WorldWideScience

Sample records for transport quantum networks

  1. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  2. Computing and the electrical transport properties of coupled quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Casey Andrew

    In this dissertation a number of investigations were conducted on ballistic quantum networks in the mesoscopic range. In this regime, the wave nature of electron transport under the influence of transverse magnetic fields leads to interesting applications for digital logic and computing circuits. The work specifically looks at characterizing a few main areas that would be of interest to experimentalists who are working in nanostructure devices, and is organized as a series of papers. The first paper analyzes scaling relations and normal mode charge distributions for such circuits in both isolated and open (terminals attached) form. The second paper compares the flux-qubit nature of quantum networks to the well-established spintronics theory. The results found exactly contradict the conventional school of thought for what is required for quantum computation. The third paper investigates the requirements and limitations of extending the Thevenin theorem in classic electric circuits to ballistic quantum transport. The fourth paper outlines the optimal functionally complete set of quantum circuits that can completely satisfy all sixteen Boolean logic operations for two variables.

  3. Trapped-ion quantum simulation of excitation transport: Disordered, noisy, and long-range connected quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Hauke, P.

    2018-02-01

    The transport of excitations governs fundamental properties of matter. Particularly rich physics emerges in the interplay between disorder and environmental noise, even in small systems such as photosynthetic biomolecules. Counterintuitively, noise can enhance coherent quantum transport, which has been proposed as a mechanism behind the high transport efficiencies observed in photosynthetic complexes. This effect has been called "environment-assisted quantum transport". Here, we propose a quantum simulation of the excitation transport in an open quantum network, taking advantage of the high controllability of current trapped-ion experiments. Our scheme allows for the controlled study of various different aspects of the excitation transfer, ranging from the influence of static disorder and interaction range, over the effect of Markovian and non-Markovian dephasing, to the impact of a continuous insertion of excitations. Our paper discusses experimental error sources and realistic parameters, showing that it can be implemented in state-of-the-art ion-chain experiments.

  4. Quantum transport with long-range steps on Watts-Strogatz networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2016-07-01

    We study transport dynamics of quantum systems with long-range steps on the Watts-Strogatz network (WSN) which is generated by rewiring links of the regular ring. First, we probe physical systems modeled by the discrete nonlinear schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using the localized initial condition, we compute the time-averaged occupation probability of the initial site, which is related to the nonlinearity, the long-range steps and rewiring links. Self-trapping transitions occur at large (small) nonlinear parameters for coupling ɛ=-1 (1), as long-range interactions are intensified. The structure disorder induced by random rewiring, however, has dual effects for ɛ=-1 and inhibits the self-trapping behavior for ɛ=1. Second, we investigate continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) on the regular ring ruled by the discrete linear schrödinger (DLS) equation. It is found that only the presence of the long-range steps does not affect the efficiency of the coherent exciton transport, while only the allowance of random rewiring enhances the partial localization. If both factors are considered simultaneously, localization is greatly strengthened, and the transport becomes worse.

  5. Quantum transport through complex networks - from light-harvesting proteins to semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisbeck, Christoph

    2012-06-18

    Electron transport through small systems in semiconductor devices plays an essential role for many applications in micro-electronics. One focus of current research lies on establishing conceptually new devices based on ballistic transport in high mobility AlGaAs/AlGa samples. In the ballistic regime, the transport characteristics are determined by coherent interference effects. In order to guide experimentalists to an improved device design, the characterization and understanding of intrinsic device properties is crucial. We develop a time-dependent approach that allows us to simulate experimentally fabricated, complex devicegeometries with an extension of up to a few micrometers. Particularly, we explore the physical origin of unexpected effects that have been detected in recent experiments on transport through Aharonov-Bohm waveguide-interferometers. Such interferometers can be configured as detectors for transfer properties of embedded quantum systems. We demonstrate that a four-terminal waveguide-ring is a suitable setup for measuring the transmission phase of a harmonic quantum dot. Quantum effects are not restricted exclusively to artificial devices but have been found in biological systems as well. Pioneering experiments reveal quantum effects in light-harvesting complexes, the building blocks of photosynthesis. We discuss the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, which is a network of coupled bacteriochlorophylls. It acts as an energy wire in the photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria. Recent experimental findings suggest that energy transfer takes place in the form of coherent wave-like motion, rather than through classical hopping from one bacteriochlorophyll to the next. However, the question of why and how coherent transfer emerges in light-harvesting complexes is still open. The challenge is to merge seemingly contradictory features that are observed in experiments on two-dimensional spectroscopy into a consistent theory. Here, we provide such a

  6. Reconfigurable optical implementation of quantum complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokkala, J.; Arzani, F.; Galve, F.; Zambrini, R.; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Treps, N.; Parigi, V.

    2018-05-01

    Network theory has played a dominant role in understanding the structure of complex systems and their dynamics. Recently, quantum complex networks, i.e. collections of quantum systems arranged in a non-regular topology, have been theoretically explored leading to significant progress in a multitude of diverse contexts including, e.g., quantum transport, open quantum systems, quantum communication, extreme violation of local realism, and quantum gravity theories. Despite important progress in several quantum platforms, the implementation of complex networks with arbitrary topology in quantum experiments is still a demanding task, especially if we require both a significant size of the network and the capability of generating arbitrary topology—from regular to any kind of non-trivial structure—in a single setup. Here we propose an all optical and reconfigurable implementation of quantum complex networks. The experimental proposal is based on optical frequency combs, parametric processes, pulse shaping and multimode measurements allowing the arbitrary control of the number of the nodes (optical modes) and topology of the links (interactions between the modes) within the network. Moreover, we also show how to simulate quantum dynamics within the network combined with the ability to address its individual nodes. To demonstrate the versatility of these features, we discuss the implementation of two recently proposed probing techniques for quantum complex networks and structured environments.

  7. Building the quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Chip

    2002-01-01

    We show how quantum key distribution (QKD) techniques can be employed within realistic, highly secure communications systems, using the internet architecture for a specific example. We also discuss how certain drawbacks in existing QKD point-to-point links can be mitigated by building QKD networks, where such networks can be composed of trusted relays or untrusted photonic switches. (author)

  8. Transport in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, Fernanda; Continetino, Mucio

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In this work we study the time dependent transport in interacting quantum dot. This is a zero-dimensional nano structure system which has quantized electronic states. In our purpose, we are interested in studying such system in a Coulomb blockade regime where a mean-field treatment of the electronic correlations are appropriate. The quantum dot is described by an Anderson type of Hamiltonian where the hybridization term arises from the contact with the leads. We consider a time dependence of both the energy of the localized state in the quantum dot and of the hybridization-like term. These time dependent parameters, under certain conditions, induce a current in the quantum dot even in the absence of difference on the chemical potential of the leads. The approach to this non-equilibrium problem requires the use of a Keldysh formalism. We calculate the non- equilibrium Green's functions and obtain results for the average (equilibrium term) and the non-equilibrium values of the electronic occupation number in the dot. we consider the possibility of a magnetic solution, with different values for the average up and down spins in the quantum dot. Our results allow to obtain, for instance, the tunneling current through the dot. The magnetic nature of the dot, for a certain range of parameters should give rise also to an induced spin current through the dot

  9. Towards a global quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    The creation of a global quantum network is now a realistic proposition thanks to developments in satellite and fibre links and quantum memory. Applications will range from secure communication and fundamental physics experiments to a future quantum internet.

  10. The DARPA quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The DARPA quantum network is now in initial operational, with six nodes performing quantum cryptography 24x7 across the Boston metro area between our campuses at Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN Technologies. In this talk, we present our recent activities, including the deployment of this network, building our Mark 1 Entangled QKD system, porting BBN QKD protocol software to NIST and Qinetiq freespace systems, performing initial design of a superconducting single photon detector with U. Rochester and NIST Boulder, and implementing a novel Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) protocol for QKD. (author)

  11. Quantum network theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurke, B.; Denker, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A general approach, within the framework of canonical quantization, is described for analyzing the quantum behavior of complicated electronic circuits. This approach is capable of dealing with electrical networks having nonlinear or dissipative elements. The techniques are used to analyze a degenerate parametric amplifier, a device capable of generating squeezed coherent state signals. A circuit capable of performing back-action-evading electrical measurements is also discussed. (author)

  12. Gossip algorithms in quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomau, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gossip algorithms is a common term to describe protocols for unreliable information dissemination in natural networks, which are not optimally designed for efficient communication between network entities. We consider application of gossip algorithms to quantum networks and show that any quantum network can be updated to optimal configuration with local operations and classical communication. This allows to speed-up - in the best case exponentially - the quantum information dissemination. Irrespective of the initial configuration of the quantum network, the update requiters at most polynomial number of local operations and classical communication.

  13. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  14. Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2015-07-01

    Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks.

  15. Quantum social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adán; López-Tarrida, Antonio J; Danielsen, Lars Eirik; Portillo, José R

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a physical approach to social networks (SNs) in which each actor is characterized by a yes–no test on a physical system. This allows us to consider SNs beyond those originated by interactions based on pre-existing properties, as in a classical SN (CSN). As an example of SNs beyond CSNs, we introduce quantum SNs (QSNs) in which actor i is characterized by a test of whether or not the system is in a quantum state |ψ i 〉. We show that QSNs outperform CSNs for a certain task and some graphs. We identify the simplest of these graphs and show that graphs in which QSNs outperform CSNs are increasingly frequent as the number of vertices increases. We also discuss more general SNs and identify the simplest graphs in which QSNs cannot be outperformed. (paper)

  16. Quantum transport in complex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnezov, D.; Bulgac, A.; DoDang, G.

    1998-01-01

    We derive the influence function and the effective dynamics of a quantum systems coupled to a chaotic environment, using very general parametric and banded random matrices to describe the quantum properties of a chaotic bath. We find that only in certain limits the thermalization can result from the environment. We study the general transport problems including escape, fusion and tunneling (fission). (author)

  17. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  18. Gossip algorithms in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siomau, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gossip algorithms is a common term to describe protocols for unreliable information dissemination in natural networks, which are not optimally designed for efficient communication between network entities. We consider application of gossip algorithms to quantum networks and show that any quantum network can be updated to optimal configuration with local operations and classical communication. This allows to speed-up – in the best case exponentially – the quantum information dissemination. Irrespective of the initial configuration of the quantum network, the update requiters at most polynomial number of local operations and classical communication. - Highlights: • We analyze the performance of gossip algorithms in quantum networks. • Local operations and classical communication (LOCC) can speed the performance up. • The speed-up is exponential in the best case; the number of LOCC is polynomial.

  19. Gossip algorithms in quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siomau, Michael, E-mail: siomau@nld.ds.mpg.de [Physics Department, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-01-23

    Gossip algorithms is a common term to describe protocols for unreliable information dissemination in natural networks, which are not optimally designed for efficient communication between network entities. We consider application of gossip algorithms to quantum networks and show that any quantum network can be updated to optimal configuration with local operations and classical communication. This allows to speed-up – in the best case exponentially – the quantum information dissemination. Irrespective of the initial configuration of the quantum network, the update requiters at most polynomial number of local operations and classical communication. - Highlights: • We analyze the performance of gossip algorithms in quantum networks. • Local operations and classical communication (LOCC) can speed the performance up. • The speed-up is exponential in the best case; the number of LOCC is polynomial.

  20. Quantum optics of optomechanical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannigel, K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proposes various setups in which micro-mechanical resonators and optomechanical systems can be combined with other quantum systems, such as solid-state qubits or atomic ensembles, in a beneficial way. These hybrid systems open up new ways for quantum control, and several protocols and applications for quantum information processing and, in particular, for quantum networks are presented. Part I describes an optically mediated coupling between the vibrational modes of a semi-transparent dielectric membrane and the center-of-mass motion of an atomic ensemble. Using the sophisticated toolbox available for the control of atomic systems, this setting enables an indirect manipulation of the membrane, including, for example, cooling it to the vibrational ground state. A fully quantum mechanical treatment of this open system is given in terms of the quantum stochastic Schrödinger equation. In Part II we explore the potential of optomechanical systems for quantum information processing applications. First, we introduce the concept of an optomechanical transducer, where a micro-mechanical resonator mediates an interaction between a solid-state based qubit on the one hand, and photons in an optical cavity on the other hand. The resulting qubit-light interface is shown to enable quantum state transfers between two distant solid-state qubits, thereby making them available for quantum networking applications. Second, we study multi-mode optomechanical systems in the single-photon single-phonon strong coupling regime. We predict quantum signatures of this interaction, which could be observed in future experiments, and provide a route towards possible applications of these systems as quantum information processing units. Part III presents a dissipative state preparation scheme for cascaded quantum networks. In such networks excitations can only propagate along a single spatial direction and the optomechanical transducer represents one way of realizing them. We show, in

  1. Google in a quantum network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, G D; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the characterization of a class of quantum PageRank algorithms in a scenario in which some kind of quantum network is realizable out of the current classical internet web, but no quantum computer is yet available. This class represents a quantization of the PageRank protocol currently employed to list web pages according to their importance. We have found an instance of this class of quantum protocols that outperforms its classical counterpart and may break the classical hierarchy of web pages depending on the topology of the web.

