WorldWideScience

Sample records for transportation fuel benefits

  1. Environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Hörmandinger, Günter

    The potential environmental benefits of using fuel cells in cars, buses and stationary combined heat and power (CHP) plants of different sizes have not been well-researched. This environmental analysis was conducted for the UK on a `full fuel cycle' basis, encompassing all greenhouse gas and regulated pollutant emissions for the supply chain and end-use technology under consideration. Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) with methanol or natural gas reformers were analysed for cars, SPFCs and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) with on-board hydrogen for buses. CHP plants were PAFCs or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each option was compared with one or more conventional technologies. In all cases fuel cell technologies have substantially reduced emissions in comparison with conventional technologies. Regulated emissions are lowest, by up to two orders of magnitude, and those that do occur are primarily in the fuel supply chain. The fuel cell technologies are more efficient in all cases, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reduced broadly in line with energy savings. Methane emissions increase due to fuel switching, e.g. from petrol to natural gas powered buses, but from a very low base. The study pinpoints some areas in which alternative approaches could be made - the methods for generating and transporting hydrogen have a significant bearing on energy consumption and emissions. However, it is clear that from an overall emissions perspective the use of fuel cells in transport and power generation is highly beneficial.

  2. Hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel and vehicles are assessed and compared to other alternative fuels and vehicles. The cost, efficiency, and emissions of hydrogen storage, delivery, and use in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are estimated. Hydrogen made thermochemically from natural gas and electrolytically from a range of electricity mixes is examined. Hydrogen produced at central plants and delivered by truck is compared to hydrogen produced on-site at filling stations, fleet refueling centers, and residences. The impacts of hydrogen HEVs, fueled using these pathways, are compared to ultra-low emissions gasoline internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs), advanced battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and HEVs using gasoline or natural gas.

  3. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  4. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  5. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  6. Liquid fuel concept benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.

    1996-01-01

    There are principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel listed and analyzed in the first part of the paper. One of the primary results of the analyses performed shows that the solid fuel concept, which was to certain degree advantageous in the first periods of a nuclear reactor development and operation, has guided this branch of a utilization of atomic nucleus energy to a death end. On the background of this, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the first part of the paper, too. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuels, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed and currently having been under development in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, will be studied both theoretically and experimentally. There is a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-O briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project. Finally, there will be another very promising concept of a small low power ADTT system introduced which is characterized by a high level of safety and economical efficiency. In the conclusion, the overall survey of principal benefits which may be expected by introducing liquid nuclear fuel in nuclear power and research reactor systems is given and critically analyzed. 7 refs, 4 figs

  7. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  8. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Insurance and fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, L.M.G. da.

    1979-01-01

    The fuel transport insurance in Brazil is analysed. There are some special and additional clauses that can be included or excluded, according to the contracting parts and because of some rules, conventions and treaties they are obliged to insert certain conditions, in view of the nature of the transported material and the risks resulting from it. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  10. Nuclear fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.; Fry, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel transport flask has a surrounding structure carrying inwardly directed heat transfer fins additional to the normal outwardly directed heat transfer fins on the main body of the flask. The additional fins can be interleaved with the main fins, and the structure carrying the additional fins can either be a shroud or an open framework. (author)

  11. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  12. Agricultural transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations on the title subject are focused on the question whether advantages and disadvantages of agricultural fuels compared to fossil fuels justify the Dutch policy promotion of the use of agricultural products as basic materials for agricultural fuels. Attention is paid to energetic, environmental and economical aspects of both fuel types. Four options to apply agricultural transportation fuels are discussed: (1) 10% bio-ethanol in euro-unleaded gasoline for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (2) the substitution of 15% methyl tertiair butyl ether (MTBE) by ethyl tertiair butyl ether (ETBE) as a substituent for lead in unleaded super plus gasoline (Sp 98) for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (3) 50% KME (rapeseed oil ester) in low-sulfur diesel (0.05%S D) for engines of vans without a catalyst; and (4) the substitution of 0.05% S D by bio-ethanol or KME for buses with fuel-adjusted engines, equipped with a catalyst. Also the substitution by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or E 95 was investigated in option four. Each of the options investigated can contribute to a reduction of the use of fossil energy and the environmental effects of the use of fossil fuels, although some environmental effects from agricultural fuels must be taken into consideration. It is recommended to seriously pay attention to the promotion of agricultural fuels, not only in the Netherlands, but also in an international context. Policy instruments to be used in the stimulation of the use of such fuels are the existing European Community subsidies on fallow lands, exemption of the European Community energy levy, and the use of tax differentiation. Large-scale demonstration projects must be started to quantify hazardous emissions and to solve still existing technical problems. 8 figs., 3 tabs., refs., 4 appendices

  13. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  14. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  15. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  16. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  17. Spent fuel transporting vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Takeshi.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of annular cooling fins are disposed each at an equal distance on the outer circumferential surface of a vessel main body. An electric power generation module is disposed on the surface of the cooling fins. The electric power generation module comprises a plurality of thermoelectric power generation elements. In each of the thermoelectric generation elements, the inner side thereof in contact with the surface of the cooling fin is at a high temperature while the outer side thereof is at a low temperature nearly equal with an atmospheric temperature. A predetermined amount of electric power is generated by seebeck effect due to the temperature difference. The electric power is always stored in a battery. Accordingly, even if a power generator of a ship should fail and power supply is stopped during transportation of the vessels for spent nuclear fuels, an appropriate amount of electric power can be supplied to a cooling device of the ship. (I.N.)

  18. Transport of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In response to public interest in the transport by rail through London of containers of irradiated fuel elements on their way from nuclear power stations to Windscale, the Central Electricity Generating Board and British Rail held three information meetings in London in January 1980. One meeting was for representatives of London Borough Councils and Members of Parliament with a known interest in the subject, and the others were for press, radio and television journalists. This booklet contains the main points made by the principal speakers from the CEGB and BR. (The points covered include: brief description of the fuel cycle; effect of the fission process in producing plutonium and fission products in the fuel element; fuel transport; the fuel flasks; protection against accidents; experience of transporting fuel). (U.K.)

  19. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  20. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  1. Transportation fuels of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Society is putting more emphasis on the mobile transportation sector to achieve future goals of sustainability and a cleaner environment. To achieve these goals, does society need to jump to a new combination of fuel and vehicle technology or can we just continue to improve on the current fuels and drive train technology that has powered us the past 70 or more years? Do we need to move to more exotic energy conversion technology (fuel cell vehicles?), or can improving fuel properties further allow us to continue using combustion engines to power our vehicles? What fuel properties can still be improved in gasoline and diesel? Besides removing sulfur, should there be less aromatics in fuels? Should aromatics be eliminated? Is there a role for oxygenates in gasoline and diesel? Do blending oxygenates in fuels help or hinder in achieving the environmental goals? Can we and should we reduce our dependency on crude oil for transportation energy? Why have not the previous government-sponsored Alternative Fuel programs displaced crude oil? The marketplace will determine which fuel and vehicle technology combination will eventually be used in the future. Does the information we know today give us insight to this future? This paper will attempt to address some of the key issues and questions on the role fuels may play in that marketplace decision

  2. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  3. Spent fuel transport in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive substances is a minor part of the fuel cycle because the quantities of matter involved are very small. However the length and complexity of the cycle, the weight of the packing, the respective distances between stations, enrichment plants and reprocessing plants are such that the problem is not negligible. In addition these transports have considerable psychological importance. The most interesting is spent fuel transport which requires exceptionally efficient packaging, especially where thermal and mechanical resistance are concerned. To meet the safety criteria necessary for the protection of both public and users it was decided to use the maximum capacity consistent with rail transport and to avoid coolant fluids under pressure. Since no single type of packing is suitable for all existing stations an effort has been made to standardise handling accessories, and future trands are towards maximum automation. A discussion on the various technical solutions available for the construction of these packing systems is followed by a description of those used for the two types of packaging ordered by COGEMA [fr

  4. Transportation fuels from energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Kulsrestha, G.N.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))

    1993-01-01

    Biomass constituents in the form of energy crops can be used as starting materials in the production of transportation fuels. The potential of biocrudes obtained from laticiferous species belonging to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae for the production of hydrocarbon fuels has been explored. Results of studies carried out on upgrading these biocrudes by catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst are presented. (author)

  5. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  6. Transportation of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction (explaining the special interest of the London Borough of Brent, as forming part of the route for transportation of irradiated fuel elements); nuclear power (with special reference to transport of spent fuel and radioactive wastes); the flask aspect (design, safety regulations, criticisms, tests, etc.); the accident aspect (working manual for rail staff, train formation, responsibility, postulated accident situations); the emergency arrangements aspect; the monitoring aspect (health and safety reports); legislation; contingency plans; radiation - relevant background information. (U.K.)

  7. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  8. Transport safety of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Giménez, R. de la

    2016-01-01

    The complication of the transport of spent fuel is significant not only because of the danger of the transported good itself but also for the size of the package. The number of this kind of expeditions are supposed to increase considerably in the coming years, for that reason is necessary for specialized companies such as ETSA be prepared. To this end, ETSA has already implemented most of the measures necessary to ensure safety - security of transport, not only during its execution but throughout the preparation.

  9. Transport and reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1981-01-01

    This contribution deals with transport and packaging of oxide fuel from and to the Cogema reprocessing plant at La Hague (France). After a general discussion of nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, the main aspects of transport and reprocessing of oxide fuel are analysed. (Auth.)

  10. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  13. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  14. Risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1981-12-01

    This paper presents results of a study which analyzes the risk of transporting spent fuel by train. The risk assessment methodology consists of 4 basic steps: (1) a description of the system being analyzed; (2) identification of sequences of events that could lead to a release of material during transportation; (3) evaluation of the probability and consequences of each release sequence; and (4) assessment of the risk and evaluation of the results. The conclusion reached was that considering the substantial benefits derived from the fuel, the current spent fuel transportation system poses reasonably low risks

  15. Methods of making transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  16. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  17. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  18. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  19. Potential benefits of superconductivity to transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; Johnson, Larry R.

    Research in U.S. transportation applications of superconductors is strongly motivated by a number of potential national benefits. These include the reduction of dependence on petroleum-based fuels, energy savings, substantially reduced air and noise pollution, increased customer convenience, and reduced maintenance costs. Current transportation technology offers little flexibility to switch to alternative fuels, and efforts to achieve the other benefits are confounded by growing congestion at airports and on urban roadways. A program has been undertaken to identify possible applications of the emerging superconducting applications to transportation and to evaluate potential national benefits. The current phase of the program will select the most promising applications for a more detailed subsequent study. Transportation modes being examined include highway and industrial vehicles, as well as rail, sea, air transport and pipelines. Three strategies are being considered: (1) replacing present components with those employing superconductors, (2) substituting new combinations of components or systems for present systems, and (3) developing completely new technologies. Distinctions are made between low-, medium-, and near-room-temperature superconductors. The most promising applications include magnetically levitated passenger and freight vehicles; replacement of drive systems in locomotives, self-propelled rail cars, and ships; and electric vehicles inductively coupled to electrified roadways.

  20. Thermal model of spent fuel transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.E.M.; Rahman, F.A.; Sultan, G.F.; Khalil, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The investigation provides a theoretical model to represent the thermal behaviour of the spent fuel elements when transported in a dry shipping cask under normal transport conditions. The heat transfer process in the spent fuel elements and within the cask are modeled which include the radiant heat transfer within the cask and the heat transfer by thermal conduction within the spent fuel element. The model considers the net radiant method for radiant heat transfer process from the inner most heated element to the surrounding spent elements. The heat conduction through fuel interior, fuel-clad interface and on clad surface are also presented. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  1. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  2. Cost-Benefit Analyses of Transportation Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    -to-pay investigations. Accepting the ontological and epistemological assumptions of cost-benefit analysis involves an implicit acceptance of the ethical and political values favoured by these assumptions. Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences...... and needs among population groups with a low ability to pay. Instead of cost-benefit analyses, impact analyses evaluating the likely effects of project alternatives against a wide range of societal goals is recommended, with quantification and economic valorisation only for impact categories where this can......This paper discusses the practice of cost-benefit analyses of transportation infrastructure investment projects from the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Such analyses are based on a number of untenable ontological assumptions about social value, human nature and the natural...

  3. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  4. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  5. Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the GMS : a Study of the East-West and North-South Corridors. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises ... IDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate change. IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate ...

  6. Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the GMS : a Study of the East-West and North-South Corridors. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2.6 million square kilometers and a ...

  7. Safe transport of irradiated fuel by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The development is described of a transport system dedicated to the sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. The background is reviewed of why shipments were required and the establishment of a specialist shipping company, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited. A description of the ships, flasks and other equipment utilised is provided, together with details of key procedures implemented to ensure safety and customer satisfaction. (Author)

  8. The sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a transport system dedicated to the sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. It reviews the background to why shipments were required and the establishment of a specialist shipping company, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited. A description of the ships, flasks and other equipment utilized is provided, together with details of key procedures implemented to ensure safety and customer satisfaction

  9. Transport device for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    The transport device for nuclear fuel powder, which does not disintegrate during transport, has a transport pipe which starts with its entry end from the floor or a closed container and opens with its outlet end at the top into a closed separation container connect via a powder filter to a suction pump. By alternate regular opening and closing of a first control valve for transport gas fitted to a transport pipe to a supply duct and a second control valve for transport gas fitted to the container to an additional supply duct, alternating plugs of nuclear fuel powder and transport gas cushions are formed and are transported to the outlet end of the transport pipe. (orig./HP) [de

  10. MOX fuel transport: the French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, H.; Verdier, A.; Sanchis, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the back-end of the fuel cycle, several leading countries have chosen the Reprocessing, Conditioning, Recycling (RCR) option. Plutonium recycling in the form of MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants an several European countries. The COGEMA Group has developed the industrialized products to master the RCR operation including transport COGEMA subsidiary, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has been operating MOX fuel transports on an industrial scale for more than 10 years. In 1998, around 200 transports of Plutonium materials have been organised by TRANSNUCLEAIRE. These transports have been carried out by road between various facilities in Europe: reprocessing plants, manufacturing plants and power plants. The materials transported are either: PuO 2 and MOX powder; BWR and PWR MOX fuel rods; BWR and PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Because MOX fuel transport is subject to specific safety, security and fuel integrity requirements, the MOX fuel transport system implemented by TRANSNUCLEAIRE is fully dedicated. Packaging have been developed, licensed and manufactured for each kind of MOX material in compliance with relevant regulations. A fleet of vehicles qualified according to existing physical protection regulations is operated by TRANSNUCLEAIRE. TRANSNUCLEAIRE has gained a broad experience in MOX transport in 10 years. Technical and operational know-how has been developed and improved for each step: vehicles and packaging design and qualification; vehicle and packaging maintenance; transport operations. Further developments are underway to increase the payload of the packaging and to improve the transport conditions, safety and security remaining of course top priority. (authors)

  11. European experience with spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Transport Ltd has transported 5000 tonnes of spent fuel from 35 reactors in 8 European countries since 1972. Transport management is governed by the Quality Plan for: transport administration, packaging and shipment procedures at the shipping plant, operations at the power plant, and packaging and shipment organization at the power plant. Selection of a suitable carrier device is made with regard to the shipping plant requirements, physical limitations of the reactor, fuel characteristics, and transport route constraints. The transport plan is set up taking into account exploitation of the casks, reactor shut-down requirements, fuel acceptance plans at the reprocessing plant, and cask maintenance periods. A transport cycle involving spent fuel shipment to La Hague or to Sellafield takes typically two or four weeks, respectively. Most transports through Europe are by rail. A special-design railway ferry boat serves transports to the United Kingdom. Both wet or dry casks are employed. Modern casks are designed for high burnups and for oxide fuels. (J.B.)

  12. Thorium fuel cycle - Potential benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    There has been significant interest among Member States in developing advanced and innovative technologies for safe, proliferation resistant and economically efficient nuclear fuel cycles, while minimizing waste and environmental impacts. This publication provides an insight into the reasons for renewed interest in the thorium fuel cycle, different implementation scenarios and options for the thorium cycle and an update of the information base on thorium fuels and fuel cycles. The present TECDOC focuses on the upcoming thorium based reactors, current information base, front and back end issues, including manufacturing and reprocessing of thorium fuels and waste management, proliferation-resistance and economic issues. The concluding chapter summarizes future prospects and recommendations pertaining to thorium fuels and fuel cycles

  13. Transportation 2000. Spent fuel transportation trends in the new millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blee, David; Viebrock, James; Patterson, John

    1999-01-01

    The paper will provide a comparison of foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation today verses the assumptions used by the Department of Energy in the Environmental Impact Statement. In addition, it will suggest changes that are likely to occur in transportation logistics through the remainder of the U.S. spent fuel returns program. Cask availability, certification status, shipment strategy, cost issues, and public acceptance are among the topical areas that will be examined. Transportation requirements will be assessed in light of current participation in the returns program and the tendency for shipment plans to shift toward spent fuel return toward the end of the 13 year period of eligibility. (author)

  14. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  15. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of cold particle fueling profiles on particle and energy transport in an ignition sized tokamak plasma are investigated in this study with a one-dimensional, multifluid transport model. A density gradient driven trapped particle microinstability model for plasma transport is used to demonstrate potential effects of fueling profiles on ignition requirements. Important criteria for the development of improved transport models under the conditions of shallow particle fueling profiles are outlined. A discrete pellet fueling model indicates that large fluctuations in density and temperature may occur in the outer regions of the plasma with large, shallowly penetrating pellets, but fluctuations in the pressure profile are small. The hot central core of the plasma remains unaffected by the large fluctuations near the plasma edge

  16. Transporting spent nuclear fuel: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    Although high-level radioactive waste from both commercial and defense activities will be shipped to the repository, this booklet focuses on various aspects of transporting commercial spent fuel, which accounts for the majority of the material to be shipped. The booklet is intended to give the reader a basic understanding of the following: the reasons for transportation of spent nuclear fuel, the methods by which it is shipped, the safety and security precautions taken for its transportation, emergency response procedures in the event of an accident, and the DOE program to develop a system uniquely appropriate to NWPA transportation requirements

  17. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  18. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  19. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  20. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  1. Phenomena in thermal transport in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernatynskiy, A.; Tulenko, J.S.; Phillpot, S.R.; El-Azab, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal transport in nuclear fuels is a key performance metric that affects not only the power output, but is also an important consideration in potential accident situations. While the fundamental theory of the thermal transport in crystalline solids was extensively developed in the 1950's and 1960's, the pertinent analytic approaches contained significant simplifications of the physical processes. While these approaches enabled estimates of the thermal conductivity in bulk materials with microstructure, they were not comprehensive enough to provide the detailed guidance needed for the in-pile fuel performance. Rather, this guidance has come from data painfully accumulated over 50 years of experiments on irradiated uranium dioxide, the most widely used nuclear fuel. At this point, a fundamental theoretical understanding of the interplay between the microstructure and thermal conductivity of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel is still lacking. In this chapter, recent advances are summarised in the modelling approaches for thermal transport of uranium dioxide fuel. Being computational in nature, these modelling approaches can, at least in principle, describe in detail virtually all mechanisms affecting thermal transport at the atomistic level, while permitting the coupling of the atomistic-level simulations to the mesoscale continuum theory and thus enable the capture of the impact of microstructural evolution in fuel on thermal transport. While the subject of current studies is uranium dioxide, potential applications of the methods described in this chapter extend to the thermal performance of other fuel forms. (authors)

  2. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative fuels and motive designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project was funded by the Federal Railroad Administration to better understand the potential cost and benefits of using alternative fuels for U.S. freight and passenger locomotive operations. The framework for a decision model was developed by T...

  4. A cost-benefit analysis of spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorlette, G.

    2001-01-01

    The back end of the fuel cycle is an area of economic risk for utilities having nuclear power plants to generate electricity. A cost-benefit analysis is a method by which utilities can evaluate advantages and drawbacks of alternative back end fuel cycle strategies. The present paper analyzes how spent fuel management can influence the risks and costs incurred by a utility over the lifetime of its power plants and recommends a recycling strategy. (author)

  5. Electrochemistry of fuel cells for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E. R.; Srinivasan, S.

    Fuel cells are the most promising power sources for electric vehicles and do not suffer the inherent limitations of efficiency, energy density, and lifetime, and encountered with all types of batteries considered for this application. The projected performance of fuel-cell-powered vehicles is comparable to that of the internal combustion and diesel engine vehicles but with the additional advantages of higher fuel efficiency, particularly with synfuels from coal. The ideal fuel for a fuel cell power plant for electric vehicles is methanol. This fuel is reformed to hydrogen, which combines with oxygen from the air in an acid electrolyte (phosphoric, solid polymer, or superacid) fuel cell to produce electricity. Though the phosphoric acid fuel cell is in the most advanced state of development (mainly for power generation applications), the solid polymer and superacid electrolyte fuel cells are more promising for the transportation application because of the faster oxygen reduction kinetics (and hence potential for higher power densities) and shorter start-up times.

  6. Alternative transport fuels: supply, consumption and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Road-based passenger and freight transport almost exclusively uses petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels in the fluid form. These fuels will probably continue to be major transport fuels well into the 21st century. As such there is need to prolong their use which can be done through: (1) conservation of fuel by increasing efficiency of internal combustion engines, and (2) conversion of natural gas, coal and peat, and biomass into alternate fuels such as ethanol, methanol, CNG, LNG, LPG, low heat-content (producer) gas and vegetable oils. Research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities in supply, consumption and conservation of these alternate fuels are identified and ranked in the context of situation prevailing in Brazil. Author has assigned the highest priority for research in the impact of pricing, economic, fiscal and trade policies, capital allocation criteria and institutional and legislative framework. It has also been emphasised that an integrated or systems approach is mandatory to achieve net energy gains in transport sector. (M.G.B.). 33 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mense, A.T.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1978-04-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D), multifluid transport model is used to investigate the effects of particle fueling profiles on plasma transport in an ignition-sized tokamak (TNS). Normal diffusive properties of plasmas will likely maintain the density at the center of the discharge even if no active fueling is provided there. This significantly relaxes the requirements for fuel penetration. Not only is lower fuel penetration easier to achieve, but it may have the advantage of reducing or eliminating density gradient-driven trapped particle microinstabilities. Simulation of discrete pellet fueling indicates that relatively low velocity (approximately 10 3 m/sec) pellets may be sufficient to fuel a TNS-sized device (approximately 1.25-m minor radius), to produce a relatively broad, cool edge region of plasma which should reduce the potential for sputtering, and also to reduce the likelihood of trapped particle mode dominated transport. Low penetrating pellets containing up to 10 to 20 percent of the total plasma ions can produce fluctuations in density and temperature at the plasma edge, but the pressure profile and fusion alpha production remain almost constant

  8. Considerations for the transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    In our society today the transportation of radioactive materials, and most particularly spent reactor fuel, is surrounded by considerable emotion and a wealth of information, good and bad. The transportation of these materials is viewed as unique and distinct from the transportation of other hazardous materials and as a particularly vulnerable component of the nuclear power activities of this nation. Added to this is the concept, widely held, that almost everyone is an expert on the transportation of radioactive materials. One significant contribution to this level of emotion is the notion that all roads (rail and highway), on which these goods will be transported, somehow traverse everyone's backyard. The issue of the transportation of spent fuel has thus become a political battleground. Perhaps this should not be surprising since it has all of the right characteristics for such politicization in that it is pervasive, emotional, and visible. In order that those involved in the discussion of this activity might be able to reach some rational conclusions, this paper offers some background information which might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives. The intent is to address the safety of transporting spent fuel from a technical standpoint without the emotional content which is frequently a part of this argument

  9. Reducing Fuel Volatility - An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailis, R.E.; Koeb, B.S.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and

  10. Fueling America’s Transportation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-28

    that chemicals, foods, and cosmetics are also made during the refinement of their algae oil. If the losses Solazyme posted in Louisiana are not a short...American dependence on foreign oil might diminish. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Advanced Biofuels, Transportation Energy, Algae Biofuels, DOD biofuels 11...wants its entire fleet of jet fighters and transport aircraft to test-fly a 50-50 blend of petroleum-based fuel and other sources – including algae

  11. MTR spent fuel transport and handling experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Vincent [TRANSNUCLEAIRE (France)

    1999-07-01

    The present paper describes the last MTR transport operations performed by TN in exotic countries, as well as within Europe. Each transport is specific and must be very carefully prepared, because all MTR fuels are generally very specific to each research reactor. Their characteristics (i.e. type, dimensions, irradiation...) have to be precisely identified because, for instance, they are not always well-known due to their period of storage. We will mainly talk about the International Shipments. (author)

  12. Transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Lenail, B.

    1987-01-01

    From a safety standpoint, spent fuel is clearly not ideal for permanent disposal and reprocessing is the best method of preparing wastes for long-term storage in a repository. Furthermore, the future may demonstrate that some fission products recovered in reprocessing have economic applications. Many countries have in fact reached the point at which the recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent fuel is economical in LWR's. Even in countries where this is not yet evident, (i.e., the United States), the French example shows that the day will come when spent fuel will be retrieved for reprocessing and recycle. It is highly questionable whether spent fuel will ever be considered and treated as waste in the same sense as fission products and processed as such, i.e., packaged in a waste form for permanent disposal. Even when recycled fuel material can no longer be reused in LWR's because of poor reactivity, it will be usable in FBR's. Based on the considerable experience gained by SGN and Cogema, this paper has provided practical discussion and illustrations of spent fuel transport and storage of a very important step in the nuclear fuel management process. The best of spent fuel storage depends on technical, economic and policy considerations. Each design has a role to play and we hope that the above discussion will help clarify certain issues

  13. Commercializing an alternate transportation fuel: lessons learned from NGV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    An alternate transportation fuel, compressed natural gas, was adopted in Canada in the mid-1980s due to the unique conditions present at the time. The factors that had an impact on the limited acceptance of the fuel, keeping its rate of adoption below the critical point were examined in this paper. It was revealed that a lack of infrastructure to support converted vehicles was the deciding factor. Existing refueling stations failed to become profitable, preventing further investment in refueling facilities and resulting in depressed sales of converted vehicles. Excessive parts markup by conversion dealers was another major hurdle, as was exaggerated claims for environmental and economic benefits. In addition, promotional programs were poorly designed. In the late 1980s, the relative values of oil and natural gas shifted, lowering the momentum from sales of conversions. The consequence was major players leaving the market and natural gas remained on the fringe in both Canada and the United States. Different alternate transportation fuels, including electricity and hydrogen, are being favored by new technologies and driving forces. The growth to commercial viability for those fuels will likely be influenced by some of the factors that played a role in the fate of natural gas as a transportation fuel. 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Control system of fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Minoru.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively avoid an obstacle in a fuel transporting device by reading the outputs of absolute position detectors mounted on movable trucks, controlling the movements of the trucks, and thereby smoothly and accurately positioning the fuel transporting device at predetermined position and providing a contact detector thereat. Method: The outputs from absolute position detectors which are mounted on a longitudinally movable truck and a laterally movable truck are input to an input/output control circuit. The input/output control circuit serves to compare, the position a fuel transporting device is to be moved to, with the present position on the basis of said input detection signal and a command signal from an operator console, to calculate the amount of movement to be driven, to produce an operation signal therefor to a control panel, and to drive and control the drive motors which are respectively mounted on the trucks for the fuel transfer device. On the other hand, in case that the transfer device comes into contact with an obstacle, the contact detector will immediately operate to produce a stop command through the control panel to the transporting device, and avoid a collision with the obstacle. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V.; Kouris, Panos D.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Heeres, Hero J.; Boot, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative

  16. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  17. The transportation of PuO2 and MOX fuel and management of irradiated MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, H.P.; Rawl, R.; Durpel, L. van den

    2000-01-01

    Information is given on the transportation of PuO 2 and mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, the regulatory requirements for transportation, the packages used and the security provisions for transports. The experience with and management of irradiated MOX fuel and the reprocessing of MOX fuel are described. Information on the amount of MOX fuel irradiated is provided. (author)

  18. Remarks on the transportation of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1992-01-01

    Information and data are provided on several aspects of the transportation of spent fuel elements. These aspects include contract, transportation, reprocessing batch size, and economical considerations. (author)

  19. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  20. Studies of Lanthanide Transport in Metallic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo; Taylor, Christopher

    2018-04-02

    Metallic nuclear fuels were tested in fast reactor programs and performed well. However, metallic fuels have shown the phenomenon of FCCI that are due to deleterious reactions between lanthanide fission products and cladding material. As the burnup is increased, lanthanide fission products that contact with the cladding could react with cladding constituents such as iron and chrome. These reactions produce higher-melting intermetallic compounds and low-melting alloys, and weaken the mechanical integrity. The lanthanide interaction with clad in metallic fuels is recognized as a long-term, high-burnup cause of the clad failures. Therefore, one of the key concerns of using metallic fuels is the redistribution of lanthanide fission products and migration to the fuel surface. It is believed that lanthanide migration is in part due to the thermal gradient between the center and the fuel-cladding interface, but also largely in part due to the low solubility of lanthanides within the uranium-based metal fuel. PIE of EBR-II fuels shows that lanthanides precipitate directly and do not dissolve to an appreciable extent in the fuel matrix. Based on the PIE data from EBR-II, a recent study recommended a so-called “liquid-like” transport mechanism for lanthanides and certain other species. The liquid-like transport model readily accounts for redistribution of Ln, noble metal fission products, and cladding components in the fuel matrix. According to the novel mechanism, fission products can transport as solutes in liquid metals, such as liquid cesium or liquid cesium–sodium, and on pore surfaces and fracture surfaces for metals near their melting temperatures. Transport in such solutions is expected to be much more rapid than solid-state diffusion. The mechanism could explain the Ln migration to the fuel slug peripheral surface and their deposition with a sludge-like form. Lanthanides have high solubility in liquid cesium but have low solubility in liquid sodium. As a

  1. L. Transportation of fuel and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principles applied to the transport of nuclear fuels and wastes have been founded on the more general provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials. Safe shipment of radioactive materials has historically been sought by specifying required characteristics in the shipping packages and establishing minimum acceptable levels of package integrity. The reason for this is that in the course of transport by road, rail, sea, or air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to members of the public, and in many cases they are loaded or unloaded by transport workers who have had no special training or experience in the handling of such substances. The procedures adopted to ensure transport safety have worked satisfactorily. Both in the USA and the UK, the industry and regulatory authorities have established outstanding safety records in shipping radioactive materials over a period of thirty years. It is claimed that there have been no injuries due to the radioactive nature of the shipments, nor has there been a release of nuclear materials serious enough to be a threat of death or injury. Admittedly, about 95% of the 800,000 shipments estimated in the USA each year involve small quantities for use in industry, medicine, agriculture and education. However the principals underlying the safe packaging of these and reactor fuels are the same, and there is little reason to doubt that a similar safety record can be maintained

  2. Costs and benefits of MDOT intelligent transportation system deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report analyses costs and benefits of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployed by : the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). MDOT ITS focuses on traffic incident : management and also provide Freeway Courtesy Patrol services. A...

  3. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V; Kouris, Panos D; Hensen, Emiel J M; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin. Life cycle analysis (LCA) displayed the second critical factor related to alternative energy carrier selection. Natural gas (NG) chosen over additional biomass boosts well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions (WTW GHG) to a level incompatible with the reduction targets set by the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS). Adversely, the process' economics revealed higher profits vs. fossil energy carrier. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  5. Cost benefit analysis of recycling nuclear fuel cycle in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jewhan; Chang, Soonheung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has become an essential part of electricity generation to meet the continuous growth of electricity demand. The importance if nuclear waste management has been the main issue since the beginning of nuclear history. The recycling nuclear fuel cycle includes the fast reactor, which can burn the nuclear wastes, and the pyro-processing technology, which can reprocess the spent nuclear fuel. In this study, a methodology using Linear Programming (LP) is employed to evaluate the cost and benefits of introducing the recycling strategy and thus, to see the competitiveness of recycling fuel cycle. The LP optimization involves tradeoffs between the fast reactor capital cost with pyro-processing cost premiums and the total system uranium price with spent nuclear fuel management cost premiums. With the help of LP and sensitivity analysis, the effect of important parameters is presented as well as the target values for each cost and price of key factors

  6. An improved assembly for the transport of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, G.

    1979-01-01

    An improved assembly for the transport and storage of radioactive nuclear fuel elements is described. The fuel element transport canister is of the type in which the fuel elements are submerged in liquid with a self regulating ullage system, so that the fuel elements are always submerged in the liquid even when the assembly is used in one orientation during loading and another orientation during transportation. (UK)

  7. National Program Plan Fuel Cells in Transportation. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCVs need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCVs. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCVs promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation`s environmental problems.

