmadjian, P.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa

    2008-07-01

    The BEST Project BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  13. Functional Expression of P-glycoprotein and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides at the Blood-Brain Barrier: Understanding Transport Mechanisms for Improved CNS Drug Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Wazir; Davis, Thomas P; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2017-07-01

    Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is greatly limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Physical and biochemical properties of the BBB have rendered treatment of CNS diseases, including those with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component, extremely difficult. Targeting endogenous BBB transporters from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily (i.e., P-glycoprotein (P-gp)) or from the solute carrier (SLC) family (i.e., organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents)) has been suggested as a strategy that can improve delivery of drugs to the brain. With respect to P-gp, direct pharmacological inhibition using small molecules or selective regulation by targeting intracellular signaling pathways has been explored. These approaches have been largely unsuccessful due to toxicity issues and unpredictable pharmacokinetics. Therefore, our laboratory has proposed that optimization of CNS drug delivery, particularly for treatment of diseases with an H/R component, can be achieved by targeting Oatp isoforms at the BBB. As the major drug transporting Oatp isoform, Oatp1a4 has demonstrated blood-to-brain transport of substrate drugs with neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, our laboratory has shown that targeting Oatp1a4 regulation (i.e., TGF-β signaling mediated via the ALK-1 and ALK-5 transmembrane receptors) represents an opportunity to control Oatp1a4 functional expression for the purpose of delivering therapeutics to the CNS. In this review, we will discuss limitations of targeting P-gp-mediated transport activity and the advantages of targeting Oatp-mediated transport. Through this discussion, we will also provide critical information on novel approaches to improve CNS drug delivery by targeting endogenous uptake transporters expressed at the BBB.

  14. Law project aiming to enforce the maritime transport safety and fight against the sea pollutions; Proposition de loi tendant a renforcer la securite du transport maritime et a lutter contre les pollutions marines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    Facing the increase of the maritime transport, the poor quality of the ships and the flag of convenience problem, this law project is proposed. It concerns the ships maintenance and safety standards, the delivery of a control certificate, the social rights of the sailors, the coasts and ports access control. (A.L.B.)

  15. Wood chip delivery and research project at Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, a large-scale energywood production chain was started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. Over 60 000 m 3 (about 46 000 MWh of energy) of forest processed chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 60 % of these chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 51 FIM/m 3 (68 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 40 FIM/m 3 (53 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of wood chips could compete with those of fuel peat only in the most favourable cases. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of forestry plans. According to the study, there is enough raw material for permanent, large-scale delivery of forest processed chips (up to 250 000 m 3 /a) in the forests located at a distance of under 40 road kilometers from the Pursiala heat and power plant. The following project stages will involve further development of the wood chip delivery chain logistics, as well as improvement of logging and chipping equipment and methods in energywood and logging waste production. Also the effects of wood energy production on the economy and environment of the whole Mikkeli region will be studied. (author)

  16. Home Delivery and the Impacts on Urban Freight Transport : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.G.S.N.; Nemoto, T.; Browne, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review paper discusses the latest developments in internet shopping, home delivery and the potential impacts on city logistics and alternative vehicle use. The review has illustrated the rapid changes during the past few years and the potentially important impacts on patterns of transport

  17. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On February 17,1989, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments and the US Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement authorizing the initiation of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. The transportation project continued to receive funding from DOE through amendments to the original cooperative agreement, with December 31, 1993, marking the end of the initial 5-year period. This progress report reflects the work completed by the Midwestern Office from February 17,1989, through December 31,1993. In accordance with the scopes of work governing the period covered by this report, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments has worked closely with the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee. Project staff have facilitated all eight of the committee's meetings and have represented the committee at meetings of DOE's Transportation Coordination Group (TCG) and Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Staff have also prepared and submitted comments on DOE activities on behalf of the committee. In addition to working with the committee, project staff have prepared and distributed 20 reports, including some revised reports (see Attachment 1). Staff have also developed a library of reference materials for the benefit of committee members, state officials, and other interested parties. To publicize the library, and to make it more accessible to potential users, project staff have prepared and distributed regular notices of resource availability

  18. Computational Experiment Study on Selection Mechanism of Project Delivery Method Based on Complex Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project delivery planning is a key stage used by the project owner (or project investor for organizing design, construction, and other operations in a construction project. The main task in this stage is to select an appropriate project delivery method. In order to analyze different factors affecting the PDM selection, this paper establishes a multiagent model mainly to show how project complexity, governance strength, and market environment affect the project owner’s decision on PDM. Experiment results show that project owner usually choose Design-Build method when the project is very complex within a certain range. Besides, this paper points out that Design-Build method will be the prior choice when the potential contractors develop quickly. This paper provides the owners with methods and suggestions in terms of showing how the factors affect PDM selection, and it may improve the project performance.

  19. 77 FR 76597 - Limitation on Claims against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation project listed below. The actions on this project...

  20. Guidelines to Mainstream Gender in Transport Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Caballero

    2008-01-01

    The consideration of gender in transport is essential to ensure that transport is equitable, affordable, and provides access to resources and opportunities required for development. This note aims to provide guidance for mainstreaming gender into transport projects. It provides examples of how to do this, in relation to the various transport modes used in development operations by the Wor...

  1. 78 FR 53001 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on the projects...

  2. 78 FR 23817 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on the projects...

  3. 77 FR 71475 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before April 29, 2013. FOR... the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on the projects, as well as the laws...

  4. 77 FR 43144 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before January 21, 2013. FOR... the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the laws...

  5. Transport mechanisms at the pulmonary mucosa: implications for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Sabrina; Clerkin, Caoimhe G; Selo, Mohammed Ali; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, a significant number of papers have substantiated earlier findings proposing a role for drug transporter proteins in pulmonary drug disposition. Whilst the majority of reports present data from in vitro models, a growing number of publications advance the field by introducing sophisticated ex vivo and in vivo techniques. In a few cases, evidence from clinical studies in human volunteers is complementing the picture. In this review, recent advances in pulmonary drug transporter research are critically evaluated. Transporter expression data in tissues and cell-based in vitro models is summarized and information on transport activity assessed. Novel techniques allowing for better quantification of transporter-related effects following pulmonary delivery are also described. Different tissue and cell populations of the lung have distinct transporter expression patterns. Whether these patterns are affected by disease, gender and smoking habits requires further clarification. Transporters have been found to have an impact on drug absorption processes, at least in vitro. Recent ex vivo experiments using isolated, perfused lung models, however, suggest that mainly efflux pumps have significant effects on absorption into the pulmonary circulation. Whether these rodent-based ex vivo models predict the human situation is basis for further research.

  6. Synthesis of the project leadership staffing needs for successful development of alternative delivery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This research provides a synthesis of practices in organizational structuring and professional staffing of the innovative delivery units in several state DOTs across the nation that are actively utilizing alternative project delivery. Several major c...

  7. The potential of intermodal transport projects in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorica Alexandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure sector is facing challenges related to the decarbonisation, financing and integrated developments, which need to be overcome so it can gain a competitive advantage among the strategic economic sectors. Known as a major pollutant, with 23.3 % of the total EU-28 GHG emissions in 2014, one of the transport policy objectives is to lower this percentage, by focusing on innovative solutions and modal shift (Eurostat, 2016. The White Paper (2011 promotes a sustainable development, aiming at a reduction by 60% by 2050 of the carbon emissions generated by the transport sector and at a modal shift from road to rail or waterborne transport for freight transport over 300 km with 30% by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050. The focus on an integrated development of the transport sector at the European level was reinforced with the adoption of the EU Regulation no. 1315/2013, marking the transition from a patchwork of different projects towards a vision for the achievement of an EU transport network. Moreover, another challenge is related to the scarce availability of the public money, making it necessary to attract private parties in the development of the transport infrastructure projects (The Investment Plan for Europe, 2014. Supporting the development of the intermodal transport is a way of surmounting the obstacles that this sector is confronting with, which is being implemented in Europe. The intermodal transport is introducing a paradigm shift, allowing the integration of the different transport modes together with their own advantages, as opposed to competing stand-alone modes and it can aid in the fight against climate change, scarce financial resources and congestion This article aims at determining the potential of Romania, as a member of European Union, to develop intermodal transport projects, to identify the funding sources, the obstacles and the solutions to promote the successful implementation of such projects.

  8. MDOT implementation plan for global positioning systems (GPS) technology in planning, design, and construction delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers advantages to transportation agencies in the planning, design and construction stages of project delivery. This research study will develop a guide for Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) ...

  9. 77 FR 64586 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is... actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on...

  10. 78 FR 65756 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred... taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation project listed...

  11. 78 FR 45287 - Limitation on Claims against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... FTA action announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the... final agency action by issuing a certain approval for the public transportation project listed below...

  12. Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... to supplement Optimism Bias and the associated Reference Class Forecasting (RCF) technique with a new technique that makes use of a scenario-grid. We tentatively introduce and refer to this as Reference Scenario Forecasting (RSF). The final RSF output from the CBA-DK model consists of a set of scenario......-based graphs which function as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project....

  13. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: a case-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Gerard C; Does, Ronald J M M; de Mast, Jeroen; Trip, Albert; van den Heuvel, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning approach to project definition. Data sources were project documentation and hospital-performance statistics of 271 Lean Six Sigma health care projects from 2002 to 2009 of general, teaching, and academic hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Objectives and operational definitions of improvement projects in the sample, analyzed and structured in a uniform format and terminology. Extraction of reusable elements of earlier project definitions, presented in the form of 9 templates called generic project definitions. These templates function as exemplars for future process improvement projects, making the selection, definition, and operationalization of similar projects more efficient. Each template includes an explicated rationale, an operationalization in the form of metrics, and a prototypical example. Thus, a process of incremental and sustained learning based on case-based reasoning is facilitated. The quality of project definitions is a crucial success factor in pursuits to improve health care delivery. We offer 9 tried and tested improvement themes related to patient safety, patient satisfaction, and business-economic performance of hospitals.

  14. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  15. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: A case-base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, G.C.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Trip, A.; van den Heuvel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning

  16. West Virginia peer exchange : streamlining highway safety improvement program project delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences : for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September : 22 to 23, 2014 in Charleston, We...

  17. Transport efficiency in transdermal drug delivery: What is the role of fluid microstructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, Roberta; Carciati, Antonio; Guido, Stefano; Caserta, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Interaction of microstructured fluids with skin is ubiquitous in everyday life, from the use of cosmetics, lotions, and drugs, to personal care with detergents or soaps. The formulation of microstructured fluids is crucial for the control of the transdermal transport. In biomedical applications transdermal delivery is an efficient approach, alternative to traditional routes like oral and parenteral administration, for local release of drugs. Poor skin permeability, mainly due to its outer layer, which acts as the first barrier against the entry of external compounds, greatly limits the applicability of transdermal delivery. In this review, we focus on recent studies on the improvement of skin transport efficiency by using microemulsions (ME). Quantitative techniques, which are able to investigate both skin morphology and penetration processes, are also reviewed. ME are increasingly used as transdermal systems due to their low preparation cost, stability and high bioavailability. ME may act as penetration enhancers for many active principles, but ME microstructure should be chosen appropriately considering several factors such as ratio and type of ingredients and physic-chemical properties of the active components. ME microstructure is strongly affected by the flow conditions applied during processing, or during spreading and rubbing onto skin. Although the role played by ME microstructure has been generally recognized, the skin transport mechanisms associated with different ME microstructures are still to be elucidated and further investigations are required to fully exploit the potential of ME in transdermal delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying Issues in Applying Integrated Project Delivery to Domestic Nuclear Power Plant Construction Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joo [Korean Nuclear Society, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is defined as that people, systems, business structures, and practices of key stakeholders are incorporated into a single-team, with a single process, which executes a project in a way of optimizing the project's outcome, increasing values delivered to the end user, reducing waste, and maximizing efficiency throughout the phases of engineering to construction. The researcher had carried out literature review in terms of IPD to identify major characteristics of IPD which are presented in the following section and had compared such characteristics against peculiarities of nuclear power plant (NPP) construction projects in order to shed light on obstacles in possible application of IPD method to domestic NPP construction projects in the coming days. In this research, three (3) major characteristics of IPD were identified: 1) key stakeholders signing one balanced contract, forming de facto one body, sharing risk and reward 2) an integrated project team being formed in the early stage of a project and providing input to minimize time and cost loss from rework downstream 3) team members co-locating, having open and direct communication, making decisions on time, and pursuing the success of the project itself.

  19. Analyzing the effects of instillation volume on intravesical delivery using biphasic solute transport in a deformable geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean G; Griffith, Boyce E; Zaharoff, David A

    2018-04-05

    Ailments of the bladder are often treated via intravesical delivery-direct application of therapeutic into the bladder through a catheter. This technique is employed hundreds of thousands of times every year, but protocol development has largely been limited to empirical determination. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of intravesical delivery performed to date have been restricted to static geometries and have not accounted for bladder deformation. This study uses a finite element analysis approach with biphasic solute transport to investigate several parameters pertinent to intravesical delivery including solute concentration, solute transport properties and instillation volume. The volume of instillation was found to have a substantial impact on the exposure of solute to the deeper muscle layers of the bladder, which are typically more difficult to reach. Indeed, increasing the instillation volume from 50-100 ml raised the muscle solute exposure as a percentage of overall bladder exposure from 60-70% with higher levels achieved for larger instillation volumes. Similar increases were not seen for changes in solute concentration or solute transport properties. These results indicate the role that instillation volume may play in targeting particular layers of the bladder during an intravesical delivery.

  20. Delivery of viral vectors to tumor cells: extracellular transport, systemic distribution, and strategies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yuan, Fan

    2006-01-01

    It is a challenge to deliver therapeutic genes to tumor cells using viral vectors because (i) the size of these vectors are close to or larger than the space between fibers in extracellular matrix and (ii) viral proteins are potentially toxic in normal tissues. In general, gene delivery is hindered by various physiological barriers to virus transport from the site of injection to the nucleus of tumor cells and is limited by normal tissue tolerance of toxicity determined by local concentrations of transgene products and viral proteins. To illustrate the obstacles encountered in the delivery and yet limit the scope of discussion, this review focuses only on extracellular transport in solid tumors and distribution of viral vectors in normal organs after they are injected intravenously or intratumorally. This review also discusses current strategies for improving intratumoral transport and specificity of viral vectors.

  1. Fiscal Feasibility Assessment Applied to Transport Infrastructure Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.; Brandão, R.

    2016-07-01

    The demand for transport infrastructure investment is a latent issue for several countries, mainly for developing countries. However, investments in major logistics projects should be carefully evaluated, in order that their deployment induces development without endangering fiscal sustainability by excessive public indebtedness. Fiscal accounting practices used currently in the feasibility studies of transport infrastructures in Brazil are very limited, as they do not consider indirect and induced effects of the infrastructure investment in the fiscal evaluation. In addition, the corresponding influence area has not an established delimitation method. The aim of the present paper is to develop a model for calculating economic and fiscal impacts of transport infrastructure investment projects that includes the direct, indirect and induced effects within a reference area do be determined. First, different project assessment guides in Brazil and abroad are examined with a special focus on the assessment of economic and fiscal impacts of the projects. Based on the assessment experience and on the definition of the fiscal balance of an infrastructure project, the next step sets up a framework for the calculation of the impacts, using more simplified data. (Author)

  2. Integrated Project Delivery (IPD Research Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahvandi, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Project Delivery (IPD is introduced as a vibrant approach to enhance project implementation, having particular position in recent studies among construction researchers. This study analyzes the research trends on the field of IPD to provide an appropriate vision for future researchers in this specialized field. While so far no comprehensive research has been done in this field, this study provides a comprehensive review of existing studies through in-depth literature review method. This research evaluates studies conducted in the field of IPD, which is a basis for future researchers to improve conditions of IPD implementation in different countries. For that this study Using library studies, the trend of researches conducted on various concepts and domains during various years, has been investigated. Future studies can simply use the outputs of this research to shape their research flow on establishing continuing progress of IPD. The data obtained from descriptive analyses are illustrated quantitatively, followed by comprehensive analyses and discussion of the results. Moreover, this study concluded that during recent years, the trend of studies conducted about IPD has increased, particularly articles examined challenges. In the next step, more studies have been performed in the field of construction. Those articles are preferred that have evaluated principles, challenges, and solutions for resolving barriers. Proper IPD implementation facilitates enhanced share of information and early identification of stakeholders through a proper timing as vital keys to realize objectives of the construction projects, reduce risks, and increase the chance of project success.

  3. Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... to supplement Optimism Bias and the associated Reference Class Forecasting (RCF) technique with a new technique that makes use of a scenario-grid. We tentatively introduce and refer to this as Reference Scenario Forecasting (RSF). The final RSF output from the CBA-DK model consists of a set of scenario......-based graphs which functions as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project. The presentation of RSF is demonstrated by using an appraisal case concerning a new airfield in the capital of Greenland, Nuuk....

  4. Final Report for the project titled "Enabling Supernova Computations by Integrated Transport and Provisioning Methods Optimized for Dedicated Channels"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malathi Veeraraghavan

    2007-10-31

    Multiplexing (WDM) networks, while examples of virtual-circuit networks are MultiProtocol Label Switched (MPLS) networks and Ethernet Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) networks. A series of new technologies have been developed to carry Ethernet VLAN tagged frames on SONET/SDH and WDM networks, such as Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) and ITU G.709, respectively. These technologies form the basis of our solution for connection-oriented internetworking. The benefit of developing such an architecture is that it allows different providers to choose different connection-oriented networking technologies for their networks, and yet be able to allow their customers to connect to those of other providers. As Metcalfe, the inventor of Ethernet, noted, the value of a network service grows exponentially with the number of endpoints to which any single endpoint can connect. Therefore internetworking solutions are key to commercial success. The technical effectiveness of our solutions was measured with proof-of-concept prototypes and experiments. These solutions were shown to be highly effective. Economic feasibility requires business case analyses that were beyond the scope of this project. The project results are beneficial to the public as they demonstrate the viability of simultaneously supporting different types of networks and data communication services much like the variety of services available for the transportation of people and goods. For example, Fedex service offers a deadline based delivery while the USPS offers basic package delivery service. Similarly, a circuit network can offer a deadline based delivery of a data file while the IP-routed network offers only basic delivery service with no guarantees. Two project Web sites, 13 publications, 7 software programs, 21 presentations resulted from this work. This report provides the complete list of publications, software programs and presentations. As for student education and training (human resources), this DOE project, along

  5. 2011 NDIA Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy/DoD Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    for Handoffs Advanced Research Projects Agency • Energy Portfolio of Projects UNIVERSITY/ LAB SMALL BUSINESS CORPORATION Fuel-Free Isothermal...2011 Present Programs • Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology (ADEPT) • Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation ( BEEST ...Technologies for Energy (REACT) • Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology (Solar – ADEPT) The BEEST : An Overview of ARPA-E’s Program in Ultra-High

  6. A transportation-scheduling system for managing silvicultural projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge F. Valenzuela; H. Hakan Balci; Timothy McDonald

    2005-01-01

    A silvicultural project encompasses tasks such as sitelevel planning, regeneration, harvestin, and stand-tending treatments. an essential problem in managing silvicultural projects is to efficiently schedule the operations while considering project task due dates and costs of moving scarce resources to specific job locations. Transportation costs represent a...

  7. 77 FR 6624 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  8. 76 FR 35939 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  9. 76 FR 60963 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the laws...

  10. 76 FR 19522 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... herein for the listed public transportation projects will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  11. 76 FR 72746 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before May... approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the...

  12. Transport project evaluation: feasibility risk assessment and scenario forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to transport project assessment in terms of feasibility risk assessment and reference class forecasting. Conventionally, transport project assessment is based upon a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) where evaluation criteria such as Benefit Cost Ratios (BCR...... on the preliminary construction cost estimates. Hereafter, a quantitative risk analysis is provided making use of Monte Carlo simulation. This approach facilitates random input parameters based upon reference class forecasting, hence, a parameter data fit has been performed in order to obtain validated probability...... Scenario Forecasting (RSF) frame. The RSF is anchored in the cost-benefit analysis; thus, it provides decision-makers with a quantitative mean of assessing the transport infrastructure project. First, the RSF method introduces uncertainties within the CBA by applying Optimism Bias uplifts...

  13. 76 FR 25773 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Project AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or... approvals for the public transportation project listed below. The actions on this project, as well as the...

  14. 77 FR 26818 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these projects, as well as the laws under...

  15. 76 FR 2950 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation projects will be... final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below...

  16. 75 FR 13335 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation projects will be... FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects...

  17. 77 FR 322 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be... FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects...

  18. 75 FR 71181 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation projects will be... issuing certain approvals for the public transportation projects listed below. The actions on these...

  19. CARONTE project: Creating an Agenda for Research on Transportation Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Bello, J.; Gonzalez Viosca, E.

    2016-07-01

    Europe’s prosperity relies on effective transport systems. Any attacks and disturbances to land freight and passenger transport would have significant impact on economic growth, territorial cohesion, social development and the environment. Unfortunately, there are weaknesses in the land transport security.The objective of CARONTE project is define a future research agenda for security in land transport that focuses on core gaps caused by emerging risks while avoiding any doubling-up of research elsewhere. Its research agenda will cover all threats, including cyber-crime, and security aspects across all modes of land transportation. At the same time, it will respect the fundamental human rights and privacy of European citizens. The step-by-step method of CARONTE’s consortium has analyzed the state of the art and emerging risks; has identified gaps, analyses and assessments of potential solutions; and has produced an overall research agenda for the future. CARONTE’s results will answer the following questions among others: Which existing research projects merit a follow up and extension? Where are the combinations or synergy effects to be attended? Which themes and topics should be elaborated in new research projects? Who should be involved and integrated in future research projects (stakeholders, authorities, etc.)? The CARONTE consortium includes universities and research institutes, companies, and end-users providing with experience in research and consultancy in transportation, logistics, infrastructure management, security and communications. ITENE - Instituto Tecnológico del Embalaje, Transporte y Logística-has been one of the Project partners among a total of 11 members from eight different countries in the European Union which have also been supported via a High Level Advisory Board. (Author)

  20. Automated transportation management system (ATMS) software project management plan (SPMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-20

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management plan (SPMP) is the lead planning document governing the life cycle of the ATMS and its integration into the Transportation Information Network (TIN). This SPMP defines the project tasks, deliverables, and high level schedules involved in developing the client/server ATMS software.

  1. Project delivery in HIV/AIDS and TB in Southern Africa: the cross-cultural management imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeyé, Frederik; Jackson, Terence

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a broad-based study that initially investigated a possible gap in global inputs into the fight against HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection, and outputs in terms of results achieved. It is proposed that such a gap may be hypothesized to be due, at least in part, to inappropriate management regimes within the global health governance structure. The research does not simply question the effectiveness of the management of programs and projects, but rather the inappropriateness resulting from the lack of addressing cross-cultural issues. The factors facilitating or hampering project service delivery were examined, by looking at 12 case studies in Botswana and South Africa. These data were complemented with seven semi-structured interviews with donor organizations and NGOs, conducted in the North. Cultural interactions were investigated by using the concept of "interfaces". The results suggest that there is a disjuncture between the global and local level that affects project delivery. The main issues hampering project outcomes can be summarized as systemic, structural and cultural. The article's main contributions are both theoretical, looking at global project delivery from a cross-cultural management perspective, as well as to development praxis by highlighting the need to focus more critically on cross-cultural management issues within the global health governance structure, and indeed within international development as a whole.

  2. 78 FR 53712 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Program Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... application, and discussion of classes of multimodal projects that may be best handled on a case-by-case basis... submissions; a paragraph discussing the joint application process; and a paragraph authorizing the Agencies to... early enough to allow for a joint application of the Secretary's responsibilities before the...

  3. An eCertificate Program in Transportation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this project, researchers developed a proposal to extend the delivery of the recently developed : Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to a wider audience via : distance education (online or eCertificate)....

  4. Use of GIS technologies to facilitate the transportation project programming process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Transportation project programming in a transportation agency is a process of matching : potential projects with available funds to accomplish the agencys mission and goals of a : given period of time. Result of this process is normally a transpor...

  5. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  6. Recent innovations in last mile deliveries. In : Non-technological Innovations for Sustainable Transport: Four Transport Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    MORGANTI, Eléonora; DABLANC, Laetitia

    2014-01-01

    In cities and metropolitan areas, last mile deliveries are a key factor contributing to local economic vitality, urban life quality and attractiveness of urban communities. However, the freight transport sector is responsible for negative impacts, mainly with regards to congestion, CO2 emissions and air and noise pollution. In order to improve efficiency and reduce adverse impacts, private companies as well as city planners and policy makers have designed initiatives to promote urban logistic...

  7. Prioritising transport infrastructure projects: towards a multi-criterion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    multi-criterion analysis (MCA), partial equilibrium analysis, project appraisal ... In the case of transport infrastructure projects, though, this is no mean ... vehicle ownership and mileage-based depreciation (an improved road network and/ .... urban, rural or regional development initiatives – they typically include one or more.

  8. Prioritising transport infrastructure projects: Towards a multi-criterion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review ... systematic framework for the appraisal of transport infrastructure projects of the type 'budget cycle projects with local ... Cost/benefit analysis, when applied in a classic sense, is not suitable for this purpose, given its ... (optimal allocation of resources), equity (impact distribution aspects),

  9. Assessment of Transport Projects: Risk Analysis and Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang

    2008-01-01

    functions. New research proved that specifically two impacts stood out in transport project assessment, namely, travel time savings and construction costs. The final concern of this study has been the fitting of distributions, e.g. by the use of data from major databases developed in which Optimism Bias...... choosing probability distributions and performing real term data fits. The perspective of this Ph.D. study presents newer and better understanding of assigning risks within assessment of transport projects....

  10. Development of a new LDL-based transport system for hydrophobic/amphiphilic drug delivery to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntosova, Veronika; Buzova, Diana; Petrovajova, Dana; Kasak, Peter; Nadova, Zuzana; Jancura, Daniel; Sureau, Franck; Miskovsky, Pavol

    2012-10-15

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), a natural in vivo carrier of cholesterol in the vascular system, play a key role in the delivery of hydrophobic/amphiphilic photosensitizers to tumor cells in photodynamic therapy of cancer. To make this delivery system even more efficient, we have constructed a nano-delivery system by coating of LDL surface by dextran. Fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence imaging, stopped-flow experiments and flow-cytometry were used to characterize redistribution of hypericin (Hyp), a natural occurring potent photosensitizer, loaded in LDL/dextran complex to free LDL molecules as well as to monitor cellular uptake of Hyp by U87-MG cells. It is shown that the redistribution process of Hyp between LDL molecules is significantly suppressed by dextran coating of LDL surface. The modification of LDL molecules by dextran does not inhibit their recognition by cellular LDL receptors and U-87 MG cellular uptake of Hyp loaded in LDL/dextran complex appears to be similar to that one observed for Hyp transported by unmodified LDL particles. Thus, it is proposed that dextran modified LDL molecules could be used as a basis for construction of a drug transport system for targeted delivery of hydrophobic/amphiphilic drugs to cancer cells expressing high level of LDL receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Performativity and the project: enacting urban transport security in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, a large consortium of European rail and security suppliers, transport operators and research organisations launched the Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration (SECUR-ED) project with the objective of providing public transport operators with the means to enhance urban

  12. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  13. Transepithelial transport of PEGylated anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: implications for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Deborah M; Kolhatkar, Rohit B; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2009-08-19

    The purpose of this work was to assess the impact of PEGylation on transepithelial transport of anionic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. Cytotoxicity, uptake and transport across Caco-2 cells of PEGylated G3.5 and G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers were studied. Methoxy polyethylene glycol (750 Da) was conjugated to carboxylic acid-terminated PAMAM dendrimers at feed ratios of 1, 2 and 4 PEG per dendrimer. Compared to the control, PEGylation of anionic dendrimers did not significantly alter cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 0.1 mM. PEGylation of G3.5 dendrimers significantly decreased cellular uptake and transepithelial transport while PEGylation of G4.5 dendrimers led to a significant increase in uptake, but also a significant decrease in transport. Dendrimer PEGylation reduced the opening of tight junctions as evidenced by confocal microscopy techniques. Modulation of the tight junctional complex correlated well with changes in PEGylated dendrimer transport and suggests that anionic dendrimers are transported primarily through the paracellular route. PEGylated dendrimers show promise in oral delivery applications where increased functionality for drug conjugation and release is desired.

  14. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  15. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  16. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  17. Transportation engineering project management : survey of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) project managers (PMs) have identified inefficiencies in the legacy : system electronic Program Management (ePM) used to manage consultant contracts and invoices. To help UDOT : prepare for potential system im...

  18. Assessment of the Ehlanzeni District health transport and logistics function: Enhancing rural healthcare delivery systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, MAM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish a baseline against which to assess the impacts of the ‘Ehlanzeni District Health Transport Function’ for the district’s healthcare service delivery output, and by extension, health and welfare outcomes. The main...

  19. Reference Scenario Forecasting: A New Approach to Transport Project Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen; Skougaard, Britt Zoëga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to transport project assessment in terms of feasibility risk assessment and reference class forecasting. Normally, transport project assessment is based upon a cost-benefit approach where evaluation criteria such as net present values are obtained. Recent research...... construction cost estimates. Hereafter, a quantitative risk analysis is provided making use of Monte Carlo simulation. This stochastic approach facilitates random input parameters based upon reference class forecasting, hence, a parameter data fit has been performed in order to obtain validated probability...... forecasting (RSF) frame. The RSF is anchored in the cost-benefit analysis (CBA), thus, it provides decision-makers with a quantitative mean of assessing the transport infrastructure project. First, the RSF method introduces uncertainties within the CBA by applying Optimism Bias uplifts on the preliminary...

  20. Maintaining project consistency with transportation plans throughout the project life cycle with an emphasis on maintaining air quality conformity: technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Federal and state transportation planning statutory and regulatory laws require transportation projects to be : consistent with transportation plans and improvement programs before a federal action can be taken on a : project requiring one. Significa...

  1. 76 FR 4150 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before July 25, 2011. FOR...

  2. 76 FR 55470 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or...

  3. Models of Financing and Available Financial Resources for Transport Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pokorná

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical feature of transport infrastructure projects is that they are expensive and take a long time to construct. Transport infrastructure financing has traditionally lain in the public domain. A tightening of many countries' budgets in recent times has led to an exploration of alternative resources for financing transport infrastructures. A variety of models and methods can be used in transport infrastructure project financing. The selection of the appropriate model should be done taking into account not only financial resources but also the distribution of construction and operating risks and the contractual relations between the stakeholders.

  4. Efficiency and economics of hydrogen delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bharadwaj, R.; Balan, C.; Garces, L.; Smith, D.

    2003-01-01

    The viability and penetration of fuel cell based electricity production will be mainly determined by the efficient, cost effective production and delivery of hydrogen. This study focuses on the transportation efficiency and cost of hydrogen delivery for both centrally produced hydrogen as well as electricity scenarios. The efficiency and economics of energy delivery depend on the quantity of energy to be transported and transportation distance. Energy delivery models were developed for Hydrogen delivery as compressed gas or cryogenic liquid using truck or pipeline. For comparison, models were also developed for high voltage AC electricity transmission. Major parameters that influence the performance of the energy transmission systems under normal operating conditions were modeled. The models use energy transported and delivery distance as independent variables. The results were validated against similar reports, government surveys and other publications. Energy delivery efficiency and costs were used to compare and evaluate the different delivery options. Effect of uncertainty and sensitivity of parameters on modeling results were also studied. The systems were compared on an equivalent basis. The analysis also identifies the trade-offs for electricity transmission and electrolysis application at the point of use for Hydrogen delivery. These results provide a consistent framework for evaluation of delivery options on energy efficiency basis. (author)

  5. Caltrans : transit funding manual : managing the delivery of transit projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    This manual attempts to provide a step by step transit funding process. Included in this manual : is an overview of Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, roles and responsibilities in : assisting local agencies to deliver transit projects. Transi...

  6. Transport of nuclear materials as an international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartejsova, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The following companies are involved in this project: CEZ a.s., ALTA a.s., ALTA 32 s.r.o., DMS s.r.o., TVEL (RF), and NUKLON (RF). Transport containers are TK-S5 (for Temelin) and TK-S55 (for Dukovany) types. Details of fuel supplies for the 2 Czech NPPs are described and the fresh fuel element transport procedure is highlighted. (P.A.)

  7. The Analysis of Project Finance: a Case Study of Kazakhstan Caspian Transportation System Project

    OpenAIRE

    Serikbayeva, Aigul

    2011-01-01

    Although project finance is a large and fast growing field in finance, there has been very little academic research in that area. The main reason for this deficit is that it is a relatively new sphere in finance and it is difficult to access the information about the implementation of projects from the companies that implement them. This project will provide an overview of how companies finance large infrastructure projects through a case study of the Kazakhstan Caspian Transportation System ...

  8. Delivery of pilot workshop on preserving and enhancing the functionality of highways in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the delivery and results of a one-day pilot workshop conducted at the Texas : Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Waco District office in August 2010. This workshop was based on : material developed for research project 0-6208...

  9. Worksheet of Exogenous Variables that Impact the Success of Validation Stage of Product Delivery of a Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino José Mentzingen de Moraes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery.In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery.In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery. The importance of both Stages is crucial to

  10. Transdermal therapeutic systems for memantine delivery. Comparison of passive and iontophoretic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Sancho, S; Serna-Jiménez, C E; Sebastián-Morelló, M; Calatayud-Pascual, M A; Balaguer-Fernández, C; Femenía-Font, A; Kalia, Y N; Merino, V; López-Castellano, A

    2017-01-30

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist used in the treatment of moderate to severe dementia including the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is administered orally but compliance, swallowing problems and the routine use of multiple medications in elderly AD patients means that an alternative route of administration would be of interest. The aim of the present study was to develop memantine hydrochloride occlusive transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) for passive and iontophoretic delivery across the skin. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and a mixture with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were employed as polymeric matrices. The study involved the TTS characterization in addition to quantification of the memantine transport across porcine skin in vitro. The evaluation of the TTS physical properties suggested that systems were made more mechanically resistant by including PVA (6%) or high concentrations of PVP (24%). Moreover, a linear correlation was observed between the concentration of PVP and the bioadhesion of the systems. Drug delivery experiments showed that the highest transdermal flux provided by a passive TTS (PVP 24% w/w limonene) was 8.89±0.81μgcm -2 h -1 whereas the highest iontophoretic transport was 46.4±3.6μgcm -2 h -1 . These innovative TTS would enable two dosage regimens that could lead to therapeutic plasma concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 78332 - Amended Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Amended Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Project AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION... actions announced herein for the listed public transportation project will be barred unless the claim is...