  2. A full quantum network scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hai-Qiang; Wei Ke-Jin; Yang Jian-Hui; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  3. Google in a Quantum Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In we introduce the characterization of a class of quantum PageRank algorithms in a scenario in which some kind of quantum network is realizable out of the current classical internet web, but no quantum computer is yet available. This class of algorithms represents a quantization of the PageRank protocol currently employed to list web pages according to their importance. The PageRank algorithm's ranking ability has been instrumental to give structure to the web. This class of algorithms may be able to rank nodes in a quantum network. Furthermore, in this class, we have found an instance of this class of quantum protocols that outperforms its classical counterpart and may break the classical hierarchy of web pages depending on the topology of the web.

  4. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xu-Tao; Xu Jin; Zhang Zai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The distributed wireless quantum communication network (DWQCN) has a distributed network topology and transmits information by quantum states. In this paper, we present the concept of the DWQCN and propose a system scheme to transfer quantum states in the DWQCN. The system scheme for transmitting information between any two nodes in the DWQCN includes a routing protocol and a scheme for transferring quantum states. The routing protocol is on-demand and the routing metric is selected based on the number of entangled particle pairs. After setting up a route, quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping are used for transferring quantum states. Entanglement swapping is achieved along with the process of routing set up and the acknowledgment packet transmission. The measurement results of each entanglement swapping are piggybacked with route reply packets or acknowledgment packets. After entanglement swapping, a direct quantum link between source and destination is set up and quantum states are transferred by quantum teleportation. Adopting this scheme, the measurement results of entanglement swapping do not need to be transmitted specially, which decreases the wireless transmission cost and transmission delay. (general)

  5. Tensor Network Quantum Virtual Machine (TNQVM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art quantum computing simulation software that scales on heterogeneous systems like Titan. Tensor Network Quantum Virtual Machine (TNQVM) provides a quantum simulator that leverages a distributed network of GPUs to simulate quantum circuits in a manner that leverages recent results from tensor network theory.

  6. Modular architectures for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, A.; Wallnöfer, J.; Dür, W.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating multipartite entangled states in a quantum network upon request. We follow a top-down approach, where the required entanglement is initially present in the network in form of network states shared between network devices, and then manipulated in such a way that the desired target state is generated. This minimizes generation times, and allows for network structures that are in principle independent of physical links. We present a modular and flexible architecture, where a multi-layer network consists of devices of varying complexity, including quantum network routers, switches and clients, that share certain resource states. We concentrate on the generation of graph states among clients, which are resources for numerous distributed quantum tasks. We assume minimal functionality for clients, i.e. they do not participate in the complex and distributed generation process of the target state. We present architectures based on shared multipartite entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states of different size, and fully connected decorated graph states, respectively. We compare the features of these architectures to an approach that is based on bipartite entanglement, and identify advantages of the multipartite approach in terms of memory requirements and complexity of state manipulation. The architectures can handle parallel requests, and are designed in such a way that the network state can be dynamically extended if new clients or devices join the network. For generation or dynamical extension of the network states, we propose a quantum network configuration protocol, where entanglement purification is used to establish high fidelity states. The latter also allows one to show that the entanglement generated among clients is private, i.e. the network is secure.

  7. Continuous-time quantum walks on multilayer dendrimer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Strunz, Walter T.

    2016-08-01

    We consider continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs) on multilayer dendrimer networks (MDs) and their application to quantum transport. A detailed study of properties of CTQWs is presented and transport efficiency is determined in terms of the exact and average return probabilities. The latter depends only on the eigenvalues of the connectivity matrix, which even for very large structures allows a complete analytical solution for this particular choice of network. In the case of MDs we observe an interplay between strong localization effects, due to the dendrimer topology, and good efficiency from the linear segments. We show that quantum transport is enhanced by interconnecting more layers of dendrimers.

  8. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  9. Quantum transport and electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandin, Thomas

    2013-02-15

    We review the mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis. The main focus of the review lies on the development of quantum transport equations from first principles in the Kadanoff-Baym framework. We emphasize the importance of the semi-classical force that leads to reliable predictions in most cases. Besides, we discuss the status of electroweak baryogenesis in the light of recent electric dipole moment probes and collider experiments in a variety of models.

  10. Quantum transport and electroweak baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    We review the mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis. The main focus of the review lies on the development of quantum transport equations from first principles in the Kadanoff-Baym framework. We emphasize the importance of the semi-classical force that leads to reliable predictions in most cases. Besides, we discuss the status of electroweak baryogenesis in the light of recent electric dipole moment probes and collider experiments in a variety of models.

  11. Spin networks and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, L.; Lomonaco, S. Jr.

    2008-01-01

    We review the q-deformed spin network approach to Topological Quantum Field Theory and apply these methods to produce unitary representations of the braid groups that are dense in the unitary groups. The simplest case of these models is the Fibonacci model, itself universal for quantum computation. We here formulate these braid group representations in a form suitable for computation and algebraic work. (authors)

  12. Quantum networks based on spins in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Hanson

    2014-01-01

    Entanglement of spatially separated objects is one of the most intriguing phenomena that can occur in physics. Besides being of fundamental interest, entanglement is also a valuable resource in quantum information technology enabling secure quantum communication networks and distributed quantum computing. Here we present our most recent results towards the realization of scalable quantum networks with solid-state qubits. (author)

  13. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  14. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-04-15

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  15. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  16. DARPA Quantum Network Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Antonio Bovino, Pietro Varisco, Anna Maria Colla, Giuseppe Castagnoli, Giovanni Di Giuseppe and Alexander V. Sergienko “Effective Fiber-Coupling of...Giovanni Di Giuseppe Brian Imhausen Harvard University Teammate John Myers Tai Wu Leo Donnelly NIST Teammate Sae Woo Nam Bob Schwall Robert...A. M. Colla, G. Castagnoli, G. Di Giuseppe, and A. V. Sergienko, “Practical Quantum Key Distribution Using Polarization Entangled States

  17. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

  18. Quantum networks based on cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Stephan; Bochmann, Joerg; Figueroa, Eden; Hahn, Carolin; Kalb, Norbert; Muecke, Martin; Neuzner, Andreas; Noelleke, Christian; Reiserer, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters require an efficient interface between stationary quantum memories and flying photons. Single atoms in optical cavities are ideally suited as universal quantum network nodes that are capable of sending, storing, retrieving, and even processing quantum information. We demonstrate this by presenting an elementary version of a quantum network based on two identical nodes in remote, independent laboratories. The reversible exchange of quantum information and the creation of remote entanglement are achieved by exchange of a single photon. Quantum teleportation is implemented using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement. Quantum control over all degrees of freedom of the single atom also allows for the nondestructive detection of flying photons and the implementation of a quantum gate between the spin state of the atom and the polarization of a photon upon its reflection from the cavity. Our approach to quantum networking offers a clear perspective for scalability and provides the essential components for the realization of a quantum repeater.

  19. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  20. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin...... blockade. This can be exploited to read out spin and valley qubits, and to measure the decay of these states through coupling to nuclear spins and phonons. A second unique property of carbon nanotubes is that the combination of valley freedom and electron-electron interactions in one dimension strongly...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two...

  1. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  2. Electron transport in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the...

  3. High-speed quantum networking by ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Stephens, Ashley M.; van Meter, Rodney

    2016-11-01

    Networked entanglement is an essential component for a plethora of quantum computation and communication protocols. Direct transmission of quantum signals over long distances is prevented by fibre attenuation and the no-cloning theorem, motivating the development of quantum repeaters, designed to purify entanglement, extending its range. Quantum repeaters have been demonstrated over short distances, but error-corrected, global repeater networks with high bandwidth require new technology. Here we show that error corrected quantum memories installed in cargo containers and carried by ship can provide a exible connection between local networks, enabling low-latency, high-fidelity quantum communication across global distances at higher bandwidths than previously proposed. With demonstrations of technology with sufficient fidelity to enable topological error-correction, implementation of the quantum memories is within reach, and bandwidth increases with improvements in fabrication. Our approach to quantum networking avoids technological restrictions of repeater deployment, providing an alternate path to a worldwide Quantum Internet.

  4. Quantum network with individual atoms and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, G.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum physics allows a new approach to information processing. A grand challenge is the realization of a quantum network for long-distance quantum communication and large-scale quantum simulation. This paper highlights a first implementation of an elementary quantum network with two fibre-linked high-finesse optical resonators, each containing a single quasi-permanently trapped atom as a stationary quantum node. Reversible quantum state transfer between the two atoms and entanglement of the two atoms are achieved by the controlled exchange of a time-symmetric single photon. This approach to quantum networking is efficient and offers a clear perspective for scalability. It allows for arbitrary topologies and features controlled connectivity as well as, in principle, infinite-range interactions. Our system constitutes the largest man-made material quantum system to date and is an ideal test bed for fundamental investigations, e.g. quantum non-locality. (authors)

  5. Entangled network and quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Nasser, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Math. Dept., College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2011-11-21

    A theoretical scheme is introduced to generate entangled network via Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. The dynamics of entanglement between different nodes, which is generated by direct or indirect interaction, is investigated. It is shown that, the direction of (DM) interaction and the locations of the nodes have a sensational effect on the degree of entanglement. The minimum entanglement generated between all the nodes is quantified. The upper and lower bounds of the entanglement depend on the direction of DM interaction, and the repetition of the behavior depends on the strength of DM. The generated entangled nodes are used as quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation, where it is shown that the fidelity of teleporting unknown information between the network members depends on the locations of the members.

  6. Quantum transport through organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport for the model of benzene-1, 4-dithiolate (BDT) molecule and some other geometric models of benzene molecule attached with two semi-infinite metallic electrodes by the use of Green's function technique. An analytic approach for the electronic transport through the molecular bridges is presented, based on the tight-binding model. Transport of electrons in such molecular bridges is strongly affected by the geometry of the molecules and their coupling strength with the electrodes. Conductance (g) shows resonance peaks associated with the molecular energy eigenstates. In the weak molecule-to-electrodes coupling limit current (I) passing through the molecules shows staircase-like behavior with sharp steps, while, it varies quite continuously in the limit of strong molecular coupling with the applied bias voltage (V). In presence of the transverse magnetic field conductance gives oscillatory behavior with flux φ, threaded by the molecular ring, showing φ 0 ( = ch/e) flux-quantum periodicity. Though conductance changes with the application of transverse magnetic field, but the current-voltage characteristics remain same in presence of this magnetic field for these molecular bridge systems

  7. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2017-10-27

    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  8. Opportunistic quantum network coding based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Du, Gang; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-04-01

    It seems impossible to endow opportunistic characteristic to quantum network on the basis that quantum channel cannot be overheard without disturbance. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic quantum network coding scheme by taking full advantage of channel characteristic of quantum teleportation. Concretely, it utilizes quantum channel for secure transmission of quantum states and can detect eavesdroppers by means of quantum channel verification. What is more, it utilizes classical channel for both opportunistic listening to neighbor states and opportunistic coding by broadcasting measurement outcome. Analysis results show that our scheme can reduce the times of transmissions over classical channels for relay nodes and can effectively defend against classical passive attack and quantum active attack.

  9. Thermoelectric transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Lukas Heinrich

    2016-06-30

    In this thesis the thermoelectric properties (electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductance)of quantum dots described by the Anderson impurity model have been investigated by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. In order to make accurate calculations for thermoelectric properties of quantum impurity systems, a number of recent developments and refinements of the NRG have been implemented. These include the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme, which enable the evaluation of physical quantities on an arbitrary temperature grid and at large discretization parameter Λ and the full density matrix (FDM) approach, which allows a more accurate calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients. The implementation of the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme has been tested within a new method for specific heats of quantum impurities. The accuracy of this new method was established by comparison with the numerical solution of the Bethe-ansatz equations for the Anderson model. The FDM approach was implemented and tested within a new approach to the calculation of impurity contributions to the uniform susceptibilities. Within this method a non-negligible contribution from the ''environmental'' degrees of freedom needs to be taken into account to recover the correct susceptibility, as shown by comparison with the Bethe-ansatz approach. An accurate method to calculate the conductance of a quantum dot is implemented, enabling the extraction of the Fermi liquid scaling coefficients c{sub T} and c{sub B} to high accuracy, being able to verify the results of the renormalized super perturbation theory approach (within its regime of validity). The method was generalized to higher order moments of the local level spectral function. This, as well as reduction of the SU(2) code to the U(1) symmetry, enabled the investigation of the effect of a magnetic field on the thermoelectric properties of quantum

  10. Quantum generalisation of feedforward neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kwok Ho; Dahlsten, Oscar; Kristjánsson, Hlér; Gardner, Robert; Kim, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a quantum generalisation of a classical neural network. The classical neurons are firstly rendered reversible by adding ancillary bits. Then they are generalised to being quantum reversible, i.e., unitary (the classical networks we generalise are called feedforward, and have step-function activation functions). The quantum network can be trained efficiently using gradient descent on a cost function to perform quantum generalisations of classical tasks. We demonstrate numerically that it can: (i) compress quantum states onto a minimal number of qubits, creating a quantum autoencoder, and (ii) discover quantum communication protocols such as teleportation. Our general recipe is theoretical and implementation-independent. The quantum neuron module can naturally be implemented photonically.