  8. Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-24

    The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be

  9. New, innovative and sustainable transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: ulla.lassi@oulu.fi; Keiski, R. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)); Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories (Finland)); Mikkola, J.-P. (Aabo Akademi Univ., Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Turku (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Secondary products from the industry - e.g. by-products of food and paper/pulp industry - can be used to manufacture new liquid biofuels or fuel components. A particularly interesting alternative is provided by butanol, which can be produced from biomass, since it seems to be most suitable for replacing petrol as fuel in gasoline engines. Besides, it is very energy efficient and also suitable to be produced on an industrial scale. Production of biobutanol and other higher alcohols is studied in the research project 'New, innovative sustainable transportation fuels for mobile applications; from biocomponents to flexible liquid fuels (SusFuFlex)'. The project is carried out as a joint project between the University of Oulu and Aabo Akademi University. It is financied by the Academy of Finland in 2008-2011, within the research programme for Sustainable Energy. Research focuses on the production of higher bioalcohols and other compounds suitable as oxygenates (e.g. butanol, pentanol, mixed alcohols; e.g. glycerine ethers, glycerol carbonate). The objectives of the research are (1) to evaluate the old and novel procedures for microbiological production of butanol, higher alcohols and oxygenates as fossil fuel substitutes, (2) to develop and optimize catalytic materials and chemical reaction routes for the production of higher alcohols and other bio-derived compounds applicable as gasoline fuel and its additives, (3) to conduct a sustainability analysis of the processes to be developed, to analyze the atom economy of the new processes and to make a preliminary economical analysis, and (4) to integrate the processes and know-how developed by the research groups

  10. Reducing Fuel Volatility. An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, R. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Koebl, B.S. [Utrecht University, Science Technology and Society, Budapestlaan 6, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); Sanders, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and patterns in the determinants of a volatility gain in order to provide an estimate of the tendency and the size of the volatility gain in the future. The accumulated avoided loss from blending gasoline with 20 percent ethanol-fuel estimated for the US economy amounts to 795 bn. USD between 2010 and 2019 with growing tendency. An amount that should be considered in cost-benefit analysis of bio-fuels.

  11. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.

  12. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  13. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  14. Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. A suitable place to start studying a fuel is at the production stage, and bioethanol has been found to have a potential to mitigate greenhouse gases, depending on the production method. This and a potential for replacing fossil fuel-based oil (and being renewable) are the main reasons why ethanol is considered and implemented. Therefore, we must focus on two central questions related to ethanol implementation: how much carbon dioxide (CO2) can be mitigated and how much fossil fuel can be replaced? A number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to provide estimates. These assessments have generally shown that bioethanol has very good potential and can mitigate CO2 emissions very effectively, but It has also been shown that the potential for both fossil fuel replacement and CO2 mitigation is totally dependent on the method used to produce the fuel. Bioethanol can be made from a wide range of biomass resources, not all equally effective at mitigating CO2 emissions and replacing fossil fuel. The Brazilian ethanol experience has in many ways shown the way for the rest of the world, not least in the production stage. Brazil was the first and biggest producer of bioethanol, but the United States, China, India, and European Union have since then increased their production dramatically. Overall, bioethanol represents the

  15. Administrative mechanics of research fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, Diane W.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation contains the discussion on the multitude of administrative mechanics that have to be meshed for the successful completion of a shipment of spent fuel, HEU or LEU in the research reactors fuel cycle. The costs associated with transportation may be the equivalent of 'a black hole', so an overview of cost factors is given. At the end one could find that this black hole factor in the budget is actually a bargain. The first step is the quotation phase. The cost variables in the quotation contain the cost of packaging i.e. containers; the complete routing of the packages and the materials. Factors that are of outmost importance are the routing restrictions and regulations, physical security regulations. All of this effort is just to provide a valid quotation not to accomplish the goal of completing a shipment. Public relations cannot be omitted either

  16. Comparison of the Transportation Risks Resulting from Accidents during the Transportation of the Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Jong Tae; Cho, Dong Kuen; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    The safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable disposal of high level wastes and spent fuels is becoming a very important issue. The operational safety assessment of a repository including a transportation safety assessment is a fundamental part in order to achieve this goal. According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for spent fuels. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks resulting from the accidents during the transportation of spent fuels for these four transportation scenarios

  17. The single SNR fuel assembly container (ESBB) to transport unirradiated SNR 300 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, F.; Hottenrott, G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a new type B(U) package design is presented. The Single SNR Fuel Assembly Container (ESBB) is designed for the transport and storage of a single SNR 300 fuel assembly. This package is the main component for the future interim storage of the fuel assemblies in heavy storage casks. Its benefits are that it is compatible with the Category I transport system of Nuclear Cargo + Service NCS) used in Germany and that it can be easily handled at the current storage locations as well as in an interim storage facility. In total 205 fuel assemblies are currently stored in Hanau, Germany and Dounreay, U.K. Former studies have shown, that heavy transport and storage casks can be handled there only with considerable efforts. But the required category I transport to an interim storage is not reasonably feasible. To overcome these problems the ESBB was designed. It consists of a stainless steel tube with welded bottom, a welded plug as closure system and shock absorbers 26 packages at maximum can be transported in one batch with the NCS security vehicle. The safety analysis shows that the package complies with IAEA 1996. Standard calculations methods and computer codes like HEATING 7.2 (Childs 1993) have been used for the analysis. Criticality safety assessment is based on conservative assumptions as required in IAEA 1996. Drop tests carried out by BAM will be used to verify the design. These tests are scheduled for mid 1998. For the validation of the design prototypes have already been manufactured. Handling tests show that the design complies with the requirements. Preliminary drop tests show that the certification drop tests will be passed positively. (authors)

  18. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed.

  19. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed

  20. Cost effectiveness of transportation fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, D.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Troelstra, W.P.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to investigate whether stimulation of the production and use of biofuels for transportation is worthwhile compared to the production of electricity from biomass. Several options are compared to each other and with reference technologies on the basis of the consumption or the avoided input of fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, specific costs and cost effectiveness. For each phase in the biomass conversion process (cultivation, pretreatment, transportation, conversion, distribution and final consumption) indicators were collected from the literature. Next to costs of the bioconversion routes attention is paid to other relevant aspects that are important for the introduction of the technological options in the Netherlands. 41 refs

  1. Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. -- Highlights: → Cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) can measure climate impacts of dynamic systems. → Climate impact is reduced when forest slash and stumps are used to replace fossil fuels. → Forest biofuels may cause short-term climate impact, followed by long-term climate benefit. → Forest residues should replace coal to avoid short-term climate impact. → Fossil energy used for biofuel recovery and transport has very little climate impact.

  2. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, S

    2002-01-01

    ...), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S...

  3. Analysis of hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel FY17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Luzi, Francesco [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilcox Freeburg, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews, surveys and analyses performed to evaluate the potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to be an economically viable transportation alternative. Five existing and important drivers of expanding hydrogen-fueled transportation adoption are multi-billion dollar sales reservations of Nikola Class 8 trucks, CALSTART viability analysis of hybrid-hydrogen drayage trucks in the shipyard cargo application, analysis showing economic advantages of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)s over Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)s beginning at 150-mile ranges, the announcement of a commercial 5kg electrolyzer, and commercial plans or vehicle availability by nine vehicle manufacturers of FCEV passenger vehicles. But hydrogen infrastructure availability needed to support broad adoption of hydrogen-fueled vehicles is limited to less than 50 publicly-available refueling stations, primarily in California. The demand side (consumer) economics associated with FCEV adoption showed strong economic sensitivity to the original vehicle’s fuel economy (mpg), distance traveled, and hydrogen (H2) generation costs. Seven use cases were used to evaluate the broad range of potential FCEV purchasers, including autonomous vehicle applications. Each consumer use case analysis resulted in a different hydrogen fuel cost that would be equivalent to the current fuel cost being paid by the consumer. The H2 generation costs (supply side) were sensitive to the volume of H2 supplied and H2 production costs needed to repay H2 supply facility capital costs and produce competitively-priced energy. H2FAST was used to more accurately incorporate capital, maintenance and production costs into a viable H2 supply cost to the consumer. When the H2 generation and consumer economics were combined, several applications with positive economics became clear. The availability of low-cost hydrogen pipeline connections, and therefore low-cost hydrogen, greatly benefits the

  4. Regulation on the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations applying to the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles, mentioned in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The transport is for outside of the factories and the site of enterprises by such modes of transport as rail, trucks, etc. Covered are the following: definitions of terms, places of fuel materials handling, loading methods, limitations on mix loading with other cargo, radiation dose rates concerning the containers and the vehicles, transport indexes, signs and indications, limitations on train linkage during transport by rail, security guards, transport of empty containers, etc. together with ordinary rail cargo and so on. (Mori, K.)

  5. Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    The scarcity of known petroleum reserves will make renewable energy resources more attractive. The most feasible way to meet this growing demand is by utilizing alternative fuels. Biodiesel is defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is the best candidate for diesel fuels in diesel engines. The biggest advantage that biodiesel has over gasoline and petroleum diesel is its environmental friendliness. Biodiesel burns similar to petroleum diesel as it concerns regulated pollutants. On the other hand, biodiesel probably has better efficiency than gasoline. One such fuel for compression-ignition engines that exhibit great potential is biodiesel. Diesel fuel can also be replaced by biodiesel made from vegetable oils. Biodiesel is now mainly being produced from soybean, rapeseed and palm oils. The higher heating values (HHVs) of biodiesels are relatively high. The HHVs of biodiesels (39-41 MJ/kg) are slightly lower than that of gasoline (46 MJ/kg), petrodiesel (43 MJ/kg) or petroleum (42 MJ/kg), but higher than coal (32-37 MJ/kg). Biodiesel has over double the price of petrodiesel. The major economic factor to consider for input costs of biodiesel production is the feedstock, which is about 80% of the total operating cost. The high price of biodiesel is in large part due to the high price of the feedstock. Economic benefits of a biodiesel industry would include value added to the feedstock, an increased number of rural manufacturing jobs, an increased income taxes and investments in plant and equipment. The production and utilization of biodiesel is facilitated firstly through the agricultural policy of subsidizing the cultivation of non-food crops. Secondly, biodiesel is exempt from the oil tax. The European Union accounted for nearly 89% of all biodiesel production worldwide in 2005. By 2010, the United States is expected to become the world's largest single biodiesel market, accounting for roughly 18% of world biodiesel consumption

  6. Transport and reprocessing of irradiated TRIGA fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staake, Theo R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a review of the transport of irradiated TRIGA fuel elements, and the selection of the transport casks. The information presented is based on the experience TRANSNUKLEAR GmbH has gained over the last 14 years in the transport and reprocessing of irradiated MTR fuel elements. During this period over 2000 fuel elements were delivered to various destinations for reprocessing (about 1000 fuel elements - to European reprocessing plants (Eurochemic in Belgium, and CEA Marcoule in France), and, since 1977, over 1000 fuel elements - to the US-DOE Savannah River reprocessing plant)

  7. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    % higher than in the No Program case. On-road medium- and heavy-duty vehicle stock could be as much as 39% higher. The resulting petroleum savings in 2035 were estimated to be as high as 3.1 million barrels per day, and reductions in GHG emissions were estimated to be as high as 500 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year. The benefits of continuing to invest government resources in advanced vehicle and fuel cell technologies would have significant economic value in the U.S. transportation sector and reduce its dependency on oil and its vulnerability to oil price shocks.

  8. Safety and Licensing of Spent Fuel Storage and Transport — Safety Issues Within Spent Fuel Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brut, S.; Derlot, F.; Milet, L.

    2015-01-01

    We can consider the different safety issues within French fuel transport as follows: (a) the proof as regards the leaking fuel assembly transport with hydrogen generation coming from potential in leakage water inside fuel rods; ( b) the measures taken to enforce the new design as well as the new manufacturing which have been decided since January 1 st 2007 in the frame of the 96 IAEA Regulation as regards the full water penetration as compared to the 85 IAEA Regulation, the latter allowing partial water penetration on certain conditions; and (c) the obligation of implementing various risk controls on exploitation site in order to take into account the possible human failure which are intrinsically increasing the permissible doses rates for workers. Even quite recently the leaking fuel assembly transport has been considered with no specific measure as regards the radiolysis phenomenon or the quality of drying cask holds. All these measures were sufficiently in accordance to rule out this issue. Lately, the leaking fuel assembly transport needs the implementation of equipment controls involved in nuclear power plants as regards the hydrogen rate before loading departure in order to determine on the evolution law, the maximum duration authorized for the transportation to not exceed the lower limit of inflammable status. As regards the proof of the criticality-safety casks, the main justification to be held on the irradiated fuel assembly on drop accident conditions could find a key in the hypothesis of the important damage of the fuel but should be in this matter, compensated by a limit of containment penetration for safety reason. For this case, the application of the 96 IAEA Regulation involves the use of independent leak tightness barriers. TN International is introducing different examples in France linked to the selection of multiple barriers. When limited in leakage quantity of water inside the cask is considered for the criticality studies, the French Competent

  9. Experience in the transport of European irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, A.

    1993-01-01

    The transport of irradiated nuclear fuel is an essential and integral component of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear Transport Limited (NTL) has been in the forefront of the transport of irradiated fuel for two decades and has safely and successfully completed over 2500 shipments containing more than 5000 tonnes of uranium to the reprocessing plants of COGEMA at Cap La Hague in France and British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield, in England. During the two decades, there have been significant changes in fuel parameters, flask designs, regulations and public perception, all of which have impacted on the management of the irradiated fuel transport business. This paper briefly describes NTL experience in meeting these challenges, the design and development of new flasks to meet future requirements of high burnup fuels to 55 GWD/TeU and the flasks for the return of highly active vitrified waste. (Author)

  10. BNFL's new spent fuel transport flask - Excellox 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was formed in 1971 its transport service has safely moved spent light water reactor fuel from many locations abroad to its fuel handling plants at Sellafield in the UK. To support this business a number of types of flasks have been designed and used. One of the types used has been the Excellox family of water-filled flasks. To support future business opportunities a new flask, designed to meet the requirements of the new IAEA transport regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised), has been developed. The flask will be a type B(U)F. This new flask design will maximise fuel carrying capacity to minimise transport costs. The design capacity of the new Excellox 8 flask is to be 12 pressurised water reactor or 32 boiling water reactor fuel assemblies. The objective of this BNFL project is to provide another economic spent nuclear fuel transport system, in support of BNFL transport business. (author)

  11. Economic benefits of employment transportation services : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    This report examines the benefits that accrue from employment transportation services implemented as a result of changes in welfare policy, namely the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. Employment transp...

  12. High fuel price: Will Indonesian shift to public transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Pamungkas, Adhiguna Ramadhani

    2016-06-01

    Public transportation has been declining over years, while on the other hand, private vehicles are dramatically increasing. The share of public transportation was 38.3% in 2002 and slowly decreasing to 12.9% in 2010. Cheap fuel price has been alleged to be the main cause for the increased private vehicles. The declining trend of public transportation needs further investigation whether higher fuel price indeed influences the choice of transportation mode. The present study therefore aims at exploring the preference of using public transportation compared to motorcycle and private car for various fuel price and identifying barriers toward public transportation. A survey was conducted in 2013 to capture the preference of each transportation mode given different fuel price. A questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was distributed using random sampling in ten cities in Sumatra and Java islands, Indonesia. Results indicate that the increased fuel price would not lead to significant increase of public transportation users. Motorcycle seems continuously being the dominating transportation mode in the future. On the other hand, issues resulted from limited public transportation capacity such as long travel time, security and safety issues, limited route, poor schedule appear to be the most barriers of using public transportation. It is implied that in order to promote public transportation, interventions should be introduced simultaneously at both supply (i.e., increasing public transportation capacity) and demand (i.e., high fuel price) sides. Limitations of the study are also discussed.

  13. Ecological aspects of water coal fuel transportation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SHVORNIKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of influence of transportation process and burning of water coal fuel on an ecological condition of environment. Also mathematical dependences between coal ash level and power consumption for transportation are presented.

  14. Alternative Fuels in Transportation : Workforce needs and opportunities in support of reducing reliance on petroleum fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An overreliance on foreign oil and the negative impacts of using petroleum fuels on the worlds climate have prompted energy policies that support the diversification of transport fuels and aggressive work to transition to non-petroleum options. Th...

  15. Comparison of the transportation risks for the spent fuel in Korea for different transportation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Cho, D.K.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. At the start of the operation of the final repository (FR), by the year 2065, transport will then take place between the CISF and the FR. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios for a maritime transportation by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for the spent fuels in Korea. And, we estimated and compared the transportation risks for these four transportation scenarios. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks resulting from accidents during the transportation of PWR and PHWR spent fuels by road trailers from the CISF and the FR. From the results of this study, we found that risks resulting from accidents during the transportation of the spent fuels have a very low radiological risk activity with a manageable safety and health consequences. The results of this study can be used as basic data for the development of safe and economical logistics for a transportation of the spent fuels in Korea by considering the transportation costs for the four scenarios which will be needed in the near future.

  16. PROBLEMS OF DETERMINING THE FUEL COST FOR INTERNATIONAL ROAD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bondarev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When performing international goods transportation the most expensive consumption is the fuel. For planing reliable fuel costs there was conducted analytical and experimental research. According to the research, the method to determine the volume and cost of fuel according to the criterion of its maximum use with minimum cost within the country follow routes is determined.

  17. Design of a transportation cask for irradiated CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.E.; Gavin, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    A major step in the development of a large-scale transportation system for irradiated CANDU fuel is being made by Ontario Hydro in the design and construction of a demonstration cask by 1988/89. The system being designed is based on dry transportation with the eventual fully developed system providing for dry fuel loading and unloading. Research carried out to date has demonstrated that it is possible to transport irradiated CANDU fuel in a operationally efficient and simple manner without any damage which would prejudice subsequent automated fuel handling

  18. Experience feedback from the transportation of Framatome fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, M.E.; Gaillard, G.; Aubin, C.

    1998-01-01

    Framatome, the foremost world nuclear fuel manufacturer, has for 25 years been delivering fuel elements from its three factories (Dessel, Romans, Pierrelatte) to the various sites in France and abroad (Germany, Sweden, Belgium, China, Korea, South Africa, Switzerland). During this period, Framatome has built up experience and expertise in fuel element transportation by road, rail and sea. In this filed, the range of constraints is very wide: safety and environmental protection constraints; constraints arising from the control and protection of nuclear materials, contractual and financial constraints, media watchdogs. Through the experience feedback from the transportation of FRAMATOME assemblies, this paper addresses all the phases in the transportation of fresh fuel assemblies. (authors)

  19. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  20. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  1. Fuel composition effects on transportation fuel cell reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rod L.; Inbody, Michael A.; Semelsberger, Troy A.; Tafoya, Jose I.; Guidry, Dennis R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-11, MS J579, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-01-30

    This work examines the effect of various hydrocarbons on fuel processor light-off and reforming. Major hydrocarbon fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared with the fuel processing performance of blended fuel components and reformulated gasoline to examine synergistic or detrimental effects the fuel components have in a real fuel blend. Short chained aliphatic hydrocarbons tend to have favorable light-off and reforming characteristics for catalytic autothermal reforming compared with longer-chained and aromatic components. Oxygenated hydrocarbons have lower light-off requirements than do pure hydrocarbons. Gas phase oxidation favors higher cetane number fuels, which tend to be longer chained hydrocarbons. Energy consumption during the start-up process shows a large fuel effect. Methanol and dimethylether (DME) show lower start-up energy demands for the fuel processor start-up than do high temperature reforming hydrocarbon fuels such as methane, gasoline and ethanol. Aromatics and longer chained hydrocarbons show a higher tendency for carbon formation, increasing the amount of carbon formed during the light-off phase while the addition of oxygenates tends to lower the carbon formed during the start-up process.

  2. Spent fuel and HLW transportation the French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.P.; Charles, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    With 53 nuclear power plants in operation at EDF and a fuel cycle with recycling policy of the valuable materials, COGEMA is faced with the transport of a wide range of radioactive materials. In this framework, the transport activity is a key link in closing the fuel cycle. COGEMA has developed a comprehensive Transport Organization System dealing with all the sectors of the fuel cycle. The paper will describe the status of transportation of spent fuel and HLW in France and the experience gathered. The Transport Organization System clearly defines the role of all actors where COGEMA, acting as the general coordinator, specifies the tasks to be performed and brings technical and commercial support to its various subcontractors: TRANSNUCLEAIRE, specialized in casks engineering and transport operations, supplies packaging and performs transport operations, LEMARECHAL and CELESTIN operate transport by truck in the Vicinity of the nuclear sites while French Railways are in charge of spent fuel transport by train. HLW issued from the French nuclear program is stored for 30 years in an intermediate storage installation located at the La Hague reprocessing plant. Ultimately, these canisters will be transported to the disposal site. COGEMA has set up a comprehensive transport organization covering all operational aspects including adapted procedures, maintenance programs and personnel qualification

  3. Prospect for spent fuel transportation system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Q.; Jiang, Y.Q.

    1998-01-01

    With the arising of spent fuel from nuclear power plants, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following being stored at reactor sites for at least 5 years (with storage maximum of 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred into an away-from-reactor wet centralized storage facility, waiting for reprocessing. Therefore, China's spent fuel management activities would be involved in at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing, as well as certainly radioactive waste management. The status of the nuclear fuel cycle will be briefly discussed and the potential spent fuel transportation system in China is discussed in detail, covering administration, flask, terminals and transportation by sea, rail and road. (authors)

  4. Alternative fossil-based transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    "Alternative fuels derived from oil sands and from coal liquefaction can cost-effectively diversify fuel supplies, but neither type significantly reduces U.S. carbon-dioxide emissions enough to arrest long-term climate change".

  5. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  6. US Department of Energy fuel cell program for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pandit G.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel cells of offer promise as the best future replacement for internal combustion engines in transportation applications. Fuel cells operate more efficiently than internal combustion engines, and are capable of running on non-petroleum fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas or hydrogen. Fuel cells can also have a major impact on improving air quality. They virtually eliminate particulates, NO(x) and sulfur oxide emissions, and significantly reduce hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The U.S. Department of Energy program on fuel cells for transportation applications is structured to advance fuel cells technologies from the R&D phase, through engineering design and scale-tip, to demonstration in cars, trucks, buses and locomotives, in order to provide energy savings, fuel flexibility and air quality improvements. This paper describes the present status of the U.S. program.

  7. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables

  8. Transporting spent reactor fuel: allegations and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1983-03-01

    A January 1982 monthly newsletter from the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP) was entirely devoted to the presentation of a broad-ranging series of allegations that the transportation of spent fuel in particular, and other high-level radioactive materials by inference is currently being conducted in this country in an unsafe manner. This newsletter preceded the release of a book authored by Marvin Resnikoff on the same subject by over a year. This book titled The Next Nuclear Gamble contained substantially the same allegations as the newsletter, although the book devoted space to a greatly increased number of specific examples. This paper reduces those allegations contained in the executive summary and the recommendations contained in the last chapter of the book to a manageable number by combining the many specific issues into a few topics. Each of these topics is then addressed. As such, this is an abbreviated analysis of The Next Nuclear Gamble and does not address much of the fine detail. In spite of that, it would be possible to address each of the details within the book on a similar basis. The intent of this document is to provide background information for those who are questioned on the validity of the allegations made by the CEp

  9. Development of nuclear spent fuel Maritime transportation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    Spent fuel transportation of South Korea is to be conducted through near sea because it is able to ship a large amount of the spent fuel far from the public comparing to overland transportation. The maritime transportation is expected to be increased and its risk has to be assessed. For the risk assessment, this study utilizes the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method and the notions of the combined event. Risk assessment of maritime transportation of spent fuel is not well developed in comparison with overland transportation. For the assessment, first, the transportation scenario should be developed and categorized. Categories are assorted into the locations, release aspects and exposure aspects. This study deals with accident that happens on voyage and concentrated on ship-ship collision. The collision accident scenario is generated with event tree analysis. The scenario will be exploited for the maritime transportation risk model which includes consequence and accident probability

  10. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  11. Ordinance concerning the filing of transport of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order provides provisions concerning nuclear fuel substances requiring notification (nuclear fuel substance, material contaminated with nuclear fuel substances, fissionable substances, etc.), procedure for notification (to prefectural public safety commission), certificate of transpot (issued via public safety commission), instructions (speed of vehicle for transporting nuclear fuel substances, parking of vehicle, place for loading and unloading of nuclear fuel substances, method for loading and unloading, report to police, measures for disaster prevention during transport, etc.), communication among members of public safety commission (for smooth transport), notification of alteration of data in transport certificate (application to be submitted to public safety commission), application of reissue of transport certificate, return of transport certificate, inspection concerning transport (to be performed by police), submission of report (to be submitted by refining facilities manager, processing facilities manager, nuclear reactor manager, master of foreign nuclear powered ship, reprocessing facilities manager, waste disposal facilities manager; concerning stolen or missing nuclear fuel substances, traffic accident, unusual leakage of nuclear fuel substances, etc.). (Nogami, K.)

  12. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  13. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  14. Road transport fuels in europe: the explosion of demand for diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    In the last 20 years, road transport fuel consumption has more than doubled in European countries, due to strong growth on the diesel passenger car segment and in the transport of road freight. In an economy heavily dependent on oil, European authorities are seeking to promote alternative energy solutions, such as motor fuels produced from biomass

  15. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia; Transport de combustible use en provenance d'Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  16. Remarks on the transportation of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter topics discussed are the need for contracts, a transport company and risk insurance. Also, a section on transportation covers cranes, subpressure, contamination, cask limitations, physical protection and shipping. Reprocessing discusses minimum reprocessing batch and spent fuel. Finally, economical considerations concerning transportation and reprocessing are given

  17. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  18. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  19. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun; Lee, Sang hoon

    2016-01-01

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed

  20. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  1. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  2. Transport of HLW and spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Mitsuo.

    1995-01-01

    In Japan, transport of HLW started in spring, 1995 when vitrified waste was returned to Japan from Europe. Domestic transport of spent fuel has been carried out since 1978 from domestic nuclear power plant to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, amounting to some 720 tons by the end of 1994. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction in Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture and the transport thereto of high burn-up spent fuel is scheduled to start in 1997. A 150-ton wharf crane and a dedicated transport vehicle were completed in 1994 for unloading and overland transport of HLW casks, and specifically designed casks and an exclusive-use vessel are being prepared for domestic transport of high burn-up spent fuel

  3. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  4. Role of membranes and membrane reactors in the hydrogen supply of fuel cells for transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julbe, A.; Guizard, Ch. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMII, Lab. des Materiaux et des Procedes Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5635, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2000-07-01

    Production, storage and supply of high-purity hydrogen as a clean and efficient fuel is central to fuel cells technology, in particular in vehicle traction. Actually, technologies for handling liquefied or gaseous hydrogen in transports are not available so that a number of alternative fuels are considered with the aim of in-situ generation of hydrogen through catalytic processes. The integrated concept of membrane reactors (MRs) can greatly benefit to these technologies. Particular emphasis is put on inorganic membranes and their role in MRs performance for H{sub 2} production.

  5. Do freight transport time savings translate to benefit for transport consuming companies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Sambracos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common practice in Benefit - Cost analysis to consider freight transport time savings (FTTS as a benefit for both transport producing and consuming companies. While transportation projects and policies resulting in FTTS are expected to have a positive effect on carriers’ performance reducing time related transport costs and improving service, this is not always the case for the demand side of the transport market. Using System Dynamics in order to model the internal supply chain of a transport using company and simulate several scenarios, we argue that FTTS do not necessarily translate to benefit for shippers, but their effect depends strongly on the structure of the company’s decision making process.

  6. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1983-01-01

    COGEMA is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures

  7. Present status and prospect of spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, H.

    1987-01-01

    Problems linked with spent fuel transportation in Japan, where there are 35 NPPs in operation, are considered. Every year about 500 t U are shipped to fuel reprocessing plants in Japan, as well as in France and UK. Four kinds of casks: HZ, EXCELLOX, TN and TK - are used for this purpose. By the mid-1990's it is suggested to build in Japan fuel reprocessing plant with capacity of 800 t U per year

  8. Assembly for transport and storage of radioactive nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, G.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns the self-control of coolant deficiencies on the transport of spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors. It guarantees that drying out of the fuel elements is prevented in case of a change of volume of the fluid contained in storage tanks and accumulators and serving as coolant and shielding medium. (TK) [de

  9. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  10. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  11. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfield, S.

    1996-04-01

    Research on direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is discussed. Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. The use of platinum/ruthenium anode electrocatalysts and platinum cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in significant performance enhancements.

  12. Method to mount defect fuel elements i transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgers, H.; Deleryd, R.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching or otherwise failed fuel elements are mounted in special containers that fit into specially designed chambers in a transportation cask for transport to reprocessing or long-time storage. The fuel elements are entered into the container under water in a pool. The interior of the container is dried before transfer to the cask. Before closing the cask, its interior, and the exterior of the container are dried. 2 figs

  13. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  14. Spent fuel storage and transportation - ANSTO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony

    2002-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10 MW DIDO class High Flux Materials Test Reactor (HIFAR) since 1958. Refuelling the reactor produces about 38 spent fuel elements each year. Australia has no power reactors and only one operating research reactor so that a reprocessing plant in Australia is not an economic proposition. The HEU fuel for HIFAR is manufactured at Dounreay using UK or US origin enriched uranium. Spent fuel was originally sent to Dounreay, UK for reprocessing but this plant was shutdown in 1998. ANSTO participates in the US Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel Return program and also has a contract with COGEMA for the reprocessing of non-US origin fuel

  15. Fuel Mix Impacts from Transportation Fuel Carbon Intensity Standards in Multiple Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fuel carbon intensity standards have emerged as an important policy in jurisdictions looking to target transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for reduction. A carbon intensity standard rates transportation fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and uses a system of deficits and tradable, bankable credits to reward increased use of fuels with lower carbon intensity ratings while disincentivizing use of fuels with higher carbon intensity ratings such as conventional fossil fuels. Jurisdictions with carbon intensity standards now in effect include California, Oregon, and British Columbia, all requiring 10% reductions in carbon intensity of the transport fuel pool over a 10-year period. The states and province have committed to grow demand for low carbon fuels in the region as part of collaboration on climate change policies. Canada is developing a carbon intensity standard with broader coverage, for fuels used in transport, industry, and buildings. This study shows a changing fuel mix in affected jurisdictions under the policy in terms of shifting contribution of transportation energy from alternative fuels and trends in shares of particular fuel pathways. It contrasts program designs across the jurisdictions with the policy, highlights the opportunities and challenges these pose for the alternative fuel market, and discusses the impact of having multiple policies alongside federal renewable fuel standards and sometimes local carbon pricing regimes. The results show how the market has responded thus far to a policy that incentivizes carbon saving anywhere along the supply chain at lowest cost, in ways that diverged from a priori policy expectations. Lessons for the policies moving forward are discussed.

  16. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio; Del Rio, Pablo; Jorge-Garcia, Marta; Burguillo, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  17. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  18. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  19. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Maier, J.B.

    1979-11-01

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  20. Potential exposures and health effects from spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation exposures and consequent health effects associated with normal operations and postulated accidents during transportation of spent fuel have been analyzed and evaluated and the results have been summarized in the Final Environmental Assessments issued by DOE. For normal, accident-free transport of spent fuel, radiation exposures arise from both gamma and neutron sources within the spent fuel cask. The neutrons result from the spontaneous fission of transuranic nuclides in the spent fuel. The neutron dose flux component was modeled using DISNEL, a generalized, one-dimensional, multi-energy group neutronics code. Computer program PATHRAE-T was then developed from the EPA code PATHRAE and was employed to determine the total, combined dose field, including both ground and sky scatter of neutrons and gamma photons for any position around a truck or rail spent fuel cask. Four activity classes, viz., caravan, traffic obstruction, resident and pedestrian proximity, and servicing of the cask transport vehicle were reviewed for maximum individual exposure assessments. Projected doses for typical activities under maximum exposure conditions were 6 mrem or less per event. A spent fuel rail cask containing up to 14 PWR spent fuel assemblies could conceivably be involved in a variety of rail related transportation accidents. PATHRAE-T was used to estimate doses from rail cask accidents involving the release of radioactive nuclides although a release from such accidents is highly unlikely. The maximum individual exposure, primarily due to inhalation, is about 10 rem and occurs about 70 meters downwind

  1. An evaluation of the alternative transport fuel policies for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya; Tekin, Yuecel; Suermen, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The search for alternative fuels and new fuel resources is a top priority for Turkey, as is the case in the majority of countries throughout the world. The fuel policies pursued by governmental or civil authorities are of key importance in the success of alternative fuel use, especially for widespread and efficient use. Following the 1973 petroleum crisis, many users in Turkey, especially in transportation sector, searched for alternative fuels and forms of transportation. Gasoline engines were replaced with diesel engines between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. In addition, natural gas was introduced to the Turkish market for heating in the early 1990s. Liquid petroleum gas was put into use in the mid-1990s, and bio-diesel was introduced into the market for transportation in 2003. However, after long periods of indifference governmental action, guidance and fuel policies were so weak that they did not make sense. Entrepreneurs and users experienced great economical losses and lost confidence in future attempts to search for other possible alternatives. In the present study, we will look at the history of alternative fuel use in the recent past and investigate the alternative engine fuel potential of Turkey, as well as introduce possible future policies based on experience.