  12. 77 FR 51106 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... claim seeking judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation... given that FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation...

  13. 77 FR 34122 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... claim seeking judicial review of the FTA actions announced herein for the listed public transportation... given that FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation...

  14. 49 CFR 663.33 - Description of post-delivery audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description of post-delivery audit. 663.33 Section 663.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PRE-AWARD AND POST-DELIVERY AUDITS OF ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES Post-Delivery Audits § 663.33 Description of...

  15. Public Transportation System at the Southern Cone: New projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schweitzer

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the international restructuration of the economy and the regional integration process, according to the claim of accelerating the trade circulation, there is emerging a kind of transporting subestructure project with different characteristics from other times, which are producing a new territorial configuration.The present study has the objective to analyze the evolution of the transportation system in the South Cone and, in the context of the integration process and the economic restructuration, the new demans and which are the transformations of the involved territories since the concretion of this new actions. It is analyzed the regional transportation system related to the territory estructuration in those countries integrating the Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay and Paraguay, as well as in the associated nations (Bolivia and Chile.Based on the relief and diagnosis of the situation, and considering those new projects, we make a reflection about the tendency to reconcentrate the subestructure and the inversions, with the following territorial inequality that gets deeper and reproduces the territorial fragmentation in regions that receive the new projects obeying to external goals without considering the global impact in the territories’ group.

  16. Subsurface Access, Characterization, Acquisition, Transport, Storage and Delivery in Microgravity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop geotechnical measurements, sample extraction and transport equipment for subsurface regolith on NEOs, asteroids, moons and planets,...

  17. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  18. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  19. Assessment Of Various Activities Indicators Made Available To Farmers For Participation Through Fadama Iii Agricultural Project Delivery Agency In Bayelsa State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ominikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the activities made available to farmers for participation through Fadama III Project in Bayelsa State. Objective of the study was activities made available to farmers through National Fadama III Agricultural project delivery agency. Purposive sampling technique was used to select One-Hundred and fifty 150 farmers that participated and 150 staff from the delivery agency. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using frequency count percentage mean X amp773 standard deviation STD while z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Farmers in the state truly believe in the existence of various activities in Fadama III project in the state as being made available to them through the delivery agency. The result of the z-test showed that the mean response of the farmers in Fadama III projects was 2.986 while the mean response of the delivery agency was 3.793 there was significant difference z -20.245 in the mean score response of the delivery agency and participants of National Fadama III Agricultural Project on the various activities that were made available to the farmers at P amp8804 0.05. The study therefore recommended that National Fadama III Project activities should be reorganized to be of great benefit to the farmers proper training in all the activities should be made available for effective participation empower the participants to improve their income level and to move them away from poverty by improving their standard of living by reorganizing the Fadama III Project.

  20. Investigating the Practical Impact of Agile Practices on the Quality of Software Projects in Continuous Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Akerele; Muthu Ramachandran; Mark Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Various factors affect the impact of agile factors on the continuous delivery of software projects. This is a major reason why projects perform differently- some failing and some succeeding- when they implement some agile practices in various environments. This is not helped by the fact that many projects work within limited budget while project plans also change-- making them to fall into some sort of pressure to meet deadline when they fall behind in their planned work. This study investiga...

  1. Transepithelial transport and toxicity of PAMAM dendrimers: implications for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadekar, S; Ghandehari, H

    2012-05-01

    This article summarizes efforts to evaluate poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as carriers for oral drug delivery. Specifically, the effect of PAMAM generation, surface charge and surface modification on toxicity, cellular uptake and transepithelial transport is discussed. Studies on Caco-2 monolayers, as models of intestinal epithelial barrier, show that by engineering surface chemistry of PAMAM dendrimers, it is possible to minimize toxicity while maximizing transepithelial transport. It has been demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimers are transported by a combination of paracellular and transcellular routes. Depending on surface chemistry, PAMAM dendrimers can open the tight junctions of epithelial barriers. This tight junction opening is in part mediated by internalization of the dendrimers. Transcellular transport of PAMAM dendrimers is mediated by a variety of endocytic mechanisms. Attachment or complexation of cytotoxic agents to PAMAM dendrimers enhances the transport of such drugs across epithelial barriers. A remaining challenge is the design and development of linker chemistries that are stable in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the blood stream, but amenable to cleavage at the target site of action. Recent efforts have focused on the use of PAMAM dendrimers as penetration enhancers. Detailed in vivo oral bioavailability of PAMAM dendrimer-drug conjugates, as a function of physicochemical properties will further need to be assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Path to Successful Energy Retrofits: Early Collaboration through Integrated Project Delivery Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This document guides you through a process for the early design phases of retrofit projects to help you mitigate frustrations commonly experienced by building owners and designers. It outlines the value of forming an integrated project delivery team and developing a communication and information-sharing infrastructure that fosters collaboration. This guide does not present a complete process for designing an energy retrofit for a building. Instead, it focuses on the early design phase tasks related to developing and selecting energy efficiency measures (EEMs) that benefit from collaboration, and highlights the resulting advantages.

  3. Sustainable Urban Homecare Delivery with Different Means of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Szander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing number of requests for homecare services, care institutions struggle to perform in urban traffic, which eventually makes travel times longer and less predictable and, therefore, leads to a declining service quality. Homecare delivery scheduling and planning tools must lead to efficient reliable routes that allow the nursing crew to make the least efforts and use the fewest institutional resources, and that consider urban sustainability goals. For the case study, a European city was selected with 58,000 people of whom 73 patients received long-term care at homes provided by 11 homecare nurses. While maximising patient satisfaction, a homecare planning algorithm considered many means of transport and minimised travel times. The study reduced the total nurses’ working hours/day by a bus and walking combination, and by comparing if nurses ride e-bikes, which respectively reduced ~35–44% of the total time that nurses spent travelling. This result is applicable to an urban environment where the public transport network is sufficient and biking is allowed on a reasonable number of roads. Better homecare management can support the efficient use of resources of health care institutions, high-quality home care and aspirations towards livable communities and sustainable development.

  4. What Causes Cost Overrun in Transport Infrastructure Projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren L.

    cost escalation for three types of project ownership - private, state-owned enterprise and other public ownership - it is shown that the oft-seen claim that public ownership is problematic and private ownership effective in curbing cost escalation is an oversimplification. Type of accountability......This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of causes of cost escalation in transport infrastructure projects. The study is based on a sample of 258 rail, bridge, tunnel and roads projects worth US$90 billion. The focus is on the dependence of cost escalation on (1......) length of project implementation phase, (2) size of project and (3) type of project ownership. First, it is found with very high statistical significance that cost escalation is strongly dependent on length of implementation phase. The policy implications are clear: Decision makers and planners should...

  5. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, 'Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,' submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to (1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, (2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, (3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, (4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, (5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and (6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  6. 78 FR 26112 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects; Correction AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION... Register on April 22, 2013, concerning a limitation on claims for certain specified public transportation...

  7. Ship Routing with Pickup and Delivery for a Maritime Oil Transportation System: MIP Modeland Heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Morabito, Reinaldo; Yamashita, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a ship routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windowsfor maritime oil transportation, motivated by the production and logistics activities of an oil companyoperating in the Brazilian coast. The transportation costs from offshore platforms to coastal terminalsare...... application of two tailor-made MIP heuristics, based on relax-and-fix and timedecomposition procedures. The model minimizes fuel costs of a heterogeneous fleet of oil tankersand costs related to freighting contracts. The model also considers company-specific constraints foroffshore oil transportation....... Computational experiments based on the mathematical models and therelated MIP heuristics are presented for a set of real data provided by the company, which confirmthe potential of optimization-based methods to find good solutions for problems of moderate sizes....

  8. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority climate change adaptation pilot project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project Report details the project background of the recently-completed Los Angeles County : Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Transit Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project as well as the various wor...

  9. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  10. West Virginia Peer Exchange : Streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program Project Delivery - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September 23 to 24, 2014 in Charleston, West V...

  11. Maintaining project consistency with transportation plans throughout the project life cycle with an emphasis on maintaining air quality conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This document was developed for transportation professionals responsible for project : development and has three basic goals: : 1. Define project consistency and identify the causes of project inconsistencies and the : critical junctures in the proje...

  12. Indicators and beyond: Assessing the sustainability of transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    on the topic of sustainable transport indicator frameworks. Case study work draws upon extensive desktop-based analysis of impact assessment reports and other publically available material about real cases of large transport infrastructure appraisals. The HS2 high-speed rail (HSR) project appraisal in the UK......Credibly demonstrating actual progress towards a genuinely sustainable transport situation remains a challenge. A key problem is that the incorporation of sustainability in transport policy and planning at present is not systematic. A motivating assumption behind this thesis is that a transition...... toward a sustainable transport system will require strong support from decision-support processes and assessment tools that do not only adopt the language of sustainability, but fully integrate an explicit notion of sustainability in all of their conceptual, operational and procedural approaches...

  13. Iontoforese no transporte ocular de drogas Iontophoresis for ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O método mais comum de administração de drogas no olho é por meio de colírios. Entretanto, por este método, não é possível atingir a concentração terapêutica nos fluidos e tecidos posteriores do olho. A administração sistêmica apresenta reduzido acesso ao segmento posterior do olho devido à presença das barreiras oculares. Injeções subconjuntivais e retrobulbares não são capazes de proporcionar níveis adequados da droga, e a injeção intravítrea é método invasivo, inconveniente e que apre-senta riscos de perfuração do bulbo ocular ou descolamento da retina. A iontoforese, no entanto, apresenta-se como alternativa para o transporte de doses terapêuticas de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho. A iontoforese é uma técnica que consiste na administração de drogas para o organismo através dos tecidos, utilizando um campo elétrico. O eletrodo ativo, que se encontra em contato com a droga, é colocado no local a ser tratado, e um segundo eletrodo, com a finalidade de fechar o circuito elétrico, é colocado em outro local do organismo. O campo elétrico facilita o transporte da droga, que deve se encontrar, preferencialmente, na forma ionizada. A iontoforese pode ser considerada como um método seguro e não invasivo de transporte de drogas para locais específicos do olho. Aplicada experimentalmente para o tratamento de doenças oculares, esta técnica tem evoluído muito nos últimos anos e, atualmente, testes clínicos de fase III encontram-se em andamento.The most traditional method of ocular drug delivery is through the use of eyedrops. However, by this method, the therapeutic concentration in deep ocular fluids and tissues can not be efficiently reached. Systemic administration presents poor access to the posterior segment of the eye due to ocular barriers. Subconjuntival and retrobulbar injections are not able to produce adequate levels of the drug, and intravitreal injection is an invasive and problematic

  14. Preventing Elder Abuse: The Texas Plan for a Coordinated Service Delivery System. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention project. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for achieving a coordinated service delivery system for…

  15. Emission projections of the transport Sector in China: 2015-2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Driven by the significant growth freight and passenger transport demand, transport sector has become a sector that is largely responsible for increases in emissions of atmospheric pollutants (NOx, CO, HC, PM2.5) in China. Figuring out the emission trend in China's transport sector has great influence on formulating emission reduction measures in the future. In this work, both on-road and off-road transport emissions in China were estimated from 2015 to 2040 for CO, NOx, HC and PM2.5. The projection was conducted based on on the energy consumption structure forecast from IEA (International Energy Agency), the future national average annual distance traveled per vehicle and fuel consumption per distance derived from simulation results of the Fuel Economy and Environmental Impact (FEEI) model. The results show that the ownership of on-road vehicles in China increases rapidly during 2015 to 2030 and then the growth slows down. Finally, the total amount reaches up to 522 million in 2040 in which 84.5% turns out to be light-duty vehicles. Because current control legislations for the transport sector in China will continue to be strengthened in the future, the total emissions of China's transport sector were projected to peak around 2030, due to the improvement of vehicle emission standard and the retirement of old vehicles are the most effective measures. The off-road transport will become the main contributor to emissions from transport sector in China since 2030. This work provides a new perspective to understand emissions from both on-road and off-road transport in China, which can support the achievement of improving air quality promised by the Chinese government. This work provides a new perspective to understand the emission trends of on-road and off-road transport sector in China from 2015 to 2040, which can support the achievement of the air quality goal promised by the Chinese government. Driven by the significant growth freight and passenger transport demand

  16. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 16 (Cost-Benefit Analysis of Transportation Projects)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the problems of evaluating transportation projects in the context of the less-developed countries. Emphasis will be placed on highway projects, because these account for the bulk of transport investments in the developing parts of the world. If a project passes a straight financial test, based on the present value of its cash inflows and outflows, projects would only come if this financial NPV were outweighed by the present value of the project’s various externali...

  18. Variational formulation and projectional methods for the second order transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.

    1979-01-01

    Herein the variational problem for a second-order boundary value problem for the neutron transport equation is formulated. The projectional methods solving the problem are examined. The approach is compared with that based on the original untransformed form of the neutron transport equation

  19. 78 FR 16764 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... advising the public of final agency actions subject to Section 139(l) of Title 23, United States Code (U.S...

  20. 78 FR 4191 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... advising the public of final agency actions subject to Section 139(l) of Title 23, United States Code (U.S...

  1. 78 FR 33890 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... advising the public of final agency actions subject to Section 139(l) of Title 23, United States Code (U.S...

  2. Characteristics of Effective Collaboration in Response to Diversified Transportation Planning Authority

    OpenAIRE

    John S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Advantages of decentralized transportation planning responsibilities may include reduced project delivery cost, the integration of comprehensive long-range planning with regional land use, and greater accountability regarding local concerns. Yet disadvantages may include a tendency for operations to dominate longer-term planning, inconsistent operational standards, and difficulty in achieving network benefits, since some transportation links may provide benefits to the entire system but not ...

  3. Department of Energy Delivery Commitment Schedules for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, M.C.; Cole, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Delivery Commitment Schedule (DCS) provides Purchasers with the opportunity to inform the DOE of their plans for utilizing their allocations of projected spent nuclear fuel (SNF) acceptance capacity. This information will assist DOE in meeting its contractual waste acceptance responsibilities and in developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). 63 months prior to the delivery date, Purchasers submit a DCS(s) to designate: the range of discharge dates to the SNF the Purchaser desires to deliver, the fuel type, the type of transport cask required, the preferred shipping mode, and the particular site from which the Purchaser desires to deliver in the particular delivery year. The actual number of DCSs submitted by a Purchaser may vary according to the number of allocations they have and the number of DCSs they choose to submit for each allocation. Once a Purchaser submits a DCS, DOE will approve or disapprove the DCS within three months of receipt. The approved DCSs are used by DOE to assist in determining the baseline mix of truck and rail transportation casks. This paper delineates the DCS submittal process as well as the DCSs received to date along with their status and associated DOE commitments

  4. 76 FR 46357 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... that FTA has taken final agency actions by issuing certain approvals for the public transportation...

  5. Can Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) finance transportation projects through bond financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In January 2008 the Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) requested the Transportation : Research Division of the Maine Department of Transportation to conduct research to determine if it is : possible for MPOs to finance projects through ...

  6. Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two...... recommended by the Ministry of Transport. Differentiated in-vehicle values prove to generate an even higher increase in time benefits, but vary depending on the projects....

  7. Transport fire safety engineering in the European Union - project TRANSFEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Maria RADZISZEWSKA-WOLIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Article presents European Research project (of FP7-SST-2008-RTD-1 for Surface transportation TRANSFEU. Projects undertakes to deliver both a reliable toxicity measurement methodology and a holistic fire safety approach for all kind of surface transport. It bases on a harmonized Fire Safety Engineering methodology which link passive fire security with active fire security mode. This all embracing system is the key to attain optimum design solutions in respect to fire safety objectives as an alternative to the prescriptive approach. It will help in the development of innovative solutions (design and products used for the building of the surface transport which will better respect the environment.In order to reach these objectives new toxicity measurement methodology and related classification of materials, new numerical fire simulation tools, fire test methodology (laboratory and full scale and a decisive tool to optimize or explore new design in accordance to the fire safety requirements will be developed.

  8. 76 FR 11554 - Fiscal Year 2010 Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program Project Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Fiscal Year 2010 Public Transportation... Interior for public transportation capital projects, operating costs and planning activities that are... authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users...

  9. Worldwide transportation/energy demand, 1975-2000. Revised Variflex model projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1980-03-01

    The salient features of the transportation-energy relationships that characterize the world of 1975 are reviewed, and worldwide (34 countries) long-range transportation demand by mode to the year 2000 is reviewed. A worldwide model is used to estimate future energy demand for transportation. Projections made by the forecasting model indicate that in the year 2000, every region will be more dependent on petroleum for the transportation sector than it was in 1975. This report is intended to highlight certain trends and to suggest areas for further investigation. Forecast methodology and model output are described in detail in the appendices. The report is one of a series addressing transportation energy consumption; it supplants and replaces an earlier version published in October 1978 (ORNL/Sub-78/13536/1).

  10. Modeling water flow and solute transport in unsaturated zone inside NSRAWD project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, A.; Diaconu, D.; Bucur, C.; Genty, A.

    2015-01-01

    The NSRAWD project (2010-2013) - Numerical Simulations for Radioactive Waste Disposal was initiated under a collaboration agreement between the Institute for Nuclear Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The context of the project was favorable to combine the modeling activities with an experimental part in order to improve and validate the numerical models used so far to simulate water flow and solute transport at Saligny site, Romania. The numerical models developed in the project were refined and validated on new hydrological data gathered between 2010-2012 by a monitoring station existent on site which performs automatic determination of soil water content and matrix potential, as well as several climate parameters (wind, temperature and precipitations). Water flow and solute transport was modeled in transient conditions, by taking into consideration, as well as neglecting the evapotranspiration phenomenon, on the basis of a tracer test launched on site. The determination of dispersivities for solute transport was targeted from the solute plume. The paper presents the main results achieved in the NSRAWD project related to water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated area of the Saligny site. The results indicated satisfactory predictions for the simulation of water flow in the unsaturated area, in steady state and transient conditions. In the case of tracer transport modeling, dispersivity coefficients could not be finally well fitted for the data measured on site and in order to obtain a realistic preview over the values of these parameters, further investigations are recommended. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  11. Appraisal of Transport Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    and robustness measures have been elaborated, which examine the subjective part of the MCDA (in form of criteria weights) and its role in decision support making. For this purpose both deterministic and stochastic sensitivity analyses have been developed. In addition, the focus has been formulating a framework...... into account the interests and preferences of different stakeholders. These various interests and preferences have been revealed by the use of decision conferencing, which engage the stakeholders and provide a common platform for understanding the decision problem. Leading up to this framework, this thesis has......, as robustness of a recommended solution is major concern in the final steps of decision making. As mentioned, the appraisal of transport projects is a complex issues involving conflict of various interests and this calls for new approaches to the practice of appraisal. The presented appraisal framework...

  12. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects, unless... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR...

  13. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  14. Public Private Partnerships: A possible alternative for delivery of infrastructure projects in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bwanali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Africa needs $93 billion annually until 2020 in order to bridge its infrastructure deficit. It is through significant investment in infrastructure development that economic growth and poverty alleviation can be enhanced. However central to all construction projects is an effective and sustainable procurement system. There is a notable shift by some African governments to turn to the private sector to design, build, finance and operate infrastructure facilities previously provided by the public sector in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP’s. As an innovative financing model, PPPs present an opportunity to governments to improve service delivery. Accordingly, this paper focuses on assessing international best practices as to how some developing nations tap into the resources of the private sector in implementing their infrastructure projects. The study is a result of critical review, synthesis and contextualization of relevant academic literature, conference and journal publications. A thorough document review method was employed to assess how some developing countries have institutionalized PPP as part of their development strategy. The paper will be of significant value to senior government officials as understanding the concept and dynamics of PPP will result in accelerated and effective service delivery.

  15. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions

  16. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  17. 48 CFR 47.304 - Determination of delivery terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of delivery terms. 47.304 Section 47.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.304 Determination of delivery...

  18. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  19. Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bost

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring. In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy and representing one of the test beds of the project.

  20. The Danish Rejsekortet (Smart Card for Public Transportation); Project Governance for Failure or Success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter Georg; Riis, Eva

    The authors examine a project regarded as a major failure in Danish public investments: The Smart Card for Public Transportation whose introduction was delayed for 9 years with an estimated cost overrun of 125 million EURO. After 3 years of operation, the Smart Card system only covers seven...... of the nine Danish regions and the discussion about giving up the system is continuing. The authors explore the overall conditions set up for these types of projects in the project governance - how project governance conditions a major public IT project and forms the success evaluation. The focus...... is on the whole cycle from project initiation to long-term use of the project results. Data collection is through documentation as governmental reports and evaluations, for example (Rigsrevisionen, 2011; The Comptroller and Auditor General, 2006; Transport Committee, 2011)and semi-structured interviews...

  1. The Danish Rejsekortet ( Smart Card for Public Transportation ): Project Governance for Failure or Success ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter Georg; Riis, Eva

    The authors examine a project regarded as a major failure in Danish public investments: The Smart Card for Public Transportation whose introduction was delayed for 9 years with an estimated cost overrun of 125 million EURO. After 3 years of operation, the Smart Card system only covers seven...... of the nine Danish regions and the discussion about giving up the system is continuing. The authors explore the overall conditions set up for these types of projects in the project governance - how project governance conditions a major public IT project and forms the success evaluation. The focus...... is on the whole cycle from project initiation to long-term use of the project results. Data collection is through documentation as governmental reports and evaluations, for example (Rigsrevisionen, 2011; The Comptroller and Auditor General, 2006; Transport Committee, 2011)and semi-structured interviews...

  2. HyLights: Preparation of the Large-Scale Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich Bunger; Volker Blandow; Volker Jaensch; Harm Jeeninga; Cristina Morte Gomez

    2006-01-01

    The strategically important project HyLights has been launched by the European Commission in preparation of the large scale demonstration projects in transition to hydrogen as a fuel and long-term renewable energy carrier. HyLights, monitors concluded/ongoing demonstration projects and assists the planning of the next demonstration project phase, putting a clear focus on hydrogen in transport. HyLights is a coordination action that comprises 5 tasks to: 1) develop an assessment framework for concluded/ongoing demonstration projects, 2) analyse individual projects and establish a project database, 3) carry out a gaps analysis and prepare a requirement profile for the next stage projects, 4) assess and identify necessary financial and legal steps in preparation of the new projects, and 5) develop a European Initiative for the Growth of Hydrogen for Transport (EIGHT). (authors)

  3. Stakeholders Assessment of Constraints to Project Delivery in the Nigerian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Tanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The central goal of construction stakeholders is to successfully deliver projects to stated objective (s. However, for decades, construction projects have been plagued by perennial constraints of cost and time overruns, poor quality, and lack of sustainability. The objective of this paper is to identify and assess the constraints to construction project delivery, and to recommend solutions to enhance project performance. This paper adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods to establish the constraints in the Nigerian construction industry. A pilot survey and literature reviewed revealed a total of fifty (50 construction constraints, which were further classified into eight (8 major groups. Well-structured questionnaires were administered to construction stakeholders (client, consultant and contractor in Abuja, the federal capital city of Nigeria. Relative Importance Index (RII was used to analyze the data using Likert scale.  The results suggest that cost/time overrun related factors (inability to reduce project cost, Stakeholders interactive-related factors (inability to establish client value system, Client-related factors (Delay in interim payment and finance problem, and Labor/material-related factors (escalation of material prices and materials quality variability are the most prevalent constraints in the Nigerian construction environment.  To mitigate the effects of these challenges, it is suggested that a formal innovative approach should be used by stakeholders to address the problems of poor communication, high project cost, and delay. Clients should also take measures to provide adequate funding and should promptly honor interim certificates.

  4. Permeation enhancer strategies in transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Harneet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Today, ∼74% of drugs are taken orally and are not found to be as effective as desired. To improve such characteristics, transdermal drug delivery was brought to existence. This delivery system is capable of transporting the drug or macromolecules painlessly through skin into the blood circulation at fixed rate. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive techniques of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are prevention from hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. Human skin surface, as a site of drug application for both local and systemic effects, is the most eligible candidate available. New controlled transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) technologies (electrically-based, structure-based and velocity-based) have been developed and commercialized for the transdermal delivery of troublesome drugs. This review article covers most of the new active transport technologies involved in enhancing the transdermal permeation via effective drug delivery system.

  5. Atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-07-01

    Radiation doses that may have resulted from operations at the Hanford Site are being estimated in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. One of the project subtasks, atmospheric transport, is responsible for estimating the transport, diffusion and deposition of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. This report discusses modeling transport and diffusion in the atmospheric pathway. It is divided into three major sections. The first section of the report presents the atmospheric modeling approach selected following discussion with the Technical Steering Panel that directs the HEDR Project. In addition, the section discusses the selection of the MESOI/MESORAD suite of atmospheric dispersion models that form the basis for initial calculations and future model development. The second section of the report describes alternative modeling approaches that were considered. Emphasis is placed on the family of plume and puff models that are based on Gaussian solution to the diffusion equations. The final portion of the section describes the performance of various models. The third section of the report discusses factors that bear on the selection of an atmospheric transport modeling approach for HEDR. These factors, which include the physical setting of the Hanford Site and the available meteorological data, serve as constraints on model selection. Five appendices are included in the report. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Update on NAC's transportation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Catherine; Patterson, John

    2005-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) was announced in early 2004 by then U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham and was reinforced by an international meeting in Vienna in September 2004 of countries supporting non- proliferation efforts. Under GTRI, the Foreign Research Reactor Program (FRR) will continue and irradiated fuel shipments under the Russian Research Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) will begin. These programs will result in a projected increase in research reactor shipments in the coming years. NAC owns and operates a fleet of eight NAC-LWT casks, which can transport up to 42 MTR fuel elements each. For the past 30 years, NAC has been supporting the Department of Energy with non-proliferation initiatives. Our teams have loaded casks in more than 25 foreign countries. Recent incidents of terrorism and ongoing threats have confirmed the necessity to ensure the security of high-enriched uranium and remove it from sensitive locations. Tremendous government efforts were initiated in 2004 in order to execute intra-governmental agreements for reactor conversion and material removal. As a result of these agreements, NAC will continue to provide its cask lease and transportation services to the Department of Energy. We expect to see very challenging shipments in the coming years. We are committed to these non-proliferation efforts as well as meeting our commercial customers' needs for transportation of irradiated fuel. The recent acquisition of NAC by USEC Inc. strengthens NAC's resources and joins NAC with a corporation with a strong non-proliferation orientation as the U.S. Government's Executive Agent under the highly successful U.S.-Russian Megatons to Megawatts program. This presentation summarizes our planned activities for the coming years with respect to GTRI initiatives. (author)

  7. Role of Transporters in Central Nervous System Drug Delivery and Blood-Brain Barrier Protection: Relevance to Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Brzica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The only approved pharmacologic treatment for ischemic stroke is thrombolysis via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA. A short therapeutic window and serious adverse events (ie, hemorrhage, excitotoxicity greatly limit r-tPA therapy, which indicates an essential need to develop novel stroke treatment paradigms. Transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB provide a significant opportunity to advance stroke therapy via central nervous system delivery of drugs that have neuroprotective properties. Examples of such transporters include organic anion–transporting polypeptides (Oatps and organic cation transporters (Octs. In addition, multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps are transporter targets in brain microvascular endothelial cells that can be exploited to preserve BBB integrity in the setting of stroke. Here, we review current knowledge on stroke pharmacotherapy and demonstrate how endogenous BBB transporters can be targeted for improvement of ischemic stroke treatment.

  8. Detailed assessment of global transport-energy models’ structures and projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sonia; Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Fulton, Lew; Kyle, Page; McCollum, David L.; Miller, Joshua; Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Teter, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on comparing the frameworks and projections from four major global transportation models with considerable transportation technology and behavioral detail. We analyze and compare the modeling frameworks, underlying data, assumptions, intermediate parameters, and projections to identify the sources of divergence or consistency, as well as key knowledge gaps. We find that there are significant differences in the base-year data and key parameters for future projections, especially for developing countries. These include passenger and freight activity, mode shares, vehicle ownership rates, and even energy consumption by mode, particularly for shipping, aviation and trucking. This may be due in part to a lack of previous efforts to do such consistency-checking and “bench-marking.” We find that the four models differ in terms of the relative roles of various mitigation strategies to achieve a 2°C / 450 ppm CO2e target: the economics-based integrated assessment models favor the use of low carbon fuels as the primary mitigation option followed by efficiency improvements, whereas transport-only and expert-based models favor efficiency improvements of vehicles followed by mode shifts. We offer recommendations for future modeling improvements focusing on (1) reducing data gaps; (2) translating the findings from this study into relevant policy implications such as feasibility of current policy goals, additional policy targets needed, regional vs. global reductions, etc.; (3) modeling strata of demographic groups to improve understanding of vehicle ownership levels, travel behavior, and urban vs. rural considerations; and (4) conducting coordinated efforts in aligning input assumptions and historical data, policy analysis, and modeling insights.

  9. A framework for the exergy analysis of future transport pathways: Application for the United Kingdom transport system 2010–2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, Edward A.; Gasparatos, Alexandros; Serrenho, André C.

    2015-01-01

    Exergy analysis has been used to quantify the historical resource use efficiency and environmental impact of transport systems. However, few exergy studies have explored future transport pathways. This study aims to, (a) develop a conceptual framework for the exergy analysis of multiple future transport and electricity pathways, (b) apply this framework to quantify future resource consumption and service delivery patterns, (c) discuss the policy-relevant results that exergy studies of future transport systems can offer. Multiple transport and electricity pathways developed by the UK Government are used to explore changes in energy use, useful work delivery and greenhouse gas emissions. In passenger transport, ambitious electrification results in a 20% increase of useful work delivery, whilst reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption by 65%. For freight, international shipping and aviation, smaller exergy efficiency improvements make useful work delivery and greenhouse gas emissions highly dependent on transport demand. Passenger transport electrification brings a step-change in useful work delivery, which if accompanied by low-carbon electricity, significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The efficiency of low-carbon electricity systems is significant for useful work delivery, but not dominant across the scenarios explored. High penetration of renewables and electrified transport is the most resource-efficient combination in this context. - Highlights: • Develop an exergy analysis framework of future transport pathways and apply it to UK. • Electrification of personal transport brings step change in useful work delivery. • Efficiency of electricity supply becomes significant once transport is electrified. • High electrification increases useful work (+20%) and reduces emissions (−65%). • High penetration of renewables and electrified transport is most resource efficient

  10. Private–public partnerships: A mechanism for freight transport infrastructure delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Ittmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport infrastructure is an indispensable requirement for economic growth, development and prosperity. Public–private partnerships (PPPs, as a mechanism to fund and construct freight transport infrastructure, have been suggested by many in private and public sectors. Objectives: The concept of PPPs is dealt with, and the relevance of this mechanism is expanded upon. It is clear that PPPs in the rail environment present huge challenges and complexities. The objective was to determine whether PPPs are a viable mechanism to fund freight transport infrastructure in South Africa. Method: Experiences with rail PPPs worldwide have shown that many failures occurred implementing these. The challenges and complexities of PPPs, in the freight rail environment, are highlighted together with the benefits, risks and best practices of PPPs. It is shown that suitable policies, legislation and regulations concerning PPPs are in place in South Africa. Results: A proper framework and methodology to proceed should be in place. PPPs take time and are complex. Government involvement remains essential. Firm contractual agreements between parties are essential. Risk handling, risk sharing and the magnitude of risks should be clarified with agreement on where the risks reside. Financial viability, with value for money (VfM and financial benefits for private sector role players are non-negotiable. Conclusion: Appropriate legislation for implementing PPPs must be in place while two further important elements are economic circumstances and proper project execution. Taking all these factors into consideration, the freight transport sector can only benefit from successfully negotiated and implemented PPPs.

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  12. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  13. Risk assessment for construction projects of transport infrastructure objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The paper analyzes and compares different methods of risk assessment for construction projects of transport objects. The management of such type of projects demands application of special probabilistic methods due to large level of uncertainty of their implementation. Risk management in the projects requires the use of probabilistic and statistical methods. The aim of the work is to develop a methodology for using traditional methods in combination with robust methods that allow obtaining reliable risk assessments in projects. The robust approach is based on the principle of maximum likelihood and in assessing the risk allows the researcher to obtain reliable results in situations of great uncertainty. The application of robust procedures allows to carry out a quantitative assessment of the main risk indicators of projects when solving the tasks of managing innovation-investment projects. Calculation of damage from the onset of a risky event is possible by any competent specialist. And an assessment of the probability of occurrence of a risky event requires the involvement of special probabilistic methods based on the proposed robust approaches. Practice shows the effectiveness and reliability of results. The methodology developed in the article can be used to create information technologies and their application in automated control systems for complex projects.