  11. A quantum-implementable neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jialin; Wang, Lingli; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-10-01

    A quantum-implementable neural network, namely quantum probability neural network (QPNN) model, is proposed in this paper. QPNN can use quantum parallelism to trace all possible network states to improve the result. Due to its unique quantum nature, this model is robust to several quantum noises under certain conditions, which can be efficiently implemented by the qubus quantum computer. Another advantage is that QPNN can be used as memory to retrieve the most relevant data and even to generate new data. The MATLAB experimental results of Iris data classification and MNIST handwriting recognition show that much less neuron resources are required in QPNN to obtain a good result than the classical feedforward neural network. The proposed QPNN model indicates that quantum effects are useful for real-life classification tasks.

  12. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Tillmann Christoph

    2009-11-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to theoretically predict the stationary charge and spin transport in mesoscopic semiconductor quantum devices in the presence of phonons and device imperfections. It is well known that the nonequilibrium Green's function method (NEGF) is a very general and all-inclusive scheme for the description of exactly this kind of transport problem. Although the NEGF formalism has been derived in the 1960's, textbooks about this formalism are still rare to find. Therefore, we introduce the NEGF formalism, its fundamental equations and approximations in the first part of this thesis. Thereby, we extract ideas of several seminal contributions on NEGF in literature and augment this by some minor derivations that are hard to find. Although the NEGF method has often been numerically implemented on transport problems, all current work in literature is based on a significant number of approximations with often unknown influence on the results and unknown validity limits. Therefore, we avoid most of the common approximations and implement in the second part of this thesis the NEGF formalism as exact as numerically feasible. For this purpose, we derive several new scattering self-energies and introduce new self-adaptive discretizations for the Green's functions and self-energies. The most important improvements of our NEGF implementation, however, affect the momentum and energy conservation during incoherent scattering, the Pauli blocking, the current conservation within and beyond the device and the reflectionless propagation through open device boundaries. Our uncommonly accurate implementation of the NEGF method allows us to analyze and assess most of the common approximations and to unveil numerical artifacts that have plagued previous approximate implementations in literature. Furthermore, we apply our numerical implementation of the NEGF method on the stationary electron transport in THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and answer

  13. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication, quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible. Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology. However, the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency, e.g., parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth. We have proposed two distinctive protocols, which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones. We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger—Horne—Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping. Another protocol, based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression, which can improve the efficiency of the network, works in the star-like network. The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption. In general, the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols. (general)

  14. Simulation of noise-assisted transport via optical cavity networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Plenio, Martin B.; Spagnolo, Nicolo; Vitelli, Chiara; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the presence of noise has been found to play a key role in assisting the transport of energy and information in complex quantum networks and even in biomolecular systems. Here we propose an experimentally realizable optical network scheme for the demonstration of the basic mechanisms underlying noise-assisted transport. The proposed system consists of a network of coupled quantum-optical cavities, injected with a single photon, whose transmission efficiency can be measured. Introducing dephasing in the photon path, this system exhibits a characteristic enhancement of the transport efficiency that can be observed with presently available technology.

  15. Quantum Transport Through Tunable Molecular Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua; Murat, Altynbek; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Employing self-interaction corrected density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method, we study the quantum transport through molecules with different numbers of phenyl (donor) and pyrimidinyl (acceptor) rings

  16. Multiple-Access Quantum-Classical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mohsen

    2011-10-01

    A multi-user network that supports both classical and quantum communication is proposed. By relying on optical code-division multiple access techniques, this system offers simultaneous key exchange between multiple pairs of network users. A lower bound on the secure key generation rate will be derived for decoy-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  17. Tensor Networks and Quantum Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Andrew J.; Poulin, David

    2014-07-01

    We establish several relations between quantum error correction (QEC) and tensor network (TN) methods of quantum many-body physics. We exhibit correspondences between well-known families of QEC codes and TNs, and demonstrate a formal equivalence between decoding a QEC code and contracting a TN. We build on this equivalence to propose a new family of quantum codes and decoding algorithms that generalize and improve upon quantum polar codes and successive cancellation decoding in a natural way.

  18. Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Nielsen, B.; Hettich, C.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August......Quantum information networks, quantum memories, quantum repeaters, linear optics quantum computers Udgivelsesdato: 25 August...

  19. Transfer of an unknown quantum state, quantum networks, and memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a protocol for transfer of an unknown quantum state. The protocol is based on a two-mode cavity interacting dispersively in a sequential manner with three-level atoms in the Λ configuration. We propose a scheme for quantum networking using an atomic channel. We investigate the effect of cavity decoherence in the entire process. Further, we demonstrate the possibility of an efficient quantum memory for arbitrary superposition of two modes of a cavity containing one photon

  20. Quantum networks: where should we be heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masahide

    2017-06-01

    Quantum key distribution network has become a reality in practical environment. Quantum repeaters have been explored in various physical systems and their combinations. For practical use of them, these new paradigms must be combined with existing or emerging infrastructures of communication and security systems. In this article, we discussed how quantum network can be combined with modern cryptographic technologies in fibre network and with emerging mobile terminals in wireless network, creating new solutions for the future cryptographic and communication systems. Our discussions are summarised in a roadmap.

  1. A Quantum Cryptography Communication Network Based on Software Defined Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongliang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Internet, information security has attracted great attention in today’s society, and quantum cryptography communication network based on quantum key distribution (QKD is a very important part of this field, since the quantum key distribution combined with one-time-pad encryption scheme can guarantee the unconditional security of the information. The secret key generated by quantum key distribution protocols is a very valuable resource, so making full use of key resources is particularly important. Software definition network (SDN is a new type of network architecture, and it separates the control plane and the data plane of network devices through OpenFlow technology, thus it realizes the flexible control of the network resources. In this paper, a quantum cryptography communication network model based on SDN is proposed to realize the flexible control of quantum key resources in the whole cryptography communication network. Moreover, we propose a routing algorithm which takes into account both the hops and the end-to-end availible keys, so that the secret key generated by QKD can be used effectively. We also simulate this quantum cryptography communication network, and the result shows that based on SDN and the proposed routing algorithm the performance of this network is improved since the effective use of the quantum key resources.

  2. Quantum-entanglement storage and extraction in quantum network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhuoyu; Zhang, Yong

    Quantum computing and quantum communication have become the most popular research topic. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have been shown the great advantage of implementing quantum information processing. The generation of entanglement between NV centers represents a fundamental prerequisite for all quantum information technologies. In this paper, we propose a scheme to realize the high-fidelity storage and extraction of quantum entanglement information based on the NV centers at room temperature. We store the entangled information of a pair of entangled photons in the Bell state into the nuclear spins of two NV centers, which can make these two NV centers entangled. And then we illuminate how to extract the entangled information from NV centers to prepare on-demand entangled states for optical quantum information processing. The strategy of engineering entanglement demonstrated here maybe pave the way towards a NV center-based quantum network.

  3. Quantum Random Networks for Type 2 Quantum Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allara, David L; Hasslacher, Brosl

    2006-01-01

    Random boolean networks (RBNs) have been studied theoretically and computationally in order to be able to use their remarkable self-healing and large basins of altercation properties as quantum computing architectures, especially...

  4. Deep Neural Network Detects Quantum Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Shunta; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2018-03-01

    We detect the quantum phase transition of a quantum many-body system by mapping the observed results of the quantum state onto a neural network. In the present study, we utilized the simplest case of a quantum many-body system, namely a one-dimensional chain of Ising spins with the transverse Ising model. We prepared several spin configurations, which were obtained using repeated observations of the model for a particular strength of the transverse field, as input data for the neural network. Although the proposed method can be employed using experimental observations of quantum many-body systems, we tested our technique with spin configurations generated by a quantum Monte Carlo simulation without initial relaxation. The neural network successfully identified the strength of transverse field only from the spin configurations, leading to consistent estimations of the critical point of our model Γc = J.

  5. Quantum Networks: General theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, A.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Chiribella, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a general mathematical framework to deal with Quantum Networks, i.e. networks resulting from the interconnection of elementary quantum circuits. The cornerstone of our approach is a generalization of the Choi isomorphism that allows one to efficiently represent any given Quantum Network in terms of a single positive operator. Our formalism allows one to face and solve many quantum information processing problems that would be hardly manageable otherwise, the most relevant of which are reviewed in this work: quantum process tomography, quantum cloning and learning of transformations, inversion of a unitary gate, information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a unitary transformation, cloning and learning of a measurement device (Authors)

  6. Open quantum generalisation of Hopfield neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, P.; Marcuzzi, M.; Garrahan, J. P.; Lesanovsky, I.; Müller, M.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new framework to understand how quantum effects may impact on the dynamics of neural networks. We implement the dynamics of neural networks in terms of Markovian open quantum systems, which allows us to treat thermal and quantum coherent effects on the same footing. In particular, we propose an open quantum generalisation of the Hopfield neural network, the simplest toy model of associative memory. We determine its phase diagram and show that quantum fluctuations give rise to a qualitatively new non-equilibrium phase. This novel phase is characterised by limit cycles corresponding to high-dimensional stationary manifolds that may be regarded as a generalisation of storage patterns to the quantum domain.

  7. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support...

  8. Quantum Transport Through Tunable Molecular Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2017-07-31

    Employing self-interaction corrected density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function method, we study the quantum transport through molecules with different numbers of phenyl (donor) and pyrimidinyl (acceptor) rings in order to evaluate the effects of the molecular composition on the transport properties. Excellent agreement with the results of recent experiments addressing the rectification behavior of molecular junctions is obtained, which demonstrates the potential of quantum transport simulations for designing high performance junctions by tuning the molecular specifications.

  9. Parallel state transfer and efficient quantum routing on quantum networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicki, Christopher; Strauch, Frederick W

    2010-12-31

    We study the routing of quantum information in parallel on multidimensional networks of tunable qubits and oscillators. These theoretical models are inspired by recent experiments in superconducting circuits. We show that perfect parallel state transfer is possible for certain networks of harmonic oscillator modes. We extend this to the distribution of entanglement between every pair of nodes in the network, finding that the routing efficiency of hypercube networks is optimal and robust in the presence of dissipation and finite bandwidth.

  10. Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    voltage bias, the tunneling of the electron from the lead to the dot and vice versa will happen very rarely. Then two successive ..... A typical mesoscopic quantum dot system (a small drop- .... dynamical behavior of the distribution function of the.

  11. Quantum state transfer and network engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M

    2013-01-01

    Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the en

  12. Topspin networks in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duston, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the extension of loop quantum gravity to topspin networks, a proposal which allows topological information to be encoded in spin networks. We will show that this requires minimal changes to the phase space, C*-algebra and Hilbert space of cylindrical functions. We will also discuss the area and Hamiltonian operators, and show how they depend on the topology. This extends the idea of ‘background independence’ in loop quantum gravity to include topology as well as geometry. It is hoped this work will confirm the usefulness of the topspin network formalism and open up several new avenues for research into quantum gravity. (paper)

  13. Quantum state transfer and network engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Jex, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Presents the basics of large-scale quantum information processing and networking. Covers most aspects of the problems of state transfer and quantum network engineering. Reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Presents various theoretical approaches as well as possible implementations and related experiments. Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the engineering of quantum networks are discussed in the framework of various quantum optical and condensed matter systems, emphasizing the interdisciplinary character of the research area. Each chapter is a review of theoretical or experimental achievements on a particular topic, written by leading scientists in the field. The volume aims at both newcomers as well as experienced researchers.

  14. Delayed feedback control in quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Clive

    2013-09-28

    Feedback control in quantum transport has been predicted to give rise to several interesting effects, among them quantum state stabilization and the realization of a mesoscopic Maxwell's daemon. These results were derived under the assumption that control operations on the system are affected instantaneously after the measurement of electronic jumps through it. In this contribution, I describe how to include a delay between detection and control operation in the master equation theory of feedback-controlled quantum transport. I investigate the consequences of delay for the state stabilization and Maxwell's daemon schemes. Furthermore, I describe how delay can be used as a tool to probe coherent oscillations of electrons within a transport system and how this formalism can be used to model finite detector bandwidth.

  15. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  16. The quest for a Quantum Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Schuld, M.; Sinayskiy, I.; Petruccione, F.