  2. An assessment and comparison of fuel cells for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, M.; Christianson, C. C.

    1989-09-01

    Fuel cells offer the potential of a clean, efficient power source for buses, cars, and other transportation applications. When the fuel cell is run on methanol, refueling would be as rapid as with gasoline-powered internal combustion engines, providing a virtually unlimited range while still maintaining the smooth and quiet acceleration that is typical for electric vehicles. The advantages and disadvantages of five types of fuel cells are reviewed and analyzed for a transportation application: alkaline, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. The status of each technology is discussed, system designs are reviewed, and preliminary comparisons of power densities, start-up times, and dynamic response capabilities are made. To test the concept, a fuel cell/battery powered urban bus appears to be a good first step that can be realized today with phosphoric acid cells. In the longer term, the proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells appear to be superior.

  3. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...

  4. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  5. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  6. Transportation of spent fuel from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1993-01-01

    The French 'Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires' - COGEMA - is involved in the whole nuclear fuel cycle about 20 years. Among the different parts of the cycle, the Transport of Radioactive Materials, acting as a link between the differents plants has a great importance. As nuclear material transportation is the only fuel cycle step to be performed on public grounds, the industrial task has to be performed with the utmost stringent safety criteria. COGEMA and associates is now operating a fully mature commercial activity, with some 300 spent fuel shipments per year from its reprocessing customer's reactors to the LA HAGUE plant, either by rail, road or sea. The paper will review the organization of COGEMA transportation business, the level of technology with an update of the casks used for spent fuel, and the operational experience, with a particular view of the maintenance policy. (author)

  7. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, Frank; Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    2005-01-01

    of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of otherexisting or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need...... to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle -Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system. - Road...... transport of ammonia to refuelling stations in refrigerated form - Sufficient safety zonesbetween refuelling stations and residential or otherwise public areas. When these measures are applied, the use of ammonia as a transport fuel wouldn’t cause more risks than currently used fuels (using current practice)....

  8. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years

  9. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years.

  10. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankerl, M.W.; Schmid, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper

  11. Risk assessment in spent fuel storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandimani, S.

    1989-01-01

    Risk assessment in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle is still an active area of Nuclear safety studies. From the results of risk assessment available in literature, it can be determined that the risk resulting from shipments of plutonium and spent-fuel are much greater than that resulting from the transport of other materials within the nuclear fuel cycle. In India spent fuels are kept in Spent Fuel Storage Pool (SFSP) for about 240-400 days, which is relatively a longer period compared to the usual 120 days as recommended by regulatory authorities. After cooling spent fuels are transported to the reprocessing sites which are mostly situated close to the plants. India has two high level waste treatment facilities, one PREFRE (Plutonium Reprocessing and Fuel Recycling) at Tarapur and the other one, a unit of Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. This paper presents the risk associated with spent fuel storage and transportation for the Indian conditions. All calculations are based on a typical CANDU reactor system. Simple fault tree models are evolved for SFSP and for Transportation Accident Mode (TAM) for both road and rail. Fault tree quantification and risk assessment are done to each of these models. All necessary data for SFSP are taken mostly from Reactor Safety Study, (1975). Similarly, the data for rail TAM are taken from Annual Statistical Statements, (1987-8) and that for road TAM from Special Issue on Motor Vehicle Accident Statistics in India, (1986). Simulation method is used wherever necessary. Risk is also estimated for normal/accident free transport

  12. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  13. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.; Toguri, D.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport

  14. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  15. An Indian perspective for transportation and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    The spent fuel discharged from the reactors are temporarily stored at the reactor pool. After a certain cooling time, the spent fuel is moved to the storage locations either on or off reactor site depending on the spent fuel management strategy. As India has opted for a closed fuel cycle for its nuclear energy development, reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium and uranium and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations forms the spent fuel management strategy. Since the reprocessing operations are planned to match the nuclear energy programme, storage of the spent fuel in ponds are adopted prior to reprocessing. Transport of the spent fuel to the storage locations are carried out adhering to international and national guide lines. India is having 14 operating power reactors and three research reactors. The spent fuel from the two safeguarded BWRs are stored at-reactor (AR) storage pond. A separate wet storage facility away-from-reactor (AFR) has been designed, constructed and made operational since 1991 for additional fuel storage. Storage facilities are provided in ARs at other reactor locations to cater to 10 reactor-years of operation. A much lower capacity spent fuel storage is provided in reprocessing plants on the same lines of AR fuel storage design. Since the reprocessing operations are carried out on a need basis, to cater to the increased storage needs two new spent fuel storage facilities (SFSF) are being designed and constructed near the existing nuclear plant sites. India has mastered the technology for design, construction and operation of wet spent fuel storage facility meeting all the international standards Wet storage of the spent fuel is the most commonly adopted mode all over the world. Recently an alternate mode viz. dry storage has also been considered. India has designed, constructed and operated lead shielded dry storage casks and is operational at one site. A dry storage cask made of concrete

  16. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  17. Conventional bio-transportation fuels : an update

    OpenAIRE

    Uil, den, H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weismann, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now renewable energy sources are primarily used in the Netherlands for electricity production. At the end of the past decade the GAVE programme started to facilitate the introduction of gaseous and liquid fuels in the post-Kyoto period (after 2010), with the potential to realize more than 80% CO2 reduction as compared to its fossil alternative. In the first phase of the GAVE programme a large number of options for the production of climate neutral gaseous and liquid fuels were evaluated...

  18. Conventional bio-transportation fuels : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uil, den H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weismann, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now renewable energy sources are primarily used in the Netherlands for electricity production. At the end of the past decade the GAVE programme started to facilitate the introduction of gaseous and liquid fuels in the post-Kyoto period (after 2010), with the potential to realize more than 80%

  19. Distributional effects of taxing transport fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the observation that fuel prices – and thus taxes – are important for good management of climate change and other environmental problems. To economists this should be no surprise yet it seems that the role of fuel taxation as an instrument of climate policy has not been fully appreciated. It is however one of the few policy instruments that, since several decades, has actually reduced fuel consumption appreciably. Thanks to taxation (mainly in Europe and Japan), carbon emissions are considerably lower than they would have been otherwise. In future where carbon emissions are to be cut drastically, this instrument will be crucial. There is however much opposition to the instrument. This opposition uses various arguments, for instance that fuel taxes hurt the poor since they are strongly regressive. We however find that the choice of country and methodology turns out to be of great consequence. We study seven European countries—France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Serbia, Spain and Sweden and do find some evidence of regressivity but the evidence is very weak. It does not apply when lifetime income is used and it does not apply to the poorest country in the group. The best one-line summary is probably that the tax is approximately proportional.

  20. Fuel assemblies, grapples therefor and fuel transport apparatus for nuclear reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear fuel assembly in which vertically disposed fuel elements are spaced within a housing generally of a rectanguloid configuration. Each fuel element includes an upper end plug and lower end plug. Vertically spaced support plates are disposed in the housing with suitable openings to receive the upper and lower end plugs of the fuel elements for supporting the fuel elements with the housing. The upper plate is removable from the housing and the lower fuel plug is detachably connected to the lower plate. Other spacer plates are secured to the housing walls to reinforce same. A grapple having lifting plates with pins enters recesses formed in the housing for enabling the housing to be raised. After the fuel assembly is raised by the grapple, leaf spring retainers of the upper plate are dislodged for removing the upper plate from the housing. Now, the fuel elements can be removed selectively and individually from the fuel assembly by a removal tool. Aligned with and disposed above the removal tool is a transfer casing for housing the selectively removed fuel element while the selectively removed fuel element is transported to and from a fuel reprocessor

  1. Probabilistic Risk Assessment on Maritime Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management has been an indispensable issue in South Korea. Before a long term SNF solution is implemented, there exists the need to distribute the spent fuel pool storage loads. Transportation of SNF assemblies from populated pools to vacant ones may preferably be done through the maritime mode since all nuclear power plants in South Korea are located at coastal sites. To determine its feasibility, it is necessary to assess risks of the maritime SNF transportation. This work proposes a methodology to assess the risk arising from ship collisions during the transportation of SNF by sea. Its scope is limited to the damage probability of SNF packages given a collision event. The effect of transport parameters' variation to the package damage probability was investigated to obtain insights into possible ways to minimize risks. A reference vessel and transport cask are given in a case study to illustrate the methodology's application.

  2. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  3. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  4. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  5. Transport equations in an enzymatic glucose fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Soham; Krishnamurthy, Balaji

    2018-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to study the effects of convective flux and operating temperature on the performance of an enzymatic glucose fuel cell with a membrane. The model assumes isothermal operating conditions and constant feed rate of glucose. The glucose fuel cell domain is divided into five sections, with governing equations describing transport characteristics in each region, namely - anode diffusion layer, anode catalyst layer (enzyme layer), membrane, cathode catalyst layer and cathode diffusion layer. The mass transport is assumed to be one-dimensional and the governing equations are solved numerically. The effects flow rate of glucose feed on the performance of the fuel cell are studied as it contributes significantly to the convective flux. The effects of operating temperature on the performance of a glucose fuel cell are also modeled. The cell performances are compared using cell polarization curves, which were found compliant with experimental observations.

  6. Moving beyond alternative fuel hype to decarbonize transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Noel; Axsen, Jonn; Sperling, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In the past three decades, government, industry and other stakeholders have repeatedly been swept up with the ‘fuel du jour’, claiming that a particular alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technology can succeed in replacing conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, AFV technologies have experienced relatively little success, with fossil fuels still accounting for about 95% of global transport energy use. Here, using the US as a case study, we conduct a media analysis to show how society’s attention has skipped among AFV types between 1980 and 2013, including methanol, natural gas, plug-in electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen and biofuels. Although our results provide no indication as to whether hype ultimately has a net positive or negative impact on AFV innovation, we offer several recommendations that governments can follow to move past hype to support significant AFV adoption and displace fossil fuel use in the transportation sector.

  7. Solar Energy for Transportation Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nate

    2008-05-12

    Nate Lewis' talk looks at the challenge of capturing solar energy and storing it as an affordable transportation fuel - all on a scale necessary to reduce global warming. Overcoming this challenge will require developing new materials that can use abundant and inexpensive elements rather than costly and rare materials. He discusses the promise of new materials in the development of carbon-free alternatives to fossil fuel.

  8. Renewable liquid transport fuels from microbes and waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhodri

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...

  9. An improved assembly for the transport of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, G.

    1979-01-01

    An improved assembly is described for the transport and storage of radioactive fuel elements. The system consists of a transport flask in which the fuel element holder is placed in such a way that the elements may be submerged in liquid within the flask and the assembly used in one orientation for loading the fuel elements and in another orientation for transporting them. The assembly has a self-regulating ullage system comprising reservoirs for containing liquid and pressurising gas, the arrangement for the reservoirs being such that in either orientation of the assembly liquid is maintained in all the reservoirs to prevent egress of the pressurised gas and to compensate for volume changes arising from temperature variations within the flask. (U.K.)

  10. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  11. Transportation fuel from plastic: Two cases of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussone, Gian Claudio

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis of liquid fuels from waste is a promising pathway for reducing the carbon footprint of transportation industry and optimizing waste management towards zero landfilling. The study of commercial plants that conduct pyrolysis of plastics from post-consumer recycled materials and directly mine from old landfills without any pre-treatment has revealed two cases that show the feasibility of manufacturing transportation fuels via these methods. Pyrolysis oil, consisting of almost 26% hydrocarbons within the gasoline range and almost 70% within the diesel range, is upgraded to transportation fuel in the existing refinery. A batch operating plant is able to deliver relatively good quality pyrolysis oil from post-consumer plastic waste, owing to the catalyst employed. Simple distillation was also evaluated as an alternative and cheaper upgrading process into transportation fuels, meeting EN590 diesel and ISO8217 marine fuel standards. Even though the two installations are outside the European Union, they represent good examples of the "circular economy" concept envisaged by the European Union via its ambitious "Circular Economy Package [1]", providing real world data for comparison with other experimental and lab results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mass transport phenomena in direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, T.S.; Xu, C.; Chen, R.; Yang, W.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2009-06-15

    Clean and highly efficient energy production has long been sought to solve energy and environmental problems. Fuel cells, which convert the chemical energies stored in fuel directly into electrical energy, are expected to be a key enabling technology for this century. This article is concerned with one of the most advanced fuel cells - direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). We present a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art studies of mass transport of different species, including the reactants (methanol, oxygen and water) and the products (water and carbon dioxide) in DMFCs. Rather than elaborating on the details of the previous numerical modeling and simulation, the article emphasizes: (1) the critical mass-transport issues that need to be addressed so that the performance and operating stability of DMFCs can be upgraded, (2) the basic mechanisms that control the mass-transport behaviors of reactants and products in this type of fuel cell, and (3) the previous experimental and numerical findings regarding the correlation between the mass transport of each species and cell performance. (author)

  13. HEU and Leu FueL Shielding Comparative Study Applied for Spent Fuel Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.; Margeanu, S.; Barbos, D.

    2009-01-01

    INR Pitesti owns and operates a TRIGA dual-core Research Reactor for material testing, power reactor fuel and nuclear safety studies. The dual core concept involves the operation of a 14 MW TRIGA steady-state, high flux research and material testing reactor at one end of a large pool, and the independent operation of an annular-core pulsing reactor (TRIGA-ACPR) at the other end of the pool. The steady-state reactor is mostly used for long term testing of power reactor fuel components (pellets, pins, subassemblies and fuel assemblies) followed by post-irradiation examination. Following the general trend to replace the He fuel type (High Enriched Uranium) by Leu fuel type (Low Enriched Uranium), in the light of international agreements between IAEA and the states using He fuel in their nuclear reactors, Inr Past's have been accomplished the TRIGA research reactor core full conversion on May 2006. The He fuel repatriation in US in the frame of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Return Programme effectively started in 1999, the final stage being achieved in summer of 2008. Taking into account for the possible impact on the human and environment, in all activities associated to nuclear fuel cycle, the spent fuel or radioactive waste characteristics must be well known. Shielding calculations basic tasks consist in radiation doses calculation, in order to prevent any risks both for personnel protection and impact on the environment during the spent fuel manipulation, transport and storage. The paper is a comparative study of Leu and He fuel utilization effects for the shielding analysis during spent fuel transport. A comparison against the measured data for He spent fuel, available from the last stage of the spent fuel repatriation, is presented. All the geometrical and material data related on the spent fuel shipping cask were considered according to the Nac-Lt Cask approved model. The shielding analysis estimates radiation doses to shipping cask wall surface

  14. Transport-related fringe benefits: implications for moving and the journey to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Vlist, van der A.J.; Nijkamp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Firms offer compensation not only through wages, but also offer transport-related fringe benefits such as transport benefits (company cars, travel, and parking benefits) and relocation benefits to job applicants. We argue that these benefits are not randomly offered to employees, but depend on the

  15. Physical and transportation requirements for a FLIP fueled TRIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.; Anderson, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    Several major changes to the OSTR Physical Security Plan were required by the NRC prior to the August 1976 receipt and installation of a new core consisting entirely of FLIP fuel. The general nature of these changes will be reviewed along with several decisions we faced during their implementation. At the previous TRIGA Owners' Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah, we reported on Oregon's regulatory program for research reactor emergency response planning and physical security. The latter program was of particular interest to us in light of the projected FLIP fuel shipments. The impact of the State's program for physical security of FLIP fuel during transportation will be presented. (author)

  16. Fueling profile sensitivities of trapped particle mode transport to TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    A key factor in the plasma thermal behavior is the anticipated existence of dissipative trapped particle modes. A possible scheme for controlling the strength of these modes was found. The scheme involves varying the cold fueling profile. A one dimensional multifluid transport code was used to simulate plasma behavior. A multiregime model for particle and energy transport was incorporated based on pseudoclassical, trapped electron, and trapped ion regimes used elsewhere in simulation of large tokamaks. Fueling profiles peaked toward the plasma edge may provide a means for reducing density-gradient-driven trapped particle modes, thus reducing diffusion and conduction losses

  17. Transport safety of high burnup fuel elements and HAW moulds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, G.; Hoermann, E.; Winter, M.

    1991-09-01

    The effect of changes of the peripheral conditions laid down in the project 'Safety studies on waste management' (PSE), on the assessment of transport safety of the transport container CASTOR IIa was analysed. Changes as against the PSE are due to the reprocessing of fuel elements abroad; increased burnup of fuel elements, and changes of transport conditions by rail. The higher burnup of fuel elements has only limited effects on the activity, thermal output, neutron and gamma radiation of the inventory. The analysis of inventory data shows that increased burnup has no serious influence on the container design. In the area of neutron shielding, toughening is required which, however, is possible by simply adding further polyethylene rods. An essential effect is the notable reduction of the transport volume from 155 transports in the past to 125 transports altogether now, with an increase of the medium burnup from 40 to 50 Gwd/tSM. That entails a reduction by 18% of the collective dose during normal operation, because above all the dose-intensive handling operations are reduced. The accident risk also decreases with increasing burnup, because the effect of a reduced transport volume leading to a lower accident frequency is stronger than that of inventory increase. Reprocessing abroad has only little influence of the transport distances to be covered altogether, and so on the normal loads and incident risks proportionate to the overall distance. With regard to the HAW glass forms, a slightly higher number of forms results from the lower loading of the glass with fission products prescribed in France. The number of HAW transports therefore rises from 16 to 19 (both by road and rail). The technical changes in the area of rail transport are characterized by higher speeds of goods trains and passenger trains. However, this does not yet apply to transports with heavy containers for which a speed limit of 100 km/h continues to be valid. (orig.) [de

  18. Ethanol as alternative transportation fuel in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Brazilian Alcohol Programme (PROALCOOL) is a good case study. Ethanol is now important in the country's energy balance. PROALCOOL has been frequently evaluated from technical and economic standpoints. In recent years, emphasis is being given to the environmental benefits of alcohol use and its favourable effect in the attempt to minimize impacts on the ozone layer. 22 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  19. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategies...... and technologies to reduce liquid fuel consumption known as a dominant source of energy in transport sector in Iran. Since, the road subsector has the major share in consuming liquid fuel amongst others, more attention is given to the methods for reducing consumption in this subsector. The relating policies...... and actions were classified by optimization measures according to four separate categories as follows; “Optimization of Supply of Transportation Services”, “Optimization of Transport Demand”, “Optimization of Energy Consumption” and “Optimization of Car Manufacturing”....

  20. Spent fuel shipping costs for transportation logistics analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.M.; Cross, R.E.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    Logistics analyses supplied to the nuclear waste management programs of the U.S. Department of Energy through the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories are used to predict nuclear waste material logistics, transportation packaging demands, shipping and receiving rates and transportation-related costs for alternative strategies. This study is an in-depth analysis of the problems and contingencies associated with the costs of shipping irradiated reactor fuel. These costs are extremely variable however, and have changed frequently (sometimes monthly) during the past few years due to changes in capital, fuel, and labor costs. All costs and charges reported in this study are based on January 1982 data using existing transport cask systems and should be used as relative indices only. Actual shipping costs would be negotiable for each origin-destination combination

  1. Below Grade Assessment of Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask Transport Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The report provides an assessment of the route for the SNF Fuel transport system from the K Basins to the CVDF and to the CSB. Results include the identification of any underground structures or utilities traveled over by the transport, the overburden depths for all locations identified, evaluation of the loading conditions, and determination of the effects of the loads on the structures and utilities

  2. Baseline descriptions for LWR spent fuel storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, J.W.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1978-04-01

    Baseline descriptions for the storage, handling, and transportation of reactor spent fuel are provided. The storage modes described include light water reactor (LWR) pools, away-from-reactor basins, dry surface storage, reprocessing-facility interim storage pools, and deep geologic storage. Land and water transportation are also discussed. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the Sandia Laboratories Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program. 45 figs, 4 tables

  3. Probabilistic safety analysis of transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, Chitra

    1999-11-01

    The report presents the results of the study carried out to estimate the accident risk involved in the transport of spent fuel from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station near Kota to the fuel reprocessing plant at Tarapur. The technique of probabilistic safety analysis is used. The fuel considered is the Indian pressurised heavy water reactor fuel with a minimum cooling period of 485 days. The spent fuel is transported in a cuboidal, naturally-cooled shipping cask over a distance of 822 km by rail. The Indian rail accident statistics are used to estimate the basic rail accident frequency. The possible ways in which a release of radioactive material can occur from the spent fuel cask are identified by the fault tree analysis technique. The release sequences identified are classified into eight accident severity categories, and release fractions are assigned to each. The consequences resulting from the release are estimated by the computer code RADTRAN 4. Results of the risk analysis indicate that the accident risk values are very low and hence acceptable. Parametric studies show that the risk would continue to be small even if the controlling parameters were to simultaneously take extreme adverse values. (author)

  4. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  5. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  6. Transportation of high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.; Lake, W.H.; Thompson, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation program is a multifaceted undertaking to transport spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactors to temporary and permanent storage facilities commencing in 1998. One of the significant ingredients necessary to achieving this goal is the development and acquisition of shipping casks. Efforts to design and acquire high capacity casks is ongoing, as are efforts to purchase casks that can be made available using current technology. By designing casks that are optimized to the specifications of the older cooler spent fuel that will be shipped, and by designing to current NRC requirements, OCRWM's new generation of spent fuel casks will be more efficient and at least as safe as current cask designs. (J.P.N.)

  7. Testing of a transport cask for research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Silva, Luiz Leite da; Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O.; Novara, Oscar E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries which operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the reactors operated in the region. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel from research reactors was designed by a tri-national team and a half-scale model for MTR fuel constructed in Argentina and tested in Brazil. Two test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. Although the specimen has not successfully performed the tests, its overall performance was considered very satisfactory, and improvements are being introduced to the design. A third test sequence is planned for 2011. (author)

  8. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2012-07-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity and the associated energy penalty. To utilize this technology more effectively, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fundamental processes of oxygen transport and fuel conversion in the immediate vicinity of the membrane. In this paper, a numerical model that spatially resolves the gas flow, transport and reactions is presented. The model incorporates detailed gas phase chemistry and transport. The model is used to express the oxygen permeation flux in terms of the oxygen concentrations at the membrane surface given data on the bulk concentration, which is necessary for cases when mass transfer limitations on the permeate side are important and for reactive flow modeling. The simulation results show the dependence of oxygen transport and fuel conversion on the geometry and flow parameters including the membrane temperature, feed and sweep gas flow, oxygen concentration in the feed and fuel concentration in the sweep gas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Multiphase transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Eric D.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) enable efficient conversion of fuels to electricity. They have enormous potential due to the high energy density of the fuels they utilize (hydrogen or alcohols). Power density is a major limitation to wide-scale introduction of PEMFCs. Power density in hydrogen fuel cells is limited by accumulation of water in what is termed fuel cell `flooding.' Flooding may occur in either the gas diffusion layer (GDL) or within the flow channels of the bipolar plate. These components comprise the electrodes of the fuel cell and balance transport of reactants/products with electrical conductivity. This thesis explores the role of electrode materials in the fuel cell and examines the fundamental connection between material properties and multiphase transport processes. Water is generated at the cathode catalyst layer. As liquid water accumulates it will utilize the largest pores in the GDL to go from the catalyst layer to the flow channels. Water collects to large pores via lateral transport at the interface between the GDL and catalyst layer. We have shown that water may be collected in these large pores from several centimeters away, suggesting that we could engineer the GDL to control flooding with careful placement and distribution of large flow-directing pores. Once liquid water is in the flow channels it forms slugs that block gas flow. The slugs are pushed along the channel by a pressure gradient that is dependent on the material wettability. The permeable nature of the GDL also plays a major role in slug growth and allowing bypass of gas between adjacent channels. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have analogous multiphase flow issues where carbon dioxide bubbles accumulate, `blinding' regions of the fuel cell. This problem is fundamentally similar to water management in hydrogen fuel cells but with a gas/liquid phase inversion. Gas bubbles move laterally through the porous GDL and emerge to form large bubbles within the

  10. Exorcising spent fuel transportation using comparative hazard assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Charles W. [NAC international, Norcross (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Spent fuel transportation has achieved an exemplary safety record over more than three decades within both the United States (U.S.) and the global community at large. Today, many groups are attempting to precipitate fear of spent fuel transportation within the general public by 'demonizing' this proven technology and by creating a highly charged environment of radiation phobia. The actions of these groups within the U.S. result from the confluence of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the acceptance by the President and Congress of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendation of Yucca Mountain as the repository site for the disposal of the nation's spent fuel. This paper offers a comparative hazard assessment demonstrating the relative safety of spent fuel transportation in the context of currently accepted practices within society to show that there are no 'demons' associated with spent fuel transportation. The paper provides an assessment of potential population exposures based on more than 25 years of transport cask analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) event conditions, including missile attacks, with those from current accepted activities within society that produce high dose exposures to the general public. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel cask test programs have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The DOE has used this information to develop projected worst-case population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses these potential releases and population exposures. Additionally, the paper identifies current unregulated activities and practices within societies yielding population exposures that exceed significantly those that would result from such highly hypothetical and improbable events as a terrorist missile

  11. Exorcising spent fuel transportation using comparative hazard assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Charles W.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel transportation has achieved an exemplary safety record over more than three decades within both the United States (U.S.) and the global community at large. Today, many groups are attempting to precipitate fear of spent fuel transportation within the general public by 'demonizing' this proven technology and by creating a highly charged environment of radiation phobia. The actions of these groups within the U.S. result from the confluence of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the acceptance by the President and Congress of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendation of Yucca Mountain as the repository site for the disposal of the nation's spent fuel. This paper offers a comparative hazard assessment demonstrating the relative safety of spent fuel transportation in the context of currently accepted practices within society to show that there are no 'demons' associated with spent fuel transportation. The paper provides an assessment of potential population exposures based on more than 25 years of transport cask analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) event conditions, including missile attacks, with those from current accepted activities within society that produce high dose exposures to the general public. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel cask test programs have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The DOE has used this information to develop projected worst-case population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses these potential releases and population exposures. Additionally, the paper identifies current unregulated activities and practices within societies yielding population exposures that exceed significantly those that would result from such highly hypothetical and improbable events as a terrorist missile attack on a spent fuel

  12. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Xu, Hui [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Brawn, Shelly [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States)

    2014-07-30

    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  13. Modeled forest inventory data suggest climate benefits from fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Theresa B. Jain; Jonathan. Sandquist

    2013-01-01

    As part of a recent synthesis addressing fuel management in dry, mixed-conifer forests we analyzed more than 5,000 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots, a probability sample that represents 33 million acres of these forests throughout Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and extreme northern California. We relied on the BioSum analysis framework that...

  14. Benefits of recent improvements in vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    For the past several years, we have calculated (on a monthly basis) the average, sales-weighted fuel economy of all light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, vans, and SUVs) sold in : the U.S. The results indicate that, from October 2007 to September...

  15. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  16. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China’s road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-price elasticities for different vehicle categories range from −1.215 to −0.459 (by AIDS) and from −1.399 to −0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses. PMID:28257076

  17. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F.; Lundtang paulsen, Jette

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project 'Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology' The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal and accident (collision) conditions, safety of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of other existing or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle - Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system - Road transport of ammonia to refuelling stations in refrigerated form - Sufficient safety zones between refuelling stations and residential or otherwise public areas. When these measures are applied, the use of ammonia as a transport fuel wouldnt cause more risks than currently used fuels (using current practice). (au)

  18. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  19. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    vapour transfer in a cell in which the perovskite is exposed to wet hydrogen on both sides. The evolution of transport properties with temperature is discussed in relation to structure. Neutron diffraction studies of doped and undoped barium cerate are reported, revealing a series of phase transitions......Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...

  20. Water footprint of U.S. transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    In the modern global economy, water and energy are fundamentally connected. Water already plays a major role in electricity generation and, with biofuels and electricity poised to gain a significant share of the transportation fuel market, water will become significantly more important for transportation energy as well. This research provides insight into the potential changes in water use resulting from increased biofuel or electricity production for transportation energy, as well as the greenhouse gas and freshwater implications. It is shown that when characterizing the water impact of transportation energy, incorporating indirect water use and defensible allocation techniques have a major impact on the final results, with anywhere between an 82% increase and a 250% decrease in the water footprint if evaporative losses from hydroelectric power are excluded. The greenhouse gas impact results indicate that placing cellulosic biorefineries in areas where water must be supplied using alternative means, such as desalination, wastewater recycling, or importation can increase the fuel's total greenhouse gas footprint by up to 47%. The results also show that the production of ethanol and petroleum fuels burden already overpumped aquifers, whereas electricity production is far less dependent on groundwater.

  1. Safety criteria for spent-fuel transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, K.; Gekler, W.C.

    1986-10-01

    The focus of this study is on the question, ''Do current regulations provide reasonable assurance of safety for a transport scenario of spent fuel, as presently anticipated by the Department of Energy, under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act.'' This question has been addressed by developing a methodology for identifying the expected frequency of Accidents Which Exceed Regulatory Conditions in Severity (AWERCS) for spent fuel transport casks and then assessing the health effects resulting from that frequency. By applying the methodology to an illustrative case of road transports, it was found that the accidental release of radioactive material from impact AWERCS would make negligible contributions to health effects associated with spent fuel transports by road. It is also concluded that the current regulatory drop test requirements in 10 CFR 71.51 which form the basis for cask design and were used to establish AWERCS screening criteria for this study are adequate, and that no basis was found to conclude that cask performance under expected road accident conditions represents an undue risk to the public

  2. The resistance to impact of spent Magnox fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This book completes the papers of the four-year programme of research and demonstrations embarked upon by the CEGB in 1981, culminating in the spectacular train crash at Old Dalby in July 1984. It explains the CEGB's operations in relation to the transportation of spent Magnox fuel. The public tests described in this book are more effective in improving public understanding and confidence than any amount of explanations could have been, raising the wider question of how best the scientific community can respond to the legitimate concerns of the man and woman in the street about the generating of electricity from nuclear power. The contents are: Taking care; irradiated fuel transport in the UK; programming for flask safety; the use of scale models in impact testing; flask analytical studies; drop test facilities; demonstration drop test; a study of flask transport impact hazards; impact of Magnox irradiated fuel transport flasks into rock and concrete; rail crash demonstration scenarios; horizontal impact testing of quarter scale flasks using masonry targets; horizontal crash testing and analysis of model flatrols; flatrol test; analysis of full scale impact into an abutment; analysis of primary impact forces in the train crash demonstration; horizontal impact tests of quarter scale Magnox flasks and stylised model locomotives; predictive estimates for behaviour in the train crash demonstration; design and organization of the crash; execution of the crash demonstration by British Rail; instrumentation for the train crash demonstration; photography for the crash demonstration; a summary of the CEGB's flask accident impact studies

  3. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan; Transport de combustible mox d' Europe vers le Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  4. Ethanol as a fuel for road transportation. Main report; Contribution to IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. In discussions of the advantages and drawbacks of ethanol, the type of application is important. Generalization is not possible, because ethanol can be used in many forms. Furthermore, a wide range of ethanol/gasoline blends has not yet been investigated sufficiently. The most favorable type of application is determined by infrastructural factors, especially vehicle fleet configuration. From a technical point of view, optimal usage involves a high degree of water content in the ethanol, and this excludes low-percentage-ethanol fuels. The benefits seem strongly related to the amount of ethanol in a given blend, that is, the more the better. Both engine efficiencies and emissions improve with more ethanol in the fuel. Wet ethanol constitutes an even cleaner fuel in both the production and application phases. In summary, ethanol application has many possibilities, but with each type of application comes a set of challenges. Nevertheless, technical solutions for each challenge are available. (ln)

  5. The Fuel Efficiency of Maritime Transport. Potential for improvement and analysis of barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Behrends, B. [Marena Ltd., s.l. (United Kingdom); Lee, D.S. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Machester (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    There is significant potential to improve the fuel efficiency of ships and thus contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport. It has long been recognised that this potential is not being fully exploited, owing to the existence of non-market barriers. This report analyses the barriers to implementing fuel efficiency improvements, and concludes that the most important of these are the split incentive between ship owners and operators, a lack of trusted data on new technologies, and transaction costs associated with evaluating measures. As a result, in practice about a quarter of the cost-effective abatement potential is unavailable. There are several ways to overcome these barriers. The split incentive can - to some extent - be overcome by providing more detailed information on the fuel efficiency of vessels, making due allowance for operational profiles. This would allow fuel consumption to be more accurately projected and a larger share of efficiency benefits to accrue to ship owners, thus increasing the return on investment in fuel-saving technologies. This would also require changes to standard charter parties. The credibility of information on new technologies can be improved through intensive collaboration between suppliers of new technologies and shipping companies. In order to overcome risk, government subsidies could provide an incentive. This could have the additional benefit that governments could require publication of results.