  14. Proceedings of MUTA 2006, the 4. international forum on urban mobility and advanced transportation : alternative energies for the automobile; Actes du colloque MUTA 2006, le 4. forum international sur la mobilite urbaine et les transports avances : alternatives energetiques dans l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    Clean modes of transport were highlighted at this forum with particular reference to the needs of transport operators in meeting urban mobility targets. The constraints facing the delivering of goods in urban centres were identified along with political and financial incentives that can promote research and innovation in the transportation sector. Other topical issues included mass transportation as a means to achieve clean and efficient mobility; the leadership role of governments in establishing policies for sustainable transportation; intelligent transportation systems and their many applications; and, transportation solutions presented by electric vehicles. The technological developments required to meet the needs of buses, tramways and trucks were also identified along with some of the technical and societal barriers to the development of special urban vehicles, such as small delivery vehicles for local transport. New collaborative projects aimed at improving buses and delivery vehicles were highlighted with reference to future prospects for individualized urban mobility. Regulations and incentives that would contribute to fewer cars in urban environments were discussed in terms of the challenge created by the public's resistance to change. Methods to overcome bad habits and to optimize modal transport were recommended. Funding tools for transport innovation in France, Europe and elsewhere were highlighted along with case studies of research and development projects in urban transport. New developments and applications in batteries and hybrid technology for automotive propulsion systems were reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. The projected relative index of consequence equivalence of transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The need exists for defining a unit risk factor to enable analysis to make a proper decision when faced with many options relating to the transport of radioactive materials between sites. A method is discussed for deriving such a factor with reference to the collective dose receivable due to the transport of radioactive material incidental to the production of one GWe.a of nuclear power. This quantity would enable the analyst to determine the projected relative index of consequence equivalence (PRICE) for the transport of various types of radioactive materials. (author)

  16. Summer transport patterns affecting the Mohave Power Project emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, R.J.; Hoffer, T.E.; Green, M.C.; Walsh, P.A. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The Mohave Power Project (MPP) is an isolated 1580-MW coal-fired electric generating plant located in Laughlin, NV. Laughlin is a small desert gambling town situated in the lower Colorado River Valley near the junction of three states: Nevada, California, and Arizona. The location of the MPP is approximately 155 km southwest of the western end of the Grand Canyon National Park and about 240 km southwest from the Grand Canyon Village. This paper describes the summer transport patterns of the MPP emittants using illustrated examples from the Project MOHAVE (measurements of Haze and Visual Effects) 1992 summer intensive study. The intensive study lasted 50 days from mid-July through August and encompassed the major meteorological patterns associated with southwestern US summer meteorology. The MPP emittants were transported towards the Grand Canyon (north to the northeast) during more than 80% of the total hours. Airflow as from the south most of the time due to a combination of the semi-permanent thermal low, differential heating between the Gulf of California and lower Colorado River Valley, and upslope heating of the southern and western slopes of the nearby Colorado Plateau. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Accidents on vessels transporting liquid gases and responder's concerns : the Galerne Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabioc'h, F.; De Castelet, D.; Penelon, T.; Pagnon, S.; Peuch, A.; Bonnardot, F.; Duhart, J.; Drevet, D.; Estiez, C.; Dernat, M.; Hermand, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the French Ministry of Research financed the Galerne project to provide responders at sea with relevant information on the hazards posed by liquid gas chemicals on vessels disabled at sea. Thirty-one chemicals are transported as liquids in order to facilitate handling and lower transport costs. Temperature and pressure parameters are manipulated in order to generate the liquefaction of the gases. Members of the Galerne project are producers and handlers of liquefied gases and are experts in atmospheric modelling, ship structure, risk assessment, hazards assessment and operations. Several simulations and experiments were performed in an effort to produce operational information for responders and headquarters. For practical and financial reasons, it was not possible to consider all 31 chemicals described in the IGC code. Only 4 liquid gases were chosen for the Galerne project, notably methane liquefied natural gas (LNG); propane LNG; ammonia; and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). They were chosen on the basis of their transport characteristics and behaviour. This paper outlined the physical characteristics of the transported products verses their volume in standard conditions; the type of ship dedicated to transporting gases in liquid forms; and various response phases. It also included a brief review of several ship incidents and accidents. It was concluded that as far as the LNG carriers are concerns, a few accidents at sea have occurred in more than 28 years, but no major accidents involving the cargo have been reported. Handling LNG at terminals can lead to serious accidents. Accidents have occurred at sea, but without any accidental spillage of cargo. It was concluded that response teams on-board disabled liquefied gas carriers need to know the main characteristics of the cargo and the potential hazards. 3 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  19. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  20. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  1. The Apollo experiment for document delivery via satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Dutch participation possibilities in the Apollo document delivery project, wishes and idea's of potential user and tender groups, and plans and activities of Dutch institutes and companies, are surveyed. The Apollo storage and transport system, demand and administration network, potential markets, and subject areas of the documents are investigated. Utilization areas (scientific, technical, administration, and business information) are listed. High tariffs and the lack of necessary provision make a direct participation strategy impossible. However, in the experimental phase, Dutch companies must be allowed to contribute in technical developments and availability of organizational and technical facilities must be stimulated.

  2. Poly(amido amine) dendrimers in oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been extensively investigated for oral delivery applications due to their ability to translocate across the gastrointestinal epithelium. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the evaluation of PAMAM dendrimers as oral drug delivery carriers. Specifically, toxicity, mechanisms of transepithelial transport, models of the intestinal epithelial barrier including isolated human intestinal tissue model, detection of dendrimers, and surface modification are discussed. We also highlight evaluation of various PAMAM dendrimer-drug conjugates for their ability to transport across gastrointestinal epithelium for improved oral bioavailability. In addition, current challenges and future trends for clinical translation of PAMAM dendrimers as carriers for oral delivery are discussed.

  3. Accelerating the Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Through the Implementation of a Projectized and Delivery-Focused Organization - 13074

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Brian; Mellor, Russ; Michaluk, Craig [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    and positive impacts on schedule and delivery. A revised organizational structure was implemented in two phases, starting 2011 April 1, to align WL staff with the common goal of decommissioning the site through the direction of the WL Decommissioning Project General Manager. On 2011 September 1, the second phase of the reorganization was implemented and WL Decommissioning staff was organized under five Divisions: Programs and Regulatory Compliance, General Site Services, Decommissioning Strategic Planning, Nuclear Facilities and Project Delivery. A new Mission, Vision and Objectives were developed for the project, and several productivity enhancements are being implemented. These include the use of an integrated and fully re-sourced Site Wide Schedule that is updated and reviewed at Plan-of-the-Week meetings, improved work distribution throughout the year, eliminating scheduling 'push' mentality, project scoreboards, work planning implementation, lean practices and various process improvement initiatives. A revised Strategic Plan is under development that reflects the improved project delivery capabilities. As a result of these initiatives, and a culture change towards a projectized approach, the decommissioning schedule will be advanced by approximately 10 years. (authors)

  4. Justification of the project a network of freight terminals unitized cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilesaliev D.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the question of Uzbekistan in promoting the development of international transport in supply chains. The development of transport infrastructure to ensure timely delivery of goods is one of the main tasks in supply chain management. The aim is to study of the project network terminal unitized cargo Uzbekistan in supply chains. Methods the study is based on analysis of existing methods and techniques of Russian scientists in the field of place-ment of objects. The method of searching the most rational location of logistics facility in the supply chain. Also pre-justified the project network terminal unitized cargo in Uzbekistan. Given the state of the problems and prospects of transport logistics of Uzbekistan, the developed method can be used by experts when performing the supporting calcula-tions location of logistic objects.

  5. Exploring the knowledge ‘base’ of practitioners in the delivery of sustainable regeneration projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Akotia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainable regeneration has been recognised as being of major economic and social concern in the world. In the UK for instance, government has initiated a number of policies and evaluation methods to deal with some of the environmental problems associated with regeneration projects. However, the post construction evaluation of these projects has often resulted in them being seen as not achieving their set objectives. Attempts aimed at evaluating the impact of sustainability by built environment practitioners have primarily been limited to their assessment of the projects’ potential environmental impacts, with the associated socio-economic impacts being neglected. There has not been any well-defined built environment research that has been able to deal holistically with the broader issues of sustainability in terms of benefits/impacts of the regeneration projects to the communities concerned. The findings of an exploratory study that adopted a semi-structured interview approach for data collection, to explore the knowledge and understanding of fifteen practitioners who are often involved in the delivery of these projects are presented. The findings reveal a lack of knowledge and understanding of sustainability as well as structured mechanism/practices for evaluating the socio-economic sustainability factors in relation to regeneration projects.

  6. Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Singer, M.

    2017-09-01

    The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

  7. Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

  8. Method for delivery of small molecules and proteins across the cell wall of algae using molecular transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geihe, Erika; Trantow, Brian; Wender, Paul; Hyman, Joel M.; Parvin, Bahram

    2017-11-14

    The introduction of tools to study, control or expand the inner-workings of algae has been slow to develop. Provided are embodiments of a molecular method based on guanidinium-rich molecular transporters (GR-MoTrs) for bringing molecular cargos into algal cells. The methods of the disclosure have been shown to work in wild-type algae that have an intact cell wall. Developed using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this method is also successful with less studied algae, including Neochloris oleoabundans and Scenedesmus dimorphus, thus providing a new and versatile tool for algal research and modification. The method of delivering a cargo compound to an algal cell comprises contacting an algal cell with a guanidinium-rich delivery vehicle comprising a guanidinium-rich molecular transporter (GR-MoTr) linked to a cargo compound desired to be delivered to the algal cell, whereby the guanidinium-rich molecular transporter can traverse the algal cell wall, thereby delivering the cargo compound to the algal cell.

  9. Ship Routing with Pickup and Delivery for a Maritime Oil Transportation System: MIP Model and Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius P. Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a ship routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows for maritime oil transportation, motivated by the production and logistics activities of an oil company operating in the Brazilian coast. The transportation costs from offshore platforms to coastal terminals are an important issue in the search for operational excellence in the oil industry, involving operations that demand agile and effective decision support systems. This paper presents an optimization approach to address this problem, based on a mixed integer programming (MIP model and a novel and exploratory application of two tailor-made MIP heuristics, based on relax-and-fix and time decomposition procedures. The model minimizes fuel costs of a heterogeneous fleet of oil tankers and costs related to freighting contracts. The model also considers company-specific constraints for offshore oil transportation. Computational experiments based on the mathematical models and the related MIP heuristics are presented for a set of real data provided by the company, which confirm the potential of optimization-based methods to find good solutions for problems of moderate sizes.

  10. WEpods project : Finding the potential for automated road public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homem De Almeida Rodriguez Correia, G.

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle automation is developing rapidly, nevertheless a lot of wor k is still lacking, as we are not yet at a point where vehicles are able to drive themselves on a road without a human behind the wheel. One of the possibilities of automation is its use as public transport. In theWEpods project,

  11. State write-ups on EERE funded projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitch, J.; Klareich, F.; Surek, D.

    1997-03-04

    Short summaries are presented on 43 projects funded under the hydrogen program in FY 1997 in California, Colorado, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. The studies involve hydrogen production processes, hydrogen storage and delivery systems, environmental impacts, hydrogen fuel cells, information dissemination, marketing research, separation processes, transportation safety, materials corrosion and stability, hydrogen recovery at refineries, and infrastructure planning.

  12. Results from transient transport experiments in Rijnhuizen tokamak project: Heat convection, transport barriers and 'non-local' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Gorini, G.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Kloe, J. de; Lopez Cardozo, N.J.; Schilham, A.M.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of experimental transport studies performed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) using transient transport techniques in both Ohmic and ECH dominated plasmas is presented. Modulated Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) and oblique pellet injection (OPI) have been used to induce electron temperature (T e ) perturbations at different radial locations. These were used to probe the electron transport barriers observed near low order rational magnetic surfaces in ECH dominated steady-state RTP plasmas. Layers of inward electron heat convection in off-axis ECH plasmas were detected with modulated ECH. This suggests that RTP electron transport barriers consist of heat pinch layers rather than layers of low thermal diffusivity. In a different set of experiments, OPI triggered a transient rise of the core T e due to an increase of the T e gradient in the 1< q<2 region. These transient transport barriers were probed with modulated ECH and found to be due to a transient drop of the electron heat diffusivity, except for off-axis ECH plasmas, where a transient inward pinch is also observed. Transient transport studies in RTP could not solve this puzzling interplay between heat diffusion and convection in determining an electron transport barrier. They nevertheless provided challenging experimental evidence both for theoretical modelling and for future experiments. (author)

  13. Strategic Design for Delivery with Linked Transportation Assets : Trucks and Drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Home delivery by drones as an alternative or complement to traditional delivery by trucks is attracting considerable attention from major retailers and services, as well as startups. While drone delivery may offer considerable economic savings, the f...

  14. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi

    2012-01-01

    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  15. 27 CFR 28.106 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery. 28.106 Section 28.106 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.106 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of tax under this subpart shall be...

  16. The Rise, the Fall, and ... : The Emerging Recovery of Project Finance in Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Strong, John

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in emerging financial markets have dramatically changed the appetite for (and terms of) transport infrastructure projects. As a result of defaults in Asia and Russia and devaluations in Asia, Brazil, and Russia, political and currency and exchange risk premia have increased dramatically. Given large needs for sovereign debt financing, infrastructure project finance will...

  17. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  18. The rise, the fall, and ... : the emerging recovery of project finance transport

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Strong, John

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in emerging financial markets have dramatically changed the appetite for (and terms of) transport infrastructure projects. As a result of defaults in Asia and Russia and devaluations in Asia, Brazil, and Russia, political and currency and exchange risk premia have increased dramatically. Given large needs for sovereign debt financing, infrastructure project finance will be seeking guarantees at the same time as governments are issuing primary securities. Large portfolio ou...

  19. Improving family planning services delivery and uptake: experiences from the "Reversing the Stall in Fertility Decline in Western Kenya Project".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Mutua, Michael; Athero, Sherine; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Ezeh, Alex

    2017-10-10

    In this paper, we reflect on our experiences of implementing a multipronged intervention to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The project used family planning as its entry point and was implemented in two high fertility counties-Busia and Siaya in Kenya. The intervention, implemented by a seven-member consortium, involved: family planning services delivery; regular training of service providers to deliver high quality services; monitoring and evaluation; strengthening of commodity chain delivery and forecasting; school-based and out-of-school based sexuality education; and advocacy and stakeholder engagements at the community, county and national levels. Over a 5-year period, the project contributed to raising demand for family planning considerably, evidenced in fertility decline. It also improved the capacity of family planning services providers, increased commitment and awareness of county government and other community stakeholders on the importance of investments in family planning. Our collaborations with organisations interested in sexual and reproductive health issues substantially enhanced the consortium's ability to increase demand for, and supply of family planning commodities. These collaborations are proving useful in the continuity and sustainability of project achievements.

  20. Challenges in the delivery of nutrition services to hospital discharged older adults: the community connections demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Akobundu, Ucheoma; Coray, Kevin; Netterville, Linda

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the effort necessary to transform the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) into core programs within an integrated health care delivery system that serves hospital-discharged older adults in order to assist them in reintegrating into the community. Six OAANPs in six states were funded and provided technical assistance to develop coalitions with hospitals and community organizations. Each demonstration site was unique and faced many challenges in reaching out to a hospitalized vulnerable population. This project also provided opportunities to try out new initiatives and examine their sustainability within the community.

  1. The Implementation of Transportation and Transit Projects on the Basis of Public-Private Partnership in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolyevich Tsevtkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of the implementation of the current transportation and transit projects on the basis of the institution of public-private partnership in Russia. This work is a continuation of the study of the theory and practice of the application of public-private partnership in the investment projects aimed at the development and realization of the transportation and transit potential of the country. On the methodological basis of evolutionary and institutional economics, historical approach, system-oriented analysis and the theory of firms, the main current projects for the development of Russian transportation and transit system using public-private partnership are considered. They are the construction of a high-speed line of Moscow — Kazan with subsequent extension to the Chinese border; functioning of the transport and logistics in the Chelyabinsk region; infrastructure of transit cargo by Northern Sea Route; participation of foreign investors in the development of Russian seaports and sea gates. It is shown that the competitive advantage of transit traffic by a particular route requires more traversing speed of cargo with a minimum of stops, handling and overloads in the way. Revenue from transportation and transit potential implementation can be comparable to the size of the resource rent in the case of the development in Russia of the production and transit sector of the economy, and not only of a transit one . In this regard, the emphasis is placed on the determination of the possibility and necessity of organizational changes associated with the development of a large public-private transportation company, able to compete with global sea container services of the route of Asia — Europe. The main directions and activities under the proposed national project «Development of transit economy in Russia: Uniting Eurasia» and its subprogram «Creation of innovative rolling stock for container and multimodal

  2. Di/tri-peptide transporters as drug delivery targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Brodin, Birger

    2003-01-01

    -dependent, and the transporters thus belong to the Proton-dependent Oligopeptide Transporter (POT)-family. The transporters are not drug targets per se, however due to their uniquely broad substrate specificity; they have proved to be relevant drug targets at the level of drug transport. Drug molecules such as oral active beta....../tri-peptide transporters from vesicular storages 3) changes in gene transcription/mRNA stability. The aim of the present review is to discuss physiological, patho-physiological and drug-induced regulation of di/tri-peptide transporter mediated transport....

  3. Results of the MITRA project: Monitoring and intervention for the transportation of dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planas, E.; Pastor, E.; Presutto, F.; Tixier, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the MITRA (monitoring and intervention for the transportation of dangerous goods) project was to prototype a new operational system for monitoring the transportation of dangerous goods in Europe based on regional responsibilities. This concept, based on systems used in air traffic control, aims to provide civil security centres with real-time knowledge of the position and contents of dangerous vehicles circulating in their area of responsibility, and, in the event of a dangerous situation, to issue warnings, alerts and crisis management information, thereby allowing intervention teams to react immediately with maximum safety. The project was funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme (STREP - specific targeted research project - under the Information Society Technologies priority). It started on 1 September 2004 and ended on 31 October 2006. This paper presents the results of this project and the conclusions derived from the field tests carried out in Germany and in the French/Spanish border region in order to test the proposed operational system

  4. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  5. IP over optical multicasting for large-scale video delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei

    2007-11-01

    In the IPTV systems, multicasting will play a crucial role in the delivery of high-quality video services, which can significantly improve bandwidth efficiency. However, the scalability and the signal quality of current IPTV can barely compete with the existing broadcast digital TV systems since it is difficult to implement large-scale multicasting with end-to-end guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in packet-switched IP network. China 3TNet project aimed to build a high performance broadband trial network to support large-scale concurrent streaming media and interactive multimedia services. The innovative idea of 3TNet is that an automatic switched optical networks (ASON) with the capability of dynamic point-to-multipoint (P2MP) connections replaces the conventional IP multicasting network in the transport core, while the edge remains an IP multicasting network. In this paper, we will introduce the network architecture and discuss challenges in such IP over Optical multicasting for video delivery.

  6. Operational challenges in conducting a community-based technology-enabled mental health services delivery model for rural India: Experiences from the SMART Mental Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Pallab K; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha

    2018-01-01

    Background: There are large gaps in the delivery of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries such as India, and the problems are even more acute in rural settings due to lack of resources, remoteness, and lack of infrastructure, amongst other factors. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Project was conceived as a mental health services delivery model using technology-based solutions for rural India. This paper reports on the operational strategies used to facilitate the implementation of the intervention. Method: Key components of the SMART Mental Health Project included delivering an anti-stigma campaign, training of primary health workers in screening, diagnosing and managing stress, depression and increased suicide risk and task sharing of responsibilities in delivering care; and using mobile technology based electronic decision support systems to support delivery of algorithm based care for such disorders. The intervention was conducted in 42 villages across two sites in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. A pre-post mixed methods evaluation was done, and in this paper operational challenges are reported. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative results from the evaluation from one site covering about 5000 adults showed that the intervention was feasible and acceptable, and initial results indicated that it was beneficial in increasing access to mental health care and reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. A number of strategies were initiated in response to operational challenges to ensure smoother conduct of the project and facilitated the project to be delivered as envisaged. Conclusions: The operational strategies initiated for this project were successful in ensuring the delivery of the intervention. Those, coupled with other more systematic processes have informed the researchers to understand key processes that need to be in place to develop a more robust study, that could eventually be

  7. Delivery improvements for CANDU projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen Yu; Ken Hedges

    1998-01-01

    Future CANDU design will continue to meet emerging design and performance requirements as expected by the operating utilities, and will integrate new technologies into both the product features and work processes. Elements of this risk reduction strategy include feedback of lessons learned from operating plants, project experiences from previous projects, and replication of successful systems and equipment. Project implementation risk is minimized by up-front engineering and licensing prior to contract start. Enhanced competitiveness of the CANDU products is ensured by incorporating improvements based on updated technology. This paper summarizes the strategy used to enhance competitiveness of the CANDU products and the measures introduced to minimize risk during project implementation. This strategy provides a balance between innovation and proven designs; and between the desire for safety and operational improvements and the cost to achieve the improvements

  8. Accelerated delivery of hydro electrical projects; Livraison acceleree des projets hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjannet, Hassine; Bechard, Normand

    2010-09-15

    Hydro electrical projects, as other energy projects, must transform in order to adapt to current market demands. This article describes the solutions developed during the construction of the Eastmain-1-A power plant in order to speed up its delivery and to reduce the costs. These solutions include, more comprehensive land investigations, the simplification of excavation contours, the refit or elimination of certain work spaces, the addition of a second access during construction, the simplification of the formworks, the improvement of work zones access and especially the use of prefabricated elements. [French] Les projets hydroelectriques, comme les autres projets energetiques, doivent subir des transformations pour s'adapter aux exigences actuelles du marche. Cet article presente les solutions mises en oeuvre pour la construction de la Centrale de l'Eastmain-1-A en vue d'en accelerer la livraison et d'en reduire le cout. Ces solutions comprennent, entre autres des investigations de terrain plus approfondies, la simplification des contours d'excavations, le reamenagement ou l'elimination de certains locaux, l'addition d'un deuxieme acces pendant la construction, la simplification des coffrages, l'amelioration des acces aux zones de travail et surtout l'utilisation d'elements prefabriques.

  9. The Implementation of Transportation and Transit Projects on the Basis of Public-Private Partnership in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Valery Anatolyevich Tsevtkov; Kobilzhon Khodzhievich Zoidov; Alexey Anatolyevich Medkov

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the main directions of the implementation of the current transportation and transit projects on the basis of the institution of public-private partnership in Russia. This work is a continuation of the study of the theory and practice of the application of public-private partnership in the investment projects aimed at the development and realization of the transportation and transit potential of the country. On the methodological basis of evolutionary and institu...

  10. The 2055 freight transportation system and the impact of near term rail improvements on TXDOT planning project management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is the sponsor of the project. The : project goals are to: (1) produce a framework for Texas freight transportation system in : 2055 and (2) develop a set of rail planning recommendations that will be...

  11. Investigation of the Relationship between Green Design and Project Delivery Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilec, Melissa M.; Ries, Robert J.

    2008-04-24

    The selection of the project delivery method (PDM) for any project is critical--it establishes communication, coordination, and contractual issues between the owner, contractor, and designer. With an increase in the number of green design projects, understanding the relationship between the PDM and green design is paramount to project and contract management. It is reasonable to assume that a positive relationship between green design and design-build (DB) exists since both theoretically are intended to foster an integrated, holistic, and collaborative project. This research examines the relationship between the design-bid-build (DBB), construction management (CM), and DB PDMs and green design with the goal of establishing best practices and identifying potential synergies between them. The research collected information by conducting primarily telephone interviews with approximately twenty-five individuals, including owners, contractors, and designers involved in completed green design projects, mainly in the public sector. The interviews developed a general understanding of the current state of knowledge and experience and not a rigorous quantitative analysis. Upon completion of the interviews, the tabulated results were summarized and green project characteristics and project-PDM interactions emerged. Existing published research was evaluated to reveal aspects of PDMs independent of green design. Best practices were ascertained by combining information from the interviews and published research. Best practices are as follows: (1) Project implementation features--The decision to use DB as PDM on green design or other projects should be based on the specific project features; e.g., well-defined scope and adequate owner staffing. DB will not produce successful results on all projects. (2) Collaboration--Project team collaboration early in the design and construction process is an important aspect of green projects, and collaboration was considered somewhat more

  12. Polímeros usados como sistemas de transporte de princípios ativos Polymers for drug delivery systems formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Severino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os diferentes sistemas de transporte têm evidenciado potencial terapêutico para uma grande variedade de princípios ativos, satisfazendo vários requisitos, como a prevenção da sua eliminação rápida do organismo, a redução da sua toxicidade sistêmica, a estabilização e a otimização do seu metabolismo, e o direcionamento específico ao local alvo e os mecanismos de defesa. No entanto, têm sido reconhecidos vários outros desafios associados à liberação específica do princípio ativo ao local alvo, pelo que, para ultrapassar os obstáculos químicos e biológicos, a seleção do polímero utilizado para a preparação do sistema de transporte é de importância crucial. O presente trabalho apresenta um relato sobre os principais polímeros naturais e sintéticos utilizados para a preparação de sistemas de transporte de princípios ativos in vivo.The different carrier systems have shown therapeutic potential for a wide variety of drugs, satisfying multiple requirements, such as prevention of rapid elimination, reducing toxicity, promoting stabilization, optimization of metabolism, drug delivery and defense mechanisms. However, it has been recognized several other challenges associated with the specific release of actives in drug delivery. Therefore, to overcome chemical and biological obstacles, the selection of the polymer used to prepare the transport system is crucial. This paper presents a report on the main natural and synthetic polymers used in the preparation of drug carrier systems in vivo.

  13. Transport fuel demand responses to fuel price and income projections : Comparison of integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Emmerling, J.; Daly, H.; Kitous, A.; McCollum, D. L.; Saadi Failali, N.

    Income and fuel price pathways are key determinants in projections of the energy system in integrated assessment models. In recent years, more details have been added to the transport sector representation in these models. To better understand the model dynamics, this manuscript analyses transport

  14. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation for the transport beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Jia, S. B.; Varisano, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Attili, A.; Marchetto, F.; Russo, G. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    In the framework of the ELIMED project, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to study the physical transport of charged particles generated by laser-target interactions and to preliminarily evaluate fluence and dose distributions. An energy selection system and the experimental setup for the TARANIS laser facility in Belfast (UK) have been already simulated with the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) MC toolkit. Preliminary results are reported here. Future developments are planned to implement a MC based 3D treatment planning in order to optimize shots number and dose delivery.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation for the transport beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Jia, S. B.; Varisano, A.; Attili, A.; Marchetto, F.; Russo, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Carpinelli, M.; Tramontana, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the ELIMED project, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to study the physical transport of charged particles generated by laser-target interactions and to preliminarily evaluate fluence and dose distributions. An energy selection system and the experimental setup for the TARANIS laser facility in Belfast (UK) have been already simulated with the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) MC toolkit. Preliminary results are reported here. Future developments are planned to implement a MC based 3D treatment planning in order to optimize shots number and dose delivery

  19. Transmembrane transport of peptide type compounds: prospects for oral delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, E.; Crison, J.; Amidon, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis and delivery of potential therapeutic peptides and peptidomimetic compounds has been the focus of intense research over the last 10 years. While it is widely recognized that numerous limitations apply to oral delivery of peptides, some of the limiting factors have been addressed and their mechanisms elucidated, which has lead to promising strategies. This article will briefly summarize the challenges, results and current approaches of oral peptide delivery and give some insight on future strategies. The barriers determining peptide bioavailability after oral administration are intestinal membrane permability, size limitations, intestinal and hepatic metabolism and in some cases solubility limitations. Poor membrane permeabilities of hydrophilic peptides might be overcome by structurally modifying the compounds, thus increasing their membrane partition characteristics and/or their affinity to carrier proteins. Another approach is the site-specific delivery of the peptide to the most permeable parts of the intestine. The current view on size limitation for oral drug delivery has neglected partition considerations. Recent studies suggest that compounds with a molecular weight up to 4000 might be significantly absorbed, assuming appropriate partition behavior and stability. Metabolism, probably the most significant factor in the absorption fate of peptides, might be controlled by coadministration of competitive enzyme inhibitors, structural modifications and administration of the compound as a well absorbed prodrug that is converted into the therapeutically active agent after its absorption. For some peptides poor solubility might present a limitation to oral absorption, an issue that has been addressed by mechanistically defining and therefore improving formulation parameters. Effective oral peptide delivery requires further development in understanding these complex mechanisms in order to maximize the therapeutic potential of this class of compounds.

  20. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  1. EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF FINANCING TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS REALIZED IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Vasiliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the basic approach to evaluating efficiency of financing transport infrastructure projects realized in the framework of public private partnership. The main ways of the project realization are identified, and their main advantages and disadvantages are described. Detailed elaboration and structuring of infrastructure projects are grounded.

  2. Zebrafish as a visual and dynamic model to study the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across the biological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Tongkai; Yi, Xiang; Wang, Ruibing; Zhao, Haitao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Xueqing; Zheng, Ying

    2017-08-01

    With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations. Based on our previously established coumarin 6 nanocrystals (C6-NCs), which have two different sizes, the present study investigates the transportation of C6-NCs across four biological barriers, including the chorion, blood brain barrier (BBB), blood retinal barrier (BRB) and gastrointestinal (GI) barrier, using zebrafish embryos and larvae as in vivo models. The biodistribution and elimination of C6 from different organs were quantified in adult zebrafish. The results showed that compared to 200nm C6-NCs, 70nm C6-NCs showed better permeability across these biological barriers. A FRET study suggested that intact C6-NCs together with the free dissolved form of C6 were absorbed into the larval zebrafish. More C6 was accumulated in different organs after incubation with small sized NCs via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis in adult zebrafish, which is consistent with the findings from in vitro cell monolayers and the zebrafish larvae model. C6-NCs could be gradually eliminated in each organ over time. This study demonstrated the successful application of zebrafish as a simple and dynamic model to simultaneously assess the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across several biological barriers and biodistribution in different organs, especially in the brain, which could be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug and delivery system screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  3. Project U-Turn: increasing active transportation in Jackson, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrink, David S; McMunn, Randall; Panken, Sarah

    2009-12-01

    Jackson, Michigan, is a medium-sized city suffering from a bad economy and obesity-related health issues. Nearly 20% of the 36,000 residents live below the poverty line. It is a relatively young city (median age of 30 years) with a mixed ethnicity (20% black, 73% white, 4% Hispanic). The city offers many structured, active recreational opportunities, but has not integrated physical activity into daily life. Project U-Turn aimed to increase active transportation (e.g., biking, walking, and transit use) through an integrated approach to Active Living by Design's community action model and the Michigan Safe Routes to School model. Resources were focused on active living promotions and programs; partnership meetings were the source of changes in policy and physical projects. Each initiative was designed to introduce each of the 5Ps (preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects) to build support for the partnership's overall work. The partnership collected snapshot data of community walking and biking behavior, percentage of students walking to school, participation in events and programs, and new physical projects. Jackson saw a vast improvement in physical infrastructure and policy and a related increase in walking and biking in the community. The project engaged in purposeful partnership building to implement effective programs and promotions that built support for policy and physical projects. Limited resources were best used by encouraging partners to contribute and coordinate activities using existing staff, funding, and resources. Jackson has seen a shift toward awareness of the benefits of active living on community health, economic development, and environmental awareness.

  4. The 2055 freight transportation system and the impact of near term rail improvements on TxDOT planning : project management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is the sponsor of the project. The : project goals are to: (1) produce a framework for Texas freight transportation system in : 2055 and (2) develop a set of rail planning recommendations that will be...

  5. Oral delivery of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based...

  6. Improving value of travel time savings estimation for more effective transportation project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Estimates of value of time (VOT) and value of travel time savings (VTTS) are critical elements in benefitcost : analyses of transportation projects and in developing congestion pricing policies. In addition, : differences in VTTS among various modes ...

  7. LOGISTIC SYSTEM OF LOAD DELIVERY AND QUALITY OF ITS OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Drozdovskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an opportunity for obtaining a competitive advantage by a transport and dispatch service company in the market of transport services while establishing a logistic system of load delivery. A model of delivery system, an universal scheme of system designing for every specific case are presented and also indices for evaluation of its operational quality are proposed in the paper.

  8. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jao, Dave; Xue, Ye; Medina, Jethro; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based pol...

  9. Accidents on vessels transporting liquid gases and responder's concerns : the Galerne Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabioc' h, F. [Centre de Documentation, de Recherche et d' Experimentations, Brest (France); De Castelet, D. [Veritas, Paris (France); Penelon, T.; Pagnon, S. [Ineris, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Peuch, A.; Bonnardot, F. [Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Duhart, J. [GdF-Suez, Paris (France); Drevet, D. [French Ministry of Transport, Paris (France). Sea Accident Investigation Bureau; Cerutti, C. [French Navy, Brest (France); Estiez, C. [French Civil Security, Paris (France); Dernat, M. [Total Gaz and New Energy, Paris (France); Hermand, J.C. [Total PetroChemicals, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the French Ministry of Research financed the Galerne project to provide responders at sea with relevant information on the hazards posed by liquid gas chemicals on vessels disabled at sea. Thirty-one chemicals are transported as liquids in order to facilitate handling and lower transport costs. Temperature and pressure parameters are manipulated in order to generate the liquefaction of the gases. Members of the Galerne project are producers and handlers of liquefied gases and are experts in atmospheric modelling, ship structure, risk assessment, hazards assessment and operations. Several simulations and experiments were performed in an effort to produce operational information for responders and headquarters. For practical and financial reasons, it was not possible to consider all 31 chemicals described in the IGC code. Only 4 liquid gases were chosen for the Galerne project, notably methane liquefied natural gas (LNG); propane LNG; ammonia; and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). They were chosen on the basis of their transport characteristics and behaviour. This paper outlined the physical characteristics of the transported products verses their volume in standard conditions; the type of ship dedicated to transporting gases in liquid forms; and various response phases. It also included a brief review of several ship incidents and accidents. It was concluded that as far as the LNG carriers are concerns, a few accidents at sea have occurred in more than 28 years, but no major accidents involving the cargo have been reported. Handling LNG at terminals can lead to serious accidents. Accidents have occurred at sea, but without any accidental spillage of cargo. It was concluded that response teams on-board disabled liquefied gas carriers need to know the main characteristics of the cargo and the potential hazards. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. 27 CFR 28.124 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of... Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.124 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of wines withdrawn without payment of tax under...