    2014-01-01

    With the overwhelming success in the field of quantum information in the last decades, the "quest" for a Quantum Neural Network (QNN) model began in order to combine quantum computing with the striking properties of neural computing. This article presents a systematic approach to QNN research, which so far consists of a conglomeration of ideas and proposals. It outlines the challenge of combining the nonlinear, dissipative dynamics of neural computing and the linear, unitary dynamics of quant...

  17. Scaling in public transport networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Ferber

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the statistical properties of public transport networks. These networks are defined by a set of public transport routes (bus lines and the stations serviced by these. For larger networks these appear to possess a scale-free structure, as it is demonstrated e.g. by the Zipf law distribution of the number of routes servicing a given station or for the distribution of the number of stations which can be visited from a chosen one without changing the means of transport. Moreover, a rather particular feature of the public transport network is that many routes service common subsets of stations. We discuss the possibility of new scaling laws that govern intrinsic properties of such subsets.

  18. Quantum logic networks for probabilistic teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金明; 张永生; 等

    2003-01-01

    By eans of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates.two-qubit controlled-not gates,Von Neuman measurement and classically controlled operations.,we construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing probabilistic teleportation of a single qubit,a two-particle entangled state,and an N-particle entanglement.Based on the quantum networks,we show that after the partially entangled states are concentrated into maximal entanglement,the above three kinds of probabilistic teleportation are the same as the standard teleportation using the corresponding maximally entangled states as the quantum channels.

  19. Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2010-01-01

    Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit π/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10 -3 to 10 -4 in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

  20. Iris Data Classification Using Quantum Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, Vishal; Patvardhan, C.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum computing is a novel paradigm that promises to be the future of computing. The performance of quantum algorithms has proved to be stunning. ANN within the context of classical computation has been used for approximation and classification tasks with some success. This paper presents an idea of quantum neural networks along with the training algorithm and its convergence property. It synergizes the unique properties of quantum bits or qubits with the various techniques in vogue in neural networks. An example application of Fisher's Iris data set, a benchmark classification problem has also been presented. The results obtained amply demonstrate the classification capabilities of the quantum neuron and give an idea of their promising capabilities

  1. Software-defined network abstractions and configuration interfaces for building programmable quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasari, Venkat [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL; Geerhart, Mr. Billy [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Snow, Nikolai [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Williams, Brian P [ORNL; Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Well-defined and stable quantum networks are essential to realize functional quantum applications. Quantum networks are complex and must use both quantum and classical channels to support quantum applications like QKD, teleportation, and superdense coding. In particular, the no-cloning theorem prevents the reliable copying of quantum signals such that the quantum and classical channels must be highly coordinated using robust and extensible methods. We develop new network abstractions and interfaces for building programmable quantum networks. Our approach leverages new OpenFlow data structures and table type patterns to build programmable quantum networks and to support quantum applications.

  2. Spin networks, quantum automata and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Marzuoli, Annalisa; Rasetti, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The spin network simulator model represents a bridge between (generalized) circuit schemes for standard quantum computation and approaches based on notions from Topological Quantum Field Theories (TQFT). More precisely, when working with purely discrete unitary gates, the simulator is naturally modelled as families of quantum automata which in turn represent discrete versions of topological quantum computation models. Such a quantum combinatorial scheme, which essentially encodes SU(2) Racah-Wigner algebra and its braided counterpart, is particularly suitable to address problems in topology and group theory and we discuss here a finite states-quantum automaton able to accept the language of braid group in view of applications to the problem of estimating link polynomials in Chern-Simons field theory

  3. Quantum transport in a ring of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena Junior, Marcone I.; Macedo, Antonio M.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Quantum dots play a central role in the recent technological efforts to build efficient devices to storage, process and transmit information in the quantum regime [1]. One of the reasons for this interest is the relative simplicity with which its control parameters can be changed by experimentalists. Systems with one, two and even arrays of quantum dots have been intensively studied with respect to their efficiency in processing information carried by charge, spin and heat [1]. A particularly useful realization of a quantum dot is a ballistic electron cavity formed by electrostatic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas. In the chaotic regime, the shape of the dot is statistically irrelevant and the ability to change its form via external gates can be used to generate members of an ensemble of identical systems. From a theoretical point of view, such quantum dots are ideal electron systems in which to study theoretical models combining phase-coherence, chaotic dynamics and Coulomb interactions. In this work, we use the Keldysh non-linear sigma model [2] with a counting field to study electron transport through a ring of four chaotic quantum dots pierced by an Aharonov-Bohm flux. This system is particularly well suited for studying ways to use the weak-localization effect to process quantum information. We derive the quantum circuit equations for this system from the saddle-point condition of the Keldysh action. The results are used to build the action of the corresponding supersymmetric (SUSY) non-linear sigma model. The connection with the random scattering matrix approach is then made via the color-flavor transformation. In the perturbative regime, where weak-localization effects appear, the Keldysh, SUSY and random scattering matrix approaches can be compared by means of independent analytical calculations. We conclude by pointing out the many advantages of our unified approach. [1] For a review, see Yu. V. Nazarov, and Ya. M. Blanter, Quantum

  4. Modeling the quantum to classical crossover in topologically disordered networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schijven, P; Kohlberger, J; Blumen, A; Mülken, O

    2012-01-01

    We model transport in topologically disordered networks that are subjected to an environment that induces classical diffusion. The dynamics is phenomenologically described within the framework of the recently introduced quantum stochastic walk, allowing study of the crossover between coherent transport and purely classical diffusion. To study the transport efficiency, we connect our system with a source and a drain and provide a detailed analysis of their effects. We find that the coupling to the environment removes all effects of localization and quickly leads to classical transport. Furthermore, we find that on the level of the transport efficiency, the system can be well described by reducing it to a two-node network (a dimer). (paper)

  5. Logistic control in automated transportation networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Increasing congestion problems lead to a search for alternative transportation systems. Automated transportation networks, possibly underground, are an option. Logistic control systems are essential for future implementations of such automated transportation networks. This book contributes to the

  6. Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.

  7. Communication via an entangled coherent quantum network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Allati, A; Hassouni, Y [Faculte des Sciences, Departement de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique URAC 13, Universite Mohammed V Agdal Rabat, Avenue Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Metwally, N, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Mathematics Department, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2011-06-01

    A quantum network (QN) is constructed via maximum entangled coherent states. The possibility of using this network to achieve quantum communication between multi-participants is investigated. We showed that the probability of the successful teleportation of an unknown state depends on the size of the used network. As the number of participants increases, the success probability does not depend on the intensity of the field. Implementing a quantum teleportation protocol via a noisy QN is discussed. The unknown state can be teleported perfectly with small values of the field intensity and larger values of the noise strength. The success probability of this suggested protocol increases abruptly for larger values of the noise strength and gradually for small values. For small-size QNs, the fidelity of the teleported state decreases smoothly, whereas it decreases abruptly for larger-sized networks.

  8. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This

  9. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  10. Quantitative Efficiency Evaluation Method for Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency/performance is essential to the establishment of sustainable development in any transportation system. Based on a redefinition of transportation network efficiency, a quantitative efficiency evaluation method for transportation network is proposed, which could reflect the effects of network structure, traffic demands, travel choice, and travel costs on network efficiency. Furthermore, the efficiency-oriented importance measure for network components is presented, which can be used to help engineers identify the critical nodes and links in the network. The numerical examples show that, compared with existing efficiency evaluation methods, the network efficiency value calculated by the method proposed in this paper can portray the real operation situation of the transportation network as well as the effects of main factors on network efficiency. We also find that the network efficiency and the importance values of the network components both are functions of demands and network structure in the transportation network.

  11. Graphs, Ideal Flow, and the Transportation Network

    OpenAIRE

    Teknomo, Kardi

    2016-01-01

    This lecture discusses the mathematical relationship between network structure and network utilization of transportation network. Network structure means the graph itself. Network utilization represent the aggregation of trajectories of agents in using the network graph. I show the similarity and relationship between the structural pattern of the network and network utilization.

  12. Conditional efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Peng; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan

    2002-01-01

    We propose a conditional quantum key distribution scheme with three nonorthogonal states. Combined with the idea presented by Lo et al. (H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print arXiv: quant-ph/0011056), the efficiency of this scheme is increased to tend to 100%. Also, such a refined data analysis guarantees the security of our scheme against the most general eavesdropping strategy. Then, based on the scheme, we present a quantum cryptography network with the addition of a device called ''space optical switch.'' Moreover, we give out a realization of a quantum random number generator. Thus, a feasible experimental scheme of this efficient quantum cryptography network is completely given

  13. Hartman effect and nonlocality in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandopadhyay, Swarnali; Jayannavar, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the phase time for various quantum mechanical networks having potential barriers in their arms to find the generic presence of Hartman effect. In such systems it is possible to control the 'super arrival' time in one of the arms by changing parameters on another, spatially separated from it. This is yet another quantum nonlocal effect. Negative time delays (time advancement) and 'ultra Hartman effect' with negative saturation times have been observed in some parameter regimes

  14. Bipartite quantum states and random complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Giorda, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a mapping between graphs and pure quantum bipartite states and show that the associated entanglement entropy conveys non-trivial information about the structure of the graph. Our primary goal is to investigate the family of random graphs known as complex networks. In the case of classical random graphs, we derive an analytic expression for the averaged entanglement entropy S-bar while for general complex networks we rely on numerics. For a large number of nodes n we find a scaling S-bar ∼c log n +g e where both the prefactor c and the sub-leading O(1) term g e are characteristic of the different classes of complex networks. In particular, g e encodes topological features of the graphs and is named network topological entropy. Our results suggest that quantum entanglement may provide a powerful tool for the analysis of large complex networks with non-trivial topological properties. (paper)

  15. Counterfactual quantum cryptography network with untrusted relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Jiang, Dong; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun

    2015-07-01

    Counterfactual quantum cryptography allows two remote parties to share a secret key even though a physical particle is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. In order to extend the scope of counterfactual quantum cryptography, we use an untrusted relay to construct a multi-user network. The implementation issues are discussed to show that the scheme can be realized with current technologies. We also prove the practical security advantages of the scheme by eliminating the probability that an eavesdropper can directly access the signal or an untrusted relay can perform false operations.

  16. Quantum Google in a Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Müller, Markus; Comellas, Francesc; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm, in large complex networks. We find that the algorithm is able to univocally reveal the underlying topology of the network and to identify and order the most relevant nodes. Furthermore, it is capable to clearly highlight the structure of secondary hubs and to resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low lying part of the list of rankings. The quantum algorithm displays an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance, as compared to the classical algorithm. We test the performance and confirm the listed features by applying it to real world examples from the WWW. Finally, we raise and partially address whether the increased sensitivity of the quantum algorithm persists under coordinated attacks in scale-free and random networks. PMID:24091980

  17. Quantum Google in a Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Müller, Markus; Comellas, Francesc; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm, in large complex networks. We find that the algorithm is able to univocally reveal the underlying topology of the network and to identify and order the most relevant nodes. Furthermore, it is capable to clearly highlight the structure of secondary hubs and to resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low lying part of the list of rankings. The quantum algorithm displays an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance, as compared to the classical algorithm. We test the performance and confirm the listed features by applying it to real world examples from the WWW. Finally, we raise and partially address whether the increased sensitivity of the quantum algorithm persists under coordinated attacks in scale-free and random networks.

  18. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  19. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  20. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  1. Efficient networks for quantum factoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, D.; Chari, A.N.; Devabhaktuni, S.; Preskill, J.

    1996-01-01

    We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory quantum bits (qubits) and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor [in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994), p. 124]. A K-bit number can be factored in time of order K 3 using a machine capable of storing 5K+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor close-quote s algorithm) could be achieved with about 72K 3 elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396K 3 laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures and nanoscale devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen-Li, Ji.

    1991-09-01

    Only a decade ago the study and fabrication of electron devices whose smallest features were just under 1 micro represented the forefront of the field. Today that position has advanced an order of magnitude to 100 nanometers. Quantum effects are unavoidable in devices with dimensions smaller than 100 nanometers. A variety of quantum effects have been discovered over the years, such as tunneling, resonant tunneling, weak and strong localization, and the quantum Hall effect. Since 1985, experiments on nanostructures (dimension < 100 nm) have revealed a number of new effects such as the Aharanov-Bohm effect, conductance fluctuations, non-local effects and the quantized resistance of point contacts. For nanostructures at low temperature, these phenomena clearly show that electron transport is influenced by wave interference effects similar to those well-known in microwave and optical networks. New device concepts now being proposed and demonstrated are based on these wave properties. This thesis discusses our study of electron transport in nanostructures. All of the quantum phenomena that we address here are essentially one-electron phenomena, although many-body effects will sometimes play a more significant role in the electronic properties of small structures. Most of the experimental observations to date are particularly well explained, at least qualitatively, in terms of the simple one-particle picture. (au)

  3. Complex quantum network geometries: Evolution and phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph; Wu, Zhihao

    2015-08-01

    Networks are topological and geometric structures used to describe systems as different as the Internet, the brain, or the quantum structure of space-time. Here we define complex quantum network geometries, describing the underlying structure of growing simplicial 2-complexes, i.e., simplicial complexes formed by triangles. These networks are geometric networks with energies of the links that grow according to a nonequilibrium dynamics. The evolution in time of the geometric networks is a classical evolution describing a given path of a path integral defining the evolution of quantum network states. The quantum network states are characterized by quantum occupation numbers that can be mapped, respectively, to the nodes, links, and triangles incident to each link of the network. We call the geometric networks describing the evolution of quantum network states the quantum geometric networks. The quantum geometric networks have many properties common to complex networks, including small-world property, high clustering coefficient, high modularity, and scale-free degree distribution. Moreover, they can be distinguished between the Fermi-Dirac network and the Bose-Einstein network obeying, respectively, the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. We show that these networks can undergo structural phase transitions where the geometrical properties of the networks change drastically. Finally, we comment on the relation between quantum complex network geometries, spin networks, and triangulations.