  6. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    An Appendix to the Report, “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materialsâ€

  7. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  8. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  9. The role of bio-fuels in satisfying US transportation fuel demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Berk; Kassebaum, Paul G.; Fitch, Jonathan V.; Thompson, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the abundant interest in conversion of agricultural products into useful energy carriers, there have been relatively few studies assessing the magnitude of the impact these fuels can make on satisfying US energy demands. There have been fewer studies of unintended consequences stemming from these enterprises, although several research groups have begun questioning the appropriate levels of subsidies provided to individuals and companies to stimulate production of bio-fuels. In this paper, the production capacities for bio-fuels-ethanol and biodiesel-are evaluated for their potential impact on the US energy market. Several ramifications of these technologies are reviewed. This study concludes that ethanol or biodiesel production do not appear scalable to make a significant difference on the US fossil fuel demand for transportation. Aspects of this study point to systemic changes that may be required in lifestyles and attitudes toward energy consumption. Finally, comments regarding US energy policies are included to stimulate discussion

  10. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, Megan S; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO 2 , the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or

  11. Thermal analysis of transportation packaging for nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki

    1989-01-01

    Safety analysis of transportation packaging for nuclear spent fuel comprises structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and the safety of a packaging is verified by these analyses. In thermal analysis, the temperature of each part of the packaging is calculated under normal and accident test conditions. As an example of thermal analysis, the temperature distribution of a packaging being subjected to a normal test was calculated by the TRUMP code and compared with measured data. (author)

  12. Integrated spent fuel storage and transportation system using NUHOMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, R.; McConaghy, W.; Rosa, J.

    1990-01-01

    As utilities with nuclear power plants face increasing near term spent fuel store needs, various systems for dry storage such as the NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system are being implemented to augment existing spent fuel pool storage capacities. These decisions are based on a number of generic and utility specific considerations including both short term and long term economics. Since the US Department of Energy (DOE) is tasked by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act with the future responsibility of transporting spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility anchor a permanent geologic repository, the interfaces between the utilities at-reactor dry storage system and the DOE's away-from-reactor transportation system become important. This paper presents a study of the interfaces between the current at-reactor NUHOMS system and the future away-from-reactor DOE transportation system being developed under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Decontamination of transport casks and of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The present document provides an analysis of the technical papers presented at the meeting as well as a summary of the panel discussion. Conclusions and Recommendations: The meeting agreed that the primary source of contamination of transport casks is the production of radioactive isotopes in nuclear fuel and activation products of fuel components in nuclear reactors. The type, amount of mechanism for the release of these isotopes depend on the reactor type and fuel handling process. The widespread use of pools for the storage and handling of fuel provides an easy path for the transfer of contamination. Control of pool water conditions is essential for limiting the spread of contamination. For plants where casks are immersed in pools for loading, the immersion times should be minimised. Casks should be designed for ease of decontamination. The meeting discussed the use of stainless steel and suitable paints for coating casks. Designers should consider the appropriate coating for specific applications. The use of pressurized water for decontamination is recommended whenever possible. A number of commercially available reagents exist for decontaminating cask external surfaces. More work, however, is needed to cope with Pressurized Water Reactor crud within casks. Leaking fuel should be identified and isolated before storage in pools. Basic studies of the uptake and release of contamination from cask surfaces should be initiated. Standardization of methods of contamination measurement and instrumentation should be instituted. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Thirty years of transport package development for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, BNFL flask types will have been responsible for transporting more than 2000 tonnes of heavy metal in Europe in the form of spent fuel. Several thousand more tonnes of spent fuel have been transported by sea from Japan over the last thirty years. The design of spent fuel packages has not stood still for that time. In order to anticipate the changing needs of the nuclear power generation industry, advances have been made both in package design and analysis. Thirty years ago spent fuel burnup and initial enrichment were considerably lower, which was reflected in the different demands placed on the shielding design of packages, and in the design of the internal basket to separate the fuel assemblies. Technical development of both 'wet' (water-filled cavity) and 'dry' packages has progressed in parallel, and the relative merits and peculiarities of each type is explored. BNFL has considerable experience in the operation of both types, and is well placed to comment on practical and functional issues associated with both types. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet changes in IAEA Regulations, or the challenges posed by the regulators themselves. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible these margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. A key factor over the last thirty years has been the increasing influence of the Regulating Authorities and the development of the IAEA Regulations. The various Competent Authorities now tend to have a higher proportion of technical experts, often recruited from the nuclear industry, and are thus more able to

  15. THE MANAGERIAL BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF BIODIESEL USAGE IN MARITIME TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN BUNEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global economy development has not only positive effects but also negative consequences, in terms of air pollution with a major impact against the climate change and human health. This fact stimulated the intensification of research endeavours to identify and develop new options for sustainable energy supply and further for reducing the dependence on fossil fuels, as considered the major air pollutants globally. Among the non-polluting fuels, the currently biodiesel second generation becomes a viable solution in order to develop an alternative sustainable source of fueling. Even if this type of fuel has been implemented and approved as viable for land and air transportation meanings, the maritime transportation sector is still reluctant in implementing this new fuel on board to commercial vessels. In this article were approached the major advantages of using biodiesel powered engines, being detailed the technical, operational and legal solutions to eliminate the current reserve in adopting this innovative cleaner fuel on maritime transportation practice.

  16. Advances in the safe transport of irradiated Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the significant advances that have been made by Magnox Electric plc in ensuring that the Mk M2 Magnox flasks maintain the highest level of safety during transport and are used in the most efficient manner in meeting Company objectives. These advances have been achieved by improvement to the seal design, introduction of modern, state-of-the-art leak test equipment and optimisation of the generic Safety Case underpinning the UK Competent Authority (the Department of Transport, DoT) Approval Certificates. A step-by-step approach has been adopted in implementing these advances, consulting the DoT at each stage, to ensure that the safe transport of spent Magnox fuel, achieved over the past 35 years, with its enviable track record, continues into the next century. (Author)

  17. A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Golub, A.; Robinson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation improvements inevitably lead to an uneven distribution of user benefits, in space and by network type (private and public transport). This paper makes a moral argument for what would be a fair distribution of these benefits. The argument follows Walzer’s ‘‘Spheres of Justice’’

  18. Spent fuel transportation cask response to a tunnel fire scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, C.S.; Adkins, H.E.; Cuta, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents, to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation cask designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the ANSYS registered and COBRA-SFS computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different cask designs. The staff concluded that the transportation casks analyzed would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event. No release of radioactive materials would result from exposure of the casks analyzed to such an event. This paper describes the methods and approach used for this assessment

  19. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  20. Transport safety of irradiated fuel; Seguridad en el transporte de combustible irradiado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa Giménez, R. de la

    2016-07-01

    The complication of the transport of spent fuel is significant not only because of the danger of the transported good itself but also for the size of the package. The number of this kind of expeditions are supposed to increase considerably in the coming years, for that reason is necessary for specialized companies such as ETSA be prepared. To this end, ETSA has already implemented most of the measures necessary to ensure safety - security of transport, not only during its execution but throughout the preparation.

  1. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people

  2. Preliminary study of cost benefits associated with duplex fuel pellets of the LOWI type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainscough, J.B.; Coucill, D.N.; Howl, D.A.; Jensen, A.; Misfeldt, I.

    1983-01-01

    Duplex UO 2 pellets, which consist of an outer enriched annulus and a depleted or natural core, can provide a solution to the problem of stress corrosion cracking failures, which have led to constraints being placed on ramp rates in power reactors. An analysis of the reactor physics and the performance of duplex pellets is presented in the context of a 17 X 17 pressurized water reactor fuel rod design. The study has been based on the particular type of duplex pellet in which the core and the annulus are physically separate; this is called ''LOWI'' after the Danish design. At low burnup, this fuel shows a significant improvement in power ramp performance compared with standard fuel. At higher burnup, the benefits are less certain but as the severity of the ramp will usually be less in high burnup fuel simply because of the reduced rating, the reduction in benefit may not be significant. If the gap between the core and annulus persists to high burnup, there will be no loss of benefit. Economic calculations and a cost-benefit analysis are presented to show the number of extra full-power hours of reactor operation that must be obtained in order to outweigh the additional fabrication costs associated with this fuel

  3. The role of technology as air transportation faces the fuel situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, C.

    1980-01-01

    Perspectives on the air transportation fuel stituation are discussed including intercity air traffic, airline fuel consumption, fuel price effects on ticket price, and projected traffic and fuel useage between now and the year 2000. Actions taken by the airlines to reduce consumption are reviewed, as well as efforts currently underway to improve fuel consumption. Longer range technology payoffs resulting from NASA research programs are reviewed and results from studies on the use of alternate fuels are discussed.

  4. Intermediate review on the transportation of spent fuel assemblies; Zwischenbilanz ueber die Transporte abgebrannter Brennelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-15

    The transportation of spent fuel from the Swiss nuclear power plants to the reprocessing facilities in France and England was interrupted in May 1998 because of contamination that occurred. These measures were presented in the March 1999 statement made by the Office for the Safety of Nuclear Plants (HSK). The transport of spent fuel has been once more permitted and carried out under new conditions since August 1999. In its interim report of October 2000, HSK analyses and evaluates the experience gained since the resumption of transports. For each measure required, it compares the advantages and drawbacks and makes decisions on the maintenance or reduction of the measures to be taken. Between August 1999 and July 2000, 12 spent fuel transports were carried out between the Swiss nuclear power plants and the COGEMA reprocessing facility in France (7 from Goesgen, 4 from Beznau and 1 from Leibstadt). Neither noticeable disagreement with nor exceeding of contamination limits were noted during those 12 transports. This satisfactory result demonstrates that the measures required to be taken are effective. HSK expected from the measures a reduction of the frequency of exceeding contamination limits to less than 5% and also a marked reduction in their frequency. The present results correspond to this expectation; however, the statistical basis is not yet sufficient to be able to draw definitive conclusions. Nevertheless it is noticed that the situation in France, where similar measures have been taken, was very clearly improved. The frequency of exceeding contamination limits was reduced to 2% during the first semester of the year 2000, while it amounted to more than 30% before April 1998. It is the comprehensiveness of the measures required by HSK which allows the avoidance of contamination. The analysis shows that just a small number of measures only contribute insignificantly to the goal sought after. Therefore, two measures will be suppressed (packing of the empty

  5. Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chao-Yang

    Proper water management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting physicochemical phenomena. Among these, the liquid saturation in the cathode side is believed to have a very strong effect on water crossover through the membrane, a key parameter to determine water balance between the anode and cathode. In this paper, based on an interfacial liquid coverage model implemented in a three-dimensional (3D) two-phase DMFC model, the liquid saturation variations in the cathode are examined in detail and their effects on the net water transport coefficient through the membrane discussed.

  6. the influence of the urban transport system in java on city fuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nick

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... bus/ the number of public vehicles is, the lower the fuel consumption in the city will be. The population size has low correlation with fuel consumption/capita. Higher population size does not always reduce fuel consumption/capita. Keywords: correlation, fuel, city, transportation, system. 1. Introduction.

  7. Experience of IEA-R1 research reactor spent fuel transportation back to United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frajndlich, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Operacao do Reator IEAR-R1m]. E-mail: frajndli@net.ipen.br; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div.de Engenharia do Nucleo]. E-mail: perrotta@net.ipen.br; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Reatores]. E-mail: maiorino@net.ipen.br; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores]. E-mail: ajsoares@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)

  8. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  9. Sustainable Used Fuel Management - The Benefits of Treatment, and Recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, G.; Drevon, C.; Gillet, P.; Breitenstein, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power production is expected to double by 2040 (IEA-WEO). This trend implies 230 GW of net capacity additions globally within the next 25 years. As of today, more than 70 nuclear power plants are being built in the world, most of them in Asia, with one third in China alone. Following this global nuclear trend, inventories of LWR used nuclear fuel are expected to rise by 70 percent by 2030. With only few ongoing projects today (Finland, France, Sweden), and no project in the US after 8B Euro spent as of today for direct disposal, deep geological repositories will remain a scarce resource. No deep geological disposal facility is expected to be operating before 2025 in Europe. All other deep geological repositories projects will be completed even later. Because of this growing used fuel inventory and the lack of deep geological repository, there will be a major 'traffic jam' issue resulting in an increased pressure on interim storage solutions. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to present why and how used fuel treatment and recycling can contribute to a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. From an economic standpoint, the most recent study comparing the competitiveness of open and closed cycle, the 2013 OECD-NEA study, concludes that open or closed cycles are comparable when fully integrating the total fuel cycle costs. Worldwide, countries with the most prominent nuclear programs all have stakes in treatment and recycling: China, France, India, Japan, Russia, South Korea and UK, because of its contribution to a sustainable nuclear energy fuel cycle. Treatment and recycling capacities are a key asset for the sustainable management of radioactive waste, reducing their long term radiotoxicity by a factor of 10 and allowing their conditioning in the best available matrix. It allows for standardization of radioactive waste packaging, reduction of the volume of final waste and reduction of the cost of deep geological disposal. Indeed, the nuclear

  10. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  11. Evaluating the viability of dimethyl carbonate as an alternative fuel for the transportation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Some of the most important questions in the development of sustainable transportation are : identify fuels that will reduce emissions, provide diversification from fossil fuels, reduce : greenhouse gas emissions, be produced from renewable sources, a...

  12. Simulation of transient transport phenomena in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Berg, P. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Most modelling studies characterize the dynamic performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) by the gas diffusion, membrane hydration/dehydration and heat transfer processes. This study involved a comprehensive examination of the transport phenomena through a newly developed 3D unsteady model. The study revealed that the dynamic response of a PEMFC is determined by a combination of 7 transient transport mechanisms, notably (1) the non-equilibrium phase transfer between the liquid water and water vapor (condensation/evaporation), (2) the non-equilibrium membrane water sorption/desorption, (3) water transport within the bulk membrane (membrane hydration/dehydration), (4) liquid water transport in the porous backing layer, (5) heat transfer, (6) gas diffusion towards the reacting site, and (7) the convective gas flow in the gas channel. Several case studies have investigated the dynamic response of the cell corresponding to some typical operating condition changes, such as step changes of the cell voltage, relative humidity, inlet gas pressure and stoichiometric ratio for both co-flow and counter-flow configurations.

  13. From oil sands to transportation fuels, to electricity, to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources programs and initiatives on oil sands and heavy oil, and strategies for revitalizing oilsands development in Alberta are described. The regional upgrader and satellite production facilities concept, and technology requirements for mineable oil sands by the year 2010 are discussed. Strategic alliances in furtherence of oil sands research and development and the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies are described. Changes in requirements for transportation fuels due to stricter regulations and environmental initiatives will cause a trend to lighter fuels with more hydrogen content, less aromatics, nitrogen, sulfur and metals. A preferred refinery configuration will be able to process heavier crudes and synthetic crudes, have no heavy fuel oil product, low sulfur products, low aromatics with high octane, and low operating cost. A regional or central facility that combines the processing capabilities of a bitumen upgrader with the process units of a refinery is preferred. Advantages of this concept are: value addition to the feedstock is maximized; dependence on refineries is eliminated; restriction on synthetic crude oil volumes due to capacity limitations at refineries is eliminated; directly marketable finished products are produced; more stringent quality specifications are satisfied; and the synergies between upgrading and refining improve overall economics of processing. It is recommended that the concept of regional upgraders be adopted for Alberta, strategic alliances be encouraged, incentives for bitumen production be provided, and a bitumen pipeline network be developed. 12 refs

  14. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  15. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  16. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  17. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  18. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  19. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  20. FUEL/CARBON PRICE VS. ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY IN FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ferdinand Spangenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation is the exponential increase in greenhouse gases (GHG, which is mainly caused by industrial and transport activities. The recent Paris agreement in 2015 (Framework Convention on Climate Change COP21, UNFCCC made it clear to everyone that CO2 emissions are to be limited in all areas of life. Alternative fuels with a lower environmental impact than carbon (CO2 emissions are hard to find if the overall footprint is to be taken into account. Nevertheless, there are some fuels that have less impact on climate change. One the other hand, the production of biofuels is a controversial matter, although it is a viable alternative to emissions reduction. CNG or LNG-powered vehicles are also better in terms of environmental pollution, but are hardly better with regard to CO2 impact when a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is carried out. LNG (liquid natural gas, for example, is the future fuel in the maritime sector because of the stricter environmental regulations (SOx,NOx in the shipping industry. The battery-powered vehicle is another example of an environmentally friendly solution. The afore-mentioned measures can be considered as “abatement“ necessary in order to limit CO2 impact. The study shows that there are significant differences in the environmental impact between transport systems and the corresponding drive-system or associated energy base. The polluter should pay, which is a common basic principle in economic research. The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS has been introduced in order to ensure a reduction in CO2 output – emissions come with a price tag. An overall view is necessary, both en-vironmental and economic impact must be reconciled (cf. Spangenberg - TQI. The future viability of the transport system as we know it may change significantly over time if new environmental requirements or e.g. CO2 taxes or ETS are introduced in the freight sector. The abatement of CO2 should be effected primarily through technological

  1. Thermal analysis on NAC-STC spent fuel transport cask under different transport conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yumei [Institute of Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Yang, Jian, E-mail: zdhjkz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Chao; Wang, Weiping [Institute of Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Zhijun [Department of Material Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Spent fuel cask was investigated as a whole instead of fuel assembly alone. • The cask was successfully modeled and meshed after several simplifications. • Equivalence method was used to calculate the properties of parts. • Both the integral thermal field and peak values are captured to verify safety. • The temperature variations of key parts were also plotted. - Abstract: Transport casks used for conveying spent nuclear fuel are inseparably related to the safety of the whole reprocessing system for spent nuclear fuel. Thus they must be designed according to rigorous safety standards including thermal analysis. In this paper, for NAC-STC cask, a finite element model is established based on some proper simplifications on configurations and the heat transfer mechanisms. Considering the complex components and gaps, the equivalence method is presented to define their material properties. Then an equivalent convection coefficient is introduced to define boundary conditions. Finally, the temperature field is captured and analyzed under both normal and accident transport conditions by using ANSYS software. The validity of numerical calculation is given by comparing its results with theoretical calculation. Obtaining the integral distribution laws of temperature and peak temperature values of all vital components, the security of the cask can be evaluated and verified.

  2. A Microfluidic Pore Network Approach to Investigate Water Transport in Fuel Cell Porous Transport Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Bazylak, A.; Berejnov, V.; Markicevic, B.; Sinton, D.; Djilali, N.

    2008-01-01

    Pore network modelling has traditionally been used to study displacement processes in idealized porous media related to geological flows, with applications ranging from groundwater hydrology to enhanced oil recovery. Very recently, pore network modelling has been applied to model the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Discrete pore network models have the potential to elucidate transport phenomena in the GDL with high computational efficiency, in cont...

  3. Benefits assessment of advanced public transportation system technologies, update 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report was performed under the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program. This program focuses on the development and demonstration of innovative advanced navigation, information and communicati...

  4. Data module development for spent nuclear fuel transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, in compliance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued environmental assessments (EAs) of the potential repository sites for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive wastes. A major concern expressed in the public comments on the EAs was the need for a route-specific risk analysis. One approach to this concern was presented in 1987 by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) at a workshop on models for OCRWM transportation risk analysis in Salt Lake City, Utah. The DOE decided that analytical capabilities for a route-specific risk analysis should be maintained at the state level, thus requiring state-specific accident and agricultural output data. The DOE also decided that such an analysis warranted development of a more reliable data base for a number of key input parameters for transportation risk assessment. Such a data base would be compiled in a format acceptable for input into the existing transportation risk code RADTRAN. Seven data modules have been developed on the basis of these considerations. A system module was also developed for integrating the data modules and serves as a preprocessor of the RADTRAN input data file. The relationship of the modules to the RADTRAN input is shown

  5. Analyses of the transportation of spent research reactor fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. This effort represents the first comprehensive analytical evaluation of the risks of transporting high-, medium-, and low-enriched uranium spent research reactor fuel by both sea and land. Two separate shipment programs have been analyzed: the shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). In order to perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study

  6. A Methodology to Assess the Benefit of Operational or Tactic Adjustments to Reduce Marine Corps Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    distribution is unlimited A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION by Team...SUBTITLE A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The United States Marine Corps is too dependent on fossil fuel

  7. A Vulnerability-Benefit Analysis of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, E. M.; Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although we can anticipate continued improvements in our understanding of future climate impacts, the central challenge of climate change is not scientific, but rather political and economic. In particular, international climate negotiations center on how to share the burden of uncertain mitigation and adaptation costs. We expose the relative economic interests of different countries by assessing and comparing their vulnerability to climate impacts and the economic benefits they derive from the fossil fuel-based energy system. Vulnerability refers to the propensity of humans and their assets to suffer when impacted by hazards, and we draw upon the results from a number of prior studies that have quantified vulnerability using multivariate indices. As a proxy for benefit, we average CO2 related to each country's extraction of fossil fuels, production of CO2 emissions, and consumption of goods and services (Davis et al., 2011), which should reflect benefits accrued in proportion to national economic dependence on fossil fuels. We define a nondimensional vulnerability-benefit ratio for each nation and find a large range across countries. In general, we confirm that developed and emerging economies such as the U.S., Western Europe, and China rely heavily on fossil fuels and have substantial resources to respond to the impacts of climate change, while smaller, less-developed economies such as Sierra Leone and Vanuatu benefit little from current CO2 emissions and are much more vulnerable to adverse climate impacts. In addition, we identify some countries with a high vulnerability and benefit, such as Iraq and Nigeria; conversely, some nations exhibit both a low vulnerability and benefit, such as New Zealand. In most cases, the ratios reflect the nature of energy-climate policies in each country, although certain nations - such as the United Kingdom and France - assume a level of responsibility incongruous with their ratio and commit to mitigation policy despite

  8. Fabrication of electroslag welded Magnox fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuliani, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    The high weld metal deposition rate of the electroslag welding process offers an attractive method of fabricating nuclear fuel transport flasks from 370 mm (14.5in) thick steel plates. The paper describes pre-production trials carried out on full scale corner-section joints to establish that the weld metal meets the exacting mechanical property requirements for the Nuclear Industry. The paper presents results obtained on welds produced using two base metal compositions and two wires, one recommended for submerged-arc and the other for electroslag welding processes. Details of mechanical tests and metallographic examinations are given which led to the selection of the latter type of wire. It was found that while the weld metal deposited by this process may be sensitive to cracking, this can be avoided by careful selection of welding consumables and sound joints can be obtained under production conditions. (author)

  9. Contamination transfers during fuel transport cask loading. A concrete situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, B.; Turchet, J.P.; Faure, S.; Allinei, P.G.; Briquet, L.; Baubet, D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, a number of contamination cases detected during fuel shipments have been pointed out by the french nuclear safety authority. Wagon and casks external surfaces were partly contaminated upon arrival in Valognes railway terminal. Since then, measures taken by nuclear power plants operators in France and abroad solved the problem. In Germany, a report analyzing the situation in depth has been published in which correctives actions have been listed. In France, EDF launched a large cleanliness program (projet proprete radiologique) in order to better understand contamination transfers mechanisms during power plants exploitation and to list remediation actions to avoid further problems. In this context, CEA Department for Wastes Studies at Cadarache (CEA/DEN/DED) was in charge of a study about contamination transfers during fuel elements loading operations. It was decided to lead experiments for a concrete case. The loading of a transport cask at Tricastin-PWR-1 was followed in november 2000 and different analysis comprising water analysis and smear tests analysis were carried out and are detailed in this paper. Results are discussed and qualitatively compared to those obtained in Philippsburg-BWR, Germany for a similar set of tests. (authors)

  10. Spent nuclear fuel transportation: public issues and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The court-ordered shipping of 750 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from West Valley, New York back to their utility owners has generated considerable public and media interest. This paper discusses the specific concerns of the general public over the West Valley shipments, the issues raised by opposition groups, the interest of public officials and emergency preparedness teams as well as the media coverage generated. An analysis is performed on the effectiveness of the West Valley and utility public information programs utilized in addressing these issues, concerns and interests. Emphasis is placed on communications which work to facilitate the shipments and generate fuel transport acceptance. Information programs are discussed which increase preparedness for nuclear shipments by emergency response teams and build public confidence in their safety. The paper also examines communications which could have further enhanced the shipping campaign to date. Finally, plans are discussed for media preparation with interview training and press conferences. Emphasis is placed on materials provided for the media which have served to generate more favorable print and air time

  11. Broad economic benefits of freight transportation infrastructure improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project strives to introduce a novel way to quantify the broad re-organization benefits associated with an : improvement in the freight infrastructure. Using the approach based on 1) the technique known as Field of Influence, and : 2) RAS adjust...

  12. Analyses of the transportation of spent research reactor fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    We analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. Two separate shipment programs were analyzed. The shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). To perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. The risks of transporting spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials by all modes have been analyzed extensively. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study

  13. Current status of sea transport of nuclear fuel materials and LLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    Along with the basic policy of the nuclear fuel cycle of Japan, many fuel cycle facilities have been already constructed in Rokkasho-Mura, Aomori prefecture, such as the uranium enrichment plant, the low level waste disposal center and the receiving pool of the spent nuclear fuels for reprocessing. These facilities belong to the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited. (JNFL). Domestic sea transport of the spent nuclear fuels (SF) has been carried out since 1977 to the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, and the first sea transport of the SF to the fuel cycle facility in Rokkasho-Mura was done in Oct, 1998 using a new exclusive ship 'Rokuei-Maru'. Sea transport of the low level radioactive wastes (LLW) has been carried out since 1992 to the Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center, and about 130,000 LLW drams were transported from the nuclear power plant sites. These sea transport have demonstrated the safety of the transport of the nuclear fuel cycle materials. It is hoped that the safe sea transport of the nuclear fuel materials will contribute to the more progress of the nuclear fuel cycle activities of Japan. (author)

  14. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  15. The prospects of use of alternative types of fuel in road transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is devoted to the analysis of possibilities of using alternative types of fuel in transport. Gas engine fuels are considered as potential energy carriers for diesel engines. Since the constructions of vehicles, using gas and traditional types of fuel, have some differences, the most important are the issues of ensuring ...

  16. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government

  17. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government.

  18. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  19. Sustainable fuels for the transport and maritime sector : A blueprint of the LNG distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, Simon K.; Van De Bunt, Luke G.; Vis, Iris F A; Zijm, Henk; Klump, Matthias; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is one of the alternative sustainable fuels available to the transportation sector. A new distribution network needs to be in place to enable better accessibility and more efficient usage of this fuel type for all modes of transport. Currently, a chicken-and-egg problem

  20. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: the transport of irradiated fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, Leslie

    1986-02-01

    The experience in handling of irradiated fuel flasks by the British Railways Board is outlined. The steps taken to ensure the effective and safe transport of irradiated fuel and nuclear waste by rail are identified. It is concluded that the proposed rail transport link to the EDRP at Dounreay should prove practicable. (UK)

  1. Study of liquid fuel transport in a small carburetted engine in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recently, Li & Collings (1999) proposed a semi-empirical model of fuel transport in the intake manifold and ... In the present work, a detailed study of liquid fuel film transport inside the inlet manifold of a small ..... starts with a peak (local maxima) followed by a dip (local minima) and it then increases and sta- bilizes at some ...

  2. Estimated consequences from severe spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.J.; Monette, F.; LePoire, D.; Biwer, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The RISKIND software package is used to estimate radiological consequences of severe accident scenarios involving the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. Radiological risks are estimated for both a collective population and a maximally exposed individual based on representative truck and rail cask designs described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) modal study. The estimate of collective population risk considers all possible environmental pathways, including acute and long-term exposures, and is presented in terms of the 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Radiological risks to a maximally exposed individual from acute exposure are estimated and presented in terms of the first year and 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Consequences are estimated for accidents occurring in rural and urban population areas. The modeled pathways include inhalation during initial passing of the radioactive cloud, external exposure from a reduction of the cask shielding, long-term external exposure. from ground deposition, and ingestion from contaminated food (rural only). The major pathways and contributing radionuclides are identified, and the effects of possible mitigative actions are discussed. The cask accident responses and the radionuclide release fractions are modeled as described in the NRC modal study. Estimates of severe accident probabilities are presented for both truck and rail modes of transport. The assumptions made in this study tend to be conservative; however, a set of multiplicative factors are identified that can be applied to estimate more realistic conditions

  3. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N. [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  4. Potential contribution of ethanol fuel to the transport sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin; Uqaili, Mohammad A.; Mirza, Umar K.

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payments situation. The country has become increasingly more dependent on fossil fuels and its energy security hangs on the fragile supply of imported oil that is subject to disruptions and price volatility. The transport sector has a 28% share in the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 1.15 million tonnes of gasoline was consumed by this sector during 2005-2006. The gasoline consumption in the transport sector is also a major source of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. Consequently, Pakistan needs to develop indigenous, environment-friendly energy resources, such as ethanol, to meet its transport sector's energy needs. Pakistan produces about 54 million tonnes of sugarcane every year. The estimated production potential of ethanol from molasses is about 500 million liters per annum. Ethanol can be used in the transport sector after blending with gasoline, in order to minimize the gasoline consumption and associated economical and environmental impacts. This paper presents the assessment of the potential contribution of ethanol in the transport sector of Pakistan. It is concluded that 5-10% of the annual gasoline consumption in transport sector could be met from ethanol by the year 2030 under different scenarios. About US$200-400 million per annum could be saved along with other environmental and health benefits by using gasol in the transport sector. (author)

  5. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...... a partial equilibrium model and point toward practical applicability. A recent analysis of the Fehmarn Belt Bridge, which will connect Denmark and Germany in a link in the Trans-European Network for Transport, is used for illustrative purposes....

  6. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  7. Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, Mikhail; Winebrake, James J; Johansson, Lasse; Carr, Edward W; Prank, Marje; Soares, Joana; Vira, Julius; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Corbett, James J

    2018-02-06

    We evaluate public health and climate impacts of low-sulphur fuels in global shipping. Using high-resolution emissions inventories, integrated atmospheric models, and health risk functions, we assess ship-related PM 2.5 pollution impacts in 2020 with and without the use of low-sulphur fuels. Cleaner marine fuels will reduce ship-related premature mortality and morbidity by 34 and 54%, respectively, representing a ~ 2.6% global reduction in PM 2.5 cardiovascular and lung cancer deaths and a ~3.6% global reduction in childhood asthma. Despite these reductions, low-sulphur marine fuels will still account for ~250k deaths and ~6.4 M childhood asthma cases annually, and more stringent standards beyond 2020 may provide additional health benefits. Lower sulphur fuels also reduce radiative cooling from ship aerosols by ~80%, equating to a ~3% increase in current estimates of total anthropogenic forcing. Therefore, stronger international shipping policies may need to achieve climate and health targets by jointly reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  8. Chemical and toxicological characterization of exhaust emissions from alternative fuels for urban public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrio Baldassarri, L.; Conti, R.; Crebelli, B.; Iamicelli, A.L.; De Berardis, M.; Gambino, A.L.; Iannaccone, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS, the National Institute of Health of Italy) and the Istituto dei Motori (IM) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR, National Research Council) have carried out this study, jointly funded by the two institutes together with the Ministry of Environment. The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from two urban bus engines were studied: a diesel engine fueled with both diesel oil and bio diesel blend and an equivalent spark-ignition one fuelled with compressed natural gas, operating in steady-state conditions. Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives, carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter was also evaluated. The impact of diesel-powered transport on urban air quality, and the potential benefits for human health deriving from the use of natural gas for public transport, are discussed [it

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO 2 -equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO 2 -equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles

  10. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport i...