  11. Assessment of Large Transport Infrastructure Projects: the CBA-DK model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to present a newly developed decision support model to assess transport infrastructure projects: CBA-DK. The model makes use of conventional cost-benefit analysis resulting in aggregated single point estimates and quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation...... resulting in interval results. The embedded uncertainties within traditional CBA such as ex-ante based investment costs and travel time savings are of particular concern. The methodological approach has been to apply suitable probability distribution functions on the uncertain parameters, thus resulting...... in feasibility risk assessment moving from point to interval results. Decision support as illustrated in this paper aims to provide assistance in the development and ultimately the choice of action while accounting for the uncertainties surrounding transport appraisal schemes. The modelling framework...

  12. Assessment of Large Transport Infrastructure Projects: The CBA-DK Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2009-01-01

    use of both deterministic and stochastic based information. Decision support as illustrated in this paper aims to provide assistance in the development and ultimately the choice of action, while accounting for the uncertainties surrounding transport appraisal schemes. The modelling framework......This paper presents a newly developed decision support model to assess transport infrastructure projects: CBA-DK. The model combines use of conventional cost–benefit analysis to produce aggregated single point estimates, with quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation to produce...... interval results. The embedded uncertainties within traditional CBA such as ex-ante based investment costs and travel time savings are of particular concern. The paper investigates these two impacts in terms of the Optimism Bias principle which is used to take account of the underestimation of construction...

  13. Model for determining and optimizing delivery performance in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechete Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance means achieving organizational objectives regardless of their nature and variety, and even overcoming them. Improving performance is one of the major goals of any company. Achieving the global performance means not only obtaining the economic performance, it is a must to take into account other functions like: function of quality, delivery, costs and even the employees satisfaction. This paper aims to improve the delivery performance of an industrial system due to their very low results. The delivery performance took into account all categories of performance indicators, such as on time delivery, backlog efficiency or transport efficiency. The research was focused on optimizing the delivery performance of the industrial system, using linear programming. Modeling the delivery function using linear programming led to obtaining precise quantities to be produced and delivered each month by the industrial system in order to minimize their transport cost, satisfying their customers orders and to control their stock. The optimization led to a substantial improvement in all four performance indicators that concern deliveries.

  14. Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential for Targeting Human Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etame, Arnold B.

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge to the advancement and application of systemic anti-cancer therapeutics into the central nervous system. The structural and physiological delivery constraints of the BBB significantly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, thereby making systemic administration a non-viable option for the vast majority of chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the lack of specificity of conventional systemic chemotherapy when applied towards malignant brain tumors remains a major shortcoming. Hence novel therapeutic strategies that focus both on targeted and enhanced delivery across the BBB are warranted. In recent years nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as attractive vehicles for efficient delivery of targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provide a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, the permeation of AuNPs across the BBB has not been well characterized, and hence is a potential limitation for successful application of AuNP-based therapeutics within the central nervous system (CNS). In this dissertation, we designed and characterized AuNPs and assessed the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical and biological properties of AuNPs. We established a size-dependent permeation profile with respect to core size as well as PEG length when AuNPs were assessed through a transport-permissive in-vitro BBB. This study was the first of its kind to systematically examine the influence of design on permeation of AuNPs through transport-permissive BBB. Given the significant delivery limitations through the non-transport

  15. Experimental methods and transport models for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bingmei M

    2012-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic barrier essential for maintaining the micro-environment of the brain. Although the special anatomical features of the BBB determine its protective role for the central nervous system (CNS) from blood-born neurotoxins, however, the BBB extremely limits the therapeutic efficacy of drugs into the CNS, which greatly hinders the treatment of major brain diseases. This review summarized the unique structures of the BBB, described a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental methods for determining the transport properties of the BBB, e.g., the permeability of the BBB to water, ions, and solutes including nutrients, therapeutic agents and drug carriers, and presented newly developed mathematical models which quantitatively correlate the anatomical structures of the BBB with its barrier functions. Finally, on the basis of the experimental observations and the quantitative models, several strategies for drug delivery through the BBB were proposed.

  16. Transportation energy scenario analysis technical report No. 1: examination of four existing scenarios. [Projections for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. J.; LaBelle, S. J.; Millar, M.; Walbridge, E. W.

    1978-03-01

    This project aims to provide the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) with a long-range forecasting framework in which to evaluate potential changes to the U.S. Transportation system. This initial report examines four existing, but diverse, 50-year scenarios of the future. It describes the scenarios and summarizes the changes in the major transportation system variables that would occur through the year 2025 in each scenario. Projections of variables of interest to TEC are explored, including passenger or ton miles and energy consumption. Each is reported for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025 under four scenarios: success, moderate economic growth, energy crisis, and transformation. The philosophy of this project is that the transportation system must support future lifestyles; by examining potential future lifestyles the required transportation system changes can be deduced. The project: (a) develops a set of scenarios that span likely futures; (b) describes the lifestyles in each scenario in order; (c) determines the characteristics of the transportation system supporting those lifestyles; (d) indicates transportation technologies and policies necessary in that system; and (e) derives the energy characteristics of that system. The implications of the four existing scenarios are examined with emphasis on current TEC electric-vehicle development. This preliminary investigation will be followed by detailed-scenario building (modifying existing scenarios or developing new ones) and generation of lifestyles and transportation system demands under each of the scenarios. This work will be reported in October 1978.

  17. Examination of decision support systems for composite CBA & MCDA assessments of transport infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Two DSS are in this context examined and compared using a case study dealing with alternatives for a new...... for conducting composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects, and research questions defining future work in the context of composite DSS and their use in decision making processes are set out....... high-speed railway line between the two cities, Norrköping and Bäckeby, in Sweden. Both systems are based on additive value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons. The first system examined, which is widely used and based on acknowledged methods, comprises the REMBRANDT technique using pair...

  18. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY AND METHODS TO ENHANCE IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the common methods employed in recent years for enhancing transdermal delivery of drug substances when applying transdermal therapeutic delivery systems. The chemical, physical and mechanical methods to enhance the transport of macromolecular compounds through the skin are considered in details. 

  19. Flexibility analysis of main primary heat transport system : Narora Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents flexibility analysis problem of main primary heat transport system and the approximate analysis that has been made to estimate the loads coming on major equipments. The primary heat transport system for Narora Atomic Power Project is adopting vertical steam generators and pumps equally divided on either side of the reactor with inter-connecting pipes and feeders. Since the system is mainly spring supported with movement of a few points in certain direction defined but no anchorage, it represents a good problem for flexibility analysis which can only be solved in one step by developing a good computer programme. (author)

  20. Project survey for trolley-bus transport; Johdinautoliikenteen hankeselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, T.; Eklund, P.; Airaksinen, S.; Maettoe, R.; Laehdetie, A.

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the feasibility and rationality of the revival of trolley bus traffic in Helsinki a full size project plan was conducted for a variety of alternatives. This included a survey on the latest developments of the trolley bus technology, three optional plans for route network, a budgetary level design for a fully functional depot in Koskela bus depot, examination of urban landscape structures, a study on organisational options, particular technical specifications applicable on suitable trolley buses and an examination of the impacts on the environment and on the future development of public transport. The basic concept of a trolley bus as a means of electric public transport vehicle has found its form over the years, but all the components of the system undergo at present intensive development. In context of this survey also the option of a fully autonomous electric bus powered by accumulators or fuel cells and the like was investigated. However, such technology is still totally inadequate for a heavy duty bus. There are no economically competitive and effective systems available as yet. The trolley bu is the far most reliable system and gives the best life cycle economy for a foreseeable future. Earliest estimates for alternative electric technologies in regular bus service are viable just after one investment cycle some time beyond 2030. Then it should be possible to run without the support of a comprehensive overhead line. The latest achievements in the development of trolley bus are auxiliary engine and accumulator systems allowing for more autonomous propulsion. Nowadays, trolley buses are equipped with an auxiliary power unit that alleviates the traditional restrictions of the overhead line. The modern trolley bus may run short distances without the trolley lines. Recuperation of the kinetic energy at deceleration (braking) either into the overhead line network or by storing it in the vehicle is one of the characteristics of modern trolley buses

  1. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  2. Strategies to improve drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Albertus G; Gaillard, Pieter J

    2007-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), together with the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier, protects and regulates the homeostasis of the brain. However, these barriers also limit the transport of small-molecule and, particularly, biopharmaceutical drugs such as proteins, genes and interference RNA to the brain, thereby limiting the treatment of many brain diseases. As a result, various drug delivery and targeting strategies are currently being developed to enhance the transport and distribution of drugs into the brain. In this review, we discuss briefly the biology and physiology of the BBB as the most important barrier for drug transport to the brain and, in more detail, the possibilities for delivering large-molecule drugs, particularly genes, by receptor-mediated nonviral drug delivery to the (human) brain. In addition, the systemic and intracellular pharmacokinetics of nonviral gene delivery, together with targeted brain imaging, are reviewed briefly.

  3. Cotransporting Ion is a Trigger for Cellular Endocytosis of Transporter-Targeting Nanoparticles: A Case Study of High-Efficiency SLC22A5 (OCTN2)-Mediated Carnitine-Conjugated Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Therapeutic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Longfa; Yao, Qing; Sun, Mengchi; Wu, Chunnuan; Wang, Jia; Luo, Qiuhua; Wang, Gang; Du, Yuqian; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jian; He, Zhonggui; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Sun, Jin

    2017-09-01

    OCTN2 (SLC22A5) is a Na + -coupled absorption transporter for l-carnitine in small intestine. This study tests the potential of this transporter for oral delivery of therapeutic drugs encapsulated in l-carnitine-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (LC-PLGA NPs) and discloses the molecular mechanism for cellular endocytosis of transporter-targeting nanoparticles. Conjugation of l-carnitine to a surface of PLGA-NPs enhances the cellular uptake and intestinal absorption of encapsulated drug. In both cases, the uptake process is dependent on cotransporting ion Na + . Computational OCTN2 docking analysis shows that the presence of Na + is important for the formation of the energetically stable intermediate complex of transporter-Na + -LC-PLGA NPs, which is also the first step in cellular endocytosis of nanoparticles. The transporter-mediated intestinal absorption of LC-PLGA NPs occurs via endocytosis/transcytosis rather than via the traditional transmembrane transport. The portal blood versus the lymphatic route is evaluated by the plasma appearance of the drug in the control and lymph duct-ligated rats. Absorption via the lymphatic system is the predominant route in the oral delivery of the NPs. In summary, LC-PLGA NPs can effectively target OCTN2 on the enterocytes for enhancing oral delivery of drugs and the critical role of cotransporting ions should be noticed in designing transporter-targeting nanoparticles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  5. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K

    2006-06-02

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at drug loads of 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% (wt/wt), in Sorensen's phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Different mucin-producing cell lines (Calu-3>Caco-2) were selected for PTX transport studies. Transport of PTX from solution and gel delivery system was performed in side by side diffusion chambers from apical to basal (A-B) and basal to apical (B-A) directions. In vitro release studies revealed that within 4 hours, only 7.61% +/- 0.19%, 12.0% +/- 0.98%, 31.7% +/- 0.40% of PTX were released from 0.18%, 0.30%, and 0.54% drug-loaded gel formulation, respectively, in absence of Tween 80. However, in presence of surfactant (0.05% wt/vol) in the dissolution medium, percentages of PTX released were 28.1% +/- 4.35%, 44.2% +/- 6.35%, and 97.1% +/- 1.22%, respectively. Paclitaxel has shown a polarized transport in all the cell monolayers with B-A transport 2 to 4 times higher than in the A-B direction. The highest mucin-producing cell line (Calu-3) has shown the lowest percentage of PTX transport from gels as compared with Caco-2 cells. Transport of PTX from mucoadhesive gels was shown to be influenced by the mucin-producing capability of cell.

  6. Care for a Patient With Cancer As a Project: Management of Complex Task Interdependence in Cancer Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Julia R; Carlos, Ruth C; Simon, Melissa A; Madden, Debra L; Gradishar, William J; Benson, Al B; Rapkin, Bruce D; Weiss, Elisa S; Gareen, Ilana F; Wagner, Lynne I; Khan, Seema A; Bunce, Mikele M; Small, Art; Weldon, Christine B

    2016-11-01

    Cancer care is highly complex and suffers from fragmentation and lack of coordination across provider specialties and clinical domains. As a result, patients often find that they must coordinate care on their own. Coordinated delivery teams may address these challenges and improve quality of cancer care. Task interdependence is a core principle of rigorous teamwork and is essential to addressing the complexity of cancer care, which is highly interdependent across specialties and modalities. We examined challenges faced by a patient with early-stage breast cancer that resulted from difficulties in understanding and managing task interdependence across clinical domains involved in this patient's care. We used team science supported by the project management discipline to discuss how various task interdependence aspects can be recognized, deliberately designed, and systematically managed to prevent care breakdowns. This case highlights how effective task interdependence management facilitated by project management methods could markedly improve the course of a patient's care. This work informs efforts of cancer centers and practices to redesign cancer care delivery through innovative, practical, and patient-centered approaches to management of task interdependence in cancer care. Future patient-reported outcomes research will help to determine optimal ways to engage patients, including those who are medically underserved, in managing task interdependence in their own care.

  7. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents.

  8. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2017-01-01

    Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents. PMID:29311946

  9. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said...

  10. Nonlinear Projective-Iteration Methods for Solving Transport Problems on Regular and Unstructured Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Adrian Constantinescu; Loren Roberts; William Wieselquist

    2007-01-01

    This is a project in the field of fundamental research on numerical methods for solving the particle transport equation. Numerous practical problems require to use unstructured meshes, for example, detailed nuclear reactor assembly-level calculations, large-scale reactor core calculations, radiative hydrodynamics problems, where the mesh is determined by hydrodynamic processes, and well-logging problems in which the media structure has very complicated geometry. Currently this is an area of very active research in numerical transport theory. main issues in developing numerical methods for solving the transport equation are the accuracy of the numerical solution and effectiveness of iteration procedure. The problem in case of unstructured grids is that it is very difficult to derive an iteration algorithm that will be unconditionally stable

  11. Oregon department of transportation small business group twice-monthly payments pilot project : summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) recently completed a pilot study on small business payment practices. In the study, three pilot projects were tested where payments to small business contractors were changed from a monthly payment to twice-...

  12. Nanostructured Surfaces for Drug Delivery and Anti-Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kimberly Renee

    Effective and cost-efficient healthcare is at the forefront of public discussion; on both personal and policy levels, technologies that improve therapeutic efficacy without the use of painful hypodermic needle injections or the use of harsh chemicals would prove beneficial to patients. Nanostructured surfaces as structure-mediated permeability enhancers introduce a potentially revolutionary approach to the field of drug delivery. Parental administration routes have been the mainstay technologies for delivering biologics because these therapeutics are too large to permeate epithelial barriers. However, there is a significant patient dislike for hypodermic needles resulting in reduced patient compliance and poor therapeutic results. We present an alternative strategy to harness the body's naturally occurring biological processes and transport mechanisms to enhance the drug transport of biologics across the epithelium. Our strategy offers a paradigm shift from traditional biochemical drug delivery vehicles by using nanotopography to loosen the epithelial barrier. Herein, we demonstrate that nanotopographical cues can be used to enable biologics > 66 kDa to be transported across epithelial monolayers by increasing paracellular transport. When placed in contact with epithelial cells, nanostructured films significantly increase the transport of albumin, IgG, and a model therapeutic, etanercept. Our work highlights the potential to use drug delivery systems which incorporate nanotopographical cues to increase the transport of biologics across epithelial tissue. Furthermore, we describe current advancements in nano- and microfabrication for applications in anti-fibrosis and wound healing. Influencing cellular responses to biomaterials is crucial in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix features that are on the nanoscale, identifying nanostructures for imparting desirable cellular function could greatly

  13. Study of Collaborative Management for Transportation Construction Project Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua, Liu; Genchuan, Luo; Daiquan, Liu; Wenlei, Li; Bowen, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Abstract. Building Information Modeling(BIM) is a building modeling technology based on the relevant information data of the construction project. It is an advanced technology and management concept, which is widely used in the whole life cycle process of planning, design, construction and operation. Based on BIM technology, transportation construction project collaborative management can have better communication through authenticity simulation and architectural visualization and can obtain the basic and real-time information such as project schedule, engineering quality, cost and environmental impact etc. The main services of highway construction management are integrated on the unified BIM platform for collaborative management to realize information intercommunication and exchange, to change the isolated situation of information in the past, and improve the level of information management. The final BIM model is integrated not only for the information management of project and the integration of preliminary documents and design drawings, but also for the automatic generation of completion data and final accounts, which covers the whole life cycle of traffic construction projects and lays a good foundation for smart highway construction.

  14. Effects of Contract Delivery Method on the LEED(trademark) Score of U.S. Navy Military Construction Projects (Fiscal Years 2004-2006) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Deanna S

    2005-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 484 KB. ABSTRACT: This research study focused on determining the effects that the two major contract delivery methods had on the LEED score of projects over the design and construction time horizon...

  15. Statement of work for the immobilized high-level waste transportation system, Project W-464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-24

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). This transportation system which includes the truck, the trailer, and a shielded cask will be used for on-site transportation of the IHLW canisters from the private vendor vitrification facility to the Hanford Site interim storage facility, i.e., vaults 2 and 3 of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This Statement of Work asks Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations, to provide Project W-464 with a Design Criteria Document, plus a life-cycle schedule and cost estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system (shielded cask, truck, trailer) for IHLW on-site transportation.

  16. SU-D-201-03: During-Treatment Delivery Monitoring System for TomoTherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q; Read, P [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multiple error pathways can lead to delivery errors during the treatment course that cannot be caught with pre-treatment QA. While in vivo solutions are being developed for linacs, no such solution exists for tomotherapy. The purpose of this study is to develop a near real-time system for tomotherapy that can monitor the delivery and dose accumulation process during the treatment-delivery, which enable the user to assess the impact of delivery variations and/or errors and to interrupt the treatment if necessary. Methods: A program running on a tomotherapy planning station fetches the raw DAS data during treatment. Exit detector data is extracted as well as output, gantry angle, and other machine parameters. For each sample, the MLC open-close state is determined. The delivered plan is compared with the original plan via a Monte Carlo dose engine which transports fluence deviations from a pre-treatment Monte Carlo run. A report containing the difference in fluence, dose and DVH statistics is created in html format. This process is repeated until the treatment is completed. Results: Since we only need to compute the dose for the difference in fluence for a few projections each time, dose with 2% statistical uncertainty can be computed in less than 1 second on a 4-core cpu. However, the current bottleneck in this near real-time system is the repeated fetching and processing the growing DAS data file throughout the delivery. The frame rate drops from 10Hz at the beginning of treatment to 5Hz after 3 minutes and to 2Hz after 10 minutes. Conclusion: A during-treatment delivery monitor system has been built to monitor tomotherapy treatments. The system improves patient safety by allowing operators to assess the delivery variations and errors during treatment delivery and adopt appropriate actions.

  17. SU-D-201-03: During-Treatment Delivery Monitoring System for TomoTherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q; Read, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple error pathways can lead to delivery errors during the treatment course that cannot be caught with pre-treatment QA. While in vivo solutions are being developed for linacs, no such solution exists for tomotherapy. The purpose of this study is to develop a near real-time system for tomotherapy that can monitor the delivery and dose accumulation process during the treatment-delivery, which enable the user to assess the impact of delivery variations and/or errors and to interrupt the treatment if necessary. Methods: A program running on a tomotherapy planning station fetches the raw DAS data during treatment. Exit detector data is extracted as well as output, gantry angle, and other machine parameters. For each sample, the MLC open-close state is determined. The delivered plan is compared with the original plan via a Monte Carlo dose engine which transports fluence deviations from a pre-treatment Monte Carlo run. A report containing the difference in fluence, dose and DVH statistics is created in html format. This process is repeated until the treatment is completed. Results: Since we only need to compute the dose for the difference in fluence for a few projections each time, dose with 2% statistical uncertainty can be computed in less than 1 second on a 4-core cpu. However, the current bottleneck in this near real-time system is the repeated fetching and processing the growing DAS data file throughout the delivery. The frame rate drops from 10Hz at the beginning of treatment to 5Hz after 3 minutes and to 2Hz after 10 minutes. Conclusion: A during-treatment delivery monitor system has been built to monitor tomotherapy treatments. The system improves patient safety by allowing operators to assess the delivery variations and errors during treatment delivery and adopt appropriate actions.

  18. The Impact of Transport on International Trade Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Duško

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available International trade implies transport of specific quantity of goods to (frequently large distances, the success of which depends on the safety and speed of delivery. These are greatly conditioned by the quality of means of transport and infrastructure. This is why international trade development is affected by transport, and the development of means of transport and infrastructure is, to a great extent, influenced by demand for international delivery of various commodities. This paper looks at the interdependence of international trade and transport, showing how transport played a very significant role in international trade development in the past as it does today, commensurate to the role of international trade in the development of carriers and transport infrastructure.

  19. Direct Cytoplasmic Delivery and Nuclear Targeting Delivery of HPMA-MT Conjugates in a Microtubules Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaju; Zhu, Xi; Luo, Kui; Li, Lian; Tang, Manlin; Liu, Yanxi; Zhou, Zhou; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-06

    As the hearts of tumor cells, the nucleus is the ultimate target of many chemotherapeutic agents and genes. However, nuclear drug delivery is always hampered by multiple intracellular obstacles, such as low efficiency of lysosome escape and insufficient nuclear trafficking. Herein, an N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-based drug delivery system was designed, which could achieve direct cytoplasmic delivery by a nonendocytic pathway and transport into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent fashion. A special targeting peptide (MT), derived from an endogenic parathyroid hormone-related protein, was conjugated to the polymer backbone, which could accumulate into the nucleus a by microtubule-mediated pathway. The in vitro studies found that low temperature and NaN3 could not influence the cell internalization of the conjugates. Besides, no obvious overlay of the conjugates with lysosome demonstrated that the polymer conjugates could enter the tumor cell cytoplasm by a nonendocytic pathway, thus avoiding the drug degradation in the lysosome. Furthermore, after suppression of the microtubule dynamics with microtubule stabilizing docetaxel (DTX) and destabilizing nocodazole (Noc), the nuclear accumulation of polymeric conjugates was significantly inhibited. Living cells fluorescence recovery after photobleaching study found that the nuclear import rate of conjugates was 2-fold faster compared with the DTX and Noc treated groups. These results demonstrated that the conjugates transported into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent way. Therefore, in addition to direct cytoplasmic delivery, our peptide conjugated polymeric platform could simultaneously mediate nuclear drug accumulation, which may open a new path for further intracellular genes/peptides delivery.

  20. PPP projects in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Carpintero, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Public–private partnerships (PPPs) have been extensively used in Spain for the procurement of light rail systems. This paper analyses five projects that have been in operation for more than five years. The authors examine the reasoning behind the selection of the PPP projects, risk......-sharing mechanisms, competition among private providers, and overall cost-effectiveness. The paper demonstrates a need for more rigorous assessments of the merits of PPP projects before they are initiated....

  1. 29 CFR 780.154 - Delivery “to market.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'s market which normally means the distributing agency, cooperative marketing agency, wholesaler or... delivery involves travel off the farm (which would normally be the case) the delivery must be performed by... intrastate transportation of the freshly harvested commodities from the farm to a place of first marketing or...

  2. Characteristics of Effective Collaboration in Response to Diversified Transportation Planning Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of decentralized transportation planning responsibilities may include reduced project delivery cost, the integration of comprehensive long-range planning with regional land use, and greater accountability regarding local concerns. Yet disadvantages may include a tendency for operations to dominate longer-term planning, inconsistent operational standards, and difficulty in achieving network benefits, since some transportation links may provide benefits to the entire system but not to the immediate area where the link is located. To surmount these challenges in a decentralized environment, agencies need to cooperate effectively. Characteristics of effective collaboration include (1 experienced personnel, (2 credibility of the deciding entity, (3 transparency of decision-making processes, (4 an authority with sufficient power and/or funding to encourage implementation of key initiatives, (5 clear incentives for cooperation, and, of special importance given limited resources, and (6 an ability to evaluate tradeoffs. An access management case study demonstrates how agencies may use these characteristics to advance challenging projects in a decentralized environment.

  3. Feasibility Risk Assessment of Transport Infrastructure Projects: The CBA-DK Decision Support Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2010-01-01

    informed decision support towards decision-makers and stakeholders in terms of accumulated descending graphs. The decision support method developed in this paper aims to provide assistance in the analysis and ultimately the choice of action, while accounting for the uncertainties surrounding any transport......This paper presents the final version of the CBA-DK decision support model for assessment of transport projects. The model makes use of conventional cost-benefit analysis resulting in aggregated single point estimates and quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation resulting in interval...... result, and the determination of suitable probability distributions. Use is made of the reference class forecasting information, such as that developed in Optimism Bias for adjustments to investment decisions that relate to all modes of transport. The CBA-DK decision support model results in more...

  4. Computerized transportation model for the NRC Physical Protection Project. Versions I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Details on two versions of a computerized model for the transportation system of the NRC Physical Protection Project are presented. The Version I model permits scheduling of all types of transport units associated with a truck fleet, including truck trailers, truck tractors, escort vehicles and crews. A fixed-fleet itinerary construction process is used in which iterations on fleet size are required until the service requirements are satisfied. The Version II model adds an aircraft mode capability and provides for a more efficient non-fixed-fleet itinerary generation process. Test results using both versions are included

  5. Tackling Fragmented Last Mile Deliveries to Nanostores by Utilizing Spare Transportation Capacity—A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Last mile deliveries in urban areas cause a disproportionate unsustainable impact, while it is also the most expensive part of the supply chain. This is particularly true for freight flows that are characterized by fragmentation. Logistically, this becomes apparent in vehicles that are driving around with a low vehicle fill rate, leading to the unnecessary presence of freight vehicles in our cities. This study focuses on the operational feasibility of utilizing the spare transportation capacity of a service-driven company as a potential solution to supply small independent retailers, or nanostores. The aim is to reduce inefficient vehicle movement. Based on a real-life implementation, we use SYnchronization Model for Belgian Inland Transport (SYMBIT, an agent-based model, to simulate various bundling scenarios. Results show the total vehicle kilometers and lead times to supply nanostores for the service-driven company to serve its customers. There is a potential to utilize spare capacity to supply nanostores while maintaining a decent service level. The number of vehicle kilometers driven highly depends on the location of the distribution center where the service-driven company operates. Based on these results, the conditions that have to be met to replicate this solution in other urban areas are discussed.

  6. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo

  7. Chernobyl Studies Project - working group 7.0 environmental transport and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project was begun as part of a cooperative agreement between the US and the former USSR, (quote) To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future reactor accident (quote). Most of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus has now turned primarily to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are extensively engaged in case-control and cohort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children and in the Ukraine. A major part of the effort is providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and providing support and equipment for the medical teams. This document contains reports on progress in the following task areas: Management; External Dose; Hydrological Transport; Chromosome Painting Dosimetry; Stochastic Effects; Thyroid Studies; and Leukemia Studies

  8. A BIM-Info delivery protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hooper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, with many of the technological issues of integrated information management resolved (perhaps excluding the matter of interoperability, defining the content and status of BIM information deliveries remains both a practical and a theoretical problem. New BIM tools and new design processes and procedures have led to a certain confusion of what information is needed for particular BIM uses. This paper seeks to explore and enable a method of defining the content of model information deliverables through a review of 2 key primary specific BIM uses: 3d Design Coordination and Early Energy Appraisal through an analysis of practical application. The scope of this study is limited to a review of information flow within residential projects in a Swedish context and looks at two projects with a view to identify and establish a common definition of the key BIM objects and properties necessary for particular tasks. The key deliverable from this study is the BIM-Info Delivery Protocol (IDP which attempts to align consultant BIM-information delivery expectations and represents a tangible solution to assist consultants to manage BIM information. Concluding reflections consider the positioning of the IDP relative to the on-going development of IDMs / MVDs and highlight the key constituent parameters of an Information Delivery Specification (IDS.

  9. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  10. The system of effective management of transport and logistics company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kajresheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transport is one of the system-forming sectors of the economy, requiring huge financial investments. At the same time, the sphere of transport can become an instrument for overcoming the economic crisis and creating conditions for the growth of the national economy, as investing in the transport industry contributes to the development of related industries and the provision of jobs. The development of transport infrastructure to meet the needs of the economy and the implementation of transit potential is a strategic direction outlined in the Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Investment and Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2014–2018. The task of Kazakhstan is to ensure an increase in the transit freight traffic between the People's Republic of China and the European Union, which goes on a land route through the territory of the republic. So, according to the results of 2014, the volume of transit traffic amounted to 17.5 million tons, revenues from transit transportation amounted to 180 billion tenge. JSC "Astyk Trans" is currently one of the largest operators in the market of railway transportation of grain cargo in Kazakhstan, but slightly inferior to JSC "NC "KTZ" in domestic transportation of 42042 wagons to 45049, while for export shipments to the share of JSC "AstykTrans" there are 34787 carloads, which is 50.3% of transportation of JSC "NC "KTZ ". In order to increase the efficiency of transport and logistics services, reduce the distance and time of delivery between the busiest sections of the railway, construction projects for transport and logistics centers and the formation of an internal terminal network are planned in the industry. By 2020, the railway industry plans to build 1400 km of new railway lines to accelerate the delivery of goods and passengers within the country and beyond Kazakhstan, with at least 50% of the financing of construction to be carried out through private investment. The state for its

  11. Quality Metrics in Neonatal and Pediatric Critical Care Transport: A National Delphi Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hamilton P; Bigham, Michael T; Schoettker, Pamela J; Meyer, Keith; Trautman, Michael S; Insoft, Robert M

    2015-10-01

    The transport of neonatal and pediatric patients to tertiary care facilities for specialized care demands monitoring the quality of care delivered during transport and its impact on patient outcomes. In 2011, pediatric transport teams in Ohio met to identify quality indicators permitting comparisons among programs. However, no set of national consensus quality metrics exists for benchmarking transport teams. The aim of this project was to achieve national consensus on appropriate neonatal and pediatric transport quality metrics. Modified Delphi technique. The first round of consensus determination was via electronic mail survey, followed by rounds of consensus determination in-person at the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Transport Medicine's 2012 Quality Metrics Summit. All attendees of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Transport Medicine Quality Metrics Summit, conducted on October 21-23, 2012, in New Orleans, LA, were eligible to participate. Candidate quality metrics were identified through literature review and those metrics currently tracked by participating programs. Participants were asked in a series of rounds to identify "very important" quality metrics for transport. It was determined a priori that consensus on a metric's importance was achieved when at least 70% of respondents were in agreement. This is consistent with other Delphi studies. Eighty-two candidate metrics were considered initially. Ultimately, 12 metrics achieved consensus as "very important" to transport. These include metrics related to airway management, team mobilization time, patient and crew injuries, and adverse patient care events. Definitions were assigned to the 12 metrics to facilitate uniform data tracking among programs. The authors succeeded in achieving consensus among a diverse group of national transport experts on 12 core neonatal and pediatric transport quality metrics. We propose that transport teams across the country use these metrics to

  12. Packaging design criteria (onsite) project W-520 immobilized low-activity waste transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site)

  13. How do I manage and staff for intelligent transportation systems? : thinking outside the box : a cross-cutting study : maximizing project resources and advancing coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) projects often need staff with skills that are not resident in traditional transportation organizations. Therefore, project administrators must sometimes look beyond the usual staffing methods to fill these po...

  14. Operational challenges in conducting a community-based technology-enabled mental health services delivery model for rural India: Experiences from the SMART Mental Health Project [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab K. Maulik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are large gaps in the delivery of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries such as India, and the problems are even more acute in rural settings due to lack of resources, remoteness, and lack of infrastructure, amongst other factors. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART Mental Health Project was conceived as a mental health services delivery model using technology-based solutions for rural India. This paper reports on the operational strategies used to facilitate the implementation of the intervention. Method: Key components of the SMART Mental Health Project included delivering an anti-stigma campaign, training of primary health workers in screening, diagnosing and managing stress, depression and increased suicide risk and task sharing of responsibilities in delivering care; and using mobile technology based electronic decision support systems to support delivery of algorithm based care for such disorders. The intervention was conducted in 42 villages across two sites in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. A pre-post mixed methods evaluation was done, and in this paper operational challenges are reported. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative results from the evaluation from one site covering about 5000 adults showed that the intervention was feasible and acceptable, and initial results indicated that it was beneficial in increasing access to mental health care and reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. A number of strategies were initiated in response to operational challenges to ensure smoother conduct of the project and facilitated the project to be delivered as envisaged. Conclusions: The operational strategies initiated for this project were successful in ensuring the delivery of the intervention. Those, coupled with other more systematic processes have informed the researchers to understand key processes that need to be in place to develop a more robust study, that

  15. Environmental impact assessment of transportation projects: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Mohamed Anwar

    Transportation projects will have impact on the environment. The general environmental pollution and damage caused by roads is closely associated with the level of economic activity. Although Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are dependent on geo-spatial information in order to make an assessment, there are no rules per se how to conduct an environmental assessment. Also, the particular objective of each assessment is dictated case-by-case, based on what information and analyses are required. The conventional way of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study is a time consuming process because it has large number of dependent and independent variables which have to be taken into account, which also have different consequences. With the emergence of satellite remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this research presents a new framework for the analysis phase of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for transportation projects based on the integration between remote sensing technology, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling. By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, the framework analyzes comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around the road and its impact on the environment. This framework is expected to: (1) improve the quality of the decision making process, (2) be applied both to urban and inter-urban projects, regardless of transport mode, and (3) present the data and make the appropriate analysis to support the decision of the decision-makers and allow them to present these data to the public hearings in a simple manner. Case studies, transportation projects in the State of Florida, were analyzed to illustrate the use of the decision support framework and demonstrate its capabilities. This cohesive and integrated system will facilitate rational decisions through cost effective coordination of environmental information and data management that can be tailored to

  16. Scheduling drayage operations in synchromodal transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, Arturo E.Pérez; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Bektas, Tolga; Coniglio, Stefano; Martinez-Sykora, Antonio; Voss, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of scheduling drayage operations in synchromodal transport. Besides the usual decisions to time the pick-up and delivery of containers, and to route the vehicles that transport them, synchromodal transport includes the assignment of terminals for empty and loaded containers. The

  17. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  18. Problems of increased transport load as a result of implementation of projects of high-rise constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provotorov, Ivan; Gasilov, Valentin; Anisimova, Nadezhda

    2018-03-01

    The structure of problems of high-rise construction us suggested, which includes the impact on environment, design solutions, transportation problems, financial costs for construction and operation, and others. Positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction are considered. One of the basic problems of high-rise construction is the problem of increased transport load. Construction of the subway on the basis of the concession mechanism, with the use of unmanned control of rolling stock is proposed as the most expedient solution. An evaluation of the effectiveness of this project is presented, it shows quite high performance indicators for a private investor. Main problems that the project implementation may face in conditions of lack of scientific and methodological support are outlined.