  4. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko

    2013-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  5. Nonadditivity of quantum capacities of quantum multiple-access channels and the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Peng; He Guangqiang; Zhu Jun; Zeng Guihua

    2011-01-01

    Multipartite quantum information transmission without additional classical resources is investigated. We show purely quantum superadditivity of quantum capacity regions of quantum memoryless multiple-access (MA) channels, which are not entanglement breaking. Also, we find that the superadditivity holds when the MA channel extends to the quantum butterfly network, which can achieve quantum network coding. The present widespread effects for the channels which enable entanglement distribution have not been revealed for multipartite scenarios.

  6. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  7. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  8. Extensible router for a quantum key distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Mo Xiaofan; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    Building a quantum key distribution network is crucial for practical quantum cryptography. We present a scheme to build a star topology quantum key distribution network based on wavelength division multiplexing which, with current technology, can connect at least a hundred users. With the scheme, a 4-user demonstration network was built up and key exchanges were performed

  9. Quantum photonic network and physical layer security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masahide; Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-08-06

    Quantum communication and quantum cryptography are expected to enhance the transmission rate and the security (confidentiality of data transmission), respectively. We study a new scheme which can potentially bridge an intermediate region covered by these two schemes, which is referred to as quantum photonic network. The basic framework is information theoretically secure communications in a free space optical (FSO) wiretap channel, in which an eavesdropper has physically limited access to the main channel between the legitimate sender and receiver. We first review a theoretical framework to quantify the optimal balance of the transmission efficiency and the security level under power constraint and at finite code length. We then present experimental results on channel characterization based on 10 MHz on-off keying transmission in a 7.8 km terrestrial FSO wiretap channel.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. N multipartite GHZ states in quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara Vivoli, Valentina; Wehner, Stephanie

    Nowadays progress in experimental quantum physics has brought to a significant control on systems like nitrogen-vacancy centres, ion traps, and superconducting qubit clusters. These systems can constitute the key cells of future quantum networks, where tasks like quantum communication at large scale and quantum cryptography can be achieved. It is, though, still not clear which approaches can be used to generate such entanglement at large distances using only local operations on or between at most two adjacent nodes. Here, we analyse three protocols that are able to generate genuine multipartite entanglement between an arbitrary large number of parties. In particular, we focus on the generation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Moreover, the performances of the three methods are numerically compared in the scenario of a decoherence model both in terms of fidelity and entanglement generation rate. V.C.V. is founded by a NWO Vidi Grant, and S.W. is founded by STW Netherlands.

  11. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo; Artina, Marco; Foransier, Massimo; Markowich, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation

  12. Fermionic topological quantum states as tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, C.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.

    2017-06-01

    Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states, play an important role in the description of strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. They do not only serve as variational states in numerical simulation methods, but also provide a framework for classifying phases of quantum matter and capture notions of topological order in a stringent and rigorous language. The rapid development in this field for spin models and bosonic systems has not yet been mirrored by an analogous development for fermionic models. In this work, we introduce a tensor network formalism capable of capturing notions of topological order for quantum systems with fermionic components. At the heart of the formalism are axioms of fermionic matrix-product operator injectivity, stable under concatenation. Building upon that, we formulate a Grassmann number tensor network ansatz for the ground state of fermionic twisted quantum double models. A specific focus is put on the paradigmatic example of the fermionic toric code. This work shows that the program of describing topologically ordered systems using tensor networks carries over to fermionic models.

  13. Software-defined Quantum Networking Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The software enables a user to perform modeling and simulation of software-defined quantum networks. The software addresses the problem of how to synchronize transmission of quantum and classical signals through multi-node networks and to demonstrate quantum information protocols such as quantum teleportation. The software approaches this problem by generating a graphical model of the underlying network and attributing properties to each node and link in the graph. The graphical model is then simulated using a combination of discrete-event simulators to calculate the expected state of each node and link in the graph at a future time. A user interacts with the software by providing an initial network model and instantiating methods for the nodes to transmit information with each other. This includes writing application scripts in python that make use of the software library interfaces. A user then initiates the application scripts, which invokes the software simulation. The user then uses the built-in diagnostic tools to query the state of the simulation and to collect statistics on synchronization.

  14. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo

    2015-09-15

    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation and angiogenesis) and ion transportation networks (e.g., neural networks) is explained in detail and basic analytical features like the gradient flow structure of the fluid transportation network model and the impact of the model parameters on the geometry and topology of network formation are analyzed. We also present a numerical finite-element based discretization scheme and discuss sample cases of network formation simulations.

  15. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chi Yung; Chen, GuanHua

    2013-04-28

    A dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory is developed to treat the transient current through molecular or nanoscopic devices in presence of electron-phonon interaction. The dissipation via phonon is taken into account by introducing a self-energy for the electron-phonon coupling in addition to the self-energy caused by the electrodes. Based on this, a numerical method is proposed. For practical implementation, the lowest order expansion is employed for the weak electron-phonon coupling case and the wide-band limit approximation is adopted for device and electrodes coupling. The corresponding hierarchical equation of motion is derived, which leads to an efficient and accurate time-dependent treatment of inelastic effect on transport for the weak electron-phonon interaction. The resulting method is applied to a one-level model system and a gold wire described by tight-binding model to demonstrate its validity and the importance of electron-phonon interaction for the quantum transport. As it is based on the effective single-electron model, the method can be readily extended to time-dependent density functional theory.

  16. Robust quantum network architectures and topologies for entanglement distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Khatri, Sumeet; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2018-01-01

    Entanglement distribution is a prerequisite for several important quantum information processing and computing tasks, such as quantum teleportation, quantum key distribution, and distributed quantum computing. In this work, we focus on two-dimensional quantum networks based on optical quantum technologies using dual-rail photonic qubits for the building of a fail-safe quantum internet. We lay out a quantum network architecture for entanglement distribution between distant parties using a Bravais lattice topology, with the technological constraint that quantum repeaters equipped with quantum memories are not easily accessible. We provide a robust protocol for simultaneous entanglement distribution between two distant groups of parties on this network. We also discuss a memory-based quantum network architecture that can be implemented on networks with an arbitrary topology. We examine networks with bow-tie lattice and Archimedean lattice topologies and use percolation theory to quantify the robustness of the networks. In particular, we provide figures of merit on the loss parameter of the optical medium that depend only on the topology of the network and quantify the robustness of the network against intermittent photon loss and intermittent failure of nodes. These figures of merit can be used to compare the robustness of different network topologies in order to determine the best topology in a given real-world scenario, which is critical in the realization of the quantum internet.

  17. Programmable multi-node quantum network design and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Venkat R.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Prout, Ryan; Williams, Brian P.; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-05-01

    Software-defined networking offers a device-agnostic programmable framework to encode new network functions. Externally centralized control plane intelligence allows programmers to write network applications and to build functional network designs. OpenFlow is a key protocol widely adopted to build programmable networks because of its programmability, flexibility and ability to interconnect heterogeneous network devices. We simulate the functional topology of a multi-node quantum network that uses programmable network principles to manage quantum metadata for protocols such as teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum key distribution. We first show how the OpenFlow protocol can manage the quantum metadata needed to control the quantum channel. We then use numerical simulation to demonstrate robust programmability of a quantum switch via the OpenFlow network controller while executing an application of superdense coding. We describe the software framework implemented to carry out these simulations and we discuss near-term efforts to realize these applications.

  18. Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

  19. Quantum demultiplexer of quantum parameter-estimation information in quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanqing; Huang, Yumeng; Wu, Yinzhong; Hao, Xiang

    2018-05-01

    The quantum demultiplexer is constructed by a series of unitary operators and multipartite entangled states. It is used to realize information broadcasting from an input node to multiple output nodes in quantum networks. The scheme of quantum network communication with respect to phase estimation is put forward through the demultiplexer subjected to amplitude damping noises. The generalized partial measurements can be applied to protect the transferring efficiency from environmental noises in the protocol. It is found out that there are some optimal coherent states which can be prepared to enhance the transmission of phase estimation. The dynamics of state fidelity and quantum Fisher information are investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the network communication. While the state fidelity deteriorates rapidly, the quantum Fisher information can be enhanced to a maximum value and then decreases slowly. The memory effect of the environment induces the oscillations of fidelity and quantum Fisher information. The adjustment of the strength of partial measurements is helpful to increase quantum Fisher information.

  20. Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.

  1. Next Generation Reliable Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang

    the wavelength and fiber assignment problem is proposed and implemented for avionic optical transport networks. Simulation results give out resource consumptions and prove the efficiency of the proposed mechanisms. Finally, a Home Environment Service Knowledge Management system is proposed. Through ontology...... technologies, a knowledge base is constructed to represent the whole information of a home environment. By applying the reasoner tool, the proposed system manages to keep the consistency in a home environment and helps all software configure and update procedures across multiple vendors....... of criticality and security, there are certain physical or logical segregation requirements between the avionic systems. Such segregations can be implemented on the proposed avionic networks with different hierarchies. In order to fulfill the segregation requirements, a tailored heuristic approach for solving...

  2. Transport on river networks: A dynamical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliapin, I; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; Ghil, M

    2017-01-01

    This study is motivated by problems related to environmental transport on river networks. We establish statistical properties of a flow along a directed branching network and suggest its compact parameterization. The downstream network transport is treated as a particular case of nearest-neighbor hierarchical aggregation with respect to the metric induced by the branching structure of the river network. We describe the static geometric structure of a drainage network by a tree, referred to as...

  3. Spin-dependent quantum transport in nanoscaled geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Jean J.

    2011-10-01

    We discuss experiments where the spin degree of freedom leads to quantum interference phenomena in the solid-state. Under spin-orbit interactions (SOI), spin rotation modifies weak-localization to weak anti-localization (WAL). WAL's sensitivity to spin- and phase coherence leads to its use in determining the spin coherence lengths Ls in materials, of importance moreover in spintronics. Using WAL we measure the dependence of Ls on the wire width w in narrow nanolithographic ballistic InSb wires, ballistic InAs wires, and diffusive Bi wires with surface states with Rashba-like SOI. In all three systems we find that Ls increases with decreasing w. While theory predicts the increase for diffusive wires with linear (Rashba) SOI, we experimentally conclude that the increase in Ls under dimensional confinement may be more universal, with consequences for various applications. Further, in mesoscopic ring geometries on an InAs/AlGaSb 2D electron system (2DES) we observe both Aharonov-Bohm oscillations due to spatial quantum interference, and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations due to time-reversed paths. A transport formalism describing quantum coherent networks including ballistic transport and SOI allows a comparison of spin- and phase coherence lengths extracted for such spatial- and temporal-loop quantum interference phenomena. We further applied WAL to study the magnetic interactions between a 2DES at the surface of InAs and local magnetic moments on the surface from rare earth (RE) ions (Gd3+, Ho3+, and Sm3+). The magnetic spin-flip rate carries information about magnetic interactions. Results indicate that the heavy RE ions increase the SOI scattering rate and the spin-flip rate, the latter indicating magnetic interactions. Moreover Ho3+ on InAs yields a spin-flip rate with an unusual power 1/2 temperature dependence, possibly characteristic of a Kondo system. We acknowledge funding from DOE (DE-FG02-08ER46532).