  11. Transporting spent fuel and reactor waste in Sweden experience from 5 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybeck, P.; Gustafsson, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that since the Final Repository for Reactor Waste, SFR, was taken into operation in 1988, the SKB sea transportation system is operating at full capacity by transporting spent fuel and now also reactor waste from the 12 Swedish reactors to CLAB and SFR. Transports from the National Research Center, Studsvik to the repository has recently also been integrated in the system. CLAB, the central intermediate storage for spent fuel, has been in operation since 1985. The SKB Sea Transportation System consists today of the purpose built ship M/s Sigyn, 10 transport casks for spent fuel, 2 casks for spent core components, 27 IP-2 shielded steel containers for reactor waste and 5 terminal vehicles. During an average year about 250 tonnes of spent fuel and 3 -- 4000 m 3 of reactor waste are transported to CLAB and SFR respectively, corresponding to around 30 sea voyages

  12. Review of the transportation of spent fuel assemblies; Bilanz ueber die Transporte abgebrannter Brennelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-15

    In August 1999 the transportation of spent fuel assemblies from the Swiss nuclear power plants to the reprocessing facilities was resumed. Until October 2002, 37 transports were carried out without exceeding the legal limits on contamination and dose rate. 19 transports went to La Hague (4 from Beznau, 9 from Goesgen, 4 from Leibstadt and 2 from Muehleberg), 11 to BNFL in Sellafield (2 from Beznau and 9 from Muehleberg) and 7 to the Central Intermediate Storage for Radioactive Wastes (ZWILAG) in Wuerenlingen (4 from Goesgen and 3 from Leibstadt). Additionally, three deliveries with vitrified highly radioactive wastes from the reprocessing facilities were carried out to ZWILAG, also without exceeding any limits. These pleasing results show that the measures required to be taken, as required by the Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK), have contributed to the safe and contamination-free accomplishment of such transportation. Even if the care taken in the carrying out of such transports may not lessen, HSK sees no reason to reduce the present technical and organisational measures. As far as the registration of the individual doses of the participating railway staff is concerned, the results obtained up till now confirm that the radiological exposure is negligible. From the point of view of radiological protection it is not necessary to pursue the registration of the individual radiological exposition. This is why the HSK no longer requires this measure any more. In France, too, the situation concerning contamination during transportation of spent fuel assemblies has been strikingly and lastingly improved. Contamination is only seldom observed and only in connection with a few identified nuclear power plants. In transfers between France and Germany, Belgium as well as the Netherlands, no exceeding of the contamination limits has been noted since resumption of transportation. During the 33 deliveries of empty containers and containers with

  13. One approach to accepting and transporting spent fuel from early-generation reactors with short fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.W.; Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the early days of development of commercial nuclear power reactors in the U.S., the overall length and uranium loading of the fuel assemblies were considerably less than those of later generation facilities. In turn, some of these early facilities were designed for handling shorter casks than currently-certified casks. The spent fuel assemblies from these facilities are nearly all standard fuel within the definition in the Standard Contract (10 CFR 961) between the utilities and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (the Big Rock Point fuel cross-section is outside the standard fuel dimension), and the utilities involved hold early delivery rights under DOE's oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation scenario. However, development of casks suitable for satisfying the acceptance and transportation requirements of some of these facilities is not currently underway in the DOE Cask System Development Program (CSDP). While the total MTU of these fuels is relatively small compared to the total program, the number of assemblies to be transported is significant, especially in the early years of operation according to the OFF allocation scenario. We therefore perceive a need for DOE to develop an approach and to implement plans to satisfy the unique acceptance and transportation requirements of these facilities. One such approach is outlined below. (author)

  14. Coordination of ministerial actions regarding the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel. LNG, a European component of the energy transition in road freight transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maler, Philippe; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Ourliac, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the third of a series dealing with the coordination of ministerial actions in favor of the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel in transports. LNG is an important potential substitute to diesel fuel in road transport and would allow significant abatement of nitrogen oxides emissions. Bio-LNG is ten times less polluting than fossil fuel LNG and thus important efforts are to be made in bio-LNG R and D. An important work has been carried out for adapting EU regulations and standards to LNG vehicles and LNG supply developments. This report presents, first, a summary of the report's recommendations and the aim of this coordination study, and, then, treats more thoroughly of the different coordination aspects: 1 - European framework of energy transition in the road freight transport (differences with maritime transport, CO 2 emissions abatement, trucks pollution and fuel quality standards, trucks technical specifications and equipment, fuel taxes in EU countries); 2 - European policy and national actions in favour of LNG development for road transport (LNG as alternate fuel, the Paris agreement, the French national energy plan); 3 - Environmental benefits of LNG in road transport (public health impacts, nitrogen oxides abatement, divergent views and expertise, LNG and CO 2 abatement measures, bio-LNG environmental evaluation; 4 - LNG development actors in road transport and the administrative coordination (professional organizations, public stakeholders, LNG topics information dissemination at the Ministry); 5 - LNG development in road transport at the worldwide, European and national scales; 6 - European regulations and standards allowing trucks LNG fueling and circulation (standard needs, users information, regulation works); 7 - Common rules to define and implement for personnel training; 8 - reflexion on LNG taxation; 9 - support policy for a road transport LNG supply chain (infrastructures, European financing, lessons learnt from maritime

  15. Environmental issues of synthetic transportation fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    This report, Background paper #3, contains papers written for Office of : Technology Assessment to assist in preparation of the report, Increased : Automobile Fuel Efficiency and Synthetic Fuels: Alternatives for Reducing Oil : Imports. Environmental...

  16. Safety risks of hydrogen fuel for applications in transportation vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in many practical applications produces pollutants that are harmful to human health and environment. Hydrogen fuel is considered to be a potential answer to the clean energy demands, especially with the advances in fue...

  17. Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David; Herring, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation

  18. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  19. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul; Lazarus, William; Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Bachewe, Fantu; Fischer, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  20. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul; Lazarus, William; Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is $27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  1. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2003-07-31

    This report describes activities for the third quarter of work performed under this agreement. Atmospheric testing was conducted as scheduled on June 5 through June 13, 2003. The test results were encouraging, however, the rate of carbon dissolution was below expectations. Additional atmospheric testing is scheduled for the first week of September 2003. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product stream. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  2. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Applied for Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is investigated. PEMFC may be the most promising technology for fuel cell automotive systems, which is operating at quite low temperatures, (between 60 to 80℃). In this study the fuel cell motive power part of a lift truck has...

  3. Hydrogen & fuel cells: advances in transportation and power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hordeski, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    ... race, it became more of an economics issue since as long as petroleum was available and cheap there was no need to develop a hydrogen technology. Now, we see much more investment in fuel cell technology, hydrogen fueled vehicles and even hydrogen fuel stations. The technology is being pushed by economics as oil prices continue to rise with dwind...

  4. Improved Fuel Transport Selectivity in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kyle Tyler

    2014-01-01

    In polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, fuel crossover through the membrane is a significant problem that contributes to reduction in cell efficiency and accelerated membrane degradation. The need for high water content in the membrane to produce acceptable conductivities leads to excessive fuel crossover while also limiting cell operating temperature to

  5. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    It is possible to develop an optimal strategy for implementing burnup credit in spent fuel transport casks. For transport, the relative risk is rapidly reduced if additional pre-transport controls such as a cavity dryness verifications are conducted prior to transport. Some other operational and design features that could be incorporated into a burnup credit cask strategy are listed. These examples represent many of the system features and alternatives already available for use in developing a broadly based criticality safety strategy for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks. 4 refs., 1 tab

  6. Study on transport safety of refresh MOX fuel. Radiation dose from package hypothetically submerged into sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Suzuki; Hiroshi; Saegusa, Toshiari; Maruyama, Koki; Ito, Chihiro; Watabe, Naoto

    1999-01-01

    The sea transport of fresh MOX fuel from Europe to Japan is under planning. For the structure and equipment of transport ships for fresh MOX fuels, there is a special safety standard called the INF Code of IMO (International Maritime Organization). For transport of radioactive materials, there is a safety standard stipulated in Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material issued by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Under those code and standard, fresh MOX fuel will be transported safely on the sea. However, a dose assessment has been made by assuming that a fresh MOX fuel package might be sunk into the sea by unexpected reasons. In the both cases for a package sunk at the coastal region and for that sunk at the ocean, the evaluated result of the dose equivalent by radiation exposure to the public are far below the dose equivalent limit of the ICRP recommendation (1 mSv/year). (author)

  7. Study on transport safety of refresh MOX fuel. Radiation dose from package hypothetically submerged into sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Suzuki; Hiroshi; Saegusa, Toshiari; Maruyama, Koki; Ito, Chihiro; Watabe, Naoto [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    1999-07-01

    The sea transport of fresh MOX fuel from Europe to Japan is under planning. For the structure and equipment of transport ships for fresh MOX fuels, there is a special safety standard called the INF Code of IMO (International Maritime Organization). For transport of radioactive materials, there is a safety standard stipulated in Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material issued by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Under those code and standard, fresh MOX fuel will be transported safely on the sea. However, a dose assessment has been made by assuming that a fresh MOX fuel package might be sunk into the sea by unexpected reasons. In the both cases for a package sunk at the coastal region and for that sunk at the ocean, the evaluated result of the dose equivalent by radiation exposure to the public are far below the dose equivalent limit of the ICRP recommendation (1 mSv/year). (author)

  8. Stranded Fuel, Orphan Sites, Dead Plants: Transportation Planning Considerations After the BRC Report - 13393

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrower, Alex W.

    2013-01-01

    The author explores transportation, packaging and storage questions related to a primary recommendation of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future; i.e., that fuel from shutdown plants be removed to consolidated storage as soon as possible to enable final decommissioning and beneficial re-use of those sites. The paper discusses the recommendations of the BRC, the implications and challenges that implementing those recommendations present, and provides recommended solutions for beginning the multi-year planning, coordination, material acquisition, and communications processes that will be needed to move fuel from shutdown plants when a destination site becomes available. Removal of used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites (which are serving no other purpose other than storing SNF and GTCC, at considerable expense) was a central recommendation of the BRC, for a number of reasons. This recommendation was one of the most widely acclaimed that the Commission put forward. However, there are significant challenges (such as availability of fuel canister overpacks, lack of infrastructure, handling constraints and others) that will need to be addressed, apart from the critically important identification of a suitable and workable storage destination site. Resolving these logistical challenges will need to begin even before a destination site is identified, given the long lead-times required for planning and procurement. Based on information available today, it is possible to make informed predictions about what will be needed to modify existing contractual arrangements with utilities, address equipment and infrastructure needs, and begin working with states, tribes and local governments to start initial preparation needs. If DOE, working with industry and other experienced parties, can begin planning and acquisition activities in the near term, overall schedule risk can be reduced and potential cost avoidance achieved. The most immediate benefit will

  9. Trial evaluation on criticality safety of the fuel assemblies at falling accident as spent fuel transport and storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadano, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted critical safety assessment on the supposed event at the time of a fall accident of cask, and examined the influence on criticality safety. If the spacer of fuel assembly is sound, it is assumed that the pitch of fuel rod interval changes, and if the spacer is broken, it is assumed that the fuel rod is unevenly distributed in the basket. For the critical calculation of fuel assembly basket system, they performed it using a calculation code. For both of the single cell and assembly, calculation results showed an increase in the effective multiplication factor of reactivity of 2-3%. When this reactivity is applied to the criticality analysis result of PWR fuel assembly, the value approaches to the limit 0.95 of the neutron effective multiplication factor keff. However, the keff when new fuel is loaded is sufficiently lower than 0.93. Therefore, it is unlikely that the criticality analysis result approaches to 0.95 at all burnups, and the possibility to become criticality is very low in actual spent fuel transport. When considering the reactivity of this research, it is possible that the design condition for the assumption of novel fuel loading becomes severer. Furthermore, criticality analysis under non-uniform pitch will become necessary, and criticality safety analysis for BWR fuel with heterogeneous enrichment degree and burnup degree will become also necessary. (A.O.)

  10. European experience in the transport of irradiated light-water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods of transport of irradiated fuel flasks in Europe are described. While many problems in the transport of heavy flasks have been solved some remain and new ones have appeared. Some of these problems are the accumulation of crud on the surface of fuel elements, the problems of failed fuel, stringent criticality criteria, the ''sweating out'' of contaminated flasks, the access, road or rail, to reactor sites, and the maintenance of the transport vehicles. Some future trends in the direction of heavy flasks in the range of 75 to 100 tonnes are indicated

  11. Transportation of failed or damaged foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, Charles E.; Mustin, Tracy P.; Massey, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Since initiating the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance Program in 1996, the Program has had to deal with difficult issues associated with the transportation of failed or damaged spent fuel. In several instances, problems with failed or damaged fuel have prevented the acceptance of the fuel at considerable cost to both the Department of Energy and research reactor operators. In response to the problems faced by the Acceptance Program, DOE has undertaken significant steps to better define the spent fuel acceptance criteria. DOE has worked closely with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address failed or damaged research reactor spent fuel causing a degradation of the fuel assembly exposing fuel meat and to identify cask certificate issues which must be resolved by cask owners and foreign regulatory authorities. The specific issues and implementation challenges associated with the transport of MTR type FRR SNF will be discussed. The information presented will include U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory issues, cask certificate issues, technical constraints, implementation status, and lessons learned. Specific information will also be provided on the latest efforts to revise DOE's Appendix B, Transport Package (Cask) Acceptance Criteria. The information presented in this paper will be of interest to foreign research reactor operators, shippers, and cask vendors in evaluating the condition of their fuel to ensure it can be transported in accordance with appropriate cask certificate requirements. (author)

  12. Impact of Transport Zone Number in Simulation Models on Cost-Benefit Analysis Results in Transport Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, feasibility studies need to be prepared for all planned transport investments, mainly those co-financed with UE grants. One of the fundamental aspect of feasibility study is the economic justification of an investment, evaluated in an area of so called cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The main goal of CBA calculation is to prove that a transport investment is really important for the society and should be implemented as economically efficient one. It can be said that the number of hours (PH - passengers hours) in trips and travelled kilometres (PK - passengers kilometres) are the most important for CBA results. The differences between PH and PK calculated for particular investment scenarios are the base for benefits calculation. Typically, transport simulation models are the best source for such data. Transport simulation models are one of the most powerful tools for transport network planning. They make it possible to evaluate forecast traffic volume and passenger flows in a public transport system for defined scenarios of transport and area development. There are many different transport models. Their construction is often similar, and they mainly differ in the level of their accuracy. Even models for the same area may differ in this matter. Typically, such differences come from the accuracy of supply side representation: road and public transport network representation. In many cases only main roads and a public transport network are represented, while local and service roads are eliminated as a way of reality simplification. This also enables a faster and more effective calculation process. On the other hand, the description of demand part of these models based on transport zones is often stable. Difficulties with data collection, mainly data on land use, resulted in the lack of changes in the analysed land division into so called transport zones. In this paper the author presents an influence of land division on the results of traffic analyses, and hence

  13. OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND SOFTWARE FOR FUEL COST REDUCTION IN CASE OF ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain and the fuel cost is the highest cost among the cost components of transportation. The goal of the research is to optimize the transport costs in case of a given transport task both by the selecting the optimal petrol station and by determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel. Recently, in practice, these two decisions have not been made centrally at the forwarding company, but they depend on the individual decision of the driver. The aim of this study is to elaborate a precise and reliable mathematical method for selecting the optimal refuelling stations and determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel to fulfil the transport demands. Based on the elaborated model, new decision-supporting software is developed for the economical fulfilment of transport trips.

  14. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  15. Modelling the effects of transport policy levers on fuel efficiency and national fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, H.R.; Hutton, B.; McQuaid, R.W.; Napier Univ., Edinburgh; Raeside, R.; Napier Univ., Edinburgh; Zhang, Xiayoan; Napier Univ., Edinburgh

    2000-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the main features of a Vehicle Market Model (VMM) which estimates changes to vehicle stock/kilometrage, fuel consumed and CO 2 emitted. It is disaggregated into four basic vehicle types. The model includes: the trends in fuel consumption of new cars, including the role of fuel price: a sub-model to estimate the fuel consumption of vehicles on roads characterised by user-defined driving cycle regimes; procedures that reflect distribution of traffic across different area/road types; and the ability to vary the speed (or driving cycle) from one year to another, or as a result of traffic growth. The most significant variable influencing fuel consumption of vehicles was consumption in the previous year, followed by dummy variables related to engine size. the time trend (a proxy for technological improvements), and then fuel price. Indeed the effect of fuel price on car fuel efficiency was observed to be insignificant (at the 95% level) in two of the three versions of the model, and the size of fuel price term was also the smallest. This suggests that the effectiveness of using fuel prices as a direct policy tool to reduce fuel consumption may he limited. Fuel prices may have significant indirect impacts (such as influencing people to purchase more fuel efficient cars and vehicle manufacturers to invest in developing fuel efficient technology) as may other factors such as the threat of legislation. (Author)

  16. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  17. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage

  18. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    The incitement for decreasing the modern society's dependency on fossil based fuel and energy is both environmentally and politically driven. Development of biofuels could be part of the future solution. The combination of ash pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of the produced bio-oil has been...... identied as a prospective route to bio-fuels. The upgrading is most favorably done by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), producing bio-fuels at a quality equivalent to conventional fossil fuels. The topic of this Ph.D. thesis has been the development of active and stable catalysts for this reaction. In the search...

  19. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  20. Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  1. Transportation impact analysis for shipment of irradiated N-reactor fuel and associated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Harris, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    An analysis of the radiological and nonradiological impacts of highway transportation of N-Reactor irradiated fuel (N-fuel) and associated materials is described in this report. N-fuel is proposed to be transported from its present locations in the 105-KE and 105-KW Basins, and possibly the PUREX Facility, to the 327 Building for characterization and testing. Each of these facilities is located on the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. The projected annual shipping quantity is 500 kgU/yr for 5 years for a total of 2500 kgU. It was assumed the irradiated fuel would be returned to the K- Basins following characterization, so the total amount of fuel shipped was assumed to be 5000 kgU. The shipping campaign may also include the transport and characterization of liquids, gases, and sludges from the storage basins, including fuel assembly and/or canister parts that may also be present in the basins. The impacts of transporting these other materials are bounded by the impacts of transporting 5000 kgU of N-fuel. This report was prepared to support an environmental assessment of the N-fuel characterization program. The RADTRAN 4 and GENII computer codes were used to evaluate the radiological impacts of the proposed shipping campaign. RADTRAN 4 was used to calculate the routine exposures and accident risks to workers and the general public from the N-fuel shipments. The GENII computer code was used to calculate the consequences of the maximum credible accident. The results indicate that the transportation of N-fuel in support of the characterization program should not cause excess radiological-induced latent cancer fatalities or traffic-related nonradiological accident fatalities. The consequences of the maximum credible accident are projected to be small and result in no excess latent cancer fatalities

  2. FY17 Progress in Modeling of Lanthanide Transport in Metallic Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matthews, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-19

    A critical review of fuel-clad-chemical interactions along with modelling requirements is published. The mechanism of lanthanide transport is studied experimentally (NEUP collaboration) and using simulations and initial results are published in Refs.

  3. Determining Off-Cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moniot, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jehlik, Forrest [Argonne National Laboratory; Chevers, Netsanet [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Hirabayshi, Hidekazu [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Song, Yuanpei [DENSO International America Inc.

    2018-04-03

    This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state. These vehicle models were integrated into a database of measured on road testing and coupled with U.S. typical meteorological data to simulate vehicle efficiency across seasonal thermal and operational conditions for hundreds of thousands of drive cycles. Fuel economy benefits utilizing the 2-Layer HVAC technology are presented in addition to goodness of fit statistics of the modeling approach relative to the experimental test data.

  4. Individual and collective doses associated with the transport of irradiated magnox fuel within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.; Mairs, J.H.

    1978-12-01

    A method is described of evaluating the individual and collective doses arising during the transport of irradiated fuel from a system of nuclear power stations to a central reprocessing plant. The doses associated with irradiated Magnox fuel movements in the UK are estimated and compared with those resulting from other phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the individual and collective doses implied by the accidental activity release limits contained within the 1973 IAEA Tranport Regulations are discussed. (author)

  5. Development of transport and storage cask for high burn-up spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuri, S.; Tamaki, H.; Hode, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD. (MHI) has been developing various transport and storage casks (MSF cask fleet) for high burn-up spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This paper outlines the specifications and describes the features of the newly developed casks and the advanced technology that enables the maximize number of the accommodated fuel assemblies of high burn-up and short cooling period

  6. Leveling the playing field of transportation fuels: Accounting for indirect emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Steven; Eyer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas transportation fuels are credited in prior studies with greenhouse gas emissions savings relative to petroleum-based fuels and relative to the total emissions of biofuels. These analyses, however, overlook a source of potentially large indirect emissions from natural gas transportation fuels, namely the emissions from incremental coal-fired generation caused by price-induced substitutions away from natural-gas-fired electricity generation. Because coal-fired generation emits substantially more greenhouse gases and criteria air pollutants than natural-gas-fired generation, this indirect coal-use change effect diminishes potential emissions savings from natural gas transportation fuels. Estimates from a parameterized multi-market model suggest the indirect coal-use change effect rivals in magnitude the indirect land-use change effect of biofuels and renders natural gas fuels as carbon intensive as petroleum fuels. - Highlights: •Natural gas used in transport causes indirect emissions in the electricity sector. •These emissions result from increased coal use in electricity generation. •They rival in magnitude indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions of biofuels. •Natural gas fuels are estimated to be as carbon intensive as the petroleum fuels. •Policy ignores indirect emissions from natural gas.

  7. Study of liquid fuel transport in a small carburetted engine in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, a detailed visualization of the transport of fuel film has been performed in a small carburetted engine with a transparent manifold at the exit of the carburettor. The presence of fuel film is observed significantly on the lower half of the manifold at idling, while at load conditions, the film is found to be ...

  8. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  9. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  10. Transport and degradation of fuel compounds in the vadose zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for groundwater...

  11. Evaluation of alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered in this paper: internal combustion engine (ICE) and its combination with petroleum and 1st and 2nd generation biofuels blends, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. The evaluation of alternative fuel modes is performed according to cost and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and ten alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all ten alternative scenarios. It is concluded that ICE blended with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector. - Highlights: ► Alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector have been evaluated. ► The method of the AHP was used. ► Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered. ► The evaluation is performed according to cost and policy aspects. ► The ICE with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable fuels.

  12. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This report documents changes to the methods and data in a recently revised version of the greenhouse-gas emissions model originally documented in Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity, ANL/ESD/TM-22, Volumes 1 and 2, Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (ANL), Illinois (DeLuchi, 1991, 1993). The revised Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM) calculates energy use, air-pollutant emissions, and CO2-equivalent emissions o...

  13. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  14. Internationalisation of the BNFL fuel and waste treatment plant designs the challenges and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.; Lomax, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1970's BNFL has considerably expanded its range of fuel cycle plants, involving an investment of over US$7.5bn (55bn Won). This has included significant development of its Sellafield site with a wide variety of plants and processes to deal with spent fuel and development of its fuel fabrication facilities at the Spring fields Site. In contrast to reactors, fuel plants are constructed infrequently and it is therefore crucial to 'get it right first time'. The achievement of high levels of safety has been an important factor in the development of these facilities. BNFL has applied safety criteria which are as stringent as any other international safety criteria in terms of the extent to which radiation doses to plant workers and people off-site are minimised from both routine operations and possible fault conditions. Because the plant designs are established and supported by robust safety cases they are capable of being licensed overseas. The benefits of this are lower financial risk and shorter project timescales, due to avoiding the high design and safety case development costs (typically of the order of 20% of project cost) which are incurred in the production of a 'first of a kind' design. This paper briefly discusses the role of safety cases in the UK licensing process and the principle safety standards which are applied to BNFL plants and shows how they achieve high levels of safety by comparing them with equivalent IAEA and US based standards. It illustrates how the plants meet or exceed these safety standards by using specific data from existing safety cases supported by operational data where applicable. It discusses some of the important features of the UK approach to safety and licensing and emphasises the need to examine safety provisions on a case by case basis rather than adopting a prescriptive approach to implementing design provisions if cost effectiveness is to be achieved

  15. The sustainable development of transports: the motors and the fuels; Le developpement durable des transports: quels moteurs, quels carburants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This panorama 2005 between politicians, industrialists and scientists discussed the following topics: exploration-production activities and markets, refining and petrochemistry, the future world gas market, the petroleum supply and demand, the new petroleum and gas reserves, the today and tomorrow alternative fuels, the biofuels in the world, the hybrid vehicles future, the energy consumption in the transport sector, the road fuels in europe and the increase of diesel fuel, the de-pollution techniques of industrial vehicles. The slides of the interventions are provided. The sheets ''le point sur'' of the year 2005 are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  16. Routing and scheduling of hazardous materials shipments: algorithmic approaches to managing spent nuclear fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds government regulation of routing and scheduling of Hazardous Materials Transportation (HMT). Increases in operating costs must be balanced against expected benefits from local HMT bans and curfews when promulgating or preempting HMT regulations. Algorithmic approaches for evaluating HMT routing and scheduling regulatory policy are described. A review of current US HMT regulatory policy is presented to provide a context for the analysis. Next, a multiobjective shortest path algorithm to find the set of efficient routes under conflicting objectives is presented. This algorithm generates all efficient routes under any partial ordering in a single pass through the network. Also, scheduling algorithms are presented to estimate the travel time delay due to HMT curfews along a route. Algorithms are presented assuming either deterministic or stochastic travel times between curfew cities and also possible rerouting to avoid such cities. These algorithms are applied to the case study of US highway transport of spent nuclear fuel from reactors to permanent repositories. Two data sets were used. One data set included the US Interstate Highway System (IHS) network with reactor locations, possible repository sites, and 150 heavily populated areas (HPAs). The other data set contained estimates of the population residing with 0.5 miles of the IHS and the Eastern US. Curfew delay is dramatically reduced by optimally scheduling departure times unless inter-HPA travel times are highly uncertain. Rerouting shipments to avoid HPAs is a less efficient approach to reducing delay

  17. Numerical modeling transport phenomena in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, DongMyung

    To study the coupled phenomena occurring in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, a two-phase, one-dimensional, non-isothermal model is developed in the chapter 1. The model includes water phase change, proton transport in the membrane and electro-osmotic effect. The thinnest, but most complex layer in the membrane electrode assembly, catalyst layer, is considered an interfacial boundary between the gas diffusion layer and the membrane. Mass and heat transfer and electro-chemical reaction through the catalyst layer are formulated into equations, which are applied to boundary conditions for the gas diffusion layer and the membrane. Detail accounts of the boundary equations and the numerical solving procedure used in this work are given. The polarization curve is calculated at different oxygen pressures and compared with the experimental results. When the operating condition is changed along the polarization curve, the change of physicochemical variables in the membrane electrode assembly is studied. In particular, the over-potential diagram presents the usage of the electrochemical energy at each layer of the membrane electrode assembly. Humidity in supplying gases is one of the most important factors to consider for improving the performance of PEMFE. Both high and low humidity conditions can result in a deteriorating cell performance. The effect of humidity on the cell performance is studied in the chapter 2. First, a numerical model based on computational fluid dynamics is developed. Second, the cell performances are simulated, when the relative humidity is changed from 0% to 100% in the anode and the cathode channel. The simulation results show how humidity in the reactant gases affects the water content distribution in the membrane, the over-potential at the catalyst layers and eventually the cell performance. In particular, the rapid enhancement in the cell performance caused by self-hydrating membrane is captured by the simulation. Fully humidifying either H2

  18. Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wismer, L.

    1996-04-01

    Environmental concerns with air quality and global warming have triggered strict federal ambient ozone air quality standards. Areas on non-attainment of these standards exist across the United States. Because it contains several of the most difficult attainment areas, the State of California has adopted low emission standards including a zero emission vehicle mandate that has given rise to development of hybrid electric vehicles, both battery-powered and fuel-cell powered. Fuel cell powered vehicles, using on-board hydrogen as a fuel, share the non-polluting advantage of the battery electric vehicle while offering at least three times the range today`s battery technology.

  19. Packaging and transport case of test fuel assembly irradiated in the Creys-Malville reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Vivien, J.; Pouard, M.; Dujardin, G.N.; Veron, B.; Michoux, H.

    1986-06-01

    Some irradiated fuel assemblies from the fast neutron Creys Malville reactor will be sent to hot laboratories to follow fuel behavior. These test assemblies will be examined after a limited cooling time and transport is realized at high residual power (about 10kW) and cladding temperature should not rise over 500deg C. The fuel assemblies are not dismantled and transported into sodium. The assembly is placed into a case containing sodium plugged and put into a packaging. Dimensioning, thermal behavior, radiation protection and containment are examined [fr

  20. The buckling of fuel rods in transportation casks under hypothetical accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkman, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    The buckling analysis of fuel rods during an end drop impact of a spent fuel transportation cask has traditionally been performed to demonstrate the structural integrity of the fuel rod cladding or the integrity of the fuel geometry in criticality evaluations following a cask drop event. The actual calculation of the fuel rod buckling load, however, has been the subject of some controversy, with estimates of the critical buckling load differing by as much as a factor of 5. Typically, in the buckling analysis of a fuel rod, assumptions are made regarding the percentage of fuel mass that is bonded to or participates with the cladding during the buckling process, with estimates ranging from 0 to 100%. The greater the percentage of fuel mass that is assumed to be bonded to the cladding the higher the inertia loads on the cladding, and, therefore, the lower the ''g'' value at which buckling occurs. Current published solutions do not consider displacement compatibility between the fuel and the cladding. By invoking displacement compatibility between the fuel column and the cladding column, this paper presents an exact solution for the buckling of fuel rods under inertia loading. The results show that the critical inertia load magnitude for the buckling of a fuel rod depends on the weight of the cladding and the total weight of the fuel, regardless of the percentage of fuel mass that is assumed to be attached to or participate with the cladding in the buckling process. Therefore, 100% of the fuel always participates in the buckling of a fuel rod under inertia loading

  1. Transport demand, harmful emissions, environment and health co-benefits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HE, Ling-Yun; QIU, Lu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese residents' travel demand has been increasing dramatically. As a result, emissions from motor vehicles have been found as one main source of air pollution in China, which consequently influences the residents' health. To better understand the environmental deterioration and health losses caused by the transport sector in China, in current circumstances, one must know how the changes in residents' travel demand and alternative transport modes affect environment and health co-benefits in China. We first of all calculate the demand from nearly all the residents' travel means, including road, rail, water, and air transport. Besides, based on the results, this paper further makes projections for a business-as-usual scenario for 2050 with several alternative transport scenarios to reduce harmful emissions and improve the welfare of the residents' health in China. Our integrated framework includes the harmful emissions models, the fixed box model and the exposure-response models, to link transport demand with possible environmental and health outcomes. The findings suggest that significant environment and health co-benefits are possible if alternative transport replaces. This research, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to estimate the total resident's travel demand under different scenarios and the consequent environment and health co-benefits in the transitional China. - Highlights: • The changes in travel demand affect both environment and health in China. • Integrated framework is proposed to analyze environment and health co-benefits. • Travel demand here includes all travel means: road, rail, water, and air transport. • Counter-factual scenarios are proposed to estimate environment and health impacts.

  2. Transportation of failed or damaged foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.; Mustin, T.P.; Massey, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Since resuming the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance Program in 1996, the Program has had to deal with difficult issues associated with the transportation of failed or damaged spent fuel. In several instances, problems with failed or damaged fuel have prevented the acceptance of the fuel at considerable cost to both the Department of Energy (DOE) and research reactor operators. In response to the problems faced by the Acceptance Program, DOE has undertaken significant steps to better define the spent fuel acceptance criteria. DOE has worked closely with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address failed or damaged research reactor spent fuel and to identify cask certificate issues which must be resolved by cask owners and foreign regulatory authorities. The specific issues associated with the transport of Materials Testing Reactor (MTR)-type FRR SNF will be discussed. The information presented will include U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory issues, cask certificate issues, technical constraints, and lessons learned. Specific information will also be provided on the latest efforts to revise DOE's Appendix B, Transport Package (Cask) Acceptance Criteria. The information presented in this paper will be important to foreign research reactor operators, shippers, and cask vendors, so that appropriate amendments to the Certificate of Compliance for spent fuel casks can be submitted in a timely manner to facilitate the safe and scheduled transport of FRR SNF

  3. Transport experience of NH-25 spent fuel shipping cask for post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Ryuji

    1982-01-01

    Since the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co. hot laboratories are located far off from the port which can handle spent fuel shipping casks, it is necessary to use a trailer-mounted cask which can be transported by public roads, bridges and intersections for the transportation of spent fuel specimens to these hot laboratories. Model NH-25 shipping cask was designed, manufactured and oualification tested to meet Japanese regulations and was officially registered as a BM type cask. The NH-25 cask accomodates two BWR fuel assemblies, one PWR assembly or one ATR fuel assembly using interchangeable inner containers. The cask weight is 29.2 t. The cask has three concentric stainless steel shells. Gamma shielding is lead cast between the inner shell and the intermediate shell. Neutro n shielding consists of ethylene-glycol-aqueous solution layer formed between the intermediate shell and the outer shell. The NH-25 cask now has been in operation for 2.5 yr. It was used for the transportation of spent fuel assemblies from six LWR power plants to the port on shipping cask carrier ''Hinouramaru'' on the sea, as well as from the port to the hot laboratory on a trailer. The capability of safe handling and transporting of spent fuel assemblies has been well demonstrated. (author)

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  5. Case Study: Transportation Initiative Incorporates Alternative Fuels and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced greenhouse gases by incorporating electric vehicles and alternative fuels into fleet operations. Lovell FHCC increased its electric fleet by 200 in one year.