  19. From nose to brain: understanding transport capacity and transport rate of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongbing; Hu, Kaili; Jiang, Xinguo

    2008-10-01

    The unique relationship between nasal cavity and cranial cavity tissues in anatomy and physiology makes intranasal delivery to the brain feasible. An intranasal delivery provides some drugs with short channels to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), especially for those with fairly low brain concentrations after a routine delivery, thus greatly enhancing the therapeutic effect on brain diseases. In the past two decades, a good number of encouraging outcomes have been reported in the treatment of diseases of the brain or central nervous system (CNS) through nasal administration. In spite of the significant merit of bypassing the BBB, direct nose-to-brain delivery still bears the problems of low efficiency and volume for capacity due to the limited volume of the nasal cavity, the small area ratio of olfactory mucosa to nasal mucosa and the limitations of low dose and short retention time of drug absorption. It is crucial that selective distribution and retention time of drugs or preparations on olfactory mucosa should be enhanced so as to increase the direct delivery efficiency. In this article, we first briefly review the nose-to-brain transport pathways, before detailing the impacts on them, followed by a comprehensive summary of effective methods, including formulation modification, agglutinant-mediated transport and a brain-homing, peptide-mediated delivery based on phage display screening technique, with a view to providing a theoretic reference for elevating the therapeutic effects on brain diseases.

  20. Status of the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The multipurpose canister (MPC) project represents a cornerstone of the current U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program for handling spent nuclear fuel. The MPC and associated support equipment is being designed to accommodate the requirements for not only storage and transport but also for the specified disposal requirements of the mined geologic repository system. The phase 1 design effort for the MPC system, being performed by the Westinghouse team on behalf of TRW Environmental Safety Systems (TESS), the OCRWM management ampersand operating (M ampersand O) contractor, is on schedule for delivery of completed safety analysis reports (SARs) in April 1996

  1. Model Projections of Future Fluvial Sediment Delivery to Major Deltas Under Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Dunn, F.; Nicholls, R. J.; Cohen, S.; Zarfl, C.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are important hot spots for climate change impacts on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Most of the world's deltas are sinking as a result of natural and anthropogenic subsidence and due to eustatic sea level rise. The ability to predict rates of delta aggradation is therefore critical to assessments of the extent to which sedimentation can potentially offset sea level rise, but our ability to make such predictions is severely hindered by a lack of insight into future trends of the fluvial sediment load supplied to their deltas by feeder watersheds. To address this gap we investigate fluvial sediment fluxes under future environmental change for a selection (47) of the world's major river deltas. Specifically, we employed the numerical model WBMsed to project future variations in mean annual fluvial sediment loads under a range of environmental change scenarios that account for changes in climate, socio-economics and dam construction. Our projections indicate a clear decrease (by 34 to 41% on average, depending on the specific scenario) in future fluvial sediment supply to most of the 47 deltas. These reductions in sediment delivery are driven primarily by anthropogenic disturbances, with reservoir construction being the most influential factor globally. Our results indicate the importance of developing new management strategies for reservoir construction and operation.

  2. Delineating Supply Chain Management (SCM Features in Construction Project Delivery: The Nigerian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Amade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to delineate SCM features using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP with a view to incorporating it into the delivery of construction projects in Nigeria. The study adopted an exploratory research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. A purposive and convenient sampling technique was deployed with the aid of semi-structured interview, case study; questionnaire survey in a construction firm in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data after being pre-tested via a pilot study for validity and reliability. The data collected were analysed using the AHP. Findings from the study shows that the following features are key; Instituting trust and long term relationships amongst supply chain partners (ITP, supply chain finance (SCF, supply chain and continuous performance measurement (SCCPM, information technology (IT, quality management (QM, supply base management (SBM, senior management’s commitment (SMC and supply chain orientation (SCO. In delivering construction projects to success using the SCM approach, adequate attention and emphasis should be accorded to the aforementioned important features in the order they appear as they would aid in effecting the much needed success. It is also expected that the features would further be beneficial to construction firms as it would enable the firms to manage, measure and evaluate the gains ensuing from the deployment of SCM techniques.

  3. Reactors Project Delivery: The Value of Experiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosic, V. Zoran

    2014-01-01

    State of Affairs: Energy Potential and Density versus Environmental Load of different Energy Sources, Development of Fuel into Energy/Electricity Generation, Production Costs of Electricity, Contributions of Nuclear Energy to Security of Energy Supply, Recent Nuclear Development, Public Support growing again. Projects Status: Reactors under Construction, Different Projects Industrial Schemes, Projects Overview. The Value of Experience: Licensing, Standardization on Early Engineering Activities, Supply Chain and Manufacturing of Heavy Components, Installation, Procurement. (author)

  4. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  6. Biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytting, Erik; Nguyen, Juliane; Wang, Xiaoying; Kissel, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery is attractive for both local and systemic drug delivery as a non-invasive route that provides a large surface area, thin epithelial barrier, high blood flow and the avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Nanoparticles can be designed to have several advantages for controlled and targeted drug delivery, including controlled deposition, sustained release, reduced dosing frequency, as well as an appropriate size for avoiding alveolar macrophage clearance or promoting transepithelial transport. This review focuses on the development and application of biodegradable polymers to nanocarrier-based strategies for the delivery of drugs, peptides, proteins, genes, siRNA and vaccines by the pulmonary route. The selection of natural or synthetic materials is important in designing particles or nanoparticle clusters with the desired characteristics, such as biocompatibility, size, charge, drug release and polymer degradation rate.

  7. EU Transport GHG. Routes to 2050 II Project. Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts and key sensitivities for the decarbonisation of the EU's transport sector by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, N.; Brannigan, C. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); Smokers, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Schroten, A.; Vam Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Skinner, I. [Transport and Environmental Policy Research TEPR, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The title study directly builds on the work previously completed under the EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 project. This new work (dubbed EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II) started in January 2011 and was completed in March 2012. The outputs from this new project help to support the Commission in prioritising and developing their strategy for reducing GHG emissions from the transport sector. CE Delft successfully organised the stakeholder engagement as well as the in-depth research on several topics: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicle production and infrastructure development, CO2 reduction costs, co-benefits of GHG policies and knock-on consequences of such policies. Also alternative economic development paths were investigated, such as paths that could be less transport intensive, but still deliver increasing levels of prosperity.

  8. Driving a Bus in India: A Study of Indore Bus Rapid Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha K. RASTOGI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indore is a typical tier-2 town in the central province of India, fast becoming a regional commercial hub in an economically booming state. The city has a population of over 2 million with no significant public transport. Among the multiple options available, the city started implementing a dedicated corridor based Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS. The project was jointly mooted by the central, state, and city authorities. However, the system encountered a range of problems, including conflicts and pulls between multiple implementing agencies, delays in delivery of hardware and constructions, land acquisition and compensation, vested interests, public interest litigations, and court orders. The paper analyses the BRTS, introduced in Indore in the midst of 2013, from multiple party perspectives with an underlying search for public policy and public management insights. The broad results indicate feasibility and desirability of the project; however, real problems emerge in public and public perception management.

  9. 40 CFR 279.43 - Used oil transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Used oil transportation. 279.43... Facilities § 279.43 Used oil transportation. (a) Deliveries. A used oil transporter must deliver all used oil... comply with all applicable requirements under the U.S. Department of Transportation regulations in 49 CFR...

  10. Transportation of foreign-owned enriched uranium from the Republic of Georgia. Environmental assessment for Project Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (NN) has prepared a classified environmental assessment to evaluate the potential environmental impact for the transportation of 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-235 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom. The nuclear fuel consists of primarily fresh fuel, but also consists of a small quantity (less than 1 kilogram) of partially-spent fuel. Transportation of the enriched uranium fuel would occur via US Air Force military aircraft under the control of the Defense Department European Command (EUCOM). Actions taken in a sovereign nation (such as the Republic of Georgia and the United Kingdom) are not subject to analysis in the environmental assessment. However, because the action would involve the global commons of the Black Sea and the North Sea, the potential impact to the global commons has been analyzed. Because of the similarities in the two actions, the Project Sapphire Environmental Assessment was used as a basis for assessing the potential impacts of Project Partnership. However, because Project Partnership involves a small quantity of partially-spent fuel, additional analysis was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts and to consider reasonable alternatives as required by NEPA. The Project Partnership Environmental Assessment found the potential environmental impacts to be well below those from Project Sapphire

  11. Manipulation of the Commodity Futures Market Delivery Process.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Stephen Craig

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the futures market delivery 'end game' specifies necessary and sufficient conditions for long and short traders to manipulate futures prices at contract expiration. The empirical and welfare implications of manipulation are derived as well. Manipulation is most likely to occur in markets where economic frictions (such as transportation and transactions costs) make it inefficient to return excessive deliveries to their original owners. These consumption distortions induce price ...

  12. Projected effect of 2000-2050 changes in climate and emissions on aerosol levels in China and associated transboundary transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigate projected 2000–2050 changes in concentrations of aerosols in China and the associated transboundary aerosol transport by using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 3 at 4° × ...

  13. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  14. Effective utilization of disadvantaged business enterprises (DBE) in alternative delivery projects: strategies and resources to support the achievement of DBE goals : Georgia DOT research project 14-42 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This synthesis is a comprehensive review of the best knowledge and practices for stimulating effective : utilization of Disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBE) in the procurement and execution of : transportation projects, using design-build and oth...

  15. Effects of demand-side incentives in improving the utilisation of delivery services in Oyam District in northern Uganda: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massavon, William; Wilunda, Calistus; Nannini, Maria; Majwala, Robert Kaos; Agaro, Caroline; De Vivo, Emanuela; Lochoro, Peter; Putoto, Giovanni; Criel, Bart

    2017-12-19

    We evaluated the effects and financial costs of two interventions with respect to utilisation of institutional deliveries and other maternal health services in Oyam District in Uganda. We conducted a quasi-experimental study involving intervention and comparable/control sub-counties in Oyam District for 12 months (January-December 2014). Participants were women receiving antenatal care, delivery and postnatal care services. We evaluated two interventions: the provision of (1) transport vouchers to women receiving antenatal care and delivering at two health centres (level II) in Acaba sub-county, and (2) baby kits to women who delivered at Ngai Health Centre (level III) in Ngai sub-county. The study outcomes included service coverage of institutional deliveries, four antenatal care visits, postnatal care, and the percentage of women 'bypassing' maternal health services inside their resident sub-counties. We calculated the effect of each intervention on study outcomes using the difference in differences analysis. We calculated the cost per institutional delivery and the cost per unit increment in institutional deliveries for each intervention. Overall, transport vouchers had greater effects on all four outcomes, whereas baby kits mainly influenced institutional deliveries. The absolute increase in institutional deliveries attributable to vouchers was 42.9%; the equivalent for baby kits was 30.0%. Additionally, transport vouchers increased the coverage of four antenatal care visits and postnatal care service coverage by 60.0% and 49.2%, respectively. 'Bypassing' was mainly related to transport vouchers and ranged from 7.2% for postnatal care to 11.9% for deliveries. The financial cost of institutional delivery was US$9.4 per transport voucher provided, and US$10.5 per baby kit. The incremental cost per unit increment in institutional deliveries in the transport-voucher system was US$15.9; the equivalent for the baby kit was US$30.6. The transport voucher scheme

  16. The BEST project - BioEthanol for the Sustainable Transportation - a contribution to the environment of the metropolis; O projeto BEST - BioEtanol para o Transporte Sustentavel - uma contribuicao ao meio ambiente das metropoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvia@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The BEST Project - Bio Ethanol for the Sustainable Transportation was an initiative of the European Union, coordinated by the Stockholm City Hall, at Sweden. This project gave incentives the use of ethanol, replacing the Diesel fuel, at the public transportation in Brazil and in the world. The used vehicles in the tests were monitored and evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency and environmental energy of the ethanol, and after the results, the BEST project and the European Union gave recommendations for the formulation of public politics of incentives to the use of technology.

  17. Intracellular Protein Delivery for treating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    concentration increases, but not as dramatic as cytoplamic fractions possible due to slower nuclear transport than cellular internalization. The nucleus...polymers, dendrimers , and hydrogels for drug delivery. Pharmaceutical research 29, 902-921. Wilson, J.M. (2005). Gendicine: the first commercial gene...sequences were not ccessible to the transport machinery. In stark contrast, hen HeLa cells were treated with S S Rho—APO NC, strong ed fluorescence of

  18. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  19. Working Group 7.0 Environmental Transport and Health Effects, Chernobyl Studies Project. Progress report, October 1994 -- March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the details from the working group 7.0 Chernobyl Studies Project. This working group looked at the environmental transport and health effects from the fallout due to the meltdown of Chernobylsk-4 reactor. Topics include: hydrological transport; chromosome painting dosimetry; EPR, TL and OSL dosimetry; stochastic effects; thyroid studies; and leukemia studies

  20. Nose-to-brain delivery of macromolecules mediated by cell-penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain delivery of macromolecular therapeutics (e.g., proteins remains an unsolved problem because of the formidable blood–brain barrier (BBB. Although a direct pathway of nose-to-brain transfer provides an answer to circumventing the BBB and has already been intensively investigated for brain delivery of small drugs, new challenges arise for intranasal delivery of proteins because of their larger size and hydrophilicity. In order to overcome the barriers and take advantage of available pathways (e.g., epithelial tight junctions, uptake by olfactory neurons, transport into brain tissues, and intra-brain diffusion, a low molecular weight protamine (LMWP cell-penetrating peptide was utilized to facilitate nose-to-brain transport. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been widely used to mediate macromolecular delivery through many kinds of biobarriers. Our results show that conjugates of LMWP–proteins are able to effectively penetrate into the brain after intranasal administration. The CPP-based intranasal method highlights a promising solution for protein therapy of brain diseases.

  1. Nose-to-brain delivery of macromolecules mediated by cell-penetrating peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingting Lin; Ergang Liu; Huining He; Meong Cheol Shin; Cheol Moon; Victor C.Yang; Yongzhuo Huang

    2016-01-01

    Brain delivery of macromolecular therapeutics(e.g., proteins) remains an unsolved problem because of the formidable blood–brain barrier(BBB). Although a direct pathway of nose-to-brain transfer provides an answer to circumventing the BBB and has already been intensively investigated for brain delivery of small drugs,new challenges arise for intranasal delivery of proteins because of their larger size and hydrophilicity. In order to overcome the barriers and take advantage of available pathways(e.g., epithelial tight junctions, uptake by olfactory neurons, transport into brain tissues, and intra-brain diffusion), a low molecular weight protamine(LMWP) cell-penetrating peptide was utilized to facilitate nose-to-brain transport. Cell-penetrating peptides(CPP)have been widely used to mediate macromolecular delivery through many kinds of biobarriers. Our results show that conjugates of LMWP–proteins are able to effectively penetrate into the brain after intranasal administration.The CPP-based intranasal method highlights a promising solution for protein therapy of brain diseases.

  2. Complex governance system issues for transportation renewal projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Strong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public–private partnerships (PPPs is growing in the United States in response to reductions in funding combined with an aging highway transportation infrastructure. Many other countries have longer experience with PPP and a greater understanding of the issues surrounding their use. The main governance issues to be addressed in PPPs deal with risk-sharing, relationships, contracts, and legal framework, and standard processes within dedicated organizational units. These governance issues are examined in the context of a case study for the US 36 Phase II PPP in Colorado. Findings suggest that for the US Phase II project, governance issues are resolved through more relational forms than prescriptive contractual language. Colorado has established a dedicated organizational unit to facilitate the use of PPPs, but there exist no standards or best practices in the United States for procurement, concession terms, or risk-sharing.

  3. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-02-01

    In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE's development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE's Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade

  4. A study on the impact of parameter uncertainty on the emission-based ranking of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With the growing concern with air quality levels and, hence, the livability of urban regions in the nation, it has become increasingly common to incorporate vehicular emission considerations in the ranking of transportation projects. Network assignme...

  5. Project management: a case of fixed price IS/IT projects. Analysis of projects by project scopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kral

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of major issues of IS / IT projects. Attention will be focused on projects that are implemented under a contract for a specified amount of work and fixed price. The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the project parameters in terms of the types of projects, and to confirm, or refuse, a hypothesis related to this. There is some evidence from the portfolio of projects that have been implemented by the international companies providing IT services. Regarding the localisation, CEE region was selected for our research. The outputs of the paper should be a contribution to managing IS/IT projects in IT service delivery organizations and for the support of innovative thinking about project management generally.

  6. Multiscale benchmarking of drug delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Huw D; Ware, Matthew J; Majithia, Ravish; Meissner, Kenith E; Godin, Biana; Rees, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cross-system comparisons of drug delivery vectors are essential to ensure optimal design. An in-vitro experimental protocol is presented that separates the role of the delivery vector from that of its cargo in determining the cell response, thus allowing quantitative comparison of different systems. The technique is validated through benchmarking of the dose-response of human fibroblast cells exposed to the cationic molecule, polyethylene imine (PEI); delivered as a free molecule and as a cargo on the surface of CdSe nanoparticles and Silica microparticles. The exposure metrics are converted to a delivered dose with the transport properties of the different scale systems characterized by a delivery time, τ. The benchmarking highlights an agglomeration of the free PEI molecules into micron sized clusters and identifies the metric determining cell death as the total number of PEI molecules presented to cells, determined by the delivery vector dose and the surface density of the cargo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Delivery of Cargo to Lysosomes Using GNeosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Kristina M; Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Tong, Wenyong; Esko, Jeffrey D; Tor, Yitzhak

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes have been used to improve the intracellular delivery of a variety of cargos. Encapsulation of cargos in liposomes leads to improved plasma half-lives and minimized degradation. Here, we present a method for improving the selective delivery of liposomes to the lysosomes using a guanidinylated neomycin (GNeo) transporter. The method for synthesizing GNeo-lipids, incorporating them into liposomes, and the enhanced lysosomal delivery of encapsulated cargo are presented. GNeo-liposomes, termed GNeosomes, are capable of delivering a fluorescent dye to the lysosomes of Chinese hamster ovary cells as shown using confocal microscopy. GNeosomes can also be used to deliver therapeutic quantities of lysosomal enzymes to fibroblasts isolated from patients with a lysosomal storage disorder.

  8. Validation of separated source frequency delivery for a fiber-coupled heterodyne displacement interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of optical fibers presents several advantages with respect to free-space optical transport regarding sourcefrequency delivery to individual heterodyne interferometers. Unfortunately, fiber delivery to individual coaxial heterodyne interferometers leads to an increase of (periodic)

  9. Support of future lighthouse projects and beyond. Managing the transition to hydrogen for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, M.E.; Jeeninga, H.; Godfroij, P.

    2007-06-01

    Large scale demonstration projects as the 'Lighthouse projects' are an important step towards commercialisation. However, costs for disruptive technologies such as hydrogen, are high in the first phase of market introduction. Therefore, policy support is needed to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen. But, how can the government support and stimulate (early) market introduction and use of hydrogen in the transportation sector? What kind of policy instruments are needed in what phase of the introduction trajectory? And what are the current instruments in the EU and US? Can these affect the introduction of hydrogen in transport? Generally, the hydrogen chain can be stimulated by providing an investment subsidy, production subsidy, tax exemptions and a (production or sales) obligation. Technology specific configurations of these support mechanisms for the diverse technologies in the hydrogen chain have to be taken into account. Besides that the support measures have to act upon each other for every technology development stage. A comparison of the EU and US policies shows differences in the approach of bringing the hydrogen vehicles to the market. The amount of support differs. The US funds RD and D 50% and stimulates the market by obligating sales (ZEV obligation) and procurement, while the EU funds R and D 50%, demonstration 35% and is now looking into large scale demonstration projects, after which the commercial market introduction of hydrogen vehicles is envisaged

  10. Support of future lighthouse projects and beyond. Managing the transition to hydrogen for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, M.E.; Jeeninga, H.; Godfroij, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    Large scale demonstration projects as the 'Lighthouse projects' are an important step towards commercialisation. However, costs for disruptive technologies such as hydrogen, are high in the first phase of market introduction. Therefore, policy support is needed to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen. But, how can the government support and stimulate (early) market introduction and use of hydrogen in the transportation sector? What kind of policy instruments are needed in what phase of the introduction trajectory? And what are the current instruments in the EU and US? Can these affect the introduction of hydrogen in transport? Generally, the hydrogen chain can be stimulated by providing an investment subsidy, production subsidy, tax exemptions and a (production or sales) obligation. Technology specific configurations of these support mechanisms for the diverse technologies in the hydrogen chain have to be taken into account. Besides that the support measures have to act upon each other for every technology development stage. A comparison of the EU and US policies shows differences in the approach of bringing the hydrogen vehicles to the market. The amount of support differs. The US funds RD and D 50% and stimulates the market by obligating sales (ZEV obligation) and procurement, while the EU funds R and D 50%, demonstration 35% and is now looking into large scale demonstration projects, after which the commercial market introduction of hydrogen vehicles is envisaged.

  11. Optimizing transport logistics taking into account the state of roads and road traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikul’skaya Ol’ga Mikhaylovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice and use of rational routes at strict observance of deliveries terms help to achieve not only minimization of operational expenses, but also to reduce commodity and production stocks in warehouses by 1,5...2 times. Therefore special relevance is gained by the works allowing precisely calculating the volumes of a cargo transportation, to count the quantity of transport units necessary for providing cargo flow, to define the rational routes of transportation, and also to reduce total costs of transportation. On the basis of the analysis of the known mathematical methods applied in transport logistics, the authors drew a conclusion that the route of freight delivery is estimated according to the distance passed by the vehicle. However the time of freight delivery depends not only on distance, but also on a set of other factors, such as vehicle type, road capacity, intensity of transport stream, weather conditions, season and others. For taking note of additional factors when optimizing a freight delivery route the method of analogy and similarity is used by the authors. The transportation parameters were estimated by analogy with an electric chain. For this purpose the authors entered the new concepts “fictitious distance” and “conductivity of the road”. The mathematical model allowing optimizing the organization of freight delivery taking into account not only distances, but also the probable speed of the vehicle movement depending on the road quality, intensity of transport stream and weather conditions is developed. Further development of the system of decision-making support while choosing the optimum route of cargo delivery is planned.

  12. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Jao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability. This review addresses the sources of protein-based polymers, compares the similarity and differences, and highlights characteristic properties and functionality of these protein materials for sustained and controlled drug release. Targeted drug delivery using highly functional multicomponent protein composites to guide active drugs to the site of interest will also be discussed. A systematical elucidation of drug-delivery efficiency in the case of molecular weight, particle size, shape, morphology, and porosity of materials will then be demonstrated to achieve increased drug absorption. Finally, several important biomedical applications of protein-based materials with drug-delivery function—including bone healing, antibiotic release, wound healing, and corneal regeneration, as well as diabetes, neuroinflammation and cancer treatments—are summarized at the end of this review.

  13. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The literature on public service delivery alternatives has to date been highly localized, sector specific and lacking in methodological consistency. This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to ...

  14. Transport logistics for the transport of radioactive waste form public authorities to the final repository Konrad. Presentation of a simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffunder, Iris; Karbstein, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The final repository Konrad will start operation in 2019. The licensed disposal amount of 303.000 m 3 is planned with 10.000 m 3 per year. The waste delivery can be performed by road or rail transport. The infrastructure boundary conditions have to be considered with the transport planning. The transport logistics concept is presented using the examples of the interim storage facilities Lubmin and Karlsruhe. The planned disposal regime for low- and intermediate-level wastes requires a comprehensive logistics concept that provides a delivery according to the schedule. The experience values from transport simulation experiments will be considered in the frame of the planning software EPALKO development as control function and optimization parameters.

  15. Replacement of the cross-site transfer system liquid waste transport alternatives evaluation, Project W-058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.V.; Epperson, E.M.

    1995-05-01

    This document examines high-/low-level radioactive liquid waste transport alternatives. Radioactive liquid waste will be transported from the 200 West Area to the 200 East Area and within the 200 East Areas for safe storage and disposal. The radioactive waste transport alternatives are the Aboveground Transport System (French LR-56 Cask System [3,800 L (1,000 gal)]), 19,000-L (5,000-gal) trailer tanker system, 75,700-L (20,000-gal) rail tanker system and Underground Transport System (buried pipe [unlimited transfer volume capability]). The evaluation focused on the following areas: initial project cost, operational cost, secondary waste generation, radiation exposure, and final decommissioning. The evaluation was based on the near term (1995 to 2005) estimated volume of 49.509 million L (13.063 million gal) and long term (1995 to 2028) estimated volume of 757.1 million L (200 million gal). The conclusion showed that the buried pipe (Underground Transport System) resulted in the lowest overall total cost for near and long term, the trailer container resulted in the highest total cost for near and long term, and the French truck was operationally impractical and cost prohibitive

  16. FINAL REPORT - Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Donald [Hexagon Lincoln LLC, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2017-08-04

    The “Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery” project [DE-FG36-08GO18062] was initiated on 01 July 2008. Hexagon Lincoln (then Lincoln Composites) received grant funding from the U.S. Department of Energy to support the design and development of an improved bulk hauling and storage solution for hydrogen in terms of cost, safety, weight and volumetric efficiency. The development of this capability required parallel development and qualification of large all-composites pressure vessels, a custom ISO container to transport and store said tanks, and performance of trade studies to identify optimal operating pressure for the system. Qualification of the 250 bar TITAN® module was completed in 2009 with supervision from the American Bureau of Shipping [ABS], and the equipment has been used internationally for bulk transportation of fuel gases since 2010. Phase 1 of the project was successfully completed in 2012 with the issuance of USDOT SP 14951, the special permit authorizing the manufacture, marking, sale and use of TITAN® Mobile Pipeline® equipment in the United States. The introduction of tube trailers with light weight composite tankage has meant that 2 to 3 times as much gaseous fuel can be transported with each trip. This increased hauling efficiency offers dramatically reduced operating costs and has enabled a profitable business model for over-the-road compressed natural gas delivery. The economic drivers of this business opportunity vary from country to country and region to region, but in many places gas distribution companies have realized profitable operations. Additional testing was performed in 2015 to characterize hydrogen-specific operating protocols for use of TITAN® systems in CHG service at 250 bar. This program demonstrated that existing compression and decompression methodologies can efficiently and safely fill and unload lightweight bulk hauling systems. Hexagon Lincoln and U.S. DOE agreed

  17. Evaluation of the implementation of an intervention to improve the street environment and promote walking for transport in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Cavill, Nick; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-08-14

    Levels of physical activity remain low, particularly in deprived areas. Improving the street environment to promote walking for transport using a community engagement approach is a potential strategy to increase physical activity. An understanding of the implementation of this intervention approach is needed to facilitate further research, replication and scale-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Fitter for Walking (FFW) intervention in deprived neighbourhoods. FFW was delivered in five regions of England between August 2008 and March 2012 and aimed to use a community engagement approach to improve the street environment to promote walking for transport. Implementation was assessed in relation to reach; dosage; implementation processes and adaptation; and factors influencing implementation. Three data sources were used: focus groups and face-to-face interviews with coordinators; implementation logs; and participation records. Reach: 155 community groups participated in FFW engaging 30,230 local residents. Dosage: A wide variety of environmental improvements were implemented by local authorities (LAs) (42 projects) and by communities (46 projects). Examples of LA-led improvements included removal of encroaching vegetation, new/improved pedestrian signage, new dropped kerbs/kerb improvements and new, repaired or improved footpaths. Examples of community-led improvements included planting bulbs, shrubs or bedding plants, clean-up days and litter pick-ups. In 32 projects, no environmental improvements were implemented. Promotional and awareness-raising activities were undertaken in 81 projects. Examples included led walks, themed walks, development of maps/resources to promote improved routes and community events. Processes and adaptation: The need for a planning phase, a preparatory phase, and a delivery phase with a four step process were identified. Adaptability to local context was important. Factors influencing implementation: Five

  18. Functionalized PLA-PEG nanoparticles targeting intestinal transporter PepT1 for oral delivery of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdon, Betty; Chemin, Caroline; Moreau, Amélie; Arnauld, Thomas; Baumy, Philippe; Cisternino, Salvatore; Péan, Jean-Manuel; Declèves, Xavier

    2017-08-30

    Targeting intestinal di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 with prodrugs is a successful strategy to improve oral drug bioavailability, as demonstrated with valacyclovir, a prodrug of acyclovir. The aim of this new drug delivery strategy is to over-concentrate a poorly absorbed drug on the intestinal membrane surface by targeting PepT1 with functionalized polymer nanoparticles. In the present study, poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-ligand (PLA-PEG-ligand) nanoparticles were obtained by nanoprecipitation. A factorial experimental design allowed us to identify size-influent parameters and to obtain optimized ≈30nm nanoparticles. Valine, Glycylsarcosine, Valine-Glycine, and Tyrosine-Valine were chemically linked to PLA-PEG. In Caco-2 cell monolayer model, competition between functionalized nanoparticles and [ 3 H]Glycylsarcosine, a strong substrate of PepT1, reduced [ 3 H]Glycylsarcosine transport from 22 to 46%. Acyclovir was encapsulated with a drug load of ≈10% in valine-functionalized nanoparticles, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in permeability as compared to the free drug. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study in mice compared oral absorption of acyclovir after administration of 25mg/kg of valacyclovir, free or encapsulated acyclovir in functionalized nanoparticles. Acyclovir encapsulation did not statistically modify AUC or C max , but increased t 1/2 and MRT 1.3-fold as compared to free acyclovir. This new strategy is promising for poorly absorbed drugs by oral administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A competitive solution for cooperative truckload delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hezarkhani, B.; Slikker, M.; Woensel, van T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a solution for gain sharing in consortia of logistic providers where joint planning of truckload deliveries enables the reduction of empty kilometers. The highly competitive nature of freight transport markets necessitates solutions that distinguish among the logistics

  20. Transport Project Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Two main project evaluation approaches exist: cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Related to a European road evaluation method (EURET 1.1) and the MCA-method, WARP, the paper proposes a set of so-called segregated investment return rates (SIRR) to integrate advantages...

  1. Managing geotechnical risk on US design-build transport projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Awarding design-build (DB contracts before a complete subsurface investigation is completed, makes mitigating the risk of differing site conditions difficult, if not impossible. The purpose of the study was to identify effective practices for managing geotechnical risk in DB projects, and it reports the results of a survey that included responses from 42 of 50 US state departments of transportation and a content analysis of DB requests for proposals from 26 states to gauge the client’s perspective, as well as 11 structured interviews with DB contractors to obtain the perspective from the other side of the DB contract.  A suite of DB geotechnical risk manage tools is presented based on the results of the analysis. Effective practices were found in three areas: enhancing communications on geotechnical issues before final proposals are submitted; the use of project-specific differing site conditions clauses; and expediting geotechnical design reviews after award. The major finding is that contract verbiage alone is not sufficient to transfer the risk of changed site conditions. The agency must actively communicate all the geotechnical information on hand at the time of the DB procurement and develop a contract strategy that reduces/retires the risk of geotechnical uncertainty as expeditiously as possible after award.

  2. Protein based therapeutic delivery agents: Contemporary developments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liming; Yuvienco, Carlo; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2017-07-01

    As unique biopolymers, proteins can be employed for therapeutic delivery. They bear important features such as bioavailability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability with low toxicity serving as a platform for delivery of various small molecule therapeutics, gene therapies, protein biologics and cells. Depending on size and characteristic of the therapeutic, a variety of natural and engineered proteins or peptides have been developed. This, coupled to recent advances in synthetic and chemical biology, has led to the creation of tailor-made protein materials for delivery. This review highlights strategies employing proteins to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic matter, addressing the challenges for small molecule, gene, protein and cell transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypoxia/reoxygenation stress signals an increase in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the blood-brain barrier: relevance to CNS drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon J; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Slosky, Lauren M; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-li; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation stress (H/R) is a component of several diseases. One approach that may enable neural tissue rescue after H/R is central nervous system (CNS) delivery of drugs with brain protective effects such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Our present in vivo data show that atorvastatin, a commonly prescribed statin, attenuates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in the brain after H/R, suggesting neuroprotective efficacy. However, atorvastatin use as a CNS therapeutic is limited by poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Therefore, we examined regulation and functional expression of the known statin transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the BBB under H/R conditions. In rat brain microvessels, H/R (6% O2, 60 minutes followed by 21% O2, 10 minutes) increased Oatp1a4 expression. Brain uptake of taurocholate (i.e., Oap1a4 probe substrate) and atorvastatin were reduced by Oatp inhibitors (i.e., estrone-3-sulfate and fexofenadine), suggesting involvement of Oatp1a4 in brain drug delivery. Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) signaling with the selective inhibitor SB431542 increased Oatp1a4 functional expression, suggesting a role for TGF-β/ALK5 signaling in Oatp1a4 regulation. Taken together, our novel data show that targeting an endogenous BBB drug uptake transporter (i.e., Oatp1a4) may be a viable approach for optimizing CNS drug delivery for treatment of diseases with an H/R component.

  4. Porous silicon advances in drug delivery and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, David J; Liu, Xuewu; Curley, Steven A; Ferrari, Mauro; Serda, Rita E

    2013-10-01

    Biomedical applications of porous silicon include drug delivery, imaging, diagnostics and immunotherapy. This review summarizes new silicon particle fabrication techniques, dynamics of cellular transport, advances in the multistage vector approach to drug delivery, and the use of porous silicon as immune adjuvants. Recent findings support superior therapeutic efficacy of the multistage vector approach over single particle drug delivery systems in mouse models of ovarian and breast cancer. With respect to vaccine development, multivalent presentation of pathogen-associated molecular patterns on the particle surface creates powerful platforms for immunotherapy, with the porous matrix able to carry both antigens and immune modulators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Delivery cost of human papillomavirus vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-08-01

    To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for hpv vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$ 1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$ 3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$ 1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services.