  4. Quantum Entanglement in Neural Network States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ling Deng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning, one of today’s most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields, promises an unprecedented perspective for solving intricate quantum many-body problems. Understanding the physical aspects of the representative artificial neural-network states has recently become highly desirable in the applications of machine-learning techniques to quantum many-body physics. In this paper, we explore the data structures that encode the physical features in the network states by studying the quantum entanglement properties, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM architecture. We prove that the entanglement entropy of all short-range RBM states satisfies an area law for arbitrary dimensions and bipartition geometry. For long-range RBM states, we show by using an exact construction that such states could exhibit volume-law entanglement, implying a notable capability of RBM in representing quantum states with massive entanglement. Strikingly, the neural-network representation for these states is remarkably efficient, in the sense that the number of nonzero parameters scales only linearly with the system size. We further examine the entanglement properties of generic RBM states by randomly sampling the weight parameters of the RBM. We find that their averaged entanglement entropy obeys volume-law scaling, and the meantime strongly deviates from the Page entropy of the completely random pure states. We show that their entanglement spectrum has no universal part associated with random matrix theory and bears a Poisson-type level statistics. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the ground state (with power-law entanglement of a model Hamiltonian with a long-range interaction. In addition, we show, through a concrete example of the one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological cluster states, that the RBM representation may also be used as a tool to analytically compute the entanglement spectrum. Our

  5. Stability, gain, and robustness in quantum feedback networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Helon, C.; James, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the problem of stability for quantum feedback networks. We demonstrate in the context of quantum optics how stability of quantum feedback networks can be guaranteed using only simple gain inequalities for network components and algebraic relationships determined by the network. Quantum feedback networks are shown to be stable if the loop gain is less than one--this is an extension of the famous small gain theorem of classical control theory. We illustrate the simplicity and power of the small gain approach with applications to important problems of robust stability and robust stabilization

  6. Quantum neural networks: Current status and prospects for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaisky, M. V.; Kaputkina, N. E.; Krylov, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The idea of quantum artificial neural networks, first formulated in [34], unites the artificial neural network concept with the quantum computation paradigm. Quantum artificial neural networks were first systematically considered in the PhD thesis by T. Menneer (1998). Based on the works of Menneer and Narayanan [42, 43], Kouda, Matsui, and Nishimura [35, 36], Altaisky [2, 68], Zhou [67], and others, quantum-inspired learning algorithms for neural networks were developed, and are now used in various training programs and computer games [29, 30]. The first practically realizable scaled hardware-implemented model of the quantum artificial neural network is obtained by D-Wave Systems, Inc. [33]. It is a quantum Hopfield network implemented on the basis of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this work we analyze possibilities and underlying principles of an alternative way to implement quantum neural networks on the basis of quantum dots. A possibility of using quantum neural network algorithms in automated control systems, associative memory devices, and in modeling biological and social networks is examined.

  7. Harnessing quantum transport by transient chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso; Pecora, Louis M

    2013-03-01

    Chaos has long been recognized to be generally advantageous from the perspective of control. In particular, the infinite number of unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic set and the intrinsically sensitive dependence on initial conditions imply that a chaotic system can be controlled to a desirable state by using small perturbations. Investigation of chaos control, however, was largely limited to nonlinear dynamical systems in the classical realm. In this paper, we show that chaos may be used to modulate or harness quantum mechanical systems. To be concrete, we focus on quantum transport through nanostructures, a problem of considerable interest in nanoscience, where a key feature is conductance fluctuations. We articulate and demonstrate that chaos, more specifically transient chaos, can be effective in modulating the conductance-fluctuation patterns. Experimentally, this can be achieved by applying an external gate voltage in a device of suitable geometry to generate classically inaccessible potential barriers. Adjusting the gate voltage allows the characteristics of the dynamical invariant set responsible for transient chaos to be varied in a desirable manner which, in turn, can induce continuous changes in the statistical characteristics of the quantum conductance-fluctuation pattern. To understand the physical mechanism of our scheme, we develop a theory based on analyzing the spectrum of the generalized non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that includes the effect of leads, or electronic waveguides, as self-energy terms. As the escape rate of the underlying non-attracting chaotic set is increased, the imaginary part of the complex eigenenergy becomes increasingly large so that pointer states are more difficult to form, making smoother the conductance-fluctuation pattern.

  8. Quantum Enhanced Inference in Markov Logic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Gogolin, Christian

    2017-04-19

    Markov logic networks (MLNs) reconcile two opposing schools in machine learning and artificial intelligence: causal networks, which account for uncertainty extremely well, and first-order logic, which allows for formal deduction. An MLN is essentially a first-order logic template to generate Markov networks. Inference in MLNs is probabilistic and it is often performed by approximate methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling. An MLN has many regular, symmetric structures that can be exploited at both first-order level and in the generated Markov network. We analyze the graph structures that are produced by various lifting methods and investigate the extent to which quantum protocols can be used to speed up Gibbs sampling with state preparation and measurement schemes. We review different such approaches, discuss their advantages, theoretical limitations, and their appeal to implementations. We find that a straightforward application of a recent result yields exponential speedup compared to classical heuristics in approximate probabilistic inference, thereby demonstrating another example where advanced quantum resources can potentially prove useful in machine learning.

  9. Quantum Enhanced Inference in Markov Logic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Gogolin, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Markov logic networks (MLNs) reconcile two opposing schools in machine learning and artificial intelligence: causal networks, which account for uncertainty extremely well, and first-order logic, which allows for formal deduction. An MLN is essentially a first-order logic template to generate Markov networks. Inference in MLNs is probabilistic and it is often performed by approximate methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling. An MLN has many regular, symmetric structures that can be exploited at both first-order level and in the generated Markov network. We analyze the graph structures that are produced by various lifting methods and investigate the extent to which quantum protocols can be used to speed up Gibbs sampling with state preparation and measurement schemes. We review different such approaches, discuss their advantages, theoretical limitations, and their appeal to implementations. We find that a straightforward application of a recent result yields exponential speedup compared to classical heuristics in approximate probabilistic inference, thereby demonstrating another example where advanced quantum resources can potentially prove useful in machine learning.

  10. Quantum Transport Simulations of Nanoscale Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-01-07

    Nanoscale materials have many potential advantages because of their quantum confinement, cost and producibility by low-temperature chemical methods. Advancement of theoretical methods as well as the availability of modern high-performance supercomputers allow us to control and exploit their microscopic properties at the atomic scale, hence making it possible to design novel nanoscale molecular devices with interesting features (e.g switches, rectifiers, negative differential conductance, and high magnetoresistance). In this thesis, state-of-the-art theoretical calculations have been performed for the quantum transport properties of nano-structured materials within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Nonequilibrium Green\\'s Function (NEGF) formalism. The switching behavior of a dithiolated phenylene-vinylene oligomer sandwiched between Au(111) electrodes is investigated. The molecule presents a configurational bistability, which can be exploited in constructing molecular memories, switches, and sensors. We find that protonation of the terminating thiol groups is at the origin of the change in conductance. H bonding at the thiol group weakens the S-Au bond, and thus lowers the conductance. Our results allow us to re-interpret the experimental data originally attributing the conductance reduction to H dissociation. Also examined is current-induced migration of atoms in nanoscale devices that plays an important role for device operation and breakdown. We studied the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes under finite bias. We demonstrate that current-induced forces within DFT are non-conservative, which so far has only been shown for model systems, and can lower migration barrier heights. Further, we investigated the quantum transport behavior of an experimentally observed diblock molecule by varying the amounts of phenyl (donor) and pyrimidinyl (acceptor) rings under finite bias. We show that a tandem configuration of

  11. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...

  12. Satellite-Relayed Intercontinental Quantum Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ˜kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

  13. Satellite-Relayed Intercontinental Quantum Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-19

    We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ∼kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

  14. Quantum computation over the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

  15. Acquisition management of the Global Transportation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-02

    This report discusses the acquisition management of the Global transportation Network by the U.S. Transportation Command. This report is one in a series of audit reports addressing DoD acquisition management of information technology systems. The Glo...

  16. OpenFlow Extensions for Programmable Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-19

    Introduction 1 2. Background 1 2.1 Quantum Networks 2 2.2 Software -Defined Networks 3 3. Approach 3 3.1 Metadata 4 3.2 Switch 4 3.3 Controller 5... software -defined networks . Stanford (CA): Stanford University HotNets; 2010. 9. Raychev N. Algorithm for switching 4-bit packages in full quantum...applications to communicate. Advances in network protocols and architectures have led to the development of software -defined programmable networks

  17. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.

  18. Spatiotemporal Recurrent Convolutional Networks for Traffic Prediction in Transportation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyang; Wu, Zhihai; Wang, Shuqin; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Xiaolei

    2017-06-26

    Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs), for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) and long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction.

  19. Quantum Spin Transport in Mesoscopic Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein W. A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent conductance of ballistic mesoscopic interferometer is investigated. The quantum interferometer is in the form of ring, in which a quantum dot is embedded in one arm. This quantum dot is connected to one lead via tunnel barrier. Both Aharonov- Casher and Aharonov-Bohm e ects are studied. Our results confirm the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and quantum interference e ects in such confined quantum systems. This investigation is valuable for spintronics application, for example, quantum information processing.

  20. Quantum dissipation theory and applications to quantum transport and quantum measurement in mesoscopic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping

    The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ≡ trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO

  1. Block-free optical quantum Banyan network based on quantum state fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chang-Hua; Meng Yan-Hong; Quan Dong-Xiao; Zhao Nan; Pei Chang-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Optical switch fabric plays an important role in building multiple-user optical quantum communication networks. Owing to its self-routing property and low complexity, a banyan network is widely used for building switch fabric. While, there is no efficient way to remove internal blocking in a banyan network in a classical way, quantum state fusion, by which the two-dimensional internal quantum states of two photons could be combined into a four-dimensional internal state of a single photon, makes it possible to solve this problem. In this paper, we convert the output mode of quantum state fusion from spatial-polarization mode into time-polarization mode. By combining modified quantum state fusion and quantum state fission with quantum Fredkin gate, we propose a practical scheme to build an optical quantum switch unit which is block free. The scheme can be extended to building more complex units, four of which are shown in this paper. (general)

  2. Quantum Measurements: From Bayes Rule to Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greplova, Eliska

    2017-01-01

    Quantum technologies are becoming more and more introduced into the devices that we use in the daily life, such as quantum dot based television screens or quantum cryptographic channels for encoding financial transactions. Given the limits of the silicon computer chips, it will in the near future...... learning techniques such as artificial neural networks....

  3. Efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network based on entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Kunkun; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-04-04

    We present an efficient quantum key distribution protocol with a certain entangled state to solve a special cryptographic task. Also, we provide a proof of security of this protocol by generalizing the proof of modified of Lo-Chau scheme. Based on this two-user scheme, a quantum cryptography network protocol is proposed without any quantum memory.

  4. Quantum Transport: The Link between Standard Approaches in Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    Theories describing electrical transport in semiconductor superlattices can essentially be divided in three disjoint categories: (i) transport in a miniband; (ii) hopping between Wannier-Stark ladders; and (iii) sequential tunneling. We present a quantum transport model, based on nonequilibrium G...

  5. Single-shot secure quantum network coding on butterfly network with free public communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Hayashi, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Quantum network coding on the butterfly network has been studied as a typical example of quantum multiple cast network. We propose a secure quantum network code for the butterfly network with free public classical communication in the multiple unicast setting under restricted eavesdropper’s power. This protocol certainly transmits quantum states when there is no attack. We also show the secrecy with shared randomness as additional resource when the eavesdropper wiretaps one of the channels in the butterfly network and also derives the information sending through public classical communication. Our protocol does not require verification process, which ensures single-shot security.

  6. The Stratonovich formulation of quantum feedback network rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John E.

    2016-12-01

    We express the rules for forming quantum feedback networks using the Stratonovich form of quantum stochastic calculus rather than the Itō or SLH (J. E. Gough and M. R. James, "Quantum feedback networks: Hamiltonian formulation," Commun. Math. Phys. 287, 1109 (2009), J. E. Gough and M. R. James, "The Series product and its application to quantum feedforward and feedback networks," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 54, 2530 (2009)) form. Remarkably the feedback reduction rule implies that we obtain the Schur complement of the matrix of Stratonovich coupling operators where we short out the internal input/output coefficients.

  7. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, S.A., E-mail: jafari@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Complex Systems and Condensed Matter (CSCM), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.

  8. Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.; Jafari, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect

  9. Network Performance Improvement under Epidemic Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate epidemic failure spreading in large- scale GMPLS-controlled transport networks. By evaluating the effect of the epidemic failure spreading on the network, we design several strategies for cost-effective network performance improvement via differentiated repair times....... First we identify the most vulnerable and the most strategic nodes in the network. Then, via extensive simulations we show that strategic placement of resources for improved failure recovery has better performance than randomly assigning lower repair times among the network nodes. Our OPNET simulation...... model can be used during the network planning process for facilitating cost- effective network survivability design....

  10. Skipping Orbits, Traversing Trajectories, and Quantum Ballistic Transport in Microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, C.W.J.; Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van

    1989-01-01

    Three topics of current interest in the study of quantum ballistic transport in a two-dimensional electron gas are discussed, with an emphasis on correspondences between classical trajectories and quantum states in the various experimental geometries. We consider the quantized conductance of point

  11. Electron transport and coherence in semiconductor quantum dots and rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wiel, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments on electron transport and coherence in semiconductor vertical and lateral quantum dots and semiconductor rings is described. Quantum dots are often referred to as "artificial atoms", because of their similarities with real atoms. Examples of such atom-like properties that

  12. Quantum transport in strongly interacting one-dimensional nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agundez, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study quantum transport in several one-dimensional systems with strong electronic interactions. The first chapter contains an introduction to the concepts treated throughout this thesis, such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Kondo effect, the Fano effect and quantum state transfer.