  6. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  7. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  8. Effects of the Fuel Price Increase on the Operating Cost of Freight Transport Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Adel; Matori, Nasir; Yusof, Khamaruzaman Wan; Toloue, Iraj; Myint, Kin Cho

    2018-03-01

    One of the most important criteria in freight modal choices is the transport operating cost in which fuel price changes has a significant effect on it. This paper presents the impact of fuel price increases on the operating cost of the different transport modes for the containerized freight transportation. In this study, an operating cost equation was applied to compare the operating cost of different freight transport vehicles as well as evaluation of the operating cost changes across a range of fuel prices between the current price and one-hundred percent increase. The equation consists of influential parameters such as fuel cost, driver wage and maintenance cost of a vehicle. It has been concluded that the effect of the fuel price increase on the operating cost of different freight transportation modes is not in the same rate. According to equation and effective parameters considered, comparing the results showed that truck has the highest cost, train has the largest increase in price. Finally, the ship is the most influenced vehicle in terms of operating cost percentage increase when the rate of fuel price increase, followed by train and truck.

  9. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostofa Kamal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC, carbon dioxide (CO2, particulate matter (PM, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Intelligent transport system (ITS technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  10. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  11. Development of a transport cask for spent fuel elements of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, F.; Saliba, R.O.; Furnari, J.C.; Mourao, R.P; Leite da Silva, L.; Novara, O.; Alexandre Miranda, C.; Mattar Neto, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development of a research reactor spent fuel transport cask. Through a project funded by the IAEA, Argentina, Brazil and Chile have collaborated to enhance regional capacity in the management of spent fuel elements from research reactors operated in the region. A packaging for the transport of research reactors spent fuel was developed. It was designed by a team of researchers from the countries mentioned and a 1:2 scale model for MTR type fuel was constructed in Argentina and subsequently tested in CDTN facilities in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. There were three test sequences to test the cask for normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. It has successfully passed the tests and the overall performance was considered satisfactory. As part of the licensing process, a test sequence with the presence of regulatory authorities is scheduled for December, 2012 (author)

  12. BNFL's experience in the sea transport of irradiated research reactor fuel to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, I.A.; Porter, I.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL provides worldwide transport for a wide range of nuclear materials. BNFL Transport manages an unique fleet of vessels, designed, built, and operated to the highest safety standards, including the highest rating within the INF Code recommended by the International Maritime Organisation. The company has some 20 years of experience of transporting irradiated research reactor fuel in support of the United States' programme for returning US obligated fuel from around the world. Between 1977 and 1988 BNFL performed 11 shipments of irradiated research reactor fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the US. Since 1997, a further 3 shipments have been performed as part of an ongoing programme for Japanese research reactor operators. Where possible, shipments of fuel from European countries such as Sweden and Spain have been combined with those from Japan for delivery to the US. (author)

  13. The use of methanol as a fuel for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Walsh, M.P. [Arlington, VA (United States); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the project was to collect and report international experiences concerning the use of methanol as an automotive fuel. The method has been to study the literature which covers the subject and most of the information has been collected that way. The project started with a participation in a conference and a visit to people who have been involved in activities concerning the use of automotive alcohols. Car manufacturers, environmental authorities and users of alcohol fuels i.e. representatives of bus companies, were interviewed. The different applications for the use of methanol as an automotive fuel has been described in the report as well as the production of methanol. Some results, mostly in form of emission data and other experiences derived from the use of alcohol fuels, have also been presented. The use of ethanol and methanol has been compared and based on information from engine manufacturers and users of alcohol fueled vehicles there seems to be a preference for the use of ethanol. However, the question `methanol or ethanol` has not been answered as the decision which of the two is to be used seems to depend more on economic factors, such as cost of the production of the fuel etc., than on other factors. 165 refs, 15 figs, 14 tabs

  14. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  15. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  16. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  17. A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

    1972-01-01

    The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

  18. Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyashina, G S; Vershinina, K Yu; Dmitrienko, M A; Strizhak, P A

    2018-04-05

    A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NO x and SO x several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material as type A package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Kageyama, Tomio; Suzuki, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Special law on nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to nuclear disaster countermeasures low) that is domestic law for dealing with measures for nuclear disaster, was enforced in June, 2000. Therefore, nuclear enterprise was obliged to report accidents as required by nuclear disaster countermeasures law, besides meeting the technical requirement of existent transport regulation. For overseas procurement of plutonium reference materials that are needed for material accountability, A Type package must be transported by air. Therefore, concept of air transport of nuclear fuel materials according to the nuclear disaster countermeasures law was discussed, and the manual including measures against accident in air transport was prepared for the oversea procurement. In this presentation, the concept of air transport of A Type package containing nuclear fuel materials according to the nuclear disaster countermeasures law, and the experience of a transportation of plutonium solution from France are shown. (author)

  20. Experience of European irradiated fuel transport - the first four hundred tonnes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the successful integration of the experience of its three shareholders into an international company providing an irradiated fuel transport service throughout Europe. The experience of transporting more than 400 tonnes of irradiated uranium from fifteen power reactors is used to illustrate the flexibility which the transport organisation requires when the access and handling facilities are different at almost every reactor. Variations in fuel cross sections and lengths of fuel elements used in first generation reactors created the need for first generation flasks with sufficient variants to accommodate all reactor fuels but the trend now is towards standardisation of flasks to perhaps two basic types. Increases in fuel rating have raised the flask shielding and heat dissipation requirements and have influenced the design of later flasks. More stringent criticality acceptance criteria have tended to reduce the flask capacity below the maximum number of elements which could physically be contained. Reprocessing plant acceptance criteria initiated because of the presence of substantial quantities of loose crud released in the flask and the need to transport substantial numbers of failed elements have also reduced the flask capacity. Different modes of transport have been developed to cater for the various limitations on access to reactor sites arising from geographical and routing considerations. The safety record of irradiated fuel transport is examined with explanation of the means whereby this has been achieved. The problems of programming the movement of a pool of flasks for fifteen reactors in eight countries are discussed together with the steps taken to ensure that the service operates fairly to give priority to those reactors with the greatest problems. The transport of European irradiated fuel can be presented as an example of international collaboration which works

  1. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk...... in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport......-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers’ risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption...

  2. Assessment of irradiated nuclear spent fuel transport in the Commonwealth of independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.; Lemogne, A.; Semin-Vadov, S.; Koshik, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuels (INFs) are transported regularly in and between the New Independent States (NIS). Under the TACIS Programme (Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States), the European Commission has funded this project devoted to the assessment of transports of INF in Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine in collaboration with local State Organizations, competent Authorities, nuclear facilities and transport companies. This paper will present the development of this project during the two years of its implementation as well as its main results. (authors)

  3. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix B, foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel characteristics and transportation casks. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix B of a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. It discusses relevant characterization and other information of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel that could be managed under the proposed action. It also discusses regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and the design of spent fuel casks

  4. Classification of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system components according to importance to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, M.J.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Ayers, A.L. Jr.; O'Connor, S.C.; Jankovich, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory prepared a technical report for the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, entitled Classification of Transportation Packaging and Dry Spent Fuel Storage System Components According to Importance to Safety, NUREG/CR-6407. This paper provides the results of that report. It also presents the graded approach for classification of components used in transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. This approach provides a method for identifying the classification of components according to importance to safety within transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. Record retention requirements are discussed to identify the documentation necessary to validate that the individual components were fabricated in accordance with their assigned classification. A review of the existing regulations pertaining to transportation packagings and dry storage systems was performed to identify current requirements. The general types of transportation packagings and dry storage systems are identified. The methodology used in this paper is based on Regulatory Guide 7.10, Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in the Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper also includes a list of generic components for each of the general types of transportation packagings and spent fuel storage systems, with a classification category assigned to each component. Several examples concerning the safety importance of components are presented

  5. Fuel shipment experience, fuel movements from the BMI-1 transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Thomas L.; Krause, Michael G.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Texas at Austin received two shipments of irradiated fuel elements from Northrup Aircraft Corporation on April 11 and 16, 1985. A total of 59 elements consisting of standard and instrumented TRIGA fuel were unloaded from the BMI-1 shipping cask. At the time of shipment, the Northrup core burnup was approximately 50 megawatt days with fuel element radiation levels, after a cooling time of three months, of approximately 1.75 rem/hr at 3 feet. In order to facilitate future planning of fuel shipment at the UT facility and other facilities, a summary of the recent transfer process including several factors which contributed to its success are presented. Numerous color slides were made of the process for future reference by UT and others involved in fuel transfer and handling of the BMI-1 cask

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Erik

    2004-02-01

    This thesis deals with modeling of two types of fuel cells: the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), for which we address four major issues: a) mass transport limitations; b) water management (PEFC); c) gas management (DMFC); d) thermal management. Four models have been derived and studied for the PEFC, focusing on the cathode. The first exploits the slenderness of the cathode for a two-dimensional geometry, leading to a reduced model, where several non dimensional parameters capture the behavior of the cathode. The model was extended to three dimensions, where four different flow distributors were studied for the cathode. A quantitative comparison shows that the interdigitated channels can sustain the highest current densities. These two models, comprising isothermal gas phase flow, limit the studies to (a). Returning to a two-dimensional geometry of the PEFC, the liquid phase was introduced via a separate flow model approach for the cathode. In addition to conservation of mass, momentum and species, the model was extended to consider simultaneous charge and heat transfer for the whole cell. Different thermal, flow fields, and hydrodynamic conditions were studied, addressing (a), (b) and (d). A scale analysis allowed for predictions of the cell performance prior to any computations. Good agreement between experiments with a segmented cell and the model was obtained. A liquid-phase model, comprising conservation of mass, momentum and species, was derived and analyzed for the anode of the DMFC. The impact of hydrodynamic, electrochemical and geometrical features on the fuel cell performance were studied, mainly focusing on (a). The slenderness of the anode allows the use of a narrow-gap approximation, leading to a reduced model, with benefits such as reduced computational cost and understanding of the physical trends prior to any numerical computations. Adding the gas-phase via a multiphase mixture approach, the gas

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); O' Connor, M. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek AIM, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Lefton, S. [Intertek AIM, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Lew, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  8. Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Caroline; Hales, Simon; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Edwards, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Theory, common sense and modelling studies suggest that some interventions to mitigate carbon emissions in the transport sector can also have substantial short-term benefits for population health. Policies that encourage active modes of transportation such as cycling may, for example, increase population physical activity and decrease air pollution, thus reducing the burden of conditions such as some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and dementia. In this Perspective we systematically review the evidence from 'real life' transport policies and their impacts on health and CO2 emissions. We identified a few studies that mostly involved personalized travel planning and showed modest increases in active transport such as walking, and reductions in vehicle use and CO2 emissions. Given the poor quality of the studies identified, urgent action is needed to provide more robust evidence for policies.

  9. Energetic benefits and rapid cellobiose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing cellobiose phosphorylase and mutant cellodextrin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Suk-Jin; Galazka, Jonathan M; Joong Oh, Eun; Kordić, Vesna; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su; Cate, Jamie H D

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria assimilate cellodextrins from plant biomass by using a phosphorolytic pathway to generate glucose intermediates for growth. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also be engineered to ferment cellobiose to ethanol using a cellodextrin transporter and a phosphorolytic pathway. However, strains with an intracellular cellobiose phosphorylase initially fermented cellobiose slowly relative to a strain employing an intracellular β-glucosidase. Fermentations by the phosphorolytic strains were greatly improved by using cellodextrin transporters with elevated rates of cellobiose transport. Furthermore under stress conditions, these phosphorolytic strains had higher biomass and ethanol yields compared to hydrolytic strains. These observations suggest that, although cellobiose phosphorolysis has energetic advantages, phosphorolytic strains are limited by the thermodynamics of cellobiose phosphorolysis (ΔG°=+3.6kJmol(-1)). A thermodynamic "push" from the reaction immediately upstream (transport) is therefore likely to be necessary to achieve high fermentation rates and energetic benefits of phosphorolysis pathways in engineered S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Notification determining technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The regulation for installation and operation of reactor'', ''The regulation concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel'' and ''The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuel''. The terms used hereinafter are according to those used in such regulations. The limit of radioactivity concentration of things contaminated by the nuclear fuel materials which are not required to be enclosed in vessels is defined in the lists attached. In the applications for the approval of the measures concerning the transport of things remarkably difficult to be enclosed in vessels, the name and the address of the applicant, the kind, quantity, form and constitution of the thing contaminated by the nuclear fuel materials to be transported, the date and route of the transport and the measures for the prevention of injuries during the transport must be written. The limit of quantity of nuclear fuel materials classifying the performance of vessels is defined respectively in the lists attached. The radiation dose rates provided for by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency concerning transported things and transporting apparatuses are 200 millirem per hour on the surfaces of such things and containers. The nuclear fission materials specified, for which the measures for the prevention of criticality are especially required, include uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, plutonium 241, and the chemical compounds of such substances, and the nuclear fuel materials containing one or two and more of such substances, excluding the nuclear fuel materials with less than 15 grams of such uranium and plutonium. (Okada, K.)

  11. Assessment of health risks brought about by transportation of spent fuel; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen kuljetusten terveysriskien arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suolanen, V.; Lautkaski, R.; Rossi, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In the study health risks caused by transportation of spent fuel from Olkiluoto and from Loviisa NPP`s to the planned disposal site have been evaluated. The Olkiluoto NPP is owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and the Loviisa NPP, situated at Haestholmen, by Fortum Power and Heat Oy. According to the base scenario of 40 years use of the current NPP`s the total amount of spent fuel will be 1840 tU (TVO) and 860 tU (Fortum). Annually, 110 tU on the average and at most 250 tU will be transported to the disposal site. The considered transportation routes are from Olkiluoto to Haestholmen, from Olkiluoto to Kivetty, from Olkiluoto to Romuvaara, from Haestholmen to Olkiluoto, from Haestholmen to Kivetty and from Haestholmen to Romuvaara. The considered transportation modes are truck, rail or ship, or combinations of these modes. Each transportation route has been divided into homogenised sequences with respect to population density and/or route type. Total amount of analysed route options were 40, some route sequences are overlapping. Radiation exposures to the population along the routes have been calculated in normal, incident and accident situations during transportation. Occupational radiation doses to the personnel have been estimated for normal transportation only. The consequences of normal transportation have been evaluated based on RADTRAN-model, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories. As incidents, stopping of spent fuel transportation for an exceptionally long period of time, and in another case contamination of outer surface of spent fuel cask have been considered. Expected collective doses and health risks of transportation accidents connected to the routes have been calculated with RADTRAN-model. Single hypothetical transport accidents with pessimistic release assumptions have been further analysed in more detail with the ARANO-model, developed by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). (orig.) 9 refs.

  12. Biogas as a fuel source for the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available and currently present socio-economic burdens to society. These mining impacted lands could grow energy crops to complement other sources of organic waste. Anaerobic digestion of these organic wastes and energy crops could produce biogas as a fuel...

  13. Novel sugar-to-hydrogen technology promises transportation fuel independence

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is not a futuristic concept. The U.S. Department of Energy's 2006 Advance Energy Initiative calls for competitive ethanol from plant sources by 2012 and a good selection of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles by 2020.

  14. Transportation fuel prices around the world, first half 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of 41 countries reveals that while most countries experienced higher prices in national currencies, a stronger dollar resulted in lower U.S. dollar adjusted fuel prices during the first half of the year. Currency exchange rate depreciation against the dollar was the predominant fact around the world

  15. Morphologically controlled fuel cell transport layers enabled via electrospun carbon nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Devin; Mérida, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and performance of carbon nanofibre substrates for PEM fuel cell transport layer applications. Electrospinning is used for fabrication; by manipulation of spinning properties, morphological control is demonstrated in the product. Our application of the technology and it's manipulability to PEMFC transport layers constitutes a novel approach to the manufacture of such layers. Ex-situ morphology, electrical resistance and water contact angles are reported in additional to in-situ hydrogen/air fuel cell performance. Electrospun transport layers are compared directly to established commercial products in a cathode PTL role. The electrospun transport layers demonstrate approximately 85% of the commercial limiting current density, swifter water transport characteristics, and markedly more stable operating points.

  16. Collective radiation doses following a hypothetical, very severe accident to an irradiated fuel transport flask containing AGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of the consequences of very severe, although unlikely, accidents to irradiated fuel transport flasks are made in order to evaluate risks. If an irradiated fuel transport flask carrying AGR fuel were damaged in a hypothetical accident involving a severe impact followed by a prolonged fire, a small proportion of caesium and other fission products might be released to the atmosphere from the gap inventory of broken fuel pins. The consequent radiation dose to the public would arise predominantly by direct irradiation from ground deposits and the ingestion of slightly contaminated foodstuffs. Although these collective doses must generally be estimated with the aid of computer codes, it is shown here that the worst case, when a high proportion of the radioactivity is deposited in a densely population area, can be assessed approximately by a much simpler method, an approach which is of great value in explaining the calculation in a manner that can be readily understood. A comparison is made between the simple approach and equivalent results from the NECTAR code, the worst case is compared with an ensemble average over all weather conditions, and the relative contributions of the two main routes to collective dose are discussed. (author)

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment on maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation (Part II: Ship collision probability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to assess and reduce risks of maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation with a probabilistic approach. Event trees detailing the progression of collisions leading to transport casks’ damage were constructed. Parallel and crossing collision probabilities were formulated based on the Poisson distribution. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data were processed with the Hough Transform algorithm to estimate possible intersections between the shipment route and the marine traffic. Monte Carlo simulations were done to compute collision probabilities and impact energies at each intersection. Possible safety improvement measures through a proper selection of operational transport parameters were investigated. These parameters include shipment routes, ship's cruise velocity, number of transport casks carried in a shipment, the casks’ stowage configuration and loading order on board the ship. A shipment case study is presented. Waters with high collision probabilities were identified. Effective range of cruising velocity to reduce collision risks were discovered. The number of casks in a shipment and their stowage method which gave low cask damage frequencies were obtained. The proposed methodology was successful in quantifying ship collision and cask damage frequency. It was effective in assisting decision making processes to minimize risks in maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation. - Highlights: • Proposes a probabilistic framework on the safety of spent nuclear fuel transportation by sea. • Developed a marine traffic simulation model using Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) algorithm. • A transportation case study on South Korean waters is presented. • Single-vessel risk reduction method is outlined by optimizing transport parameters.

  18. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R. [ANATECH Research Corp., La Jolla, CA (United States); Malinauskas, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Einziger, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, H. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Reardon, P.C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs.

  19. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D.; Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Jordan, H.; Reardon, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs

  20. Minnesota's Home-Grown Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    Minnesota leads the country in production and consumption of ethanol E-85 transportation. DOE's State Energy Program supports energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in the states through the state energy offices.

  1. A Historical Review of the Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Kevin J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pope, Ronald [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report is a revision to M3 milestone M3FT-16OR090402028 for the former Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST), “Safety Record of SNF Shipments.” The US Department of Energy (DOE) has since established the Office of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), which builds on the work begun by NFST, to develop an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), including the developm

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  3. Fuel-rich, catalytic reaction experimental results. [fuel development for high-speed civil transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine combustion requirements call for operating at very high inlet temperatures, pressures, and large temperature rises. At the same time, the combustion process is to have minimum pollution effects on the environment. Aircraft gas turbine engines utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels which are difficult to uniformly atomize and mix with combustion air. An approach for minimizing fuel related problems is to transform the liquid fuel into gaseous form prior to the completion of the combustion process. Experimentally obtained results are presented for vaporizing and partially oxidizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into burnable gaseous components. The presented experimental data show that 1200 to 1300 K reaction product gas, rich in hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and light-end hydrocarbons, is formed when flowing 0.3 to 0.6 fuel to air mixes through a catalyst reactor. The reaction temperatures are kept low enough that nitrogen oxides and carbon particles (soot) do not form. Results are reported for tests using different catalyst types and configurations, mass flowrates, input temperatures, and fuel to air ratios.

  4. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  5. Fuel cells for transportation program: FY1997 national laboratory annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cells for Transportation Program is structured to effectively implement the research and development (R and D) required for highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems to be a viable replacement for the internal combustion engine in automobiles. The Program is part of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a government-industry initiative aimed at development of an 80 mile-per-gallon vehicle. This Annual Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of the laboratories during 1997. Participants include: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). During 1997, the laboratory R and D included one project on solid oxide fuel cells; this project has since been terminated to focus Department resources on PEM fuel cells. The technical component of this report is divided into five key areas: fuel cell stack research and development; fuel processing; fuel cell modeling, testing, and evaluation; direct methanol PEM fuel cells; and solid oxide fuel cells.

  6. Existing experimental criticality data applicable to nuclear-fuel-transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analytical techniques are generally relied upon in making criticality evaluations involving nuclear material outside reactors. For these evaluations to be accepted the calculations must be validated by comparison with experimental data for a known set of conditions having physical and neutronic characteristics similar to those conditions being evaluated analytically. The purpose of this report is to identify those existing experimental data that are suitable for use in verifying criticality calculations on nuclear fuel transportation systems. In addition, near term needs for additional data in this area are identified. Of the considerable amount of criticality data currently existing, that are applicable to non-reactor systems, those particularly suitable for use in support of nuclear material transportation systems have been identified and catalogued into the following groups: (1) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water; (2) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water containing soluble neutron absorbers; (3) critical assemblies containing solid neutron absorber; (4) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with heavy metal reflectors; and (5) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with irregular features. A listing of the current near term needs for additional data in each of the groups has been developed for future use in planning criticality research in support of nuclear fuel transportation systems. The criticality experiments needed to provide these data are briefly described and identified according to priority and relative cost of performing the experiments

  7. Real driving emissions and fuel consumption characteristics of Istanbul public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozener Orkun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transportation, which uses intra city lines frequently, has vital importance on the cities air pollution. The fossil fuel based drive units, which emits pollutants, are the primary source of this interest. Also, the fuel consumption is another major concern because of economic aspects. For an efficient and clear transportation, the pollutants and fuel consumption has to be analyzed, considering the operating conditions. In this context, the Metrobus line of Istanbul city which crosses from European side to Asian side of the city was analyzed with portable emission measurement system and portable fuel consumption meter devices. The relevant bus operating data were also collected during the operation. The data were analyzed while considering the operating modes like acceleration, deceleration, and constant speed cruises. The emission factors were developed. The pollutant emissions generally decreased as the vehicle speed increased while the fuel consumption increased for the same acceleration level. These results show the importance of operating conditions and their non-linear effect on emissions and fuel consumption Istanbul public transportation.

  8. Taking burnup credit for interim storage and transportation system for BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ken-ichi; Ando, Y.; Kumanomido, H.; Sasaki, T.; Mitsuhashi, I.; Ueda, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to establish a realistic burnup credit design system, a calculation system has been developed for determining isotope compositions, burnup, and criticality. The calculation system consists of several modules such as TGBLA, ORIGEN, CITATION, MCNP, and KENO. The TGBLA code is a fuel design code for LWR fuels developed in TOSHIBA Corporation. A compact measurement system for a fuel assembly has been being developed to meet requirements for the burnup determination, the neutron emission-rate evaluation, and the nuclear materials management. For a spent MOX fuel, a neutron emission rate measurement method has been being developed. The system consists of Cd-Te detectors and / or fission chambers. Some model calculations were carried out for the latest design BWR fuels. The effect of taking burnup credit for a transportation cask is shown. (authors)

  9. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome A. Ramirez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can be modified towards meeting fuel standards using strategies such as solvent extraction, distillation, hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking. This article presents a review of the upgrading technologies available, and how they might be used to make HTL bio-crude into a transportation fuel that meets current fuel property standards.

  10. The transport of irradiated fuel. An activity closely related to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.; Curtis, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    With a proven reprocessing capacity of 400 tonnes of uranium per year and the rapid expansion of this capacity, the need to feed the reprocessing plants at La Hague has become vital to ensure continuous and economic reprocessing. The programming of transports by the reprocessor and transporter to ensure a constant supply of fuel for reprocessing has therefore become increasingly important. These transports use the public roads and the railway system and the reprocessor and transporter must cooperate in maintaining the highest possible standards of safety. Safety must take priority over all other factors, including the economics of the operation

  11. Safety of handling, storing and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.

    1977-11-01

    The safety of handling and transportation of spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste has been studied. Only the operations which are performed in Sweden are included. That is: - Transportation of spent fuel from the reactors to an independant spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI). - Temporary storage of spent fuel in the ISFSI. - Transportation of the spent fuel from the ISFSI to a foreign reprocessing plant. - Transportation of vitrified high-level waste to an interim storage facility. - Interim storage of vitrified high-level waste. - Handling of the vitrified high-level waste in a repository for ultimate disposal. For each stage in the handling sequence above the following items are given: - A brief technical description. - A description of precautionary measures considered in the design. - An analysis of the discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in normal operation. - An analysis of the discharges of radioactive materials due to postulated accidents. The dose to the public has been roughly and conservatively estimated for both normal and accident conditions. The expected rate of occurence are given for the accidents. The results show that above described handling sequence gives only a minor risk contribution to the public

  12. Revised estimates of the radiological impact of the transport of irradiated nuclear fuels within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents revised estimates of individual and collective doses associated with irradiated fuel movements from CEGB and SSEB nuclear power stations within the UK. In particular, earlier estimates of transport doses have been updated to take account of recent changes in the patterns of rail traffic. This results in a reduction in the estimated maximum individual doses to members of the public living near marshalling yards where flasks stop en route and also to rail workers incidentally exposed at these locations. The maximum levels of individual dose associated with irradiated fuel transport within the UK are in general low compared with those due to natural background radiation. Further, the associated collective doses are small compared with other sources of dose arising in the nuclear fuel cycle and represent -4 % of the natural background radiation dose to the UK population. In absolute terms the maximum contributions to the annual transport collective doses from Magnox, AGR and projected PWR fuel movements are estimated to be 18, 9 and 0.7 man mSv · a -1 respectively. These results neglect any reduction in doses due to the effects of shielding by buildings or natural obstacles such as railway cuttings or tunnels. Inclusion of these effects has been estimated to reduce the annual transport collective doses to 13, 6 and 0.45 man mSv · a -1 for Magnox, AGR and PWR fuels respectively. (U.K.)

  13. A simplified computational scheme for thermal analysis of LWR spent fuel dry storage and transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun

    1997-02-01

    A simplified computational scheme for thermal analysis of the LWR spent fuel dry storage and transportation casks has been developed using two-step thermal analysis method incorporating effective thermal conductivity model for the homogenized spent fuel assembly. Although a lot of computer codes and analytical models have been developed for application to the fields of thermal analysis of dry storage and/or transportation casks, some difficulties in its analysis arise from the complexity of the geometry including the rod bundles of spent fuel and the heat transfer phenomena in the cavity of cask. Particularly, if the disk-type structures such as fuel baskets and aluminium heat transfer fins are included, the thermal analysis problems in the cavity are very complex. To overcome these difficulties, cylindrical coordinate system is adopted to calculate the temperature profile of a cylindrical cask body using the multiple cylinder model as the step-1 analysis of the present study. In the step-2 analysis, Cartesian coordinate system is adopted to calculate the temperature distributions of the disk-type structures such as fuel basket and aluminium heat transfer fin using three- dimensional conduction analysis model. The effective thermal conductivity for homogenized spent fuel assembly based on Manteufel and Todreas model is incorporated in step-2 analysis to predict the maximum fuel temperature. The presented two-step computational scheme has been performed using an existing HEATING 7.2 code and the effective thermal conductivity for the homogenized spent fuel assembly has been calculated by additional numerical analyses. Sample analyses of five cases are performed for NAC-STC including normal transportation condition to examine the applicability of the presented simplified computational scheme for thermal analysis of the large LWR spent fuel dry storage and transportation casks and heat transfer characteristics in the cavity of the cask with the disk-type structures

  14. Operation and maintenance of spent fuel storage and transportation casks/containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Member States have a growing need for casks for spent fuel storage and transportation. A variety of casks has been developed and is in use at an increasing number of sites. This has resulted in an accumulation of experience that will provide valuable information for other projects in spent fuel management. This publication provides a comprehensive review of information on the cask operation and maintenance associated with spent fuel storage. It draws upon generic knowledge from industrial experience and applications and is intended to serve as a basis for better planning and implementation in future projects

  15. U.S. spent fuel transportation security in the post 9/11 world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Catherine; Patterson, John; Williams, Blake

    2002-01-01

    On September 11, 2002 the terrible tragedies in New York, Pennsylvania and Washington, DC changed the world forever. Security issues not only impact our daily lives, but are also in a state flux concerning the shipment of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. The formation of the Homeland Security Advisory System and Interim Compensatory Measures from the NRC, along with other security measures, have affected the way we transport spent nuclear fuel. This paper describes the challenging and demanding way that security is planned, implemented and maintained in support of spent fuel shipments in the United States. (author)

  16. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy

  17. Revised conceptual designs for the FMDP MOX fresh fuel transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Chae, S.M.; Tang, J.S.

    1998-03-01

    The revised conceptual designs described in this document provide a foundation for the development and certification of final transport package designs that will be needed to support the disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial light-water reactors in the US. This document is intended to describe the revised package design concepts and summarize the results of preliminary analyses and assessments of two new concepts for fresh MOX fuel transport packages that have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the past year in support of the Department of Energy/Office of Fissile Materials Disposition

  18. Experimental investigations on a fuel element transportation vessel for analysis of mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diersch, R.; Ulrich, N.; Huggenberg, R.; Janberg, K.; Ettemeyer, A.

    1995-01-01

    During approval of fuel element transportation vessels extensive proofs have to be made to qualify the theoretical calculations. In order to get maximum information about the behaviour of the components of the vessels and the real boundary conditions holographic measuring techniques are used. The application of holography on the experimental analysis of a fuel element transportation vessel is shown on a THTR-CASTOR-container. As an example, the deformation of a lifting lug is analysed and the flexible bending of the vessel cap is measured. The experimental results are compared with analytical calculation results. (orig.)

  19. Spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste transportation. White paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee of the Western Interstate Energy Board has been involved in a year-long cooperative project with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an information base on the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) so that western states can be constructive and informed participants in the repository program under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). The historical safety record of transportation of HLW and spent fuel is excellent; no release of these radioactive materials has ever occurred during transportation. Projected shipments under the NWPA will, however, greatly exceed current shipments in the US. For example, over the past five years, 119 metric tons of civilian spent fuel have been shipped in this country, while shipments to the first and second repository are each expected to peak at 3000 metric tons per year. The Committee believes that the successful development and operation of a national HLW/spent fuel transportation system can best be accomplished through an open process based on the common sense approach of taking all reasonable measures to minimize public risk and performing whatever actions are reasonably required to promote public acceptance. Therefore, the Committee recommends that the Department of Energy further the goals of the NWPA by developing a Comprehensive Transportation Plan which adopts a systematic, comprehensive, and integrated approach to resolving all spent fuel and HLW transportation issues in a timely manner. The suggested scope of such a plan is discussed in this White paper. Many of the suggested elements of such a plan are similar to those being developed by the Department of energy for inclusion in the Department's Transportation Institutional Plan

  20. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  1. Economical benefits for the use of slightly enriched fuel elements at the Atucha-I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidelnik, J.I.; Sosa, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fuel represents a very important factor in the operative cost of the Atucha I nuclear power plant. This cost is drastically reduced with the use of fuel elements of slightly enriched uranium. The annual saving is analyzed with actual values for fuel elements with an enrichment of 0.85% by weight of U-235. With the reactor core in equilibrium state the annual saving achieved is approximately 7.5-10 u$s. According to the present irradiation plan, the benefit for the transition period is studied. An analysis of the sensitivity to differential increments in factors determining the cost of fuel elements or to changes in manufacturing losses is also performed, calculating its effect on the waste, the storage of irradiated elements and the amount of UO 2 required. (Author)

  2. 77 FR 28406 - Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Radioactive Material by Air and Other Modes,'' which assessed the adequacy of those regulations to provide... under routine and accident transport conditions, and the risk was found to be acceptable. Since that... accident. This investigation shows that the risk from the radiation emitted from the cask is a small...

  3. Accessibility is gold, mobility is not: a proposal for the improvement of Dutch transport-related cost-benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, A.; Beukers, E.; te Brömmelstroet, M.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) has become a key instrument for the evaluation of transport planning policies and projects in the Netherlands. Currently, this instrument is also used to evaluate integrated land-use and transport strategies. In Dutch transport-related CBA the conceptualisation of

  4. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, Satish G. [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Lu, Zijie [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rao, Navalgund [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Sergi, Jacqueline [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rath, Cody [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); McDade, Christopher [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Trabold, Thomas [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Owejan, Jon [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Gagliardo, Jeffrey [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Allen, Jeffrey [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Yassar, Reza S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medici, Ezequiel [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Herescu, Alexandru [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions.