  6. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  7. Beam Delivery System Dogleg Design and Integration for the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, J

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed to investigate the option of moving the positron source to the end of the main linac as a part of the central integration in the International Linear Collider(ILC) project. The positron source incorporates an undulator at the end of the main linac and the photons generated in the undulator are transported to the target, located at a distance of around 400 m. The dogleg design has been optimised to provide the required transverse offset at the location of the target and to give minimum emittance growth at 500 GeV. The design of the dogleg, the layout changes and the tolerances on beam tuning as a result of locating this dogleg in the beginning of the beam delivery system (BDS) are presented.

  8. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.

  9. Governance In Project Configured Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2006-01-01

    are integrated knowledge, material, workforce and management subsystem deliveries (the building core produced of pre-cast concrete, the elevator supply and the kitchen supply). Further 17 deliveries draws on more than 50 materials and component suppliers. The case project generated 160 failures over three months......This case study covers a Danish architectural, engineering and construction supply network for a specific building project. Failures in supply are used as indicators of the governance forms employed. The following governance forms are present; internal integration and hierarchy, SCM......-efforts, subsystem deliveries and contracting per project. The case exhibits a very uneven integration upstream: Three engineering design areas are integrated with production and the client function. Amongst supplies, the architectural design is the most 'clean-cut' knowledge supply, whereas the supplies...

  10. Guidebook : using public transportation to facilitate last mile package delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This guidebook is designed to inform rural transit operators of how to implement a package delivery service using information and input gathered from the state-of-the practice scan, the fact-finding questionnaire, and stakeholder workshops. The guide...

  11. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly; Ou, Kevin; Jackson, John K.; Letchford, Kevin; Cui, Jing; Wolf, Ki Tae; Graber, Florian; Zhao, Tom; Matsubara, Joanne A.; Burt, Helen; Chiao, Mu; Lin, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved

  12. Between a rock and a hard place: Management and implementation teams’ expectations of project managers in an agile information systems delivery environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songezo Nkukwana

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: This case study investigated how project managers could adapt to agile IS implementation environments to remain relevant. Specifically, the views of their key stakeholders (the management and implementation teams were elicited to provide insights into what is expected from agile project managers. Method: A qualitative, inductive content analysis approach using purposive sampling was used to identify 13 participants (comprising management and implementation team members within a large South African insurance company. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants. Results: The management and implementation teams agreed that PM remains highly relevant in an agile environment for ensuring project governance including delivery, risk management, reporting and budgeting. There was, however, disagreement between the management and implementation teams on project management interaction with the implementation team. Management preferred a command and control type project manager, while the implementation team favoured a more inclusive, facilitative PM style. Conclusion: To remain viable in an agile IS project implementation environment within large corporates, project managers need to be aware of what various stakeholders expect of them. They need to retain some of the classic PM functions while adapting to the interpersonal and collaborative requirements of the agile way.

  13. Crew transportation for the 1990s. I - Commercializing manned flight with today's propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehle, Robert; French, J. R.

    Two commercial space transport concepts that have been developed employing reusable production engines are discussed. A winged space transport (WST) launched from a Boeing 747 was sized to carry six people to low orbit. With no margin for performance growth, it is not favored for development. A vertical launch/landing space transport was designed with capabilities and propulsion similar to the WST, but launched from the ground. A small launch mass penalty is offset by improved performance margins and by eliminating carrier aircraft costs. The two-pilot plus five-passenger vehicle is designed for short-duration trips to low earth orbit, or for docking up to 10 d at an orbiting station. Market applications include space station crew rotation, equipment delivery and product return, short-duration experiments, satellite servicing, reconnaissance, and tourism. Profitable per-mission prices are projected at $10-15 million, with development costs approaching $400 million.

  14. Osmolarity as a contributing factor in topical drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Claire; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Gels and dissolvable solids are drug delivery platforms being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, which act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. In previous work, we have investigated how dilution by naturally produced fluid from the vaginal mucosa affects drug transport into the vaginal wall. We expand on this work by no longer assuming a constant flux and instead developing a relation for fluid transport based on osmolarity - thus allowing fluid to pass both into and out of epithelial cells. This relation shows that varying the osmolarity of the applied solution can have a significant effect on the amount of drug delivered to its target while holding the applied amount constant. This effect is modulated by a dimensionless group that relates the rates of solute and solvent transport. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a tool to understand better how to manipulate solution osmolarity in order to improve drug delivery within safety parameters for mucosal tissue.

  15. HDL as a drug and nucleic acid delivery vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras G Lacko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review is intended to evaluate the research findings and potential clinical applications of drug transport systems, developed based on the concepts of the structure/function and physiological role(s of high density lipoprotein=type nanoparticles. These macromolecules provide targeted transport of cholesteryl esters (a highly lipophilic payload in their natural/physiological environment. The property of accommodating highly water insoluble constituents in their core region enables HDL type nanoparticles to effectively transport hydrophobic drugs upon intravenous administration. Even though the application of reconstituted HDL in the treatment of a number of diseases is reviewed, the primary focus is on the application of HDL type drug delivery agents in cancer chemotherapy. The use of both native and synthetic HDL as drug delivery agents are compared to evaluate their respective potentials for commercial and clinical development. The current status and future perspectives for HDL type nanoparticles are discussed, including current obstacles and future applications in therapeutics.

  16. Arginine-rich intracellular delivery peptides noncovalently transport protein into living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-H.; Chen, C.-P.; Chan, M.-H.; Chang, M.; Hou, Y.-W.; Chen, H.-H.; Hsu, H.-R.; Liu, Kevin; Lee, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma membranes of plant or animal cells are generally impermeable to peptides or proteins. Many basic peptides have previously been investigated and covalently cross-linked with cargoes for cellular internalization. In the current study, we demonstrate that arginine-rich intracellular delivery (AID) peptides are able to deliver fluorescent proteins or β-galactosidase enzyme into animal and plant cells, as well as animal tissue. Cellular internalization and transdermal delivery of protein could be mediated by effective and nontoxic AID peptides in a neither fusion protein nor conjugation fashion. Therefore, noncovalent AID peptides may provide a useful strategy to have active proteins function in living cells and tissues in vivo

  17. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration & Controls, Front-End Design & Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety & Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH&QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan.

  18. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration snd Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESHandQA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan

  19. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant R Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

  20. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

  1. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    . The human body, however, possesses several natural transport mechanisms for active transport of molecules. Amongst these is albumin, which is the most abundant plasma protein and has a circulatory half-life of ~21 days, partially due to engagement and recycling by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Albumin...... vehicle. This proof of concept silencing showed that siRNA can be used for therapeutic purposes without the use of non-biocompatible polymer or lipid materials. This work, therefore, provides a novel technology platform for the safe delivery of siRNA therapeutics....

  2. Examination of oral absorption and lymphatic transport of halofantrine in a triple-cannulated canine model after administration in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing structured triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Edwards, Glenn A; Müllertz, Anette; Kristensen, Henning G; Charman, William N

    2003-09-01

    The potential for lipidic self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing triglycerides with a defined structure, where the different fatty acids on the glycerol backbone exhibit different metabolic fate, to improve the lymphatic transport and the portal absorption of a poorly water-soluble drug, halofantrine, were investigated in fasted lymph cannulated canines. Two different structured triglycerides were incorporated into the SMEDDS; 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-linoleyl-sn-glycerol (C8:0-C18:2-C8:0) (MLM) and 1,3-dilinoyl-2-octanoyl-sn-glycerol (C18:2-C8:0-C18:2) (LML). A previously optimised SMEDDS formulation for halofantrine, comprising of triglyceride, Cremophor EL, Maisine 35-1 and ethanol was selected for bioavailability assessment. The extent of lymphatic transport via the thoracic duct was 17.9% of the dose for the animals dosed with the MLM SMEDDS and 27.4% for LML. Also the plasma availability was affected by the triglyceride incorporated into the multi-component delivery system and availabilities of 56.9% (MLM) and 37.2% (LML) were found. These data indicate that the pharmaceutical scientist can use the structure of the lipid to affect the relative contribution of the two absorption pathways. The MLM formulation produced a total bioavailability of 74.9%, which is higher than the total absorption previously observed after post-prandial administration. This could indicate the utility of disperse lipid-base formulations based on structured triglycerides for the oral delivery of halofantrine, and potentially other lipophilic drugs.

  3. Novel nanocarriers for topical drug delivery: investigating delivery efficiency and distribution in skin using two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirejev, Vladimir; Guldbrand, Stina; Bauer, Brigitte; Smedh, Maria; Ericson, Marica B.

    2011-03-01

    The complex structure of skin represents an effective barrier against external environmental factors, as for example, different chemical and biochemical compounds, yeast, bacterial and viral infections. However, this impermeability prevents efficient transdermal drug delivery which limits the number of drugs that are able to penetrate the skin efficiently. Current trends in drug application through skin focus on the design and use of nanocarriers for transport of active compounds. The transport systems applied so far have several drawbacks, as they often have low payload, high toxicity, a limited variability of inclusion molecules, or long degradation times. The aim of these current studies is to investigate novel topical drug delivery systems, e.g. nanocarriers based on cyclic oligosaccharides - cyclodextrins (CD) or iron (III)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOF). Earlier studies on cell cultures imply that these drug nanocarriers show promising characteristics compared to other drug delivery systems. In our studies, we use two-photon microscopy to investigate the ability of the nanocarriers to deliver compounds through ex-vivo skin samples. Using near infrared light for excitation in the so called optical window of skin allows deep-tissue visualization of drug distribution and localization. In addition, it is possible to employ two-photon based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of drug distribution and concentrations in different cell layers.

  4. Analysis of extreme values of the economic efficiency indicators of transport infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytárová, J.; Vaňková, L.

    2017-10-01

    Paper builds on previous research of the authors into the evaluation of economic efficiency of transport infrastructure projects evaluated by the economic efficiency ratio - NPV, IRR and BCR. Values of indicators and subsequent outputs of the sensitivity analysis show extremely favourable values in some cases. The authors dealt with the analysis of these indicators down to the level of the input variables and examined which inputs have a larger share of these extreme values. NCF for the calculation of above mentioned ratios is created by benefits that arise as the difference between zero and investment options of the project (savings in travel and operating costs, savings in travel time costs, reduction in accident costs and savings in exogenous costs) as well as total agency costs. Savings in travel time costs which contribute to the overall utility of projects by more than 70% appear to be the most important benefits in the long term horizon. This is the reason why this benefit emphasized. The outcome of the article has resulted how the particular basic variables contributed to the total robustness of economic efficiency of these project.

  5. Teaching Mixed-Mode: A Case Study in Remote Delivery of Computer Science in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Sheila; Harris, Michael; Wilkinson, Simon; Zuluaga, Catherine; Voutier, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In February 2003, RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, commenced delivery of a Computer Science diploma and degree programme using mixed mode delivery to 250 university students in sub-Saharan Africa, through a World Bank funded project designed for the African Virtual University (AVU). The project is a unique experience made possible by…

  6. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford's underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis

  7. Altered blood-brain barrier transport in neuro-inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Geert J; de Vries, Helga E

    2016-06-01

    During neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), the protective function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be severely impaired. The general neuro-inflammatory response, ranging from activation of glial cells to immune cell infiltration that is frequently associated with such brain diseases may underlie the loss of the integrity and function of the BBB. Consequentially, the delivery and disposition of drugs to the brain will be altered and may influence the treatment efficiency of such diseases. Altered BBB transport of drugs into the CNS during diseases may be the result of changes in both specific transport and non-specific transport pathways. Potential alterations in transport routes like adsorptive mediated endocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis may affect drug delivery to the brain. As such, drugs that normally are unable to traverse the BBB may reach their target in the diseased brain due to increased permeability. In contrast, the delivery of (targeted) drugs could be hampered during inflammatory conditions due to disturbed transport mechanisms. Therefore, the inventory of the neuro-inflammatory status of the neurovasculature (or recovery thereof) is of utmost importance in choosing and designing an adequate drug targeting strategy under disease conditions. Within this review we will briefly discuss how the function of the BBB can be affected during disease and how this may influence the delivery of drugs into the diseased CNS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997

  9. Time-dependent Flow and Transport Calculations for Project Opalinus Clay (Entsorgungsnachweis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakowski, G.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes two specific assessment cases used in the safety assessment for a proposed deep geological repository for spent fuel, high level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste, sited in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland (Project Entsorgungsnachweis, NAG RA, 2002d). In this study the influence of time dependent flow processes on the radionuclide transport in the geosphere is investigated. In the Opalinus Clay diffusion dominates the transport of radionuclides, but processes exist that can locally increase the importance of the advective transport for some time. Two important cases were investigated: (1) glaciation-induced flow due to an additional overburden in the form of an ice shield of up to 400 m thickness and (2) fluid flow driven by tunnel convergence. For the calculations the code FRAC3DVS (Therrien and Sudicky, 1996) was used. FRAC3DVS solves the three-dimensional flow and transport equation in porous and fractured media. For the case of glaciation-induced flow (1) a two-dimensional reference model without glaciations was calculated. During the glaciations the geosphere release-rates are up to a factor of about 1.7 higher compared to the reference model. The influence of glaciations on the transport of cations or neutral species is less than for anions, since the importance of the advective transport for anions is higher due to the lower accessible porosity for anions. The increase in the release rates during glaciations is lower for sorbing compared to non-sorbing radionuclides. The influence of the tunnel convergence (2) on the transport of radionuclides in the geosphere is very small. Due to the higher source term the geosphere release rates are slightly higher if tunnel convergence is considered. In addition to the two assessment cases this report investigates the applicability of the one-dimensional approximation for modelling transport through the Opalinus Clay. For the reference case of the safety

  10. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  11. A Sample Delivery System for Planetary Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop, test and characterize the performance of a prototype /sample delivery system (SDS) implemented as an end effector on a robotic arm capable...

  12. Influence of vascular normalization on interstitial flow and delivery of liposomes in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Deniz; Yonucu, Sirin; Yilmaz, Defne; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    2015-01-01

    Elevated interstitial fluid pressure is one of the barriers of drug delivery in solid tumors. Recent studies have shown that normalization of tumor vasculature by anti-angiogenic factors may improve the delivery of conventional cytotoxic drugs, possibly by increasing blood flow, decreasing interstitial fluid pressure, and enhancing the convective transvascular transport of drug molecules. Delivery of large therapeutic agents such as nanoparticles and liposomes might also benefit from normalization therapy since their transport depends primarily on convection. In this study, a mathematical model is presented to provide supporting evidence that normalization therapy may improve the delivery of 100 nm liposomes into solid tumors, by both increasing the total drug extravasation and providing a more homogeneous drug distribution within the tumor. However these beneficial effects largely depend on tumor size and are stronger for tumors within a certain size range. It is shown that this size effect may persist under different microenvironmental conditions and for tumors with irregular margins or heterogeneous blood supply. (paper)

  13. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D and D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer(reg s ign) H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001

  14. Microneedles for intradermal and transdermal delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan-Mahmood, Tuan-Mazlelaa; McCrudden, Maeliosa T.C.; Torrisi, Barbara M.; McAlister, Emma; Garland, Martin J; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-01-01

    The formidable barrier properties of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum impose significant limitations for successful systemic delivery of a broad range of therapeutic molecules, particularly macromolecules and genetic material. Microneedle delivery has been proposed as a strategy to breach the SC barrier function in order to facilitate effective transport of molecules across the skin. This strategy involves the use of micron sized needles fabricated from different materials and using different geometries to create transient aqueous conduits across the skin. Microneedles in isolation, or in combination with other enhancing strategies, have been shown to dramatically enhance the skin permeability of numerous therapeutic molecules including biopharmaceuticals either in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo. Progress in the areas of microneedle design, development and manufacture have proven promising in terms of the potential use of this emerging delivery method in clinical applications such as insulin delivery, transcutaneous immunisations and cutaneous gene delivery. This review article focuses on recent and potential future developments in microneedle technologies. This will include the detailing of progress made in microneedle design, an exploration of the challenges faced in this field and potential forward strategies to embrace the exploitation of microneedle methodologies, while considering the inherent safety aspects of such therapeutic tools. PMID:23680534

  15. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones.

  16. Consolidation and coordination in urban freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to growing urbanization, fragmentation of freight flows, and increasingly strict delivery conditions, cities around the world have to deal with a vastly increasing number of freight transport flows. Carriers are unable to efficiently bundle these flows, resulting in inefficient urban transport.

  17. 'Sapphire' project. Objectives and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkolnik, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    'Sapphire' Project contains the US assistance in purchasing/exporting 600 kg of highly enriched uranium from the State Holding Association 'Ulba' Uranium Plant, and compensatory equipment and service deliveries under the mutually concerted list. The compensatory payments were as separate projects in conformity with Kazakhstan enterprises needs, participation quota of which was determined by the Kazakhstan Government. Realization Milestones. Activity on Separate Projects: - basic 'Sapphire' part includes medical projects; - Kazakhstan Services were equipped with computers by the American International Development Agency for Taxation Services of Kazakhstan and by US Department of Energy for Monitoring preparation of Kazakhstan Atomic energy Agency. - 7 Research projects are being realized via the International Science and Technological Center; - export control. It has been realized as the equipment delivery under the concerted list; - equipping of nuclear materials accounting and control system at 'Ulba' Association enterprises

  18. STC synthesis of best practices for determining value of research results : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Transportation research projects are aimed at fostering innovation in different areas, such as : safety, cost savings, quality, efficiency, project delivery, and policy. Transportation agencies and : most notably State Departments of Transportation (...

  19. Transdermal and intradermal delivery of therapeutic agents: application of physical technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banga, Ajay K

    2011-01-01

    .... Commercialization of transdermal drug delivery requires technology from many disciplines beyond pharmaceutical sciences, such as polymer chemistry, adhesion sciences, mass transport, web film coating...

  20. The Best Project: bioethanol for sustainable transport and public policies to encourage the use of ethanol; O Projeto Best: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel e as politicas publicas de incentivo ao uso do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Gonzalez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The usage of ethanol in buses is a reality in cities from Sweden, such as Stockholm. The technology of diesel bus adapted to operate with ethanol has been used in that country since 1985, with great success, mainly in the environmental point of view. With the intent of encouraging ethanol usage in urban public transportation aiming, among other goals, at the reduction of atmospheric pollution in the big urban centers, the BEST Project - BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport was created. Besides Sao Paulo (pioneer in the Americas), this project, encouraged by the European Union, counts with eight other cities located in Europe and Asia. In Brazil, the project was developed and coordinated by CENBIO - Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, from the Electrotechnics and Energy Institute of USP. With the partnership of other institutions, the project is developed since 2007 and currently counts on two diesel buses adapted to operate with ethanol. The buses circulate in operatives from EMTU - Sao Paulo Metropolitan Company for Urban Transports, in the Jabaquara - Sao Mateus line, and in operative from SPTrans - Sao Paulo Transportations, in the Lapa - Vila Mariana corridor. This paper has as its purpose to present the BEST Project in Brazil, its partners and, mainly, the results from the demonstration tests performed in field, as well as the proposals of public policies that were elaborated and are being implemented. It is worth remembering that the technology of the buses pays attention to the EURO 5 strict emission Standards, a norm that was recently invigorated in Europe. (author)

  1. Transport Phenomena Projects: Natural Convection between Porous, Concentric Cylinders--A Method to Learn and to Innovate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatadjian, Esteban; Lesage, Francois; Mota, Jose Paulo B.

    2013-01-01

    A project that involves the numerical simulation of transport phenomena is an excellent method to teach this subject to senior/graduate chemical engineering students. The subject presented here has been used in our senior/graduate course, it concerns the study of natural convection heat transfer between two concentric, horizontal, saturated porous…

  2. Projection-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control of a Transport Aircraft for Heavyweight Airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An autopilot inner loop that combines backstepping control with adaptive function approximation is developed for airdrop operations. The complex nonlinear uncertainty of the aircraft-cargo model is factorized into a known matrix and an uncertainty function, and a projection-based adaptive approach is proposed to estimate this function. Using projection in the adaptation law bounds the estimated function and guarantees the robustness of the controller against time-varying external disturbances and uncertainties. The convergence properties and robustness of the control method are proved via Lyapunov theory. Simulations are conducted under the condition that one transport aircraft performs a maximum load airdrop task at a height of 82 ft, using single row single platform mode. The results show good performance and robust operation of the controller, and the airdrop mission performance indexes are satisfied, even in the presence of ±15% uncertainty in the aerodynamic coefficients, ±0.01 rad/s pitch rate disturbance, and 20% actuators faults.

  3. Reasons for decision in the matter of Enbridge Southern Lights GP on behalf of Enbridge Southern Lights LP and Enbridge Pipelines Inc. : facilities[Application dated 9 March 2007 for the Southern Lights Project consisting of the: 1. Diluent Pipeline Project, and 2. Capacity Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    In March 2007, Enbridge Southern Lights (ESL) GP on behalf of Enbridge Southern Lights LP and Enbridge Pipelines Inc. (EPI) applied for approvals related to the Southern Lights Project. The first component of the project involves the construction of a pipeline to transport diluent from Chicago, Illinois to Edmonton on Line 13, an existing EPI Mainline pipeline. The second component of the project involves a Capacity Replacement Project to replace the loss of southbound capacity on the EPI Mainline system resulting from the transfer of Line 13 to diluent service. The application required Board approvals for several related project components, including the transfer of ownership of EPI's Line 13 to ESL; the removal of Line 13 from southbound crude oil delivery service; reversing the flow on Line 13 to carry diluent from the Canada/US border northbound to Edmonton, Alberta; constructing a new oil pipeline to transport light sour crude oil; physical changes and alterations to EPI's Line 2; and, appropriate tolls and tariffs. The Board determined that the Southern Lights Project is an innovative and cost-effective solution to transport diluent. The applicants demonstrated sufficient diluent shipping commitments to ensure the long term viability of the pipeline. The Board found that the proposal to build new facilities on existing EPI sites and right-of-way should minimize negative impacts on area landowners, and also judged that mitigation planned for the construction phase will minimize potential adverse effects. The Board will require ESL to conduct an emergency response exercise where Line 13 crosses the South Saskatchewan River. Ongoing discussions between the applicants and Aboriginal groups, and a Heritage Resource Discovery Contingency Plan, will reduce potential impacts to traditional use sites. Having reviewed all evidence, the Board approved applications for the Southern Lights Pipeline Project, worth an estimated $247.5 million in Canadian spending

  4. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  5. Project management for economical nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majerle, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The price of electricity is significantly influenced by the cost of the initial generation asset. The cost of the initial nuclear generation asset is significantly influenced by the design and construction duration. Negative variations in the cost and duration of actual design and construction have historically impacted the early relative economics of nuclear power generation. Successful management of plant design information will mitigate the risks of the design and construction of future nuclear plants. Information management tools that can model the integrated delivery of large complex projects enable the project owners to accurately evaluate project progress, as well as the economic impact of regulatory, political, or market activities not anticipated in the project execution plan. Significant differences exist in the electrical energy markets, project delivery models, and fuel availability between continents and countries. However, each market and project delivery model is challenged by the need to produce economical electrical energy. The information management system presented in this paper provides a means to capture in a single integrated computerized database the design information developed during plant design, procurement, and construction and to allow this information to be updated and retrieved in real time by all project participants. Utilization of the information management system described herein will enable diverse project teams to rapidly and reliably input, share, and retrieve power plant information, thereby supporting project management's goal to make good on its commitment to the economic promise of tomorrow's nuclear electrical power generation by achieving cost-effective construction. (authors)

  6. Modeling the biophysical effects in a carbon beam delivery line by using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ilsung; Yoo, SeungHoon; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Shin, Jae-ik; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    The Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) plays an important role in designing a uniform dose response for ion-beam therapy. In this study, the biological effectiveness of a carbon-ion beam delivery system was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. A carbon-ion beam delivery line was designed for the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project. The GEANT4 simulation tool kit was used to simulate carbon-ion beam transport into media. An incident energy carbon-ion beam with energy in the range between 220 MeV/u and 290 MeV/u was chosen to generate secondary particles. The microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model was applied to describe the RBE of 10% survival in human salivary-gland (HSG) cells. The RBE weighted dose was estimated as a function of the penetration depth in the water phantom along the incident beam's direction. A biologically photon-equivalent Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) was designed using the RBE-weighted absorbed dose. Finally, the RBE of mixed beams was predicted as a function of the depth in the water phantom.

  7. Delivery of peptide and protein drugs over the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasnjevic, Ivona; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Schmitz, Christoph; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar

    2009-04-01

    Peptide and protein (P/P) drugs have been identified as showing great promises for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. A major challenge in this regard, however, is the delivery of P/P drugs over the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Intense research over the last 25 years has enabled a better understanding of the cellular and molecular transport mechanisms at the BBB, and several strategies for enhanced P/P drug delivery over the BBB have been developed and tested in preclinical and clinical-experimental research. Among them, technology-based approaches (comprising functionalized nanocarriers and liposomes) and pharmacological strategies (such as the use of carrier systems and chimeric peptide technology) appear to be the most promising ones. This review combines a comprehensive overview on the current understanding of the transport mechanisms at the BBB with promising selected strategies published so far that can be applied to facilitate enhanced P/P drug delivery over the BBB.

  8. Radiation doses arising from the air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, R.; Shaw, K.B.; Wilson, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    There is a compelling need for the transport of radioactive material by air because of the requirement by hospitals throughout the world for urgent delivery for medical purposes. Many countries have no radionuclide-producing capabilities and depend on imports: a range of such products is supplied from the United Kingdom. Many of these are short lived, which explains the need for urgent delivery. The only satisfactory method of delivery on a particular day to a particular destination is often by the use of scheduled passenger air service. The International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO 1987-1988), prescribe the detailed requirements applicable to the international transport of dangerous goods by air. Radioactive materials are required to be separated from persons and from undeveloped photographic films or plates: minimum distances as a function of the total sum of transport indexes are given in the Instructions. A study, which included the measurement and assessment of the radiation doses resulting from the transport of radioactive materials by air from the UK, has been performed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on behalf of the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the Department of Transport (DTp)

  9. Improving transport service delivery in the Capricorn district municipality by strengthening ITS transport function

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , transport authority, functions, capacity building, funding, institutional strengthening, legislative mandates, South Africa 224 1 INTRODUCTION Since the advent of the democratic political dispensation in South Africa in 1994, the nature and functions... in that it influences the quality and style of life, the range and location of productive and leisure activities, and the goods and services which will be available for consumption (Morlok, 1978; Fuller, 2004). Given that transport plays this important triple role...

  10. A framework for considering climate change in transportation and land use scenario planning : lessons learned from an interagency pilot project on Cape Cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Pilot Project utilized a scenario planning process to develop a multi-agency transportation- and land use-focused development strategy for Cape Cod, Massachusetts, with the intention of ach...

  11. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section 633.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the...

  12. Effect of heterogeneous microvasculature distribution on drug delivery to solid tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Wenbo; Xu, Xiao Yun; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw

    2014-01-01

    Most of the computational models of drug transport in vascular tumours assume a uniform distribution of blood vessels through which anti-cancer drugs are delivered. However, it is well known that solid tumours are characterized by dilated microvasculature with non-uniform diameters and irregular branching patterns. In this study, the effect of heterogeneous vasculature on drug transport and uptake is investigated by means of mathematical modelling of the key physical and biochemical processes in drug delivery. An anatomically realistic tumour model accounting for heterogeneous distribution of blood vessels is reconstructed based on magnetic resonance images of a liver tumour. Numerical simulations are performed for different drug delivery modes, including direct continuous infusion and thermosensitive liposome-mediated delivery, and the anti-cancer effectiveness is evaluated through changes in tumour cell density based on predicted intracellular concentrations. Comparisons are made between regions of different vascular density, and between the two drug delivery modes. Our numerical results show that both extra- and intra-cellular concentrations in the liver tumour are non-uniform owing to the heterogeneous distribution of tumour vasculature. Drugs accumulate faster in well-vascularized regions, where they are also cleared out more quickly, resulting in less effective tumour cell killing in these regions. Compared with direct continuous infusion, the influence of heterogeneous vasculature on anti-cancer effectiveness is more pronounced for thermosensitive liposome-mediated delivery. (paper)

  13. Beyond emission targets: how to decarbonize the passenger transport sector? Results from the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project for Transport (DDPP-T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    Reaching the ambitious climate objective of the Paris Agreement requires decreasing significantly sectoral emissions from the transport sector. However, the ambition pledged for the transport sector under the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) remains very limited. The DDPP-T analyzes Paris-compatible sectoral strategies for the passenger transport that can serve to inform the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue and the preparation of future, more ambitious, NDCs by 2020. In a context of an expected steep increase in global mobility demand, deep decarbonization will require a mix of different 'well-known' options: the rapid diffusion of low-carbon vehicles and low-carbon fuels and the modal shift towards low-carbon modes like public transport and non-motorized transport (cycling and walking). However, while crucial, these options are not 'silver bullets' that on their own meet the decarbonization challenge, given their intrinsic individual limitations. The project adopts an integrated approach of sectoral deep decarbonization strategies articulating the diffusion of low-carbon technologies with the future of mobility and all its drivers, such as the demographic and economic situation, the localization of population centers, the transport and urban planning, the lifestyles and the features of mobility services. The strategies are context-specific in order to capture different country circumstances, and consider a long-term horizon to inform the short-term conditions enabling structural changes of the transport system. Building on four country analyses (France, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom), this Issue Brief derives five cross-cutting messages for a deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector. Key messages: - Deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector requires strong actions on four pillars of transformation. Only a consistent articulation of these synergistic pillars allows an effective deep decarbonization. - Deep

  14. Evaluation of the implementation of an intervention to improve the street environment and promote walking for transport in deprived neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Adams

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of physical activity remain low, particularly in deprived areas. Improving the street environment to promote walking for transport using a community engagement approach is a potential strategy to increase physical activity. An understanding of the implementation of this intervention approach is needed to facilitate further research, replication and scale-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Fitter for Walking (FFW intervention in deprived neighbourhoods. Methods FFW was delivered in five regions of England between August 2008 and March 2012 and aimed to use a community engagement approach to improve the street environment to promote walking for transport. Implementation was assessed in relation to reach; dosage; implementation processes and adaptation; and factors influencing implementation. Three data sources were used: focus groups and face-to-face interviews with coordinators; implementation logs; and participation records. Results Reach: 155 community groups participated in FFW engaging 30,230 local residents. Dosage: A wide variety of environmental improvements were implemented by local authorities (LAs (42 projects and by communities (46 projects. Examples of LA-led improvements included removal of encroaching vegetation, new/improved pedestrian signage, new dropped kerbs/kerb improvements and new, repaired or improved footpaths. Examples of community-led improvements included planting bulbs, shrubs or bedding plants, clean-up days and litter pick-ups. In 32 projects, no environmental improvements were implemented. Promotional and awareness-raising activities were undertaken in 81 projects. Examples included led walks, themed walks, development of maps/resources to promote improved routes and community events. Processes and adaptation: The need for a planning phase, a preparatory phase, and a delivery phase with a four step process were identified. Adaptability to local context was

  15. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  16. Experiences of practice facilitators working on the Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care project: Retrospective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare; Rowan, Margo; Valiquette-Tessier, Sophie-Claire; Drosinis, Paul; Crowe, Lois; Hogg, William

    2018-01-01

    To examine the barriers to and facilitators of practice facilitation experienced by participants in the Improving Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC) project. Case studies of practice facilitators' narrative reports. Eastern Ontario. Primary care practices that participated in the IDOCC project. Cases were identified by calculating sum scores in order to determine practices' performance relative to their peers. Two case exemplars were selected that scored within ± 1 SD of the total mean score, and a qualitative analysis of practice facilitators' narrative reports was conducted using a 5-factor implementation framework to identify barriers and facilitators. Narratives were divided into 3 phases: planning, implementation, and sustainability. Barriers and facilitators fluctuated over the intervention's 3 phases. Site A reported more barriers (n = 47) than facilitators (n = 38), while site B reported a roughly equal number of barriers (n = 144) and facilitators (n = 136). In both sites, the most common barriers involved organizational and provider factors and the most common facilitators were associated with innovation and structural factors. Both practices encountered various barriers and facilitators throughout the IDOCC's 3 phases. The case studies reveal the complex interactions of these factors over time, and provide insight into the implementation of practice facilitation programs. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. Reaching help on time in an emergency delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Many maternal deaths in developing countries occur because mothers with complicated pregnancies or deliveries cannot be transported at all or fast enough to a health facility. A pregnant woman hemorrhaging greatly had to wait for a taxi because an unauthorized person had the health center's vehicle in Tanzania. Since most physicians practice in cities, most maternal deaths involve rural women. Further the less educated, lower the socioeconomic status, and lower the family's income the more likely she is to die. 3 phases contributed to transport delays of pregnant women. The 1st phase includes the time it take for a woman and her family to decide if her condition is serious enough to require medical attention, and if so, can they afford to pay for transport. Sometimes the services scare her or she considers the services to be of poor quality. The next phase involves the availability of transport and the distance between the mother and the services. Indeed in Nigeria, 96% of mothers who do not use medical delivery services report that they do not do so because of distance. Once at the health facility, the waiting period between arrival and meeting the woman's medical needs make up the 3rd phase. Often health facilities have inadequate number of medical personnel. Moreover the family must buy needed medical supplies before treatment can even begin. Alarm and transport systems are needed. In 1 area of India, pigeons carry messages to a physician that a woman is experiencing labor difficulties. Prior to the civil war in Somalia, a distinct flag informed passing motorists that emergency transport was needed for a pregnant woman who was carried to the roadside on a stretcher or in a cart. High technology transport is not cost effective and should not be part of a primary health care system.