  13. Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...

  14. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xu-Tao; Zhang Zai-Chen; Xu Jin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless quantum communication networks transfer quantum state by teleportation. Existing research focuses on maximal entangled pairs. In this paper, we analyse the distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs. A quantum routing scheme with multi-hop teleportation is proposed. With the proposed scheme, is not necessary for the quantum path to be consistent with the classical path. The quantum path and its associated classical path are established in a distributed way. Direct multi-hop teleportation is conducted on the selected path to transfer a quantum state from the source to the destination. Based on the feature of multi-hop teleportation using partially entangled pairs, if the node number of the quantum path is even, the destination node will add another teleportation at itself. We simulated the performance of distributed wireless quantum communication networks with a partially entangled state. The probability of transferring the quantum state successfully is statistically analyzed. Our work shows that multi-hop teleportation on distributed wireless quantum networks with partially entangled pairs is feasible. (general)

  15. Quantum logic gates based on coherent electron transport in quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, A; Bordone, P; Brunetti, R; Jacoboni, C; Reggiani, S

    2000-06-19

    It is shown that the universal set of quantum logic gates can be realized using solid-state quantum bits based on coherent electron transport in quantum wires. The elementary quantum bits are realized with a proper design of two quantum wires coupled through a potential barrier. Numerical simulations show that (a) a proper design of the coupling barrier allows one to realize any one-qbit rotation and (b) Coulomb interaction between two qbits of this kind allows the implementation of the CNOT gate. These systems are based on a mature technology and seem to be integrable with conventional electronics.

  16. Efficient method for transport simulations in quantum cascade lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczka Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for simulating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers is presented. The calculations are performed within a simple approximation inspired by Büttiker probes and based on a finite model for semiconductor superlattices. The formalism of non-equilibrium Green’s functions is applied to determine the selected transport parameters in a typical structure of a terahertz laser. Results were compared with those obtained for a infinite model as well as other methods described in literature.

  17. Diamond NV centers for quantum computing and quantum networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Childress, L.; Hanson, R.

    2013-01-01

    The exotic features of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information technologies. Using superposition and entanglement, a quantum processor could efficiently tackle problems inaccessible to current-day computers. Nonlocal correlations may be exploited for intrinsically secure

  18. Quantum perceptron over a field and neural network architecture selection in a quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Adenilton José; Ludermir, Teresa Bernarda; de Oliveira, Wilson Rosa

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose a quantum neural network named quantum perceptron over a field (QPF). Quantum computers are not yet a reality and the models and algorithms proposed in this work cannot be simulated in actual (or classical) computers. QPF is a direct generalization of a classical perceptron and solves some drawbacks found in previous models of quantum perceptrons. We also present a learning algorithm named Superposition based Architecture Learning algorithm (SAL) that optimizes the neural network weights and architectures. SAL searches for the best architecture in a finite set of neural network architectures with linear time over the number of patterns in the training set. SAL is the first learning algorithm to determine neural network architectures in polynomial time. This speedup is obtained by the use of quantum parallelism and a non-linear quantum operator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perfect quantum multiple-unicast network coding protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize long-distance and large-scale quantum communication, it is natural to utilize quantum repeater. For a general quantum multiple-unicast network, it is still puzzling how to complete communication tasks perfectly with less resources such as registers. In this paper, we solve this problem. By applying quantum repeaters to multiple-unicast communication problem, we give encoding-decoding schemes for source nodes, internal ones and target ones, respectively. Source-target nodes share EPR pairs by using our encoding-decoding schemes over quantum multiple-unicast network. Furthermore, quantum communication can be accomplished perfectly via teleportation. Compared with existed schemes, our schemes can reduce resource consumption and realize long-distance transmission of quantum information.

  20. Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    dimensional Dirac material systems. 2 List of Publications 1. X. Ni, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, and L. M. Pecora, “Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum...development of relativistic quantum devices based on graphene or alternative two-dimensional Dirac material systems. In the project period, we studied

  1. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2010-06-01

    In the literature, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grids and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which nodes are classified into two categories: supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for these supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogeneous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the near optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity compared with a random configuration and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzing and optimizing transport dynamics on supply-demand networks.

  2. Transport through a vibrating quantum dot: Polaronic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, T; Alvermann, A; Fehske, H; Loos, J; Bishop, A R

    2010-01-01

    We present a Green's function based treatment of the effects of electron-phonon coupling on transport through a molecular quantum dot in the quantum limit. Thereby we combine an incomplete variational Lang-Firsov approach with a perturbative calculation of the electron-phonon self energy in the framework of generalised Matsubara Green functions and a Landauer-type transport description. Calculating the ground-state energy, the dot single-particle spectral function and the linear conductance at finite carrier density, we study the low-temperature transport properties of the vibrating quantum dot sandwiched between metallic leads in the whole electron-phonon coupling strength regime. We discuss corrections to the concept of an anti-adiabatic dot polaron and show how a deformable quantum dot can act as a molecular switch.

  3. Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Architectures that would exploit the distinct characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed for digital communication networks that connect advanced digital computing circuits. In comparison with networks of wires in conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry, the networks according to the proposed architectures would be more compact. The proposed architectures would make it possible to implement complex interconnection schemes that are required for some advanced parallel-computing algorithms and that are difficult (and in many cases impractical) to implement in VLSI circuitry. The difficulty of implementation in VLSI and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA were described previously in Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42. To recapitulate: Wherever two wires in a conventional VLSI circuit cross each other and are required not to be in electrical contact with each other, there must be a layer of electrical insulation between them. This, in turn, makes it necessary to resort to a noncoplanar and possibly a multilayer design, which can be complex, expensive, and even impractical. As a result, much of the cost of designing VLSI circuits is associated with minimization of data routing and assignment of layers to minimize crossing of wires. Heretofore, these considerations have impeded the development of VLSI circuitry to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. On the other hand, with suitable design and under suitable operating conditions, QCA-based signal paths can be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. The proposed architectures require two advances in QCA-based circuitry beyond basic QCA-based binary

  4. The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, M.; Pacher, C.; Alléaume, R.; Barreiro, C.; Bouda, J.; Boxleitner, W.; Debuisschert, T.; Diamanti, E.; Dianati, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fasel, S.; Fossier, S.; Fürst, M.; Gautier, J.-D.; Gay, O.; Gisin, N.; Grangier, P.; Happe, A.; Hasani, Y.; Hentschel, M.; Hübel, H.; Humer, G.; Länger, T.; Legré, M.; Lieger, R.; Lodewyck, J.; Lorünser, T.; Lütkenhaus, N.; Marhold, A.; Matyus, T.; Maurhart, O.; Monat, L.; Nauerth, S.; Page, J.-B.; Poppe, A.; Querasser, E.; Ribordy, G.; Robyr, S.; Salvail, L.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.; Stucki, D.; Suda, M.; Tamas, C.; Themel, T.; Thew, R. T.; Thoma, Y.; Treiber, A.; Trinkler, P.; Tualle-Brouri, R.; Vannel, F.; Walenta, N.; Weier, H.; Weinfurter, H.; Wimberger, I.; Yuan, Z. L.; Zbinden, H.; Zeilinger, A.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present the quantum key distribution (QKD) network designed and implemented by the European project SEcure COmmunication based on Quantum Cryptography (SECOQC) (2004-2008), unifying the efforts of 41 research and industrial organizations. The paper summarizes the SECOQC approach to QKD networks with a focus on the trusted repeater paradigm. It discusses the architecture and functionality of the SECOQC trusted repeater prototype, which has been put into operation in Vienna in 2008 and publicly demonstrated in the framework of a SECOQC QKD conference held from October 8 to 10, 2008. The demonstration involved one-time pad encrypted telephone communication, a secure (AES encryption protected) video-conference with all deployed nodes and a number of rerouting experiments, highlighting basic mechanisms of the SECOQC network functionality. The paper gives an overview of the eight point-to-point network links in the prototype and their underlying technology: three plug and play systems by id Quantique, a one way weak pulse system from Toshiba Research in the UK, a coherent one-way system by GAP Optique with the participation of id Quantique and the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology (formerly ARCAustrian Research Centers GmbH—ARC is now operating under the new name AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH following a restructuring initiative.), an entangled photons system by the University of Vienna and the AIT, a continuous-variables system by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and THALES Research and Technology with the participation of Université Libre de Bruxelles, and a free space link by the Ludwig Maximillians University in Munich connecting two nodes situated in adjacent buildings (line of sight 80 m). The average link length is between 20 and 30 km, the longest link being 83 km. The paper presents the architecture and functionality of the principal networking agent—the SECOQC node module, which enables the authentic

  5. The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, M; Pacher, C; Boxleitner, W; Happe, A; Hasani, Y; Alleaume, R; Diamanti, E; Barreiro, C; Fasel, S; Gautier, J-D; Gisin, N; Bouda, J; Debuisschert, T; Fossier, S; Dianati, M; Dynes, J F; Fuerst, M; Gay, O; Grangier, P; Hentschel, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the quantum key distribution (QKD) network designed and implemented by the European project SEcure COmmunication based on Quantum Cryptography (SECOQC) (2004-2008), unifying the efforts of 41 research and industrial organizations. The paper summarizes the SECOQC approach to QKD networks with a focus on the trusted repeater paradigm. It discusses the architecture and functionality of the SECOQC trusted repeater prototype, which has been put into operation in Vienna in 2008 and publicly demonstrated in the framework of a SECOQC QKD conference held from October 8 to 10, 2008. The demonstration involved one-time pad encrypted telephone communication, a secure (AES encryption protected) video-conference with all deployed nodes and a number of rerouting experiments, highlighting basic mechanisms of the SECOQC network functionality. The paper gives an overview of the eight point-to-point network links in the prototype and their underlying technology: three plug and play systems by id Quantique, a one way weak pulse system from Toshiba Research in the UK, a coherent one-way system by GAP Optique with the participation of id Quantique and the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology (formerly ARC ), an entangled photons system by University of Vienna and the AIT, a continuous-variables system by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and THALES Research and Technology with the participation of Universite Libre de Bruxelles, and a free space link by the Ludwig Maximillians University in Munich connecting two nodes situated in adjacent buildings (line of sight 80 m). The average link length is between 20 and 30 km, the longest link being 83 km. The paper presents the architecture and functionality of the principal networking agent-the SECOQC node module, which enables the authentic classical communication required for key distillation, manages the generated key material, determines a communication path between any destinations in the network

  6. Hot electrons in superlattices: quantum transport versus Boltzmann equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Rott, S.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent solution of the transport equation is presented for semiconductor superlattices within different approaches: (i) a full quantum transport model based on nonequilibrium Green functions, (ii) the semiclassical Boltzmann equation for electrons in a miniband, and (iii) Boltzmann...

  7. Optimal transportation networks models and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernot, Marc; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    The transportation problem can be formalized as the problem of finding the optimal way to transport a given measure into another with the same mass. In contrast to the Monge-Kantorovitch problem, recent approaches model the branched structure of such supply networks as minima of an energy functional whose essential feature is to favour wide roads. Such a branched structure is observable in ground transportation networks, in draining and irrigation systems, in electrical power supply systems and in natural counterparts such as blood vessels or the branches of trees. These lectures provide mathematical proof of several existence, structure and regularity properties empirically observed in transportation networks. The link with previous discrete physical models of irrigation and erosion models in geomorphology and with discrete telecommunication and transportation models is discussed. It will be mathematically proven that the majority fit in the simple model sketched in this volume.

  8. Tensor network states in time-bin quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubasch, Michael; Valido, Antonio A.; Renema, Jelmer J.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Jaksch, Dieter; Kim, M. S.; Walmsley, Ian; García-Patrón, Raúl

    2018-06-01

    The current shift in the quantum optics community towards experiments with many modes and photons necessitates new classical simulation techniques that efficiently encode many-body quantum correlations and go beyond the usual phase-space formulation. To address this pressing demand we formulate linear quantum optics in the language of tensor network states. We extensively analyze the quantum and classical correlations of time-bin interference in a single fiber loop. We then generalize our results to more complex time-bin quantum setups and identify different classes of architectures for high-complexity and low-overhead boson sampling experiments.

  9. Optimising Transport in a Homogeneous Network

    OpenAIRE

    WEAIRE, DENIS LAWRENCE

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED Many situations in physics, biology, and engineering consist of the transport of some physical quantity through a network of narrow channels. The ability of a network to transport such a quantity in every direction can be described by the average conductivity associated with it. When the flow through each channel is conserved and derives from a potential function, we show that there exists an upper bound of the average conductivity and explicitly give the expression f...

  10. Optimizing transport in a homogeneous network

    OpenAIRE

    WEAIRE, DENIS LAWRENCE

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED Many situations in physics, biology, and engineering consist of the transport of some physical quantity through a network of narrow channels. The ability of a network to transport such a quantity in every direction can be described by the average conductivity associated with it. When the flow through each channel is conserved and derives from a potential function, we show that there exists an upper bound of the average conductivity and explicitly give the expression f...