  5. Analysis of the transportation logistics for spent nuclear fuel in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyo Jik; Ko, Won Il; Seo, Ki Seok

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the back-end fuel cycle, transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants (NPP s ) to a fuel storage facility is very important in establishing a nuclear fuel cycle. In Korea, the accumulated amount of SNF in the NPP pools is troublesome since the temporary storage facilities at these NPP pools are expected to be full of SNF within ten years. Therefore, Korea cannot help but plan for the construction of an interim storage facility to solve this problem in the near future. Especially, a decision on several factors, such as where the interim storage facility should be located, how many casks a transport ship can carry at a time and how many casks are initially required, affect the configuration of the transportation system. In order to analyze the various possible candidate scenarios, we assumed four cases for the interim storage facility location, three cases for the load capacity that a transport ship can carry and two cases for the total amount of casks used for transportation. First, this study considered the currently accumulated amount of SNF in Korea, and the amount of SNF generated from NPP s until all NPP s are shut down. Then, how much SNF per year must be transported from theNPP s to an interim storage facility was calculated during an assumed transportation period. Second, 24 candidate transportation scenarios were constructed by a combination of the decision factors. To construct viable yearly transportation schedules for the selected 24 scenarios, we created a spreadsheet program named TranScenario, which was developed by using MS EXCEL. TranScenario can help schedulers input shipping routes and allocate transportation casks. Also,TranScenario provides information on the cask distribution in the NPP s and in the interim storage facility automatically, by displaying it in real time according to the shipping routes, cask types and cask numbers that the user generates. Once a yearly transportation schedule is established

  6. Used Fuel Logistics: Decades of Experience with transportation and Interim storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, G.; Shelton, C.

    2015-07-01

    Used fuel inventories are growing worldwide. While some countries have opted for a closed cycle with recycling, numerous countries must expand their interim storage solutions as implementation of permanent repositories is taking more time than foreseen. In both cases transportation capabilities will have to be developed. AREVA TN has an unparalleled expertise with transportation of used fuel. For more than 50 years AREVA TN has safely shipped more than 7,000 used fuel transport casks. The transportation model that was initially developed in the 1970s has been adapted and enhanced over the years to meet more restrictive regulatory requirements and evolving customer needs, and to address public concerns. The numerous “lessons learned” have offered data and guidance that have allowed for also efficient and consistent improvement over the decades. AREVA TN has also an extensive experience with interim dry storage solutions in many countries on-site but also is working with partners to developed consolidated interim storage facility. Both expertise with storage and transportation contribute to safe, secure and smooth continuity of the operations. This paper will describe decades of experience with a very successful transportation program as well as interim storage solutions. (Author)

  7. Impact of thermodynamic properties and heat loss on ignition of transportation fuels in rapid compression machines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2018-01-30

    Rapid compression machines (RCM) are extensively used to study autoignition of a wide variety of fuels at engine relevant conditions. Fuels ranging from pure species to full boiling range gasoline and diesel can be studied in an RCM to develop a better understanding of autoignition kinetics in low to intermediate temperature ranges. In an RCM, autoignition is achieved by compressing a fuel/oxidizer mixture to higher pressure and temperature, thereby initiating chemical reactions promoting ignition. During these experiments, the pressure is continuously monitored and is used to deduce significant events such as the end of compression and the onset of ignition. The pressure profile is also used to assess the temperature evolution of the gas mixture with time using the adiabatic core hypothesis and the heat capacity ratio of the gas mixture. In such RCM studies, real transportation fuels containing many components are often represented by simpler surrogate fuels. While simpler surrogates such as primary reference fuels (PRFs) and ternary primary reference fuel (TPRFs) can match research and motor octane number of transportation fuels, they may not accurately replicate thermodynamic properties (including heat capacity ratio). This non-conformity could exhibit significant discrepancies in the end of compression temperature, thereby affecting ignition delay (τign) measurements. Another aspect of RCMs that can affect τign measurement is post compression heat loss, which depends on various RCM parameters including geometry, extent of insulation, pre-heating temperature etc. To, better understand the effects of these non-chemical kinetic parameters on τign, thermodynamic properties of a number of FACE G gasoline surrogates were calculated and simulated in a multi-zone RCM model. The problem was further investigated using a variance based analysis and individual sensitivities were calculated. This study highlights the effects on τign due to thermodynamic properties of

  8. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... electric vehicle (HEV) that has an engine that operates solely on alternative fuel (e.g., compressed... vehicle, the vehicle also must be one that ``has received a certificate of conformity under the Clean Air... duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards under the Clean Air Act. See 75 FR 25324, 25684 (May 7...

  9. MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions

  10. Thermal simulations and tests in the development of a helmet transport spent fuel elements Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba, R.; Quintana, F.; Márquez Turiello, R.; Furnari, J.C.; Pimenta Mourão, R.

    2013-01-01

    A packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel from research reactors was designed by a group of researchers to improve the capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the reactors operated in the region. Two half-scale models for MTR fuel were constructed and tested so far and a third one for both MTR and TRIGA fuels will be constructed and tested next. Four test campaigns have been carried out, covering both normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. The thermal test is part of the requirements for the qualification of transportation packages for nuclear reactors spent fuel elements. In this paper both the numerical modelling and experimental thermal tests performed are presented and discussed. The cask is briefly described as well as the finite element model developed and the main adopted hypotheses for the thermal phenomena. The results of both numerical runs and experimental tests are discussed as a tool to validate the thermal modelling. The impact limiters, attached to the cask for protection, were not modelled. (author) [es

  11. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEM Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan S.

    2009-01-01

    The response of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells to a step change in load is investigated experimentally in this work. Voltage undershoot, a characteristic feature of transient response following a step increase in current, is due to transients of water distribution in the membrane and ionomers occurring at subsecond time scales. The use of humidified reactants as a means to control the magnitude of voltage undershoot is demonstrated. Further, the response under a step decrease in current density is explored to determine the existence of hysteresis. Under sufficiently humidified conditions, the responses under forward and reverse step changes are symmetric, but under low relative humidity conditions, voltage undershoot is twice as large as the overshoot. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society.

  12. A model for radial cesium transport in a fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Shosuke

    1989-01-01

    In order to explain the radial redistribution of cesium in an irradiated pellet, a two-step release model is proposed. The first step involves the migration of cesium by atomic diffusion to some channels, such as grain boundaries and cracks, and the second step assumes a thermomigration down along the temperature gradient. Distribution profiles of cesium are obtained by numerical calculation with the present model assuming a constant and spatially uniform birth rate of cesium in the pellet. The result agrees well with the profile observed by micro-gamma scanning for the LWR fuel in the outer region of the pellet but diverges from it at the inner region. Discussion is made on the steady-state model hitherto generally utilized. (orig.)

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a fuel cell power system for transportation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Li, X.; Dincer, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system for transportation applications. The PEM fuel cell performance model developed previously by two of the authors is incorporated into the present model. The analysis includes the operation of all the components in the system, which consists of two major modules: PEM fuel cell stack module and system module and a cooling pump. System module includes air compressor, heat exchanger, humidifier and a cooling loop. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of varying operating conditions (e.g., temperature pressure and air stoichiometry) on the energy and exergy efficiencies of the system. Further, thermodynamic irreversibilities in each component of the system are determined. It is found that, with the increase of external load (current density), the difference between the gross stack power and net system power increases. The largest irreversibility rate occurs in the fuel cell stack. Thus, minimization of irreversibility rate in the fuel cell stack is essential to enhance the performance of the system, which in turn reduces the cost and helps in commercialization of fuel cell power system in transportation applications. (author)

  14. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of natural gas based fuel chains for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-04-15

    This research compares the use of natural gas, methanol, and hydrogen as transportation fuels. These three fuel chains start with the extraction and processing of natural gas in the Norwegian North Sea and end with final use in Central Europe. The end use is passenger transportation with a sub-compact car that has an internal combustion engine for the natural gas case and a fuel cell for the methanol and hydrogen cases. The life cycle assessment is performed by combining a process based life-cycle inventory with economic input-output data. The analysis shows that the potential climate impacts are lowest for the hydrogen fuel scenario with CO2 deposition. The hydrogen fuel chain scenario has no significant environmental disadvantage compared to the other fuel chains. Detailed analysis shows that the construction of the car contributes significantly to most impact categories. Finally, it is shown how the application of a hybrid inventory model ensures a more complete inventory description compared to standard process-based life-cycle assessment. This is particularly significant for car construction which would have been significantly underestimated in this study using standard process life-cycle assessment alone.

  15. Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Hon, G.; Wang, H. [The International Council for Clean Transportation ICCT, Beijing (China); Tsimplis, M. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate

  16. Efficient catalytic processes for the manufacturing of high-quality transportation fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de

    1996-01-01

    Manufacturing of transportation fuels incorporates a number of generations of technology, viz. (1) refining processes to arrive at the desired product quality, (2) conversion processes to balance the feedstock supply with the product demand, (3) processes to steer product composition and (4)

  17. The operational and logistic experience on transportation of Brazilian spent fuel to USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, Jose Rubens; Frajndlich, Roberto; Mandlae, Martin; Bensberg, Werner; Renger, August; Grabow, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    A shipment of 127 spent MTR fuel assemblies was made from IEA-R1 Research Reactor located at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Brazil to Savannah River Site Laboratory in the United States. This paper describes the operational and logistic experience on this transportation made by IPEN staff and the Consortium NCS/GNS. (author)

  18. Energy system aspects of hydrogen as an alternative fuel in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesohl, Stephan; Merten, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Considering the enormous ecological and economic importance of the transport sector the introduction of alternative fuels-together with drastic energy efficiency gains-will be a key to sustainable mobility, nationally as well as globally. However, the future role of alternative fuels cannot be examined from the isolated perspective of the transport sector. Interactions with the energy system as a whole have to be taken into account. This holds both for the issue of availability of energy sources as well as for allocation effects, resulting from the shift of renewable energy from the stationary sector to mobile applications. With emphasis on hydrogen as a transport fuel for private passenger cars, this paper discusses the energy systems impacts of various scenarios introducing hydrogen fueled vehicles in Germany. It identifies clear restrictions to an enhanced growth of clean hydrogen production from renewable energy sources (RES). Furthermore, it points at systems interdependencies that call for a priority use of RES electricity in stationary applications. Whereas hydrogen can play an increasing role in transport after 2030 the most important challenge is to exploit short-mid-term potentials of boosting car efficiency

  19. Two-dimensional radiation shielding optimization analysis of spent fuel transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yingnan; Chen Yixue; Yang Shouhai

    2013-01-01

    The intelligent radiation shielding optimization design software platform is a one-dimensional multi-target radiation shielding optimization program which is developed on the basis of the genetic algorithm program and one-dimensional discrete ordinate program-ANISN. This program was applied in the optimization design analysis of the spent fuel transport container radiation shielding. The multi-objective optimization calculation model of the spent fuel transport container radiation shielding was established, and the optimization calculation of the spent fuel transport container weight and radiation dose rate was carried by this program. The calculation results were checked by Monte-Carlo program-MCNP/4C. The results show that the weight of the optimized spent fuel transport container decreases to 81.1% of the origin and the radiation dose rate decreases to below 65.4% of the origin. The maximum deviation between the calculated values from the program and the MCNP is below 5%. The results show that the optimization design scheme is feasible and the calculation result is correct. (authors)

  20. The effect of inhomogeneous compression on water transport in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional, multi-component, two-fluid model developed in the commercial CFD package CFX 13 (ANSYS inc.), is used to investigate the effect of porous media compression on transport phenomenon of a PEM Fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model only consist of the cathode channel, gas diffusion...

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  2. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  3. Development of a fresh MOX fuel transport package for disposition of weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Chae, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy announced its Record of Decision on January 14, 1997, to embark on a dual-track approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium using immobilization in glass or ceramics and burning plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in reactors. In support of the MOX fuel alternative, Oak Ridge National Laboratory initiated development of conceptual designs for a new package for transporting fresh (unirradiated) MOX fuel assemblies between the MOX fabrication facility and existing commercial light-water reactors in the US. This paper summarizes progress made in development of new MOX transport package conceptual designs. The development effort has included documentation of programmatic and technical requirements for the new package and development and analysis of conceptual designs that satisfy these requirements

  4. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  5. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  6. Usage of Production Functions in the Comparative Analysis of Transport Related Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torok Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

  7. Means of transport and ontological security: do cars provide psycho-social benefits to their users?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscock, Rosemary [St Andrews Univ., School of Geography and Geosciences, St Andrews (United Kingdom); Macintyre, Sally; Ellaway, Anne [MRC, Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kearns, Ade [Glasgow Univ., Dept. of Urban Studies, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents some empirical evidence on the psycho-social benefits people seem to derive from their cars based on in-depth interviews with a sample of car owners and non-car owners in the West of Scotland. We suggest that psycho-social benefits of protection, autonomy and prestige may help to explain people's attachment to cars and also why studies have found consistently that car owners are healthier than non-car owners. In our study cars were seen to provide protection from undesirable people events, and a comfortable cocoon (but not as providing protection against accidents). Cars provided autonomy because car use was seen as being more convenient, reliable and providing access to more destinations than public transport. Cars were seen to confer prestige and other socially desirable attributes such as competence, skill and masculinity. We think that it is important for policy makers to consider how to make public transport more attractive by increasing its potential to provide similar sorts of benefits, and to do so by targeting the different needs of various population groups. (Author)

  8. Contrasts in active transport behaviour across four countries: how do they translate into public health benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götschi, Thomas; Tainio, Marko; Maizlish, Neil; Schwanen, Tim; Goodman, Anna; Woodcock, James

    2015-05-01

    Countries and regions vary substantially in transport related physical activity that people gain from walking and cycling and in how this varies by age and gender. This study aims to quantify the population health impacts of differences between four settings. The Integrated Transport and Health Model (ITHIM) was used to estimate health impacts from changes to physical activity that would arise if adults in urban areas in England and Wales adopted travel patterns of Switzerland, the Netherlands, and California. The model was parameterised with data from travel surveys from each setting and estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Two types of scenarios were created, one in which the total travel time budget was assumed to be fixed and one where total travel times varied. Substantial population health benefits would accrue if people in England and Wales gained as much transport related physical activity as people in Switzerland or the Netherlands, whilst smaller but still considerable harms would occur if active travel fell to the level seen in California. The benefits from achieving the travel patterns of the high cycling Netherlands or high walking Switzerland were similar. Differences between high income countries in how people travel have important implications for population health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Experience with the loading and transport of fuel assembly transport casks, including CASTOR casks, and the radiation exposure of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentele, W.; Kinzelmann, T.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, six spent fuel assembly transports started from the nuclear power plant Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN), using CASTOR-V19 casks. Professor Kuni of Marburg University challenged the statement made by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)) based on accepted scientific knowledge, according to which so-called CASTOR transports present no risk, either to the population or to the escorting police units. This paper shows that the collective dose during the loading of the CASTOR casks amounted to 4.5 mSv (gamma and neutrons) per cask at the most, and that the maximum individual dose amounted to 0.26 mSv. In addition to these doses, the collective dose during handling and transport must be considered: this amounted to 0.35 mSv (gamma and neutrons). The dose to the police escort was -2 (limit for surface contamination), presented degrees of contamination >4 Bq cm -2 upon reaching the Valognes/Cogema terminal. However, transport casks coming from French plants also revealed degrees of contamination >4 Bq cm -2 , as well as 'hot spots'. No such contamination was found on NTL 11 casks transported from the GKN to Sellafield. Neither was any increased contamination found upon the arrival of CASTOR-V19 casks transported from GKN to Gorleben or Ahaus. The partially sensationalist media reports were inversely proportional to the actual radiological relevance of the matter. The German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK) confirmed that the radiological effect of such contaminated spent fuel transports is negligible. (author)

  10. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1978-11-01

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10 -5 fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 10 11 of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year

  11. Trading greenhouse gas emission benefits from biofuel use in US transportation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarappan, Subbu; Joshi, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Replacing petroleum fuels with biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has been shown to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These GHG benefits can potentially be traded in the fledgling carbon markets, and methodologies for quantifying and trading are still being developed. We review the main challenges in developing such carbon trading frameworks and outline a proposed framework for the US, the main features of which include, lifecycle assessment of GHG benefits, a combination of project-specific and standard performance measures, and assigning GHG property rights to biofuel producers. At carbon prices of 10 $ t −1 , estimated monetary benefits from such trading can be 4.5 M$ hm −3 and 17 M$ hm −3 of corn ethanol and cellulosic ethanol respectively. -- Highlights: ▶ Develops a biofuel GHG trading protocol using life-cycle emissions. ▶ Discusses the differences in feedstock and impacts on GHG trading potential. ▶ Compares the developed protocol for biofuels with other existing protocols. ▶ Estimates the market potential, and challenges associated with trading GHG emissions.

  12. Taking burnup credit for interim storage and transportation system for BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, K.I.

    2000-01-01

    In the back-end issues of nuclear fuel cycle, selection of reprocessing or one-through is a big issue. For both of the cases, a reasonable interim storage and transportation system is required. This study proposes an advanced practical monitoring and evaluation system. The system features the followings: (l) Storage racks and transportation casks taking credit for burnup. (2) A burnup estimation system using a compact monitor with Cd- Te detectors and fission chambers. (3) A neutron emission-rate evaluation methodology, especially important for high burnup MOX fuels. (4) A nuclear materials management system for safeguards. Current storage system and transport casks are designed on the basis of a fresh fuel assumption. The assumption is too conservative. Taking burnup credit gives a reasonable design while keeping conservatism. In order to establish a reasonable burnup credit design system, a calculation system has been developed for determining isotope compositions, burnup, and criticality. The calculation system consists of some modules such as TGBLA, ORIGEN, CITATION, MCNP and KENO. The TGBLA code is a fuel design code for LWR fuels developed in TOSHIBA Corporation. The code takes operational history such as, power density, void fraction into account. This code is applied to the back-end issues for a more accurate design of a storage and a transportation system. The ORIGEN code is well-known one-point isotope depletion code. In the calculation system, the code calculates isotope compositions using libraries generated from the TGBLA code. The CITATION code, the MCNP code, and the KENO code are three dimensional diffusion code, continuous energy Monte Carlo code, discrete energy Monte Carlo code, respectively. Those codes calculate k- effective of the storage and transportation systems using isotope compositions generated from the ORIGEN code. The CITATION code and the KENO code are usually used for practical designs. The MCNP code is used for reference

  13. Gas fuels for the transport sector; Denmark; Gas til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses suggest that especially biogas, but also natural gas in macroeconomic terms will be attractive propellants, including for heavy transport. To implement a Danish expansion of gas infrastructure for transportation, the report recommends the following essential elements: 1) A Danish rollout should be closely linked to contracts with fleet owners with heavy vehicles / taxis / vans and the like, thus ensuring high utilization of filling stations; 2) About 10 larger, flexible CNG filling stations set up at major fleet owners is estimated as sufficient for an initial deployment phase, strategically distributed in and around Copenhagen, the major cities and along the main road network from Sweden to Germany; 3) A certain time-limited funding for the construction of infrastructure is likely to cause a rapid spread, if desired, and if other business conditions are in place; 4) There is a need for adjustment of tax terms - the rules for green taxes should be adjusted, and it should be considered to lower the taxes on CNG and biogas; 5) Natural gas mixed with biogas should be an integral element of a comprehensive strategy to ensure maximum CO{sub 2} displacement. (LN)

  14. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  15. Modeling and Diagnostics of Fuel Cell Porous Media for Improving Water Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Jeff; M' edici, Ezequiel

    2011-07-01

    When a fuel cell is operating at high current density, water accumulation is a significant cause of performance and component degradation. Investigating the water transport inside the fuel cell is a challenging task due to opacity of the components, the randomness of the porous materials, and the difficulty in gain access to the interior for measurement due to the small dimensions of components. Numerical simulation can provide a good insight of the evolution of the water transport under different working condition. However, the validation of those simulations is remains an issue due the same experimental obstacles associated with in-situ measurements. The discussion herein will focus on pore-network modeling of the water transport on the PTL and the insights gained from simulations as well as in the validation technique. The implications of a recently published criterion to characterize PTL, based on percolation theory, and validate numerical simulation are discussed.

  16. The emergence of rural transport strategies in response to rising fuel costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Dana; Pearlmutter, David; Schwartz, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Rising and sometimes volatile fuel prices pose a challenge for rural organizations reliant on long distance transport. To understand the coping mechanisms used by such organizations, we survey rural business strategies in Israel, where fuel prices are high and urban development is concentrated in the country's geographic center. The businesses surveyed are operated by kibbutzim, historically collective communities that are now in various stages of privatization. Analysis of the ‘transport strategies’ employed by nearly 100 organizations in three regions of varying remoteness and isolation shows that firms rely on distinct strategies such as localization and high value density. Localization was found to be prevalent in all regions, as it requires little capital investment. Strategies exploiting high value density, including information-based services, were prevalent in remote and isolated regions where sensitivity to transport costs is acute. Non-remote firms were less inclined toward strategic adaptation, preferring non-disruptive changes such as cheaper shipping modes. The development implications of these transport strategies are consistent with rural economic trends observed throughout the developed world. If transport costs continue to rise, rural firms may shrink the radius of their sales and labor pools, or search for more lucrative products to reduce their relative transport costs. - Highlights: ► We survey transport strategies used by rural businesses in Israeli kibbutzim. ► The seven distinct strategies identified include localization and value density. ► Localization is used in all regions and value density in remote and isolated regions. ► Development implications are consistent with economic trends in other rural regions. ► Rural firms will likely respond to high fuel costs by strategic transport adaptation.

  17. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  18. Risk associated with the transport of radioactive materials in the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Mairs, J.; Niel, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out the regulatory framework within which nuclear fuel cycle materials are transported. It establishes the basic principles of those safety regulations and explains the graded approach to satisfying those requirements depending on the hazard of the radioactive contents. The paper outlines the minimum performance standards required by the Regulations. It covers the performance standards for Type C packages in a little more detail because these are new to the 1996 Edition of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and are less well reported elsewhere at present. The paper then gives approximate data on the number of shipments of radioactive materials that service the nuclear fuel cycles in France, Germany and the UK. The quantities are expressed as average annual quantities per GW el installed capacity. There is also a short discussion of the general performance standards required of Type B packages in comparison with tests that have simulated specific accident conditions involving particular packages. There follows a discussion on the probability of packages experiencing accident conditions that are comparable with the tests that Type B packages are required to withstand. Finally there is a summary of the implementation of the Regulations for sea and air transport and a description of ongoing work that may have a bearing on the future development of mode related Regulations. Nuclear fuel cycle materials are transported in accordance with strict and internationally agreed safety regulations which are the result of a permanent and progressive process based on social concern and on the advancement of knowledge provided by research and development. Transport operations take place in the public domain and some become high profile events in the management of these materials, attracting a lot of public, political and media attention. The risks associated with the transport of radioactive materials are low and it is important

  19. Nickel plating of spent fuel element transportation and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedenig, D.O.; Holly, F.

    1987-01-01

    For economic reasons, the stainless steel used for nuclear transport and storage containers has been replaced by a significantly less expensive, but almost equally suitable material - spheroidal graphite cast iron. Because of the impossibility of sufficiently decontaminating raw cast iron surfaces, a suitable coating had to be developed. Steel lining, epoxy painting and soft nickel plating are known possibilities. If both the requirements made on such a coating and the economics are considered, soft nickel seems to be the most attractive solution. The paper describes the process of soft nickel plating which was developed by Von Roll, Switzerland, based on its proprietary ''Toraxier-Process'' - in co-operation with GNS (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen). Soft nickel plating has been successfully applied to more than 30 Castor containers. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional two-phase mass transport model for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.W.; Zhao, T.S.; Xu, C.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) steady-state model for liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is presented in this paper. This 3D mass transport model is formed by integrating five sub-models, including a modified drift-flux model for the anode flow field, a two-phase mass transport model for the porous anode, a single-phase model for the polymer electrolyte membrane, a two-phase mass transport model for the porous cathode, and a homogeneous mist-flow model for the cathode flow field. The two-phase mass transport models take account the effect of non-equilibrium evaporation/ condensation at the gas-liquid interface. A 3D computer code is then developed based on the integrated model. After being validated against the experimental data reported in the literature, the code was used to investigate numerically transport behaviors at the DMFC anode and their effects on cell performance

  1. Analysis of transportation and handling system for advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dong Hee; Yoon, J. S.; Park, B. S.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Jung, J. H.; Jin, J. H.; Park, G. Y.; Song, T. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    In this report, several devices which are used to safely transport and handle nuclear materials without scattering have been derived by analyzing the Advanced Management Process, object nuclear material and modules of process equipment and performing graphical simulation of transportation/handling by computers for the demonstration of the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process. For verification, powder transportation vessel and handling device have been designed and manufactured. And several tests such as transporting, grappling, rotating the vessel have been performed. Also, the functional requirements of transportation/handling equipment have been analyzed based on test results and process studies. The developed functional requirements in this research will be used as the design data for the Advanced Management Process. 6 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  2. Mathematical modeling of oxygen transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ann Mari

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops mathematical models to describe the electrochemical performance of a solid oxide fuel cell cathode based on electrochemical kinetics and mass transfer. The individual effects of various coupled processes are investigated. A one-dimensional model is developed based on porous electrode theory. Two different mechanisms are investigated for the charge transfer reaction. One of these assumes that intermediately adsorbed oxygen atoms are reduced at the electrode/electrolyte interface, similar to the models proposed for metal electrodes. Simulated polarization curves exhibit limited currents due to depletion of oxygen adsorbates at high cathodic overvoltages. An empirical correlation is confirmed to exist between the limiting current an the oxygen partial pressure, however, a similar correlation often assumed to exist between the measured polarization resistance and the oxygen partial pressure could not be justified. For the other model, oxygen vacancies are assumed to be exchanged directly at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The electrochemical behaviour is improved by reducing the oxygen partial pressure, due to increased vacancy concentration of the electrode material. Simulated polarization curves exhibit Tafel-like slopes in the cathodic direction, which are due to polarization concentration, and not activation polarization in the conventional sense. Anodic limiting currents are predicted due to lack of available free sites for vacancy exchange at the cathode side. The thesis also presents a theoretical treatment of current and potential distributions in simple two-dimensional cell geometries, and a two-dimensional model for a porous electrode-electrolyte system for investigation of the effect of interfacial diffusion of adsorbates along the electrode/electrolyte interface. 172 refs., 60 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Relevance of IAEA tests to severe accidents in nuclear fuel cycle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, W.L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The design and performance standards for packages used for the transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials, are defined in the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, in order to ensure safety under both normal and accident conditions of transport. The underlying philosophy is that safety is vested principally in the package and the design and performance criteria are related to the potential hazard. Type B packages are high duty packages which are used for the transport of the more radioactive materials, notably spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste (VHLW). Tests are specified in the IAEA Regulations to ensure the integrity of these packages in potential transport accidents involving impacts, fires or immersion in water. The mechanical tests for Type B packages include drop tests onto an unyielding surface without giving rise to a significant release of radioactivity. The objects which a package could impact in real life transport accidents, such as concrete roads, bridge abutments and piers, will yield to some extent and absorb some of the energy of the moving package. Impact tests onto an unyielding surface are therefore relevant to impacts onto real-life objects at much higher speeds. The thermal test specifies that Type B packages should be able to withstand a fully engulfing fire of 8000 C for 30 minutes. Analytical studies backed up by experimental tests have shown that these packages can withstand such conditions without significant release of radioactivity. The Regulations also specify immersion tests for Type B packages; 15 metres for 8 hours without significant release of radioactivity and, in addition for spent fuel and VHLW packages, 200 metres for 1 hour without rupture of the containment. Studies have shown that spent fuel and VHLW casks would meet these conditions. Therefore, there is a large body of evidence to show that the current IAEA Type B test requirements are severe and cover all the situations which can

  4. Relevance of IAEA tests to severe accidents in nuclear fuel cycle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The design and performance standards for packages used for the transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials, are defined in the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, in order to ensure safety under both normal and accident conditions of transport. The underlying philosophy is that safety is vested principally in the package and the design and performance criteria are related to the potential hazard. Type B packages are high duty packages which are used for the transport of the more radioactive materials, notably spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste (VHLW). Tests are specified in the IAEA Regulations to ensure the integrity of these packages in potential transport accidents involving impacts, fires or immersion in water. The mechanical tests for Type B packages include drop tests onto an unyielding surface without giving rise to a significant release of radioactivity. The objects which a package could impact in real life transport accidents, such as concrete roads, bridge abutments and piers, will yield to some extent and absorb some of the energy of the moving package. Impact tests onto an unyielding surface are therefore relevant to impacts onto real-life objects at much higher speeds. The thermal test specifies that Type B packages should be able to withstand a fully engulfing fire of 8000 C for 30 minutes. Analytical studies backed up by experimental tests have shown that these packages can withstand such conditions without significant release of radioactivity. The Regulations also specify immersion tests for Type B packages; 15 metres for 8 hours without significant release of radioactivity and, in addition for spent fuel and VHLW packages, 200 metres for 1 hour without rupture of the containment. Studies have shown that spent fuel and VHLW casks would meet these conditions. Therefore, there is a large body of evidence to show that the current IAEA Type B test requirements are severe and cover all the situations which can

  5. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  6. Technologies and Concepts for Reducing the Fuel Burn of Subsonic Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    There are many technologies under development that have the potential to enable large fuel burn reductions in the 2025 timeframe for subsonic transport aircraft relative to the current fleet. This paper identifies a potential technology suite and analyzes the fuel burn reduction potential of these technologies when integrated into advanced subsonic transport concepts. Advanced tube-and-wing concepts are developed in the single aisle and large twin aisle class, and a hybrid-wing-body concept is developed for the large twin aisle class. The resulting fuel burn reductions for the advanced tube-and-wing concepts range from a 42% reduction relative to the 777-200 to a 44% reduction relative to the 737-800. In addition, the hybrid-wingbody design resulted in a 47% fuel burn reduction relative to the 777-200. Of course, to achieve these fuel burn reduction levels, a significant amount of technology and concept maturation is required between now and 2025. A methodology for capturing and tracking concept maturity is also developed and presented in this paper.

  7. ANS/ENS tutorial session: Burnup credit issues in spent fuel transportation: Overview and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    A number of opportunities exist to increase the efficiency of the next generation of spent fuel shipping casks. Improving cask efficiency will not only reduce life cycle transportation costs, but also is consistent with maintaining public and occupational radiological risks and, more importantly, total risks (radiological and nonradiological) within the guidelines of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) philosophy. Increases in cask capacities will reduce both the total number of shipments required to transport a given amount of fuel and the number of handling operations at both shipping and receiving facilities. Additional capacity increases can be achieved by implementing various design strategies based on new concepts and/or the actual characteristics of the majority of the spent fuel to be shipped in the future. For example, it has been determined that additional capacity increases can be achieved by taking credit for burnup, the reduced reactivity that results when fuel has been used to produce power in a nuclear reactor. That is, as the fuel is used the atoms of fissile material decrease, and neutron absorbers (or ''poisons'') that tend to retard the fission process are produced. 7 refs., 1 fig

  8. Analysis of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1981-09-01

    This report uses risk analyses to analyze the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel for commercial rail shipping systems. The rail systems analyzed are those expected to be used in the United States when the total electricity-generating capacity by nuclear reactors is 100 GW in the late 1980s. Risk as used in this report is the product of the probability of a release of material to the environment and the consequences resulting from the release. The analysis includes risks in terms of expected fatalities from release of radioactive materials due to transportation accidents involving PWR spent fuel shipped in rail casks. The expected total risk from such shipments is 1.3 x 10/sup -4/ fatalities per year. Risk spectrums are developed for shipments of spent fuel that are 180 days and 4 years out-of-reactor. The risk from transporting spent fuel by train is much less (by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude) than the risk to society from other man-caused events such as dam failure.