  18. Electronic Health Delivery using Open Source Software and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen primary healthcare delivery to vulnerable ... and communication technology (ICT), specifically, personal digital assistants (PDAs) ... de Argentina through its centre for interdisciplinary studies and management ...

  19. Study on Multi-Depot Collaborative Transportation Problem of Milk-Run Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Zhenkai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyze the relevance between Milk Run mode and collaborative transportation problem, put forward collaborative transportation problem of multiple-depot on Milk Run mode under the supply and demand separate nodes, consider the value of transport and transport costs, introduce the concept of node - arc flow, by comparing the size of traffic flow determine nodes collection, and then constructed multi-transport model of the problem. Considering one-way pickup and delivery closed, construct two-stage algorithm model, use dynamic programming recursive solution to determine the best route to pick up, and then solving delivery routing problem with different start and return point based on geometric method of Cosine. Finally use a numerical example illustrates the effectiveness of the algorithm and reasonable model.

  20. Accessing Safe Deliveries in Tanzania (IMCHA) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Few healthcare workers are trained to offer emergency obstetrical care, so timely ... With better access to skilled care and emergency services, the project aims to ... training program as it relates to health service delivery and health outcomes.

  1. Sistemas de transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho: bases fundamentais e aplicações Drug delivery systems for the posterior segment of the eye: fundamental basis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do segmento posterior do olho são responsáveis pela maioria dos casos de cegueira irreversível no mundo inteiro. Este cenário estimula o desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de tratamento para estas doenças. O sucesso no tratamento visa, essencialmente, o transporte de doses efetivas de drogas diretamente para os locais a serem tratados. Devido às dificuldades encontradas no transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho, pesquisas têm sido realizadas no sentido de desenvolver sistemas de administração intra-oculares que permitam liberar concentrações terapêuticas das drogas por período prolongado. Tais sistemas podem proporcionar inúmeras vantagens, como: aumentar a biodisponibilidade e a concentração local da droga, atingir especificamente um tipo de tecido ou célula, reduzir a freqüência de injeções intra-oculares. Tais vantagens podem aumentar o conforto do paciente e reduzir as complicações observadas com a utilização das injeções intra-oculares. Diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas têm sido desenvolvidos com as finalidades acima descritas. Estes sistemas podem ser compostos por polímeros biodegradáveis ou não-biodegradáveis ou serem formulações lipídicas. Os sistemas de transporte de drogas são representados, principalmente, pelas micro e nanopartículas e pelos implantes, sendo eles compostos por diferentes polímeros; pelos lipossomos, que são compostos por lípides e emulsionantes; e pela iontoforese, que se baseia na aplicação de corrente elétrica. Nesta revisão, as principais características dos diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas serão descritas, expondo suas potencialidades de aplicação clínica.The diseases of the posterior segment of the eye are responsible for most cases of irreversible blindness worldwide. These conditions stimulate the development of new modalities of treatment for vitreoretinal diseases. The success in the treatment aims, mainly

  2. Cell and biomolecule delivery for regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian O; Ma, Peter X

    2010-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an exciting field that aims to create regenerative alternatives to harvest tissues for transplantation. In this approach, the delivery of cells and biological molecules plays a central role. The scaffold (synthetic temporary extracellular matrix) delivers cells to the regenerative site and provides three-dimensional environments for the cells. To fulfil these functions, we design biodegradable polymer scaffolds with structural features on multiple size scales. To enhance positive cell–material interactions, we design nano-sized structural features in the scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix. We also integrate micro-sized pore networks to facilitate mass transport and neo tissue regeneration. We also design novel polymer devices and self-assembled nanospheres for biomolecule delivery to recapitulate key events in developmental and wound healing processes. Herein, we present recent work in biomedical polymer synthesis, novel processing techniques, surface engineering and biologic delivery. Examples of enhanced cellular/tissue function and regenerative outcomes of these approaches are discussed to demonstrate the excitement of the biomimetic scaffold design and biologic delivery in regenerative medicine. PMID:27877317

  3. Exploring new health markets: experiences from informal providers of transport for maternal health services in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Gerald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a number of intermediate transport initiatives have been used in some developing countries, available evidence reveals a dearth of local knowledge on the effect of these rural informal transport mechanisms on access to maternal health care services, the cost of implementing such schemes and their scalability. This paper, attempts to provide insights into the functioning of the informal transport markets in facilitating access to maternal health care. It also demonstrates the role that higher institutions of learning can play in designing projects that can increase the utilization of maternal health services. Objectives To explore the use of intermediate transport mechanisms to improve access to maternal health services, with emphasis on the benefits and unintended consequences of the transport scheme, as well as challenges in the implementation of the scheme. Methods This paper is based on the pilot phase to inform a quasi experimental study aimed at increasing access to maternal health services using demand and supply side incentives. The data collection for this paper included qualitative and quantitative methods that included focus group interviews, review of project documents and facility level data. Results There was a marked increase in attendance of antenatal, and delivery care services, with the contracted transporters playing a leading role in mobilizing mothers to attend services. The project also had economic spill-over effects to the transport providers, their families and community generally. However, some challenges were faced including difficulty in setting prices for paying transporters, and poor enforcement of existing traffic regulations. Conclusions and implications The findings indicate that locally existing resources such as motorcycle riders, also known as “boda boda” can be used innovatively to reduce challenges caused by geographical inaccessibility and a poor transport network with

  4. Forest energy project in Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergia -projekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Association of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is one of the topleading regional demonstration project in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilization. It is a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains are formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they are also demonstrated. The project offers hence a wide test field for regional and national techno/economical wood fuel development. The target of this provincial project is to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilization of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co-operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organizations. An essential target of the project is to direct the know-how, concentrated in the project, to development of the energy field. The project is directed to international information delivery, to concrete widening of cooperation, on transfer of testing and training activities and utilization experiences in the field of wood energy. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project is a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels, e.g. energy wood suppliers, energy producers, communes, forest industry, forestry boards, forestry associations, wood delivery contractors, and equipment producers, take part in the project

  5. Forest energy project in Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergia -projekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M. [Association of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is one of the topleading regional demonstration project in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilization. It is a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains are formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they are also demonstrated. The project offers hence a wide test field for regional and national techno/economical wood fuel development. The target of this provincial project is to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilization of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co-operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organizations. An essential target of the project is to direct the know-how, concentrated in the project, to development of the energy field. The project is directed to international information delivery, to concrete widening of cooperation, on transfer of testing and training activities and utilization experiences in the field of wood energy. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project is a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels, e.g. energy wood suppliers, energy producers, communes, forest industry, forestry boards, forestry associations, wood delivery contractors, and equipment producers, take part in the project

  6. Potential Pathways for CNS Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain interfaces restrict the cerebral bioavailability of pharmacological compounds. Various drug delivery strategies have been developed to improve drug penetration into the brain. Most strategies target the microvascular endothelium forming the blood-brain barrier proper. Targeting the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier formed by the epithelium of the choroid plexuses in addition to the blood-brain barrier may offer added-value for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. For instance, targeting the CSF spaces, adjacent tissue, or the choroid plexuses themselves is of interest for the treatment of neuroinflammatory and infectious diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, selected brain tumors, hydrocephalus or neurohumoral dysregulation. Selected CSF-borne materials seem to reach deep cerebral structures by mechanisms that need to be understood in the context of chronic CSF delivery. Drug delivery through both barriers can reduce CSF sink action towards parenchymal drugs. Finally, targeting the choroid plexus-CSF system can be especially relevant in the context of neonatal and pediatric diseases of the central nervous system. Transcytosis appears the most promising mechanism to target in order to improve drug delivery through brain barriers. The choroid plexus epithelium displays strong vesicular trafficking and secretory activities that deserve to be explored in the context of cerebral drug delivery. Folate transport and exosome release into the CSF, plasma protein transport, and various receptor-mediated endocytosis pathways may prove useful mechanisms to exploit for efficient drug delivery into the CSF. This calls for a clear evaluation of transcytosis mechanisms at the blood-CSF barrier, and a thorough evaluation of CSF drug delivery rates. PMID:27464721

  7. User Involvement as a Configurable Integrated Product Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    as a configurable integrated product delivery then the architect can – using slightly provocatively a term from the production industry – be seen a configuration manager of processes shaping our physical surroundings. Products focusing on standardisation and mass customisation of the building process rather than......Integrated product deliveries as known from the product industry are beginning to emerge in construction. These are normally considered as physical systems that can be configured and customised for a specific delivery to form part of a unique construction project and help to reduce the complexity...... relevant field for development of customisable integrated product deliveries in construction. This development and its causes challenge the traditional role of the architect as the centre point in the creation of physical wholes or entireties. If user involvement, as argued, can be considered...

  8. Predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests at the C-Hole complex. Yucca Mountain site characterization project report milestone 4077

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests that are to be conducted at the C-Hole complex at the Nevada Test Site on behalf of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The predictions are used to make specific recommendations about the manner in which the tracer test should be conducted to best satisfy the needs of the Project. The objective of he tracer tests is to study flow and species transport under saturated conditions in the fractured tuffs near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository will be located in the unsaturated zone within Yucca Mountain. The saturated zone beneath and around the mountain represents the final barrier to transport to the accessible environment that radionuclides will encounter if they breach the engineered barriers within the repository and the barriers to flow and transport provided by the unsaturated zone. Background information on the C-Holes is provided in Section 1.1, and the planned tracer testing program is discussed in Section 1.2

  9. Membrane-Mimic Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-12-01

    Nanoscale organic particles have gained a prominent role in drug and gene delivery field. As the nature of the nanoparticle’s (NPs) surface plays a major role in their targeting efficiency, bioavailability, and cytotoxicity, membrane-mimic nanoparticles are considered highly attractive materials for in vivo and in vitro applications. Synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and nanoconstructs built with native cancer cellular membrane are excellent scaffolds to improve cellular delivery. Liposomes have been extensively used due to their high loading capacity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, modifications with stimuli responsive materials are highly needed to improve their stability and turn them active participants in controlled delivery. Towards a nature inspired approach, reconstructed bilayers from cell membrane are a good candidate to enhance NP’s targeting ability and biocompatibility. The primary focus of this research is to develop smart responsive (lipid) membrane coated NPs with surface modifications for controlled and targeted drug and/or gene delivery for application in cancer therapy. Three approaches have been developed, namely i) liposomes as thermoresponsive nanocarriers for the delivery of genetic material; ii) magnetically photosensitive liposome hybrids and iii) biomimetic periodic mesoporous organo silica engineered for better a biocompatibility and targeting capabilities. In the first project synthetic liposomes were loaded with ammonium bicarbonate salt (ABC) and siRNA. The combination of lipids chosen and the relative ratios allowed the rapid release of the genetic material to the multi drug resistant cancer cells studied, upon external heat trigger. This design has improved the gene silencing efficiency via successful endosomal escape. In the second project, SPIO@Au nanoparticles were imbedded in the lipid bilayer to produce a photo/thermal responsive carrier that could be also used in cell imaging besides gene transfection

  10. Literature Review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heitmuller, Franklin T; Asquith, William H; Fang, Xing; Thompson, David B; Wang, Keh-Han

    2005-01-01

    A review of the literature addressing sediment transport in gravel-bed river systems and structures designed to control bed-load mobility is provided as part of Texas Department of Transportation research project 0-4695...

  11. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    The research project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), was approved in the 7th Framework Programme, in the Joint Call ICT and Security and started on 1st July 2009. The purpose of ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. The transportation sector's components are susceptible to the consequences of natural disasters and can also be attractive as terrorist targets. The sector's size, its physically dispersed and decentralized nature, the many public and private entities involved in its operations, the critical importance of cost considerations, and the inherent requirement of convenient accessibility to its services by all users - make the transportation particularly vulnerable to security and safety threats. As well known, the surface transportation system consists of interconnected infrastructures including highways, transit systems, railroads, airports, waterways, pipelines and ports, and the vehicles, aircraft, and vessels that operate along these networks. Thus, interdependencies exist between transportation and nearly every other sector of the economy and the effective operation of this system is essential to the European economic productivity; therefore, transportation sector protection is of paramount importance since threats to it may impact other industries that rely on it. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite

  12. Methotrexate transport mechanisms: the basis for targeted drug delivery and ß-folate-receptor-specific treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, C

    2010-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) plays a pivotal role in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The transport mechanisms with which MTX reaches is target after application are an important part of MTX pharmacology and its concentration in target tissue such as RA synovial membrane might strongly influence the effectiveness of the drug. Physiological plasma protein binding of MTX to albumin is important for the distribution of MTX in the body and relative high concentrations of the drug are found in the liver. However, targeted drug delivery into inflamed joints and increased anti-arthritic efficiency can be obtained by covalent coupling of MTX ex-vivo to human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) or in-vivo to endogenous albumin mediated through the MTX-pro-drug AWO54. High expression of the folate receptor β (FR-β) on synovial macrophages of RA patients and its capacity to mediate binding and uptake of MTX has been demonstrated. To further improve drug treatment of RA, FR-β specific drugs have been developed and were characterised for their therapeutic potency in synovial inflammation. Therefore, different approaches to improve folate inhibitory and FR-β specific therapy of RA beyond MTX are in development and will be described.

  13. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert L. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130) contains all technical, safety, and crew health medical requirements that are mandatory for achieving a Crew Transportation System Certification that will allow for International Space Station delivery and return of NASA crew and limited cargo. Previously approved on TN23183.

  14. Assessment of Lean Construction Principles: A Case Study at Semarang Medical Centre Hospital Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Roy Adi Wijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The lean construction frameworks have been developed for years to enhance the poor performance of Indonesian project delivery system which influenced by the waste of non-value adding activities. Never the less most of the developments were limited on working process and lack in people empowerment. Toyota Way which integrate working process optimization and people empowerment, was developed as a lean construction frame works. This paper aimed to assess the implementation of Toyota Way principles in project delivery system by observing project’s delivery current state (status quo. The assessment began by conducting a questionnaire survey about Toyota Way implementation which then validated by interview with involved stakeholders and field observation. The assessment showed that project’s stakeholders were still unfamiliar with Toyota Way concept. Although some Toyota Way guidelines have been used in projects completion process such as visual management and training program, it found that those guidelines had not fully implemented. The project delivery system was lack of process focus and concerns more on relationship inter-parties. It also found thatToyota Way implementation will constrained by the difficulties to change the status quo of project delivery. Moreover, it seems that construction projects need practical guidelines to simplify the Toyota Way implementation in project delivery system such as project flow evaluation and system of reflection.

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  16. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  17. Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern California’s September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude

  18. SDN Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The SDN Project completed on time and on budget and successfully accomplished 100% of the scope of work outlined in the original Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The SDN Project formed an alliance between Ameren Corporation, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign (UIUC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). The objective of the SDN Project is to address Topic Area of Interest 2: Sustain critical energy delivery functions while responding to a cyber-intrusion under Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0000797. The goal of the project is to design and commercially release technology that provides a method to sustain critical energy delivery functions during a cyber intrusion and to do this control system operators need the ability to quickly identify and isolate the affected network areas, and re-route critical information and control flows around. The objective of the SDN Project is to develop a Flow Controller that monitors, configures, and maintains the safe, reliable network traffic flows of all the local area networks (LANs) on a control system in the Energy sector. The SDN team identified the core attributes of a control system and produced an SDN flow controller that has the same core attributes enabling networks to be designed, configured and deployed that maximize the whitelisted, deny-bydefault and purpose built networks. This project researched, developed and commercially released technology that: Enables all field networks be to configured and monitored as if they are a single asset to be protected; Enables greatly improved and even precalculated response actions to reliability and cyber events; Supports pre-configured localized response actions tailored to provide resilience against failures and centralized response to cyber-attacks that improve network reliability and availability; Architecturally enables the right subject matter experts, who are usually the information

  19. Design and Analysis of Transport Protocols for Reliable High-Speed Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oláh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The design and analysis of transport protocols for reliable communications constitutes the topic of this dissertation. These transport protocols guarantee the sequenced and complete delivery of user data over networks which may lose, duplicate and reorder packets. Reliable transport services are

  20. Integrating evidence into policy and sustainable disability services delivery in western New South Wales, Australia: the 'wobbly hub and double spokes' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Craig; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Gallego, Gisselle; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Brentnall, Jennie; Griffiths, Scott

    2012-03-21

    Policy that supports rural allied health service delivery is important given the shortage of services outside of Australian metropolitan centres. The shortage of allied health professionals means that rural clinicians work long hours and have little peer or service support. Service delivery to rural and remote communities is further complicated because relatively small numbers of clients are dispersed over large geographic areas. The aim of this five-year multi-stage project is to generate evidence to confirm and develop evidence-based policies and to evaluate their implementation in procedures that allow a regional allied health workforce to more expeditiously respond to disability service need in regional New South Wales, Australia. The project consists of four inter-related stages that together constitute a full policy cycle. It uses mixed quantitative and qualitative methods, guided by key policy concerns such as: access, complexity, cost, distribution of benefits, timeliness, effectiveness, equity, policy consistency, and community and political acceptability. Stage 1 adopts a policy analysis approach in which existing relevant policies and related documentation will be collected and reviewed. Policy-makers and senior managers within the region and in central offices will be interviewed about issues that influence policy development and implementation. Stage 2 uses a mixed methods approach to collecting information from allied health professionals, clients, and carers. Focus groups and interviews will explore issues related to providing and receiving allied health services. Discrete Choice Experiments will elicit staff and client/carer preferences. Stage 3 synthesises Stage 1 and 2 findings with reference to the key policy issues to develop and implement policies and procedures to establish several innovative regional workforce and service provision projects. Stage 4 uses mixed methods to monitor and evaluate the implementation and impact of new or adapted

  1. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  2. Alliance - a paradigm shift in energy transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Key components of the Alliance Pipeline Project were outlined. This joint Canada - U.S. venture consists of a $Can 3.7 billion, producer-driven, high-pressure, rich-gas pipeline from producing fields in western Canada to an interconnection with the North American pipeline grid near Chicago. The initial volume for the system is 1.3 Bcfd, with provision for expansion to 2 Bcfd at minimal cost. The project also includes a $Can 200 million, non-regulated, natural gas liquids extraction plant and delivery system originating near Chicago. Alberta ethane supply and demand for 1995 and supply projections for 2010, (for delivery through the Alliance pipeline?), were also highlighted. 11 figs

  3. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road...

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  5. Non-rocket Earth-Moon transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggests and researches one of his methods of flights to outer Space, described in book "Non Rocket Flights in Space", which is prepared and offered for publication. In given report the method and facilities named "Bolonkin Transport System" (BTS) for delivering of payload and people to Moon and back is presented. BTS can be used also for free trip to outer Space up at altitude 60,000 km and more. BTS can be applying as a trust system for atmospheric supersonic aircrafts, and as a free energy source. This method uses, in general, the rotary and kinetic energy of the Moon. The manuscript contains the theory and results of computation of special Project. This project uses three cables (main and two for driving of loads) from artificial material: fiber, whiskers, nanotubes, with the specific tensile strength (ratio the tensile stress to density) k=/=4*10^7 or more. The nanotubes with same and better parameters are received in scientific laboratories. Theoretical limit of nanotubes SWNT is about k=100*10^7. The upper end of the cable is connected to the Moon. The lower end of the cable is connected to an aircraft (or buoy), which flies (i.e. glides or slides) in Earth atmosphere along the planet's surface. The aircraft (and Moon) has devices, which allows the length of cables to be changed. The device would consists of a spool, motor, brake, transmission, and controller. The facility could have devices for delivering people and payloads t o the Moon and back using the suggested Transport System. The delivery devices include: containers, cables, motors, brakes, and controllers. If the aircraft is small and the cable is strong the motion of the Moon can be used to move the airplane. For example (see enclosed project), if the airplane weighs 15 tons and has an aerodynamic ratio (the lift force to the drag force) equal 5, a thrust of 3000 kg would be enough for the aircraft to fly for infinity without requiring any fuel. The aircraft could use a small turbine engine

  6. Contactless and non-invasive delivery of micro-particles lying on a non-customized rigid surface by using acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianxin; Mei, Deqing; Jia, Kun; Fan, Zongwei; Yang, Keji

    2014-07-01

    In the existing acoustic micro-particle delivery methods, the micro-particles always lie and slide on the surface of platform in the whole delivery process. To avoid the damage and contamination of micro-particles caused by the sliding motion, this paper deals with a novel approach to trap micro-particles from non-customized rigid surfaces and freely manipulate them. The delivery process contains three procedures: detaching, transporting, and landing. Hence, the micro-particles no longer lie on the surface, but are levitated in the fluid, during the long range transporting procedure. It is very meaningful especially for the fragile and easily contaminated targets. To quantitatively analyze the delivery process, a theoretical model to calculate the acoustic radiation force exerting upon a micro-particle near the boundary in half space is built. An experimental device is also developed to validate the delivery method. A 100 μm diameter micro-silica bead adopted as the delivery target is detached from the upper surface of an aluminum platform and levitated in the fluid. Then, it is transported along the designated path with high precision in horizontal plane. The maximum deviation is only about 3.3 μm. During the horizontal transportation, the levitation of the micro-silica bead is stable, the maximum fluctuation is less than 1 μm. The proposed method may extend the application of acoustic radiation force and provide a promising tool for microstructure or cell manipulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A MODIFICATION OF THE METHOD CALLED “SUM” WITH THE TIME CONSTRAINTS OF DELIVERY OF GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Prosov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heuristic procedure considered the shift-daily planning of delivery routes method “amounts”. We present the solution of the transportation problem or the routing problem in efficiency optimization of transportation.

  8. Radioactive materials transportation; Pengangkutan bahan radioaktif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: packaging and it`s procedures and requirements, extra requirement for large sources, rules and guides of packaging and transportation, classification of packages before delivery.

  9. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on maximizing oil sands growth : improving transportation logistics, labour supply and pipeline availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference focused on the development of a transportation infrastructure to accommodate oil sands growth, with particular reference to building a pipeline infrastructure to meet the delivery and supply requirements of oil sands producers. The need for transmission system upgrades and additions to meet the electric power requirements of the oil sands industry was also discussed. The transportation options and new proposed pipeline construction projects that will alleviate the current transportation challenges in the oil sands region were identified. These include the implementation of new infrastructure strategies based on current pipeline availability, Kyoto requirements and downstream market demands. The impact of labour shortages on the oil sands industry was reviewed along with solutions to prevent and overcome these shortages. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  10. Macromolecular systems for vaccine delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mužíková, Gabriela; Laga, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S203-S216 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : vaccine delivery * cellular and humoral immunity * polymer immunostimulants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S203.pdf

  11. PROSPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE EAST-WEST DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł DROŹDZIEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the assets of building broad-gauge lines in Europe. The delivery time for international transport of goods affects international business in terms of the capital put into goods and subsequently affects its turnover rate. The current disproportion of different line gauges in Europe causes significant problems in the transport of goods especially in commodity streams in the East - West direction. Based on previous research of commodity streams in international trade and a comprehensive analysis of all performed studies for building broad gauge lines, the assets of building these lines included the development of employment, increasing the transport capacity and the building of transshipment stations in Slovakia. The current geopolitical developments have also a significant impact on international transport and important transport links, therefore diversifying these risks is a logical consideration to ensure the smooth delivery of goods and thus the development of international trade.

  12. Frontiers in Cancer Nanomedicine: Directing Mass Transport through Biological Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The physics of mass transport within body compartments and across biological barriers differentiates cancers from healthy tissues. Variants of nanoparticles can be manufactured in combinatorially large sets, varying only one transport-affecting design parameter at a time. Nanoparticles can also be used as building blocks for systems that perform sequences of coordinated actions, in accordance to a prescribed logic. These are referred to as Logic-Embedded Vectors “(LEV)” in the following. Nanoparticles and LEVs are ideal probes for the determination of mass transport laws in tumors, acting as imaging contrast enhancers, and can be employed for the lesion-selective delivery of therapy. Their size, shape, density and surface chemistry dominate convective transport in the blood stream, margination, cell adhesion, selective cellular uptake, as well as sub-cellular trafficking and localization. As argued here, the understanding of transport differentials in cancer, termed ‘transport oncophysics’ unveils a new promising frontier in oncology: the development of lesion-specific delivery particulates that exploit mass transport differentials to deploy treatment of greater efficacy and reduced side effects. PMID:20079548

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF CAPITAL MARKET DERIVATIVES IN HOUSING DELIVERY OF NIGERIA EMERGING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Adjekophori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The capital market is unarguably the most robust institution in any economy notable for mobilizing the necessary fund for financing long-term productive project. It controls relatively large amounts of capital and represent the largest institutional providing long-term credits for capital project like real estate that requires huge capital outlay. This study therefore, attempts an investigation into the effectiveness of capital market derivatives in housing delivery in Lagos. An empirical survey research was conducted in Lagos, using a random sampling technique with a structured questionnaire to collect data from 147 respondents comprising 89 stockbrokers and 58 real estate developers in Lagos mega-city. Data collected were analyzed with SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that 56.7% of the observed variations in housing delivery (R2= 0.567; p< 0.05 is explained by capital market derivatives, which suggests that, proper utilization of capital market derivatives will enhance and improve housing delivery in Nigeria. However, this is not been adequately used by developers of real estate projects in the study. Thus, the study recommends amongst other remedial steps that a synergetic effort should be created between the capital market and real estate developers which will enhance effective housing delivery, the development of people and the Nation.

  14. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 1. Supply chain options for biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Browne, M; Palmer, H; Hunter, A; Boyd, J

    1996-10-01

    The study which forms part of a wider project funded by the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the feasibility of generating electricity from biomass-fuelled power stations. Emphasis is placed on supply availabilty and transport consideration for biomass fuels such as wood wastes from forestry, short rotation coppice products, straw, miscanthus (an energy crop) and farm animal slurries. The study details the elements of the supply chain for each fuel from harvesting to delivery at the power station. The delivered cost of each fuel, the environmental impact of the biomass fuel supply and other relevant non-technical issues are addressed. (UK)

  15. Accounting for the inaccuracies in demand forecasts and construction cost estimations in transport project evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs...... in demand and cost estimations and hence the evaluation of transport infrastructure projects. Currently, research within this area is scarce and scattered with no commonagreement on how to embed and operationalise the huge amount of empiricaldata that exist within the frame of Optimism Bias. Therefore...... convertingdeterministic benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) into stochasticinterval results. A new data collection (2009–2013) forms the empirical basis for any risk simulation embeddedwithin the so-calledUP database (UNITE project database),revealing the inaccuracy of both construction costs and demandforecasts. Accordingly...

  16. Delivery of workshops on corridor management and preservation in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes the delivery and outcome of a series of workshops conducted at 23 Texas : Department of Transportation (TxDOT) districts across the state on corridor management and preservation : in Texas. The workshops served as follow-up imp...

  17. The nasal approach to delivering treatment for brain diseases: an anatomic, physiologic, and delivery technology overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupesland, Per G; Messina, John C; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2014-06-01

    The intricate pathophysiology of brain disorders, difficult access to the brain, and the complexity and high risks and costs of drug development represent major hurdles for improving therapies. Nose-to-brain drug transport offers an attractive alternative or addition to formulation-only strategies attempting to enhance drug penetration into the CNS. Although still a matter of controversy, many studies in animals claim direct nose-to-brain transport along the olfactory and trigeminal nerves, circumventing the traditional barriers to CNS entry. Some clinical trials in man also suggest nose-to-brain drug delivery, although definitive proof in man is lacking. This review focuses on new nasal delivery technologies designed to overcome inherent anatomical and physiological challenges and facilitate more efficient and targeted drug delivery for CNS disorders.

  18. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  19. The ARIPAR project: analysis of the major accident risks connected with industrial and transportation activities in the Ravenna area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, Demetrio; Foraboschi, Franco P.; Spadoni, Gigliola; Amendola, Aniello

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the ARIPAR project aimed at the assessment of the major accident risks connected with storage, process and transportation of dangerous substances in the densely populated Ravenna area in Italy, which includes a large complex of chemical and petrochemical plants and minor industries, essentially distributed around an important commercial port. Large quantities of dangerous goods are involved in various transportation forms connected with the industrial and commercial activity of the port. The project started by making a complete inventory of fixed installations and transportation activities capable of provoking major fire, explosion and toxic release events; then relevant accident scenarios were developed for the single hazard sources; probabilities were assigned to the events and consequences were evaluated; finally iso-risk contours and F-N diagrams were evaluated both for the single sources and for the overall area. This required the development of a particular methodology for analysis of area risk and of associated software packages which allowed examination of the relative importance of the different activities and typologies of materials involved. The methodological approach and the results have proved to be very useful for the priority-ranking of risk mitigating interventions and physical planning in a complex area

  20. Cortical compression rapidly trimmed transcallosal projections and altered axonal anterograde transport machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jin; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2017-10-24

    Trauma and tumor compressing the brain distort underlying cortical neurons. Compressed cortical neurons remodel their dendrites instantly. The effects on axons however remain unclear. Using a rat epidural bead implantation model, we studied the effects of unilateral somatosensory cortical compression on its transcallosal projection and the reversibility of the changes following decompression. Compression reduced the density, branching profuseness and boutons of the projection axons in the contralateral homotopic cortex 1week and 1month post-compression. Projection fiber density was higher 1-month than 1-week post-compression, suggesting adaptive temporal changes. Compression reduced contralateral cortical synaptophysin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD95) expressions in a week and the first two marker proteins further by 1month. βIII-tubulin and kinesin light chain (KLC) expressions in the corpus callosum (CC) where transcallosal axons traveled were also decreased. Kinesin heavy chain (KHC) level in CC was temporarily increased 1week after compression. Decompression increased transcallosal axon density and branching profuseness to higher than sham while bouton density returned to sham levels. This was accompanied by restoration of synaptophysin, VGLUT1 and PSD95 expressions in the contralateral cortex of the 1-week, but not the 1-month, compression rats. Decompression restored βIII-tubulin, but not KLC and KHC expressions in CC. However, KLC and KHC expressions in the cell bodies of the layer II/III pyramidal neurons partially recovered. Our results show cerebral compression compromised cortical axonal outputs and reduced transcallosal projection. Some of these changes did not recover in long-term decompression. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Albumin-based drug delivery: harnessing nature to cure disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke; Howard, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform.

  2. Laser-assisted delivery of topical methotrexate - in vitro investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth Hjardem

    2016-01-01

    of the correlation between laser parameters and tissue effects was used to deliver methotrexate (MTX) topically through microscopic ablation zones (MAZs) of precise dimensions. MTX is a well-known chemotherapeutic and anti-inflammatory drug that may cause systemic adverse effects, and topical delivery is thus......Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) are increasingly used to treat dermatological disorders and to facilitate laser-assisted topical drug delivery. In this thesis, laser-tissue interactions generated by stacked pulses with a miniaturized low-power 2,940 nm AFXL were characterized (study I). Knowledge...... zones of varying thickness. The ratio of skin deposition versus transdermal permeation was constant, regardless of MAZ depth. Impact of transport kinetics on AFXL-assisted topical MTX delivery: MTX accumulated rapidly in AFXL-processed skin. MTX was detectable in mid-dermis after 15 min. and saturated...

  3. Improving communication between obstetric and neonatology teams for high-risk deliveries: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Kelly, Frances C; Weber, Emily M; Moore, Merle L; Gokulakrishnan, Ganga; Hagan, Joseph L; Brand, M Colleen; Gallegos, Jennifer O; Levy, Barbara E; Fortunov, Regine M

    2017-01-01

    Summoning is a key component of communication between obstetrics and neonatal resuscitation team (NRT) in advance of deliveries. A paging system is a commonly used summoning tool. The timeliness and information contained in the page help NRT to optimally prepare for postdelivery infant care. Our aim was to increase the frequency that summoning pages contained gestational age and reason for NRT attendance to >90%. At baseline, 8% of pages contained gestational age and 33% of pages contained a reason for NRT attendance. Sequential Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles were used as our model for quality improvement. During the 8-month improvement period, the per cent of pages increased to 97% for gestational age and 97% for reason for NRT attendance. Measures of page timeliness, our balancing measure, did not change. Summoning communication between obstetric and NRT is crucial for optimal perinatal outcomes. The active involvement of all stakeholders throughout the project resulted in the development of a standardised paging tool and a more informative paging process, which is a key communication tool used in many centres.

  4. Simulation of robotic courier deliveries in hospital distribution services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, M D; Felder, R A; Kumar, A

    2000-06-01

    Flexible automation in the form of robotic couriers holds the potential for decreasing operating costs while improving delivery performance in hospital delivery systems. This paper discusses the use of simulation modeling to analyze the costs, benefits, and performance tradeoffs related to the installation and use of a fleet of robotic couriers within hospital facilities. The results of this study enable a better understanding of the delivery and transportation requirements of hospitals. Specifically, we examine how a fleet of robotic couriers can meet the performance requirements of the system while maintaining cost efficiency. We show that for clinical laboratory and pharmaceutical deliveries a fleet of six robotic couriers can achieve significant performance gains in terms of turn-around time and delivery variability over the current system of three human couriers per shift or 13 FTEs. Specifically, the simulation results indicate that using robotic couriers to perform both clinical laboratory and pharmaceutical deliveries would result in a 34% decrease in turn-around time, and a 38% decrease in delivery variability. In addition, a break-even analysis indicated that a positive net present value occurs if nine or more FTEs are eliminated with a resulting ROI of 12%. This analysis demonstrates that simulation can be a valuable tool for examining health care distribution services and indicates that a robotic courier system may yield significant benefits over a traditional courier system in this application.