  9. Transport and low-carbon fuel: A study of public preferences in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Maria L.; Labandeira, Xavier; Hanemann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Transport is essential for the control of future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and thus a target for active policy intervention in the future. Yet, social preferences for policies are likely to play an important role. In this paper we first review the existing literature on preferences regarding low-GHG car fuels, but also covering policy instruments and strategies in this area. We then present the results of a survey of Spanish households aimed at measuring preferences for climate change policies. We find a positive willingness to pay (WTP) (in the form of higher car fuel prices) for a policy to reduce GHG emissions through biofuels. There is, however, significant heterogeneity in public preferences due to personal motivations (accounted for via factor analysis of responses to attitudinal questions) and to socio-demographic variables. - Highlights: • Road transport is the cause of important energy-related problems, particularly the emission of greenhouse gases and local pollution. • This paper explores public attitudes and preferences towards low-carbon fuel policies in Spain via contingent valuation. • A factor analysis is performed, showing the existence of pro-social and economic factors related to preferences for policies. • Drivers were willing to pay an extra of 115.5 Euros per year for low-carbon fuels, roughly an extra 0.07 (0.08) Euros/liter for gasoline (diesel). • The results encourage the use of these low-GHG policies as feasible alternatives for climate policies in the transport area

  10. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  11. Macroscopic analysis of characteristic water transport phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hye-Mi [Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Kwan-Soo; Um, Sukkee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Comprehensive analytical and numerical analyses were performed, focusing on anode water loss, cathode flooding, and water equilibrium for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. General features of water transport as a function of membrane thickness and current density were presented to illustrate the net effect of back-diffusion of water from the cathode to anode over a polymer electrolyte fuel cell domain. First, two-dimensional numerical simulation were performed, showing that the difference in molar concentration of water at the channel outlet is widened as the operating current density increases with a thin membrane (Nafion {sup registered} 111), which was verified by Dong et al. [Distributed performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under low-humidity conditions. J Electrochem Soc 2005; 152: A2114-22]. Then, analytical solutions were compared with computational results in predicting those characteristics of water transport phenomena. It was theoretically estimated that the high pressure operation of fuel cells expedites water condensing and results in shorter anode water loss and cathode flooding locations. In this study, it was also found that a thin membrane (Nafion {sup registered} 111) facilitates water transport in the through-membrane direction and therefore water concentration at the anode and cathode channel outlets reaches an equilibrium state particularly at low operating current densities. Moreover, the difference in the anode water concentration between Nafion {sup registered} 111 and Nafion {sup registered} 115 membranes becomes intensified in the in-plane direction under the same water production condition, while the cathode water concentration profiles remains almost same. (author)

  12. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-15

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation G...

  13. Incorporating the value of changes in price volatility into cost-benefit analysis-an application to oil prices in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Thomas C.; Moller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a tentative suggestion of how to take into account the value of changes in price volatility in real world cost-benefit analyses. Price volatility is an important aspect of security of supply which first of all concerns physical availability, but assuming that consumers are risk averse, security of supply can also be viewed as a matter of avoiding oscillations in consumption originating from volatile prices of for instance oil. When the government makes transport-related choices on behalf of the consumers, the effect on oscillations in general consumption should be included in the policy assessment taking into account the most significant correlations between prices of alternative fuels and between fuel prices and consumption in general. In the present paper, a method of valuing changes in price volatility based on portfolio theory is applied to some very simple transport-related examples. They indicate that including the value of changes in price volatility often makes very little difference to the results of cost-benefit analyses, but more work has to be done on quantifying, among other things, consumers' risk aversion and the background standard deviation in total consumption before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  14. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Office Research and Development Programs: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Birky, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohlke, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in early-stage research of advanced batteries and electrification, engines and fuels, materials, and energy-efficient mobility systems; hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; and fuel cell technologies. This report documents the estimated benefits of successful development and implementation of advanced vehicle technologies. It presents a comparison of a scenario with completely successful implementation of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies (the Program Success case) to a future in which there is no contribution after Fiscal Year 2017 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies (the No Program case). Benefits were attributed to individual program technology areas, which included FCTO research and development and the VTO programs of electrification, advanced combustion engines and fuels, and materials technology. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 24% to 30% higher than in the No Program case, while fuel economy for on-road medium- and heavy-duty vehicle stock could be as much as 13% higher. The resulting petroleum savings in 2035 were estimated to be as high as 1.9 million barrels of oil per day, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions were estimated to be as high as 320 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. Projections of light-duty vehicle adoption indicate that although advanced-technology vehicles may be somewhat more expensive to purchase, the fuel savings result in a net reduction of consumer cost. In 2035, reductions in annual fuel expenditures for vehicles (both light- and heavy-duty) are projected to range from $86 billion to $109 billion (2015$), while the projected increase in new vehicle

  15. Wing design for light transport aircraft with improved fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welte, D.; Birrenbach, R.; Haberland, W.

    An advanced technology wing has been designed for a light utility and commuter service aircraft with the requirements for economy, safety and flexibility. Trade-off studies give optimum area and aspect-ratio of the wing. A new airfoil was developed to fulfill the performance requirements. Wing planform and twist were chosen to give high maximum lift, low drag and good stall characteristics. Preset ailerons were optimized for wheel forces and lateral control. The applied aerodynamic methods, including two- and three-dimensional wind tunnel tests are shown. Various structural configurations of the wing and various flap systems are evaluated. The cantilever tapered wing and a Fowler-flap with a two-lever mechanism were found to be the most economic ones. The wing was constructed and flight-tested with a modified Dornier Do 28 Skyservant as a test bed. The new wing is being applied to a family of light transport aircraft. Finally, aircraft with the new wing are compared performancewise with contemporary aircraft.

  16. Development of a Computer Program (CASK) for the Analysis of Logistics and Transportation Cost of the Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Cho, Dong-Keun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lee, Jong-Youl; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-07-01

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The CASK(Cost and logistics Analysis program for Spent fuel transportation in Korea) program is developed to analyze logistics and transportation cost of the spent fuels. And the total amount of PWR spent fuels stored in four nuclear plant sites, a centralized interim storage facility near coast and a permanent disposal facility near the interim storage facility are considered in this program. The CASK program is developed by using Visual Basic language and coupled with an excel sheet. The excel sheet shows a change of logistics and transportation cost. Also transportation unit cost is easily changed in the excel sheet. The scopes of the report are explanation of parameters in the CASK program and a preliminary calculation. We have developed the CASK version 1.0 so far, and will update its parameters in transportation cost and transportation scenario. Also, we will incorporate it into the program which is used for the projection of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants. Finally, it is expected that the CASK program could be a part of the cost estimation tools which are under development at KAERI. And this program will be a very useful tool for the establishment of transportation scenario and transportation cost in Korean situations

  17. Development of a Computer Program (CASK) for the Analysis of Logistics and Transportation Cost of the Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Cho, Dong-Keun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lee, Jong-Youl; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-07-15

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The CASK(Cost and logistics Analysis program for Spent fuel transportation in Korea) program is developed to analyze logistics and transportation cost of the spent fuels. And the total amount of PWR spent fuels stored in four nuclear plant sites, a centralized interim storage facility near coast and a permanent disposal facility near the interim storage facility are considered in this program. The CASK program is developed by using Visual Basic language and coupled with an excel sheet. The excel sheet shows a change of logistics and transportation cost. Also transportation unit cost is easily changed in the excel sheet. The scopes of the report are explanation of parameters in the CASK program and a preliminary calculation. We have developed the CASK version 1.0 so far, and will update its parameters in transportation cost and transportation scenario. Also, we will incorporate it into the program which is used for the projection of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants. Finally, it is expected that the CASK program could be a part of the cost estimation tools which are under development at KAERI. And this program will be a very useful tool for the establishment of transportation scenario and transportation cost in Korean situations.

  18. Regional dual-purpose cask for the storage and transport of research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Miguel Mattar; Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    2002-01-01

    Taking into account that the deadline set for the American program of taking back foreign research reactor spent fuel containing U.S.-supplied enriched uranium - the year 2006, the five Latin American countries operating this type of reactor - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru and Mexico - decided to launch an IAEA-sponsored project aiming at establishing local expertise in managing this material. Among the alternatives for an extended storage of the disused elements, the use of a dual purpose cask for both storage and transport is being seriously considered, due to its appealing advantages: expansion of the plant storage capacity without the burden of costly modifications of the reactor building, flexibility, in that the used fuel can be stored in situ or in other facilities outside the reactor site and the preparation of the elements for the future transportation to the final repository. At the present stage, the cask conceptual design is being developed at the Brazilian participating institutes - CDTN and IPEN. The basic idea is to work on a concept which meets the needs and particularities of each country, in terms of fuel type and dimensions, reactor building handling and transport capabilities, expected spent fuel production, etc, and also be approved by the licensing authorities of all countries involved. The preliminary concept is of a cylindrical cask with an internal cavity, a basket to hold the fuel elements and external shock absorbers. The main body is a sturdy structure with external surfaces of stainless steel and lead filling, which provides the necessary shielding. A double lid system with gaskets and inspection ports guarantees containment and control over any possible gas leakage. Due to the different fuel types used in Latin American research reactors - both MTR and TRIGA fuels are used - and to allow for the storage and transportation of processed fuel, different internal basket designs will be developed. The external shock absorbers are filled

  19. Considerations of material transport and blockage formation in deformed fuel element clusters of LMFBRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Local coolant blockages have been considered so far only for intact fuel element geometry. Operational experience of subassembly behaviour in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors however show that deformation of bundles have to be included in further considerations. Material sources for particulate and blockage forming matter as well as the transport behaviour of granulate are discussed in this report. In principle no safety relevant worse consequences are expected in the case of deformed fuel rods and spacers compared to the intact geometry with respect to formation and growth of local blockages in the high power core region. (orig.) [de

  20. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry ultra-fine coal (DC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. (VC)

  1. Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Threat to Fuel Tank Wiring of a Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    National Transportation Safety Board investigators have questioned whether an electrical discharge in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) may have initiated the TWA-800 center wing tank explosion. Because the FQIS was designed to be incapable of producing such a discharge on its own, attention has been directed to mechanisms of outside electromagnetic influence. To support the investigation, the NASA Langley Research Center was tasked to study the potential for radiated electromagnetic fields from external radio frequency (RF) transmitters and passenger carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to excite the FQIS enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within the fuel tank.

  2. The impact of a fully idealised high speed train into a constrained fuel transport flask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowler, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    The outcome of an accident involving a high speed train, travelling at 125 mph and impacting a stationary irradiated fuel transport flask is investigated. The case considered is that of a fully constrained flask and the power cars and carriages are fully idealised. A representation of the impact and an estimate of the resulting force-time curve experienced by the fuel flask are given. It is found that the peak force is not increased by the addition of coaches, but the time duration of the impact is lengthened. (author)

  3. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  4. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel

  5. Development of Collision Accident Scenario during Nuclear Spent Fuel Maritime Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Population density of South Korea is much higher than the other countries, and it is peninsula. Therefore, it is expected that major means of transportation of the spent fuel will be maritime transportation rather than overland transportation. Korea Maritime safety Tribunal (KMST) categorized various maritime accident, see table I. Among them, collision accident is one of the most important and complicated accident from Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) point of view. We will show what will happen if the transportation ship is struck by other ship, how to calculate collision energy and probability of the branches on ship-ship collision with Event Tree Analysis (ETA) method. We selected and re-categorized maritime accident that KMST categorized for ship-ship collision analysis of spent fuel transportation ship. Event tree is constructed and collision energy distribution is derived from statistics and equation. And outer and inner hull fracture probabilities are calculated. If outer hull is broken but inner hull is fine, water will be flooded into the space between outer and inner hull. It will decrease mobility of the ship. If inner hull is fractured, water will be flooded into the ship inside. The ship has compartment structure to resist from foundering. Loss of mobility and compartment damage (ultimately it ends with sink) mechanism need to be analyzed to complete transportation ship collision event tree

  6. Characterization of transport phenomena in small polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, O.P.

    2008-07-01

    In small fuel cell systems, energy consumption and size of auxiliary devices should be minimized. One option is to use passive controlling methods that rely on material and structural solutions. Therefore it is important to understand transport phenomena occurring in the cells. In this thesis, charge, mass, and heat transport phenomena related to small PEMFCs were studied experimentally and by modeling. A new method was developed for the characterization of water transport properties of polymer electrolyte membrane under realistic operating conditions. The method was used to evaluate the diffusion coefficient of water in the membrane. Due to channelrib structure, cell components are inhomogeneously compressed. Charge and mass transport parameters were experimentally evaluated as a function of compression. The effect of inhomogeneous compression on cell operation was studied by modeling. Inhomogeneous compression does not significantly affect the polarization behavior of the cell, but it creates uneven current and temperature distributions inside the cell. This affects both cell performance and lifetime and should not be ignored in cell design and modeling. The operation of a freebreathing PEMFC was studied at subzero temperatures. To be able to operate at low temperatures, current density must be high enough to avoid freezing of reactant product water inside the cell. Startup at cold temperatures requires active heating. To maximize fuel efficiency, the operation of a freebreathing PEMFC in dead end mode was investigated. Dead ended operation with periodic purging enables high fuel utilization rate and the test cell operated without significant water management problems or performance loss. (orig.)

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  8. Heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells; Thermique et phenomenes de transport dans les piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, P.M.; Boillot, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bonnet, C.; Didieerjean, S.; Lapicque, F.; Deseure, J.; Lottin, O.; Maillet, D.; Oseen-Senda, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Alexandre, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, ENSMA, 86 Poitiers (France); Topin, F.; Occelli, R.; Daurelle, J.V. [IUSTI / Polytech' Marseille, Institut universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels Ecole, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauchet, J.; Feidt, M. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la recherche sur les echangeurs thermiques (Greth), 38 (France); Voarino, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Morel, B.; Laurentin, J.; Bultel, Y.; Lefebvre-Joud, F. [CEA Grenoble, LEPMI, 38 (France); Auvity, B.; Lasbet, Y.; Castelain, C.; Peerohossaini, H. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (LTN), 44 - Nantes (France)

    2005-07-01

    In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lectures presented at the conference 'heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells'. The different lectures have dealt with 1)the gas distribution in the bipolar plates of a fuel cell: experimental studies and computerized simulations 2)two-phase heat distributors in the PEMFC 3)a numerical study of the flow properties of the backing layers on the transfers in a PEMFC 4)modelling of the heat and mass transfers in a PEMFC 5)two-phase cooling of the PEMFC with pentane 6)stationary thermodynamic model of the SOFC in the GECOPAC system 7)modelling of the internal reforming at the anode of the SOFC 8)towards a new thermal design of the PEMFC bipolar plates. (O.M.)

  9. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. As world demand increases, oil reserves may become rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO{sub 2} emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. In the U.S. alone, transportation consumes >13.8 million barrels of oil per day and generates 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year. This release of greenhouse gases has spurred research into alternative, nonfossil energy sources. Among the options (nuclear, concentrated solar thermal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass), only biomass has the potential to provide a high-energy-content transportation fuel. Biomass is a renewable resource that can be converted into carbon-neutral transporation fuels. Currently, biofuels such as ethanol are produced largely from grains, but there is a large, untapped resource (estimated at more than a billion tons per year) of plant biomass that could be utilized as a renewable, domestic source of liquid fuels. Well-established processes convert the starch content of the grain into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. The energy efficiency of starch-based biofuels is however not optimal, while plant cell walls (lignocellulose) represent a huge untapped source of energy. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is more difficult to convert to sugars; hemicellulose, which contains a diversity of carbohydrates that have to be efficiently degraded by microorganisms to fuels; and lignin, which is recalcitrant to degradation and prevents cost-effective fermentation. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform lignocellulosic biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, low

  10. Appendix B: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  11. Research at COGEMA: benefits and a future outlook of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, Francois; Masson, Herve

    2004-01-01

    . More generally, COGEMA adopts the following position: assuming that there is a benefit in P and T, and a client ready to support it, it may not be implemented in today's plants for the obvious reason that they are not designed for it. However it may have to be implemented in next generation reprocessing plants in full coherence with next generation power plants (GEN IV) and their associated fuel cycle. Before getting to that point a good road-map needs to be drawn up that should include all the decision processes. (authors)

  12. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T

    2012-07-01

    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  14. A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Identifying renewable energy alternatives in transport is particularly complicated, since the end-user can vary from a single-person car to a cargo ship. The aim of this paper is to aid this process by comparing 7 different methods for producing transport fuels in terms of the resources required...... for these fuels. Based on the assumptions in this study, some of the renewable fuels proposed here would be cheaper than oil in the year 2050. However, this is based on fuel production costs only and does do not consider other key costs, such as the infrastructure costs, which will be considered in the future...

  15. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  16. Experience with contamination protection of spent fuel transport packages in Germany since 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinninger, H.; Bach, R.; Seidel, J.; Jung, P.

    2004-01-01

    On April 30, 1998 just a few days before the PATRAM 1998 conference at Paris, the French Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (DSIN now DGSNR) published a press release, that during the year before some 35% of the spent fuel transports to the reprocessing plant of COGEMA at La Hague have non-fixed surface contamination in excess of the regulatory standard. A few day in advance DSIN informed in French Ministries and the competent foreign authorities of the customer countries of COGEMA. The consequences of this publication were multi-fold and perceived by the public as an act negligence of the nuclear industry. Because of concerns about additional radiation exposure to the railway workers by the unions the French Railway company SNCF suspended all transports by May 6, 1998 until implementation of corrective measures. This decision of SNF interupted also the spent fuel transports from continental Europe to the reprocessing plant of BNFL at Sellafield all performed across France to the port of Dunkirk. Furthermore on May 25, 1998 the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety (BMU) imposed a transport ban for shipment of spent fuel from commercial power plants and for high active waste returned from La Hague to the Gorleben site. The conditions for resumption of these transports were outlined by NMU in a 10-point programme. In response to these publications on contamination findings competent German State and Federal Authorities commissioned investigations by independent experts dealing with the identification of the causes, the proposal of counter measures, the investigation of shortcomings in the transport system in general and recommendations for retification of it

  17. Spent fuel transport in Romania by road: An approach considering safety, risk and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of high-level radioactive wastes, involving Type B packages, is a part of the safety of the Romanian waste management programme and the overall aim of this activity is to promote the safe transport of radioactive materials in Romania. The paper presents a safety case analysis of the transport of a single spent fuel CANDU bundle, using a Romanian built Type B package, from the CANDU type nuclear power plant Cernavoda to the INR Pitesti, in order to be examined within INR's hot-cells facilities. The safety assessment includes the following main aspects: (1) evaluation and analysis of available data on road traffic accidents; (2) estimation of the expected frequency for severe road accident scenarios resulting in potential radionuclide release; and (3) evaluation of the expected radiological consequences and accident risks of transport operations. (author)

  18. using fuzzy-robust approach for minimizing transportation and fuel costs in location problem under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan hosseini nasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Operations research is a commonly used method in many subjects nowadays. One applicable domain of operation research is the problem of facility layout and location. In this paper, a new mathematical programing model is developed for an optimal facility location and assignment. The model includes two objective functions. The first one minimizes the total material handling and fixed costs of facility location. Because of the importance of energy and the main role of fossil fuel in transportation, the second objective function, minimizes the total cost of fuel consumption. To consider the real condition in the proposed model, the cost of fuel, is considered to increase stepwise gradually. In the proposed model the coefficients of objective function are considered to be probabilistic and some of constraints to be fuzzy variables. Using a new approach, this model can be changed to a robust model. To prove the applicability of the model, it is examined for a real condition of facility location.

  19. Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)

  20. Analysis of burnup credit on spent fuel transport / storage casks - estimation of reactivity bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat sumura, T.; Sasahara, A.; Takei, M.; Takekawa, T.; Kagehira, K.; Nicolaou, G.; Betti, M.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical analyses of high burnup UO2 (65 GWd/t) and MOX (45 GWd/t) spent fuel pins were carried out. Measured data of nuclides' composition from U234 to P 242 were used for evaluation of ORIGEN-2/82 code and a nuclear fuel design code (NULIF). Critically calculations were executed for transport and storage casks for 52 BWR or 21 PWR spent fuel assemblies. The reactivity biases were evaluated for axial and horizontal profiles of burnup, and historical void fraction (BWR), operational histories such as control rod insertion history, BPR insertion history and others, and calculational accuracy of ORIGEN-2/82 on nuclides' composition. This study shows that introduction of burnup credit has a large merit in criticality safety analysis of casks, even if these reactivity biases are considered. The concept of equivalent uniform burnup was adapted for the present reactivity bias evaluation and showed the possibility of simplifying the reactivity bias evaluation in burnup credit. (authors)

  1. Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.

    2007-03-15

    This well-illustrated, comprehensive dissertation by Dr. Ing. Denis Kramer takes an in-depth look at polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and the possibilities for their application. First of all, the operating principles of polymer electrolyte fuel cells are described and discussed, whereby thermodynamics aspects and loss mechanisms are examined. The mass transport diagnostics made with respect to the function of the cells are discussed. Field flow geometry, gas diffusion layers and, amongst other things, liquid distribution, the influence of flow direction and the low-frequency behaviour of air-fed PEFCs are discussed. Direct methanol fuel cells are examined, as are the materials chosen. The documentation includes comprehensive mathematical and graphical representations of the mechanisms involved.

  2. Modeling of molecular and particulate transport in dry spent nuclear fuel canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Andrew M.

    2007-09-01

    The transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel is one of the prominent issues facing the commercial nuclear industry today, as there is still no general consensus regarding the near- and long-term strategy for managing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The debate continues over whether the fuel cycle should remain open, in which case spent fuel will be stored at on-site reactor facilities, interim facilities, or a geologic repository; or if the fuel cycle should be closed, in which case spent fuel will be recycled. Currently, commercial spent nuclear fuel is stored at on-site reactor facilities either in pools or in dry storage containers. Increasingly, spent fuel is being moved to dry storage containers due to decreased costs relative to pools. As the number of dry spent fuel containers increases and the roles they play in the nuclear fuel cycle increase, more regulations will be enacted to ensure that they function properly. Accordingly, they will have to be carefully analyzed for normal conditions, as well as any off-normal conditions of concern. This thesis addresses the phenomena associated with one such concern; the formation of a microscopic through-wall breach in a dry storage container. Particular emphasis is placed on the depressurization of the canister, release of radioactivity, and plugging of the breach due to deposition of suspended particulates. The depressurization of a dry storage container upon the formation of a breach depends on the temperature and quantity of the fill gas, the pressure differential across the breach, and the size of the breach. The first model constructed in this thesis is capable of determining the depressurization time for a breached container as long as the associated parameters just identified allow for laminar flow through the breach. The parameters can be manipulated to quantitatively determine their effect on depressurization. This model is expanded to account for the presence of suspended particles. If

  3. Interdependencies between transport fuel demand, efficiency and quality: An application to Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlich, Roland; Wirl, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interdependencies between technical efficiencies and energy demand which are often either treated in isolation or do not get the sufficient attention in the literature. More precisely, this paper uses technical efficiencies as one crucial determinant of energy demand in order to integrate at least two issues that are usually investigated separately from each other: the rebound effect resulting from improved technical efficiencies and the asymmetry of energy demand. In this regard, our paper sets out a theoretical framework which has the following implications: higher efficiency increases service demand (first order rebound), low fuel prices and higher efficiency increases the demand for quality (second order) which in turn increases service demand further (third order); ceteris paribus, energy price shocks should increase scrapping rates; fuel prices direct the R and D expenditures of car producers; those on engine efficiency are irreversible, which has the consequence that energy price elasticities depend on the history of energy prices rather than being asymmetrical. Derived implications are subsequently tested on Austrian data. In particular, the purchasing decision diesel versus gasoline powered cars allows to refute the myth that consumers apply high implicit rates for discounting the future benefit from efficient cars. - Research Highlights: ►Dependencies between efficiency, fuel price, quality and fuel demand are modelled. ►Austrian data supports model implications for the defined rounds of rebounds. ►R and D efforts are directed by fuel prices surpassing a threshold on large markets. ►Consumers apply low implicit discount rates for future benefits from efficient cars. ►Effects of policy instruments (fuel efficiency standard, taxes, etc.) are discussed.

  4. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  5. An approach for the design of closure bolts of spent fuel elements transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel; Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Fainer, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The spent fuel elements transportation packages must be designed for severe conditions including significant fire and impact loads corresponding to hypothetical accident conditions. In general, these packages have large flat lids connected to cylindrical bodies by closure bolts that can be the weak link in the containment system. The bolted closure design depends on the geometrical characteristics of the flat lid and the cylindrical body, including their flanges, on the type of the gaskets and their dimensions, and on the number, strength, and tightness of the bolts. There are well established procedures for the closure bolts design used in pressure vessels and piping. They can not be used directly in the bolts design applied to transportation packages. Prior to the use of these procedures, it is necessary consider the differences in the main loads (pressure for the pressure vessels and piping and impact loads for the transportation packages) and in the geometry (large flat lids are not used in pressure vessels and piping). So, this paper presents an approach for the design of the closure bolts of spent fuel elements transportation packages considering the impact loads and the typical geometrical configuration of the transportation packages. (author)

  6. Logistics models for the transportation of radioactive waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Holcomb, B.D.

    1978-03-01

    Mathematical modeling of the logistics of waste shipment is an effective way to provide input to program planning and long-range waste management. Several logistics models have been developed for use in parametric studies, contingency planning, and management of transportation networks. These models allow the determination of shipping schedules, optimal routes, probable transportation modes, minimal costs, minimal personnel exposure, minimal transportation equipment, etc. Such information will permit OWI to specify waste-receiving rates at various repositories in order to balance work loads, evaluate surge capacity requirements, and estimate projected shipping cask fleets. The programs are tailored to utilize information on the types of wastes being received, location of repositories and waste-generating facilities, shipping distances, time required for a given shipment, availability of equipment, above-ground storage capabilities and locations, projected waste throughput rates, etc. Two basic models have been developed. The Low-Level Waste Model evaluates the optimal transportation policy for shipping waste directly from the source to a final destination without any intermediate stops. The Spent Fuel Logistics Model evaluates the optimal transportation policy for shipping unreprocessed spent fuel from nuclear power plants (1) indirectly, that is, to an Away-From-Reactor (AFR) storage facility, with subsequent transhipment to a repository, or (2) directly to a repository

  7. Minority and poor households: patterns of travel and transportation fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M.; Morrison, R.; Vyas, A.

    1986-05-01

    This report documents the travel behavior and transportation fuel use of minority and poor households in the US, using information from numerous national-level sources. The resulting data base reveals distinctive patterns of household vehicle availability and use, travel, and fuel use and enables us to relate observed differences between population groups to differences in their demographic characteristics and in the attributes of their household vehicles. When income and residence location are controlled, black (and to a lesser extent, Hispanic and poor) households have fewer vehicles regularly available than do comparable white or nonpoor households; moreover, these vehicles are older and larger and thus have significantly lower fuel economy. The net result is that average black, Hispanic, and poor households travel fewer miles per year but use more fuel than do average white and nonpoor households. Certain other findings - notably, that of significant racial differences in vehicle availability and use by low-income households - challenge the conventional wisdom that such racial variations arise solely because of differences in income and residence location. Results of the study suggest important differences - primarily in the yearly fluctuation of income - between black and white low-income households even when residence location is controlled. These variables are not captured by cross-sectional data sets (either the national surveys used in our analysis or the local data sets that are widely used for urban transportation planning).

  8. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  9. Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption" explains how the City of Denton used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  10. Integrated management platform of nuclear fuel storage and transportation based on RFID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yafeng; Ma Yanqin; Chen Liyu; Jiang Yong; Wu Jianlei; Yang Haibo; Zhang Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes integrated system model to improve work efficiency and optimize control measures of nuclear fuel storage and transportation, RFID and information integration technology is introduced, traditional management processes are innovated in data acquisition and monitoring fields as well, system solutions and design model are given by emphasizing on the following key technologies: cascade protection of information system, security protocol of RFID information, algorithm of collision. (authors)

  11. Transfer tunnel transporter system for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, J.A.; Miller, S.C.; Richards, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The detail design is complete and fabrication is approximately 75% complete on the Transfer Tunnel Transporter System. This system provides material handling capability for large, bulky equipment between two hot cells in a new Breeder Reactor Program support facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility. One hot cell has an air atmosphere, the other a high purity inert gas atmosphere which must be maintained during transfer operations. System design features, operational capabilities and remote recovery provisions are described

  12. Modeling of Ultrathin Catalyst Layers in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: Proton Transport and Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Karen Ka Wing

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin catalyst layers (UTCLs) are emerging as a promising alternative to conventional catalyst layers in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. In comparison, UTCLs have dramatically reduced Pt loading and thicknesses and are ionomer–free. We explore two open questions in the theory of UTCLs (1) the proton transport mechanism within the ionomer–free layer and (2) water management in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with UTCLs. To investigate (1), we present a UTCL model, which assumes the pr...

  13. Safety demonstration analyses at JAERI for severe accident during overland transport of fresh nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Kitao, Kohichi; Karasawa, Kiyonori; Yamada, Kenji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kohji; Okuno, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    It is expected in the near future that more and more fresh nuclear fuel will be transported in a variety of transport packages to cope with increasing demand from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Accordingly, safety demonstration analyses are planned and conducted at JAERI under contract with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. These analyses are conducted in a four year plan from 2001 to 2004 to verify integrity of packaging against leakage of radioactive material in the case of a severe accident postulated to occur during transportation, for the purpose of gaining acceptance of such nuclear fuel activities. In order to create the accident scenarios, actual transportation routes were surveyed, accident or incident records were tracked, international radioactive material transport regulations such as IAEA rules were investigated and thus, accident conditions leading to mechanical damages and thermal failure were determined to characterize the scenarios. As a result, the worst-case conditions of run-off-the-road accidents were set up to define the impact against a concrete or asphalt surface. For fire accident scenarios to be set up, collisions were assumed to occur with an oil tanker carrying lots of inflammable material in open air, or with a commonly used two-ton-truck inside a tunnel without ventilation. Then the cask models were determined for these safety demonstration analyses to represent those commonly used for fresh nuclear fuel transported throughout Japan. Following the postulated accident scenarios, the mechanical damages were analyzed by using the general-purpose finite element code LS-DYNA with three-dimensional elements. It was found that leak tightness of the package be maintained even in the severe impact scenario. Then the thermal safety was analyzed by using the general-purpose finite element code ABAOUS with three-dimensional elements to describe cask geometry. As a result of the thermal analyses, the integrity of the containment

  14. Present and future problems of radiation shielding for maritime transport of nuclear spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, K.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, A.

    2000-01-01

    The transport of spent fuels with casks began in September 1999 by the exclusive spent fuel transport vessel the 'Rokuei Maru'. The casks have been transported to the reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-village in Aomori Prefecture. The 'Rokuei Maru' is approximately 100 m-length, 16.5 m-width and 3,000 gross-tons. The 20 NFT casks can be loaded into 5 holds. At the present time, the NFT casks can carry spent fuels of up to 44,000 MWD/MTU. Serpentine concrete is employed as a neutron shields in the hatch covers, the bulkheads, and the house front of the accommodations except the wheelhouse. Polyethylene covers the side walls in each hold. The neutron shielding ability of serpentine concrete and polyethylene was investigated by a shielding experiment using a 252 Cf-neutron source. The shielding experiment was analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. In the near future, on-board experiment will be carried out to measure the dose-equivalent rate distributions in the 'Rokuei Maru' and the measured data and the Monte Carlo analysis of it will establish the radiation safety of the ship. (author)

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  16. ANSI N14.5 source term licensing of spent-fuel transport cask containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, K.D.; Reardon, P.C.; James, R.J.; Foadian, H.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1993-01-01

    American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard N14.5 states that ''compliance with package containment requirements shall be demonstrated either by determination of the radioactive contents release rate or by measurement of a tracer material leakage rate.'' The maximum permissible leakage rate from the transport cask is equal to the maximum permissible release rate divided by the time-averaged volumetric concentration of suspended radioactivity within the cask. The development of source term methodologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provides a means to determine the releasable radionuclide concentrations within spent-fuel transport casks by estimating the probability of cladding breach, quantifying the amount of radioactive material released into the cask interior from the breached fuel rods, and quantifying the amount of radioactive material within the cask due to other sources. These methodologies are implemented in the Source Term Analyses for Containment Evaluations (STACE) software. In this paper, the maximum permissible leakage rates for the normal and hypothetical accident transport conditions defined by 10 CFR 71 are estimated using STACE for a given cask design, fuel assembly, and initial conditions. These calculations are based on defensible analysis techniques that credit multiple release barriers, including the cladding and the internal cask walls

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and its impact on spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has identified nine potential sites for a repository to permanently dispose of radioactive wastes. DOE has released several sets of maps and tables identifying expected transportation routes between nuclear reactors and repository sites. More recently, the DOE has announced three potential Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (MRS) sites in the state of Tennessee. Obviously, if a large portion of the spent fuel is routed to Tennessee for consolidation and repackaging, there will be significant changes in the estimated routes. For typical scenarios, the number of shipments in the vicinity of the repository will be reduced. For example, with direct reactor to repository shipments, 995 highway and 262 rail shipments are expected to arrive at the repository annually. With a MRS these numbers are reduced to 201 and 30, respectively. The remaining consolidated fuel would be transported from the MRS in 22 dedicated trains (each train transporting five casks). Conversely, the MRS would result in an increase in the number of spent fuel shipments traveling through the eastern part of Tennessee. However, the operation of a MRS would significantly reduce the number of shipments through the central and western parts of the state

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  20. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.