  5. Controlled iontophoretic transport of huperzine A across skin in vitro and in vivo: effect of delivery conditions and comparison of pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Dhaval R; Patel, Pratikkumar; Merino, Virginia; Patravale, Vandana B; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2013-11-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate constant current anodal iontophoresis of Huperzine A (HupA) in vitro and in vivo and hence to evaluate the feasibility of using electrically assisted delivery to administer therapeutic amounts of the drug across the skin for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Preliminary experiments were performed using porcine and human skin in vitro. Stability studies demonstrated that HupA was not degraded upon exposure to epidermis or dermis for 12 h and that it was also stable in the presence of an electric current (0.5 mA · cm(-2)). Passive permeation of HupA (2 mM) was minimal (1.1 ± 0.1 μg · cm(-2)); iontophoresis at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 mA · cm(-2) produced 106-, 134-, and 184-fold increases in its transport across the skin. Surprisingly, despite the use of a salt bridge to isolate the formulation compartment from the anodal chamber, which contained 133 mM NaCl, iontophoresis of HupA was shown to increase linearly with its concentration (1, 2, and 4 mM in 25 mM MES, pH 5.0) (r(2) = 0.99). This was attributed to the low ratio of drug to Cl¯ (in the skin and in the receiver compartment) which competed strongly to carry current, its depletion, and to possible competition from the zwitterionic MES. Co-iontophoresis of acetaminophen confirmed that electromigration was the dominant electrotransport mechanism. Total delivery across human and porcine skin was found to be statistically equivalent (243.2 ± 33.1 and 235.6 ± 13.7 μg · cm(-2), respectively). Although the transport efficiency was ∼ 1%, the iontophoretic delivery efficiency (i.e., the fraction of the drug load delivered) was extremely high, in the range of 46-81% depending on the current density. Cumulative permeation of HupA from a Carbopol gel formulation after iontophoresis for 6 h at 0.5 mA · cm(-2) was less than that from solution (135.3 ± 25.2 and 202.9 ± 5.2 μg · cm(-2), respectively) but sufficient for therapeutic delivery. Pharmacokinetic parameters were

  6. The international intraval project to study validation of geosphere transport models for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    INTRAVAL is an international project concerned with the use of mathematical models for predicting the potential transport of radioactive substances in the geosphere. Such models are used to help assess the longterm safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. The INTRAVAL project was established to evaluate the validity of these models. Results from a set of selected laboratory and field experiments as well as studies of occurrences of radioactive substances in nature (natural analogues) are compared in a systematic way with model predictions. Discrepancies between observations and predictions are discussed and analyzed

  7. A process model for design team communication within fast-track building projects using project websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The factor time within building projects is on high pressure because of the increasing need for faster delivery of buildings. Within fast track, complex building projects the design process is an important key. Through case analyses offart-hack design processes it became obvious that process and

  8. The Role of Transport Activities in Logistics Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Chira

    2014-01-01

    The operation of transportation determines the efficiency of moving products. The progress in techniques and management principles improves the moving load, delivery speed, service quality, operation costs, the usage of facilities and energy saving. Transportation takes a crucial part in the manipulation of logistic. Reviewing the current condition, a strong system needs a clear frame of logistics and a proper transport implements and techniques to link the producing procedures. The objective...

  9. A smart polymeric platform for multistage nucleus-targeted anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaju; Li, Lian; Zhu, Xi; Guan, Shan; Yang, Qingqing; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cell nucleus-targeted delivery of antitumor agents is of great interest in cancer therapy, since the nucleus is one of the most frequent targets of drug action. Here we report a smart polymeric conjugate platform, which utilizes stimulus-responsive strategies to achieve multistage nuclear drug delivery upon systemic administration. The conjugates composed of a backbone based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer and detachable nucleus transport sub-units that sensitive to lysosomal enzyme. The sub-units possess a biforked structure with one end conjugated with the model drug, H1 peptide, and the other end conjugated with a novel pH-responsive targeting peptide (R8NLS) that combining the strength of cell penetrating peptide and nuclear localization sequence. The conjugates exhibited prolonged circulation time and excellent tumor homing ability. And the activation of R8NLS in acidic tumor microenvironment facilitated tissue penetration and cellular internalization. Once internalized into the cell, the sub-units were unleashed for nuclear transport through nuclear pore complex. The unique features resulted in 50-fold increase of nuclear drug accumulation relative to the original polymer-drug conjugates in vitro, and excellent in vivo nuclear drug delivery efficiency. Our report provides a strategy in systemic nuclear drug delivery by combining the microenvironment-responsive structure and detachable sub-units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Software Delivery Risk Management: Application of Bayesian Networks in Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancveire Ieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The information technology industry cannot be imagined without large- or small-scale projects. They are implemented to develop systems enabling key business processes and improving performance and enterprise resource management. However, projects often experience various difficulties during their execution. These problems are usually related to the three objectives of the project – costs, quality and deadline. A way these challenges can be solved is project risk management. However, not always the main problems and their influencing factors can be easily identified. Usually there is a need for a more profound analysis of the problem situation. In this paper, we propose the use of a Bayesian Network concept for quantitative risk management in agile projects. The Bayesian Network is explored using a case study focusing on a project that faces difficulties during the software delivery process. We explain why an agile risk analysis is needed and assess the potential risk factors, which may occur during the project. Thereafter, we design the Bayesian Network to capture the actual problem situation and make suggestions how to improve the delivery process based on the measures to be taken to reduce the occurrence of project risks.

  11. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  12. Constrained bayesian inference of project performance models

    OpenAIRE

    Sunmola, Funlade

    2013-01-01

    Project performance models play an important role in the management of project success. When used for monitoring projects, they can offer predictive ability such as indications of possible delivery problems. Approaches for monitoring project performance relies on available project information including restrictions imposed on the project, particularly the constraints of cost, quality, scope and time. We study in this paper a Bayesian inference methodology for project performance modelling in ...

  13. A vadose zone Transport Processes Investigation within the glacial till at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwing, J.; Roepke, Craig Senninger; Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John Jr.; Mann, Michael J.A.; Holt, Robert M..; Kriel, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a model Transport Processes Investigation (TPI) where field-scale vadose zone flow and transport processes are identified and verified through a systematic field investigation at a contaminated DOE site. The objective of the TPI is to help with formulating accurate conceptual models and aid in implementing rational and cost effective site specific characterization strategies at contaminated sites with diverse hydrogeologic settings. Central to the TPI are Transport Processes Characterization (TPC) tests that incorporate field surveys and large-scale infiltration experiments. Hypotheses are formulated based on observed pedogenic and hydrogeologic features as well as information provided by literature searches. The field and literature information is then used to optimize the design of one or more infiltration experiments to field test the hypothesis. Findings from the field surveys and infiltration experiments are then synthesized to formulate accurate flow and transport conceptual models. Here we document a TPI implemented in the glacial till vadose zone at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio, a US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing site. As a result of this TPI, the flow and transport mechanisms were identified through visualization of dye stain within extensive macro pore and fracture networks which provided the means for the infiltrate to bypass potential aquatards. Such mechanisms are not addressed in current vadose zone modeling and are generally missed by classical characterization methods

  14. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  15. Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Chen, Yang-Fang [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Tsung-Hua [Department of Dermatology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chen-Yuan, E-mail: cydong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Quantum Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-20

    In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  17. Recent trends in drug delivery system using protein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripriyalakshmi, S; Jose, Pinkybel; Ravindran, Aswathy; Anjali, C H

    2014-09-01

    Engineered nanoparticles that can facilitate drug formulation and passively target tumours have been under extensive research in recent years. These successes have driven a new wave of significant innovation in the generation of advanced particles. The fate and transport of diagnostic nanoparticles would significantly depend on nonselective drug delivery, and hence the use of high drug dosage is implemented. In this perspective, nanocarrier-based drug targeting strategies can be used which improve the selective delivery of drugs to the site of action, i.e. drug targeting. Pharmaceutical industries majorly focus on reducing the toxicity and side effects of drugs but only recently it has been realised that carrier systems themselves may pose risks to the patient. Proteins are compatible with biological systems and they are biodegradable. They offer a multitude of moieties for modifications to tailor drug binding, imaging or targeting entities. Thus, protein nanoparticles provide outstanding contributions as a carrier for drug delivery systems. This review summarises recent progress in particle-based therapeutic delivery and discusses important concepts in particle design and biological barriers for developing the next generation of particles drug delivery systems.

  18. Magnetic targeting to enhance microbubble delivery in an occluded microarterial bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Victor, M; Carugo, D; Barnsley, L C; Owen, J; Coussios, C-C; Stride, E

    2017-09-05

    Ultrasound and microbubbles have been shown to accelerate the breakdown of blood clots both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical translation of this technology is still limited, however, in part by inefficient microbubble delivery to the thrombus. This study examines the obstacles to delivery posed by fluid dynamic conditions in occluded vasculature and investigates whether magnetic targeting can improve microbubble delivery. A 2D computational fluid dynamic model of a fully occluded Y-shaped microarterial bifurcation was developed to determine: (i) the fluid dynamic field in the vessel with inlet velocities from 1-100 mm s -1 (corresponding to Reynolds numbers 0.25-25); (ii) the transport dynamics of fibrinolytic drugs; and (iii) the flow behavior of microbubbles with diameters in the clinically-relevant range (0.6-5 µm). In vitro experiments were carried out in a custom-built microfluidic device. The flow field was characterized using tracer particles, and fibrinolytic drug transport was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Lipid-shelled magnetic microbubbles were fluorescently labelled to determine their spatial distribution within the microvascular model. In both the simulations and experiments, the formation of laminar vortices and an abrupt reduction of fluid velocity were observed in the occluded branch of the bifurcation, severely limiting drug transport towards the occlusion. In the absence of a magnetic field, no microbubbles reached the occlusion, remaining trapped in the first vortex, within 350 µm from the bifurcation center. The number of microbubbles trapped within the vortex decreased as the inlet velocity increased, but was independent of microbubble size. Application of a magnetic field (magnetic flux density of 76 mT, magnetic flux density gradient of 10.90 T m -1 at the centre of the bifurcation) enabled delivery of microbubbles to the occlusion and the number of microbubbles delivered increased with bubble size and with decreasing inlet

  19. Improving Travel Projections for Public Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Public transportation use saves energy and reduces emissions by taking people : out of single passenger automobiles and putting them into high occupancy, energy : efficient transit vehicles. Furthermore, public transit ridership and vehicular : trip ...

  20. Cyclic delivery scheduling to customers with different priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper a cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities is presented. Shops, which are provided with deliveries, are occasionally located in places which are crucial for the proper flow of traffic. In such places coordination of deliveries is crucial; therefore it allows to completely eliminate the phenomenon of the simultaneous arrivals of suppliers. Methods: In this paper the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities was presented. To this theoretical problem a mix integer programming model was developed. Specific approach to the cyclic delivery scheduling problem is inspired by timetabling problem for urban public transport. Results: Mixed integer programming model was employed for solving four cases of cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities. When the value of the synchronization priority assigned to a single customer raised then the total number of synchronizations in the whole network decreased. In order to compare solutions a synchronization rate was utilized. A simple factor was utilized - the proportion of number of synchronizations of deliveries to a given customer to the total number of synchronizations obtained for the whole network. When the value of synchronization priority raised then the value of synchronization rate of this customer improved significantly. Conclusions: The mixed integer programming model for the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities presented in this paper can be utilized for generating schedules of serving customers located in places where only one delivery can be received and unloaded at one go and where there is no space for other suppliers to wait in a queue. Such a schedule can be very useful for organizing deliveries to small shops united in a franchising network, since they operate in a way that is very similar to the network presented in this paper

  1. Examination of oral absorption and lymphatic transport of halofantrine in a triple-cannulated canine model after administration in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing structured triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Edwards, Glenn A

    2003-01-01

    The potential for lipidic self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing triglycerides with a defined structure, where the different fatty acids on the glycerol backbone exhibit different metabolic fate, to improve the lymphatic transport and the portal absorption of a poorly water......-soluble drug, halofantrine, were investigated in fasted lymph cannulated canines. Two different structured triglycerides were incorporated into the SMEDDS; 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-linoleyl-sn-glycerol (C8:0-C18:2-C8:0) (MLM) and 1,3-dilinoyl-2-octanoyl-sn-glycerol (C18:2-C8:0-C18:2) (LML). A previously optimised...... availability was affected by the triglyceride incorporated into the multi-component delivery system and availabilities of 56.9% (MLM) and 37.2% (LML) were found. These data indicate that the pharmaceutical scientist can use the structure of the lipid to affect the relative contribution of the two absorption...

  2. The pickup and delivery problem with cross-docking opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Røpke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    delivery by one truck, or by being picked up and transported to the cross-dock by one vehicle, and subsequently delivered at its final destination by another vehicle. Handling times at customers sites and terminal are given. A typical daily instance includes 500-1,000 requests. We solve the problem using...

  3. Integral management of hazardous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of outsourcing transport operations and complementary services on the part of the producers and shippers, there is a growing demand for global services that integrate the whole external logistics value chain, the latter being understood to signify the process that includes the storage, transport (monomodal or bi-multi-modal) and delivery to destination. This circumstance has obliged transport firms to undertake a process of internal transformation: from offering an activity purely of transport to becoming logistics operators. Express Truck, S. a. (hereinafter ETSA) could not ignore this market requirement. We will explain the evolutionary process of ETSA in this sense. (Author)

  4. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  5. Novel Drug Delivery Technique for Breast Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esenaliev, Rinat O

    2004-01-01

    .... We proposed to complete Task 3 and to implement Task 4 in the third year of the project. Task 3 focuses on in vivo studies of efficacy of cancer therapy with the use of ultrasound-enhanced delivery of anti-cancer drug 5-FU...

  6. COSIMA-DSS Evaluation System: A new Decision Support System for Large-Scale Transport Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new decision support model COSIMA-DSS that examines socio-economic feasibility risks involved in the implementation of transport infrastructure projects. The model makes use of conventionally cost-benefit analysis embedded within a wider multi-criteria analysis. The basic...... approach set out in the paper looks upon the mix between so-called “hard” and “soft” evaluation criteria. Finally, a Monte-Carlo simulation is used to take account of the varying information relating to the different criteria....

  7. Economic perspectives on transport and equality

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, inequality and social exclusion are closely tied to personal mobility and the accessibility of goods and services. Evidence of the economic role of transport in promoting better living standards and greater wellbeing can be seen in the effects of both overall public investment in transport infrastructure, and in the impacts of specific transport policies, projects and multi-project plans.

  8. Innovative finance : strategic research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Its time to rethink how we fund transportation infrastructure because most transportation : experts agree: theres a transportation funding and financing crisis looming. : Projected revenues from current sources of transportation funding will am...

  9. 43 CFR 418.28 - Conditions of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... particulars including the known or estimated location and amounts; (3) The amount will not be included as a valid headgate delivery for purposes of computing the Project efficiency and resultant incentive credit... treated directly as a debit to Lahontan storage in the same manner as an efficiency debit. (b) District...

  10. Fluorescence optical imaging in anticancer drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Lucas, H.; Janoušková, Olga; Chytil, Petr; Mueller, T.; Mäder, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 226, 28 March (2016), s. 168-181 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : fluorescence imaging * drug delivery * theranostics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  12. Therapeutic Ultrasound Enhancement of Drug Delivery to Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George; Wang, Peng; Lewis, George; Olbricht, William

    2009-04-01

    Effects of exposure to 1.58 MHz focused ultrasound on transport of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) in soft tissues are investigated when an external pressure gradient is applied to induce convective flow through the tissue. The magnitude of the external pressure gradient is chosen to simulate conditions in brain parenchyma during convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) to the brain. EBD uptake and transport are measured in equine brain, avian muscle and agarose brain-mimicking phantoms. Results show that ultrasound enhances EBD uptake and transport, and the greatest enhancement occurs when the external pressure gradient is applied. The results suggest that exposure of the brain parenchyma to ultrasound could enhance penetration of material infused into the brain during CED therapy.

  13. Drug delivery systems with modified release for systemic and biophase bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuta, Sorin E

    2012-11-01

    This review describes the most important new generations of pharmaceutical systems: medicines with extended release, controlled release pharmaceutical systems, pharmaceutical systems for the targeted delivery of drug substances. The latest advances and approaches for delivering small molecular weight drugs and other biologically active agents such as proteins and nucleic acids require novel delivery technologies, the success of a drug being many times dependent on the delivery method. All these dosage forms are qualitatively superior to medicines with immediate release, in that they ensure optimal drug concentrations depending on specific demands of different disease particularities of the body. Drug delivery of these pharmaceutical formulations has the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance. This paper describes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and technological principles in the design of drug delivery systems with modified release as well as the formulation criteria of prolonged and controlled release drug delivery systems. The paper presents pharmaceutical prolonged and controlled release dosage forms intended for different routes of administration: oral, ocular, transdermal, parenteral, pulmonary, mucoadhesive, but also orally fast dissolving tablets, gastroretentive drug delivery systems, colon-specific drug delivery systems, pulsatile drug delivery systems and carrier or ligand mediated transport for site specific or receptor drug targeting. Specific technologies are given on the dosage forms with modified release as well as examples of marketed products, and current research in these areas.

  14. Evaluation of Mexican transportation infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the legal, financial, institutional and policy processes that Mexico uses to plan, finance, construct, and implement its transportation network. It documents through twelve case studies the state of the practice in planning, fi...

  15. Transportation of drug–gold nanocomposites by actinomyosin motor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Archana; Kaur, Inderpreet; Singh, Kashmir; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is playing an important role in drug delivery to overcome limitations of conventional drug delivery systems in terms of solubility, in vivo stability, pharmacokinetics, and bio-distribution. The controlled transportation of drug into the cell and within the cell is a major challenge to be addressed. Cellular molecular motors have been exploited for their cargo carrying capacity for various applications including engineering and health care. Combination of nanotechnology and biomolecular motors can address some of the challenges in drug delivery. In the present study, transportation of drug nanocomposites has been demonstrated. Nanocomposites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa drugs (cancer and Parkinson’s disease, respectively) were prepared with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by covalent attachment and these nanocomposites were attached to actin filaments. These nanocomposites were in-turn transported by actin filaments on myosin tracks. Characterization of drug nanocomposites formation was done by UV–Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. GNP composites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa were formed by sulfide and amide bond formation, respectively. Average velocity of actin filament attached to nanocomposites was found to be 3.17 and 3.89 μm/s for levodopa and 6-mercaptopurine, respectively, as compared to actin filaments with velocity of 4.0–6.0 μm/s. Three concepts have been proposed for the study of drug transportation into the cell based on polycationic complex formation, interaction of actin with cellular myosin and Biomolecular Adaptor for Retrograde Transport (BART) technology. The aspects of this study heads toward the development of an approach to utilize molecular motors for nanoscale transportation endogenously.

  16. Transportation of drug-gold nanocomposites by actinomyosin motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Archana; Kaur, Inderpreet; Singh, Kashmir; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.

    2011-06-01

    Nanotechnology is playing an important role in drug delivery to overcome limitations of conventional drug delivery systems in terms of solubility, in vivo stability, pharmacokinetics, and bio-distribution. The controlled transportation of drug into the cell and within the cell is a major challenge to be addressed. Cellular molecular motors have been exploited for their cargo carrying capacity for various applications including engineering and health care. Combination of nanotechnology and biomolecular motors can address some of the challenges in drug delivery. In the present study, transportation of drug nanocomposites has been demonstrated. Nanocomposites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa drugs (cancer and Parkinson's disease, respectively) were prepared with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by covalent attachment and these nanocomposites were attached to actin filaments. These nanocomposites were in-turn transported by actin filaments on myosin tracks. Characterization of drug nanocomposites formation was done by UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. GNP composites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa were formed by sulfide and amide bond formation, respectively. Average velocity of actin filament attached to nanocomposites was found to be 3.17 and 3.89 μm/s for levodopa and 6-mercaptopurine, respectively, as compared to actin filaments with velocity of 4.0-6.0 μm/s. Three concepts have been proposed for the study of drug transportation into the cell based on polycationic complex formation, interaction of actin with cellular myosin and Biomolecular Adaptor for Retrograde Transport (BART) technology. The aspects of this study heads toward the development of an approach to utilize molecular motors for nanoscale transportation endogenously.

  17. Transportation of drug-gold nanocomposites by actinomyosin motor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Harsimran, E-mail: microsimbac@gmail.com; Chaudhary, Archana; Kaur, Inderpreet [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India); Singh, Kashmir [Panjab University, Department of Biotechnology (India); Bharadwaj, Lalit M. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology is playing an important role in drug delivery to overcome limitations of conventional drug delivery systems in terms of solubility, in vivo stability, pharmacokinetics, and bio-distribution. The controlled transportation of drug into the cell and within the cell is a major challenge to be addressed. Cellular molecular motors have been exploited for their cargo carrying capacity for various applications including engineering and health care. Combination of nanotechnology and biomolecular motors can address some of the challenges in drug delivery. In the present study, transportation of drug nanocomposites has been demonstrated. Nanocomposites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa drugs (cancer and Parkinson's disease, respectively) were prepared with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by covalent attachment and these nanocomposites were attached to actin filaments. These nanocomposites were in-turn transported by actin filaments on myosin tracks. Characterization of drug nanocomposites formation was done by UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. GNP composites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa were formed by sulfide and amide bond formation, respectively. Average velocity of actin filament attached to nanocomposites was found to be 3.17 and 3.89 {mu}m/s for levodopa and 6-mercaptopurine, respectively, as compared to actin filaments with velocity of 4.0-6.0 {mu}m/s. Three concepts have been proposed for the study of drug transportation into the cell based on polycationic complex formation, interaction of actin with cellular myosin and Biomolecular Adaptor for Retrograde Transport (BART) technology. The aspects of this study heads toward the development of an approach to utilize molecular motors for nanoscale transportation endogenously.

  18. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  19. Acceleration, Transport, Forecasting and Impact of solar energetic particles in the framework of the 'HESPERIA' HORIZON 2020 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Olga; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Vainio, Rami; Agueda, Neus; Nunez, Marlon; Heber, Bernd; Buetikofer, Rolf; Sarlanis, Christos; Crosby, Norma

    2017-04-01

    High-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. In this work, the current state of knowledge on the origin and forecasting of SEP events will be reviewed. Subsequently, we will present the EU HORIZON2020 HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events foRecastIng and Analysis) project, its structure, its main scientific objectives and forecasting operational tools, as well as the added value to SEP research both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. The project addresses through multi-frequency observations and simulations the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space to the detection near 1 AU. Furthermore, publicly available software to invert neutron monitor observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with space-borne measurements at lower energies is provided for the first time by HESPERIA. In order to achieve these goals, HESPERIA is exploiting already available large datasets stored in databases such as the neutron monitor database (NMDB) and SEPServer that were developed under EU FP7 projects from 2008 to 2013. Forecasting results of the two novel SEP operational forecasting tools published via the consortium server of 'HESPERIA' will be presented, as well as some scientific key results on the acceleration, transport and impact on Earth of high-energy particles. Acknowledgement: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  20. Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, A; Manandhar, D S; Shrestha, P; Ellis, M; Malla, K; Costello, A M

    1998-06-01

    This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery

  1. Comparing the Efficacy of Face Mask CPAP with Nasopharyngeal CPAP for Neonatal Transport after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mostafa-Gharehbaghi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm infants have respiratory failure and complications because surfactant in alveolus is low. CPAP (Continuous positive airway pressure is a method for respiratory support in pre-term neonates and is provided by different equipment and methods. This study aims to compare two different routes of CPAP delivery in preterm newborn infants and to determine the need for surfactant replacement therapy in two groups. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eighty four preterm infants delivered in Al-Zahra Hospital with gestational age 28-32 weeks were enrolled in this study from January 2012 to September 2012. They were randomly allocated in two groups. After initial stabilization in delivery room, forty two infants transferred to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU with face mask CPAP and 42 infant with nasopharyngeal CPAP and continued nasal CPAP in the NICU in both groups. All infants were followed for developing respiratory distress and need for surfactant replacement therapy and oxygen dependency till discharge.Results: The neonates that treated with two methods of CPAP delivery were similar with respect to gestation age, birth weight and other demographic characteristics. Twenty three neonates (65.5% in face mask group and 15 neonates (39.5% in nasopharyngeal CPAP group need surfactant replacement therapy (p=0.08.Conclusion: Mask CPAP or nasopharyngeal CPAP can used in preterm infants after delivery for neonatal transfer to NICU. This study showed no method of CPAP delivery is preferable to other in decreasing the need for surfactant therapy.

  2. Discovery of Cationic Polymers for Non-viral Gene Delivery using Combinatorial Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Sutapa; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Taylor, David; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Montanez, Gabriela; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive treatment option for diseases of genetic origin, including several cancers and cardiovascular diseases. While viruses are effective vectors for delivering exogenous genes to cells, concerns related to insertional mutagenesis, immunogenicity, lack of tropism, decay and high production costs necessitate the discovery of non-viral methods. Significant efforts have been focused on cationic polymers as non-viral alternatives for gene delivery. Recent studies have employed combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening methods for enhancing the efficacy of gene delivery, biocompatibility of the delivery vehicle, and overcoming cellular level barriers as they relate to polymer-mediated transgene uptake, transport, transcription, and expression. This review summarizes and discusses recent advances in combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening of cationic polymer libraries for the discovery of efficient and safe gene delivery systems. PMID:21843141

  3. Users and deployment of delivery vans in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C. de; Verweij, K.; Vos, G.; Hoen, A.; Otten, M.; Breejen, J. den; Pool, J.; Schoo, R.; Engel, A. van den; Kindt, M.; Riske, J.; Ligterink, N.E.; Sluijk, N.; Spreen, J.S.; Verbeek, M.M.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    The delivery van is the workhorse of both companies and the self-employed within the Dutch economy. And with good reason: it is a multifunctional and flexible mode of transport and compared to (smaller) trucks and cars it is allo cheap to buy and use. Moreover, a drivering license B is sufficient to

  4. Personalizing knowledge delivery services: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Ann; Chelleppa, Ramnath K.; Cooper, Lynne P.; Hars, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the call of the Minnesota Symposium for new theory in knowledge management, we offer a new conceptualization of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) as a portfolio of personalized knowledge delivery services. Borrowing from research on online consumer behavior, we describe the challenges imposed by personalized knowledge delivery services, and suggest design parameters that can help to overcome these challenges. We develop our design constructs through a set of hypotheses and discuss the research implications of our new conceptualization. Finally, we describe practical implications suggested by our conceptualization - practical suggestions that we hope to gain some experience with as part of an ongoing action research project at our partner organization.

  5. New Delivery Systems for Local Anaesthetics—Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Shipton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of this paper deals with the techniques for drug delivery of topical and injectable local anaesthetics. The various routes of local anaesthetic delivery (epidural, peripheral, wound catheters, intra-nasal, intra-vesical, intra-articular, intra-osseous are explored. To enhance transdermal local anaesthetic permeation, additional methods to the use of an eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics and the use of controlled heat can be used. These methods include iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and magnetophoresis. The potential clinical uses of topical local anaesthetics are elucidated. Iontophoresis, the active transportation of a drug into the skin using a constant low-voltage direct current is discussed. It is desirable to prolong local anaesthetic blockade by extending its sensory component only. The optimal release and safety of the encapsulated local anaesthetic agents still need to be determined. The use of different delivery systems should provide the clinician with both an extended range and choice in the degree of prolongation of action of each agent.

  6. European Transportation Policy for better Integration. Shifting the Balance between the Modes of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for transportation and mobility of citizen gives raises the importance oftransportation policy. The development of the European transportation policy has a great significance for theEuropean Union. The common transportation policy of the European Union is reviewed and updated everynine years. The first common transportation policy of the European Commission was published in December1992. Besides the railway sector, most of the objectives listed in this policy were realized in ten years. In2001, the European Commission proffered a new transportation policy with sixty new measures. Thus, thispaper shows the importance of transportation projects -especially in the field of railways- for European Unionmember states. In accounting, cross-border sections of projects are more or less neglected, as member statestend to prioritize the development of sections of the projects, which are economically viable for themselves,thereby delaying the overall connectivity of the trans-European network. The railway modal is the hardestmodal to interoperate between the member countries. Therefore it is not a surprise that the objectives listed inthe first European transportation policy were not realized in the railway sector. There were enormousdifferences between railway systems before the European Union. Some of them still have an influence oncurrent railway infrastructure and operations today. To sum up, this research shall deal with the crucialaspects of common transportation policies as well as problems of its implications.

  7. Engineering Consultancy: An Assessment of IT-enabled International Delivery of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The delivery of engineering consultancy services in global markets has been dominated by a small group of firms located in Europe and the US. Like many other service industries, engineering consultants have depended on the movement of highly qualified people and establishment of local affiliates...... services in arms-length transactions across national borders does not appear to have been significantly exploited. Nevertheless, IT-enabled delivery of engineering consultancy services opens up possibilities for business process reengineering that may provide some firms new competitive advantages in global...... markets and lead to further integration of design and construction in partnerships or project consortia, or in the strengthening of design-build approaches in project execution....

  8. Dendrimer advances for the central nervous system delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included.

  9. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  10. Scenarios, policies and impacts for the linked transport and energy systems. Results of the European TRIAS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Wolfgang; Helfrich, Nicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Krail, Michael [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Wirtschaftspolitik und Wirtschaftsforschung; Fiorello, Davide; Fermi, Francesca [TRT Trasporti e Territori, Milan (Italy); Schade, Burkhard [European Commission Seville (ES). Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS)

    2008-07-01

    High oil prices and the growing awareness that this will not be a temporary but a permanent situation fosters the search for alternative fuels and new technologies to propel the transport system, which, so far, in Europe depends to more than 96% on fossil fuels. Two of these alternatives would be hydrogen and biofuels that both can be generated from a number of different sources including a number of non-fossil and renewable sources. The TRIAS project combined four models (ASTRA, POLES, VACLAV, Regio-SUSTAIN) to analyse the impacts of different policies that would foster the diffusion of alternative fuels into the transport system. The impact analysis covers the fields of transport, energy, environment, technology and economy. The basic conclusions that can be drawn are that such policies, if they are formulated in an appropriate manner, could stimulate investments and economic development on the one hand and on the other hand would have the potential to generate positive impacts in terms of reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions and increase of security of energy supply due to reduced imports of fossil fuels and the use of a greater diversity of fuels for transport. (orig.)

  11. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    1956-01-01

    In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  12. Manpower analysis in transportation safety. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.S.; Bowden, H.M.; Colford, C.A.; DeFilipps, P.J.; Dennis, J.D.; Ehlert, A.K.; Popkin, H.A.; Schrader, G.F.; Smith, Q.N.

    1977-05-01

    The project described provides a manpower review of national, state and local needs for safety skills, and projects future manning levels for transportation safety personnel in both the public and private sectors. Survey information revealed that there are currently approximately 121,000 persons employed directly in transportation safety occupations within the air carrier, highway and traffic safety, motor carrier, pipeline, rail carrier, and marine carrier transportation industry groups. The projected need for 1980 is over 145,000 of which over 80 percent will be in highway safety. An analysis of transportation tasks is included, and shows ten general categories about which the majority of safety activities are focused. A skills analysis shows a generally high level of educational background and several years of experience are required for most transportation safety jobs. An overall review of safety programs in the transportation industry is included, together with chapters on the individual transportation modes.

  13. Chernobyl Studies Project: Working group 7.0, Environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, March--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    In April 1988, the US and the former-USSR signed a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety; this MOC was a direct result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 and the following efforts by the two countries to implement a joint program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. A Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) was formed to implement the MOC. The JCCCNRS established many working groups; most of these were the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as far as the US participation was concerned. The lone exception was Working Group 7 on Environmental Transport and Health Effects, for which the US participation was the responsibility of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of Working Group 7 was succintly stated to be, ``To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` To implement the work DOE then formed two subworking groups: 7.1 to address Environmental Transport and 7.2 to address Health Effects. Thus, the DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project began. The majority of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus is now turned to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are involved in and making progress on the case-control and co-hort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children. Dosimetric aspects are a fundamental part of these studies. We are currently working to implement similar studies in Ukraine. A major part of the effort of these projects is supporting these studies, both by providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and by providing support and equipment for the medical teams.

  14. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... market which normally means the distributing agency, cooperative marketing agency, wholesaler, or... involves travel off the farm (as would normally be the case) the delivery must be performed by the farmer's...

  15. Planning level assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for alternative transportation construction projects : carbon footprint estimator, phase II, volume I - GASCAP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The GASCAP model was developed to provide a software tool for analysis of the life-cycle GHG : emissions associated with the construction and maintenance of transportation projects. This phase : of development included techniques for estimating emiss...

  16. The dual roles of red blood cells in tissue oxygen delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate red blood cells (RBCs) seem to serve tissue oxygen delivery in two distinct ways. Firstly, RBCs enable the adequate transport of O2 between respiratory surfaces and metabolizing tissues by means of their high intracellular concentration of hemoglobin (Hb), appropriate allosteric...

  17. Underestimating Costs in Public Works Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren L.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... honest numbers should not trust the cost estimates and cost-benefit analyses produced by project promoters and their analysts. Independent estimates and analyses are needed as are institutional checks and balances to curb deception.......This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... estimates used to decide whether important infrastructure should be built are highly and systematically misleading. The result is continuous cost escalation of billions of dollars. The sample used in the study is the largest of its kind, allowing for the first time statistically valid conclusions regarding...

  18. Cost Underestimation in Public Works Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren L.

    This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... honest numbers should not trust the cost estimates and cost-benefit analyses produced by project promoters and their analysts. Independent estimates and analyses are needed as are institutional checks and balances to curb deception.......This article presents results from the first statistically significant study of cost escalation in transportation infrastructure projects. Based on a sample of 258 transportation infrastructure projects worth $90 billion (U.S.), it is found with overwhelming statistical significance that the cost...... estimates used to decide whether important infrastructure should be built are highly and systematically misleading. The result is continuous cost escalation of billions of dollars. The sample used in the study is the largest of its kind, allowing for the first time statistically valid conclusions regarding...

  19. Assessment of customer satisfaction in transportation service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of customer satisfaction in transportation service delivery: The case of three terminals of Anbassa City Bus service enterprise. ... Fullscreen Fullscreen Off. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  20. Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act came into force on 27 August 1991. It replaces earlier legislation dating from 1948 and enables the United Kingdom to give effect to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) latest recommended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The new Act clarifies and extends the power of the Secretary of State to make regulations regarding, among other things, the design, labelling, handling, transport and delivery of packages containing radioactive material and the placarding of vehicles transporting such packages. The Act gives the Secretary of State the power to appoint inspectors to assist him in enforcing the regulations. (NEA)