  11. Decoherence and Entanglement Simulation in a Model of Quantum Neural Network Based on Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaisky Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the simulation of a quantum neural network based on quantum dots using numerical method of path integral calculation. In the proposed implementation of the quantum neural network using an array of single-electron quantum dots with dipole-dipole interaction, the coherence is shown to survive up to 0.1 nanosecond in time and up to the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K.We study the quantum correlations between the quantum dots by means of calculation of the entanglement of formation in a pair of quantum dots on the GaAs based substrate with dot size of 100 ÷ 101 nanometer and interdot distance of 101 ÷ 102 nanometers order.

  12. Trapped modes in linear quantum stochastic networks with delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabak, Gil [Stanford University, Department of Applied Physics, Stanford, CA (United States); Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-12-15

    Networks of open quantum systems with feedback have become an active area of research for applications such as quantum control, quantum communication and coherent information processing. A canonical formalism for the interconnection of open quantum systems using quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs) has been developed by Gough, James and co-workers and has been used to develop practical modeling approaches for complex quantum optical, microwave and optomechanical circuits/networks. In this paper we fill a significant gap in existing methodology by showing how trapped modes resulting from feedback via coupled channels with finite propagation delays can be identified systematically in a given passive linear network. Our method is based on the Blaschke-Potapov multiplicative factorization theorem for inner matrix-valued functions, which has been applied in the past to analog electronic networks. Our results provide a basis for extending the Quantum Hardware Description Language (QHDL) framework for automated quantum network model construction (Tezak et al. in Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 370(1979):5270-5290, 2012) to efficiently treat scenarios in which each interconnection of components has an associated signal propagation time delay. (orig.)

  13. Electron Transport in Coupled Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoniadis, D

    1998-01-01

    In the course of the investigation funded by this proposal we fabricated, modeled, and measured a variety of quantum dot structures in order to better understand how such nanostructures might be used for computation...

  14. Strategy development management of Multimodal Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova Natalia S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief overview of works on the development of transport infrastructure for multimodal transportation and integration of Russian transport system into the international transport corridors. The technology for control of the strategy, that changes shape and capacity of Multi-modal Transport Network (MTN, is considered as part of the methodology for designing and development of MTN. This technology allows to carry out strategic and operational management of the strategy implementation based on the use of the balanced scorecard.

  15. Towards a feasible implementation of quantum neural networks using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaisky, Mikhail V.; Zolnikova, Nadezhda N.; Kaputkina, Natalia E.; Krylov, Victor A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.; Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an implementation of quantum neural networks using an array of quantum dots with dipole-dipole interactions. We demonstrate that this implementation is both feasible and versatile by studying it within the framework of GaAs based quantum dot qubits coupled to a reservoir of acoustic phonons. Using numerically exact Feynman integral calculations, we have found that the quantum coherence in our neural networks survive for over a hundred ps even at liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K), which is three orders of magnitude higher than current implementations, which are based on SQUID-based systems operating at temperatures in the mK range.

  16. Experimental violation of local causality in a quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvacho, Gonzalo; Andreoli, Francesco; Santodonato, Luca; Bentivegna, Marco; Chaves, Rafael; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Bell's theorem plays a crucial role in quantum information processing and thus several experimental investigations of Bell inequalities violations have been carried out over the years. Despite their fundamental relevance, however, previous experiments did not consider an ingredient of relevance for quantum networks: the fact that correlations between distant parties are mediated by several, typically independent sources. Here, using a photonic setup, we investigate a quantum network consisting of three spatially separated nodes whose correlations are mediated by two distinct sources. This scenario allows for the emergence of the so-called non-bilocal correlations, incompatible with any local model involving two independent hidden variables. We experimentally witness the emergence of this kind of quantum correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality under the fair-sampling assumption. Our results provide a proof-of-principle experiment of generalizations of Bell's theorem for networks, which could represent a potential resource for quantum communication protocols.

  17. Beam Splitter for Spin Waves in Quantum Spin Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, S.; Song, Z.; Sun, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically design and analytically study a controllable beam splitter for the spin wave propagating in a star-shaped (e.g., a $Y$-shaped beam) spin network. Such a solid state beam splitter can display quantum interference and quantum entanglement by the well-aimed controls of interaction on nodes. It will enable an elementary interferometric device for scalable quantum information processing based on the solid system.

  18. Scattering matrix approach to non-stationary quantum transport

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalets, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to introduce the basic elements of the scattering matrix approach to transport phenomena in dynamical quantum systems of non-interacting electrons. This approach admits a physically clear and transparent description of transport processes in dynamical mesoscopic systems promising basic elements of solid-state devices for quantum information processing. One of the key effects, the quantum pump effect, is considered in detail. In addition, the theory for a recently implemented new dynamical source - injecting electrons with time delay much larger than the electron coherence time - is offered. This theory provides a simple description of quantum circuits with such a single-particle source and shows in an unambiguous way that the tunability inherent to the dynamical systems leads to a number of unexpected but fundamental effects.

  19. Spatiotemporal Recurrent Convolutional Networks for Traffic Prediction in Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs, for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs and long short-term memory (LSTM neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction.

  20. Quantum-Like Bayesian Networks for Modeling Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eMoreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore an alternative quantum structure to perform quantum probabilistic inferences to accommodate the paradoxical findings of the Sure Thing Principle. We propose a Quantum-Like Bayesian Network, which consists in replacing classical probabilities by quantum probability amplitudes. However, since this approach suffers from the problem of exponential growth of quantum parameters, we also propose a similarity heuristic that automatically fits quantum parameters through vector similarities. This makes the proposed model general and predictive in contrast to the current state of the art models, which cannot be generalized for more complex decision scenarios and that only provide an explanatory nature for the observed paradoxes. In the end, the model that we propose consists in a nonparametric method for estimating inference effects from a statistical point of view. It is a statistical model that is simpler than the previous quantum dynamic and quantum-like models proposed in the literature. We tested the proposed network with several empirical data from the literature, mainly from the Prisoner's Dilemma game and the Two Stage Gambling game. The results obtained show that the proposed quantum Bayesian Network is a general method that can accommodate violations of the laws of classical probability theory and make accurate predictions regarding human decision-making in these scenarios.

  1. Strategies for optical transport network recovery under epidemic network failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Kosteas, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in deploying automatic control plane solutions for increased flexibility in the optical transport layer leads to numerous advantages for both the operators and the customers, but also pose challenges related to the stability of the network and its ability to operate in a robust...... manner under different failure scenarios. This work evaluates two rerouting strategies and proposes four policies for failure handling in a connection-oriented optical transport network, under generalized multiprotocol label switching control plane. The performance of the strategies and the policies......, and that there exist a clear trade-off between policy performance and network resource consumption, which must be addressed by network operators for improved robustness of their transport infrastructures. Applying proactive methods for avoiding areas where epidemic failures spread results in 50% less connections...

  2. Nonequilibrium Electron Transport Through a Quantum Dot from Kubo Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Rong; Zhang Guangming

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Kubo formula for an electron tunneling junction, we revisit the nonequilibrium transport properties through a quantum dot. Since the Fermi level of the quantum dot is set by the conduction electrons of the leads, we calculate the electron current from the left side by assuming the quantum dot coupled to the right lead as another side of the tunneling junction, and the other way round is used to calculate the current from the right side. By symmetrizing these two currents, an effective local density states on the dot can be obtained, and is discussed at high and low temperatures, respectively.

  3. Generalized Tavis-Cummings models and quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The properties of quantum networks based on generalized Tavis-Cummings models are theoretically investigated. We have calculated the information transfer success rate from one node to another in a simple model of a quantum network realized with two-level atoms placed in the cavities and interacting with an external laser field and cavity photons. The method of dynamical group of the Hamiltonian and technique of corresponding coherent states were used for investigation of the temporal dynamics of the two nodes model.

  4. Toward Designing a Quantum Key Distribution Network Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Peppino Fazio; Miroslav Voznak; Erik Chromy

    2016-01-01

    As research in quantum key distribution network technologies grows larger and more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. In this paper, we described the design of simplified simulation environment of the quantum key distribution network with multiple links and nodes. In such simulation environment, we analyzed several ...

  5. Oil Transport Networks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the problems and prospects of crude oil and petroleum products transportation market on the European continent. Particular attention is paid to the possibilities of the planned pipeline routes and new supplies of oil and petroleum products. European Union countries have large reserves of hydrocarbons, but it is not enough to fully satisfy domestic consumption. Improved pipeline infrastructure both within the EU and oil pipelines from other countries is an important economic and social factor. Recent developments of this year especially emphasize the importance of strengthening the energy security in the foreign policy of the state. For transporting fuel energy in Europe used the following types of transport: marine (sea and river, truck, railway, and pipeline. It seems necessary to mention the fact that the role of pipeline transport is particularly high in the oil and gas industry. Pipeline transport has an important impact on the formation and developmen t of the fuel and energy complex of the state, as well as regions, as its integral part. An effective system of crude oil and petroleum products pipelines is an important tool for the implementation of public policies, policies at the EU level, allowing the country to regulate the supply of crude oil and petroleum products to the overseas and domestic markets.

  6. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-01

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  7. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-24

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  8. Phonon affected transport through molecular quantum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loos, Jan; Koch, T.; Alvermann, A.; Bishop, A. R.; Fehske, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 39 (2009), 395601/1-395601/18 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum dots * electron - phonon interaction * polarons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2009

  9. Quantum Non-Markovian Langevin Equations and Transport Coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, V.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum diffusion equations featuring explicitly time-dependent transport coefficients are derived from generalized non-Markovian Langevin equations. Generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations and analytic expressions for calculating the friction and diffusion coefficients in nuclear processes are obtained. The asymptotic behavior of the transport coefficients and correlation functions for a damped harmonic oscillator that is linearly coupled in momentum to a heat bath is studied. The coupling to a heat bath in momentum is responsible for the appearance of the diffusion coefficient in coordinate. The problem of regression of correlations in quantum dissipative systems is analyzed

  10. European intermodal freight transport network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of market structure and concentration measures for the Intermodal Freight Transport (IFT) market is important to avoid market failure and to find the areas for policy making to promote IFT market share. This analysis can be performed for separate segments, for example, the market for

  11. Global Optimization for Transport Network Expansion and Signal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haoxiang; Wang, David Z. W.; Yue, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to address an urban transport planning problem involving combined network design and signal setting in a saturated network. Conventional transport planning models usually deal with the network design problem and signal setting problem separately. However, the fact that network capacity design and capacity allocation determined by network signal setting combine to govern the transport network performance requires the optimal transport planning to consider the two pr...

  12. Optimal urban networks via mass transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Buttazzo, Giuseppe; Stepanov, Eugene; Solimini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recently much attention has been devoted to the optimization of transportation networks in a given geographic area. One assumes the distributions of population and of services/workplaces (i.e. the network's sources and sinks) are known, as well as the costs of movement with/without the network, and the cost of constructing/maintaining it. Both the long-term optimization and the short-term, "who goes where" optimization are considered. These models can also be adapted for the optimization of other types of networks, such as telecommunications, pipeline or drainage networks. In the monograph we study the most general problem settings, namely, when neither the shape nor even the topology of the network to be constructed is known a priori.

  13. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    required by the next generation transport network to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) guaranteed video services. Augmenting network capacity and upgrading network nodes indicate long deployment period, replacement of equipment and thus significant cost to the network service providers. This challenge may...... slacken the steps of some network operators towards providing IPTV services. In this dissertation, the topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed to tackle the problem addressed. The scheme simplifies the deployment process by placing an intelligent switch with centralized traffic...... management functions at the edge of the network, scheduling traffic on behalf of the other nodes. The topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is able to provide outstanding flow isolation due to its centralized scheduling ability, which is essential for providing IPTV services. In order to reduce...

  14. Social networks, big data and transport planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Lidon Mars Aicart, M. del; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.; Serna Nocedal, A.

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of people who are related or tied to each individual affects her activitytravel behavior. That influence is especially associated to social and recreational activities, which are increasingly important. Collecting high quality data from those social networks is very difficult, because respondents are asked about their general social life, which is most demanding to remember that specific facts. On the other hand, currently there are different potential sources of transport data, which is characterized by the huge amount of information available, the velocity with it is obtained and the variety of format in which is presented. This sort of information is commonly known as Big Data. In this paper we identify potential sources of social network related big data that can be used in Transport Planning. Then, a review of current applications in Transport Planning is presented. Finally, some future prospects of using social network related big data are highlighted. (Author)

  15. Quantum maximum-entropy principle for closed quantum hydrodynamic transport within a Wigner function formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, M.; Reggiani, L.

    2011-01-01

    By introducing a quantum entropy functional of the reduced density matrix, the principle of quantum maximum entropy is asserted as fundamental principle of quantum statistical mechanics. Accordingly, we develop a comprehensive theoretical formalism to construct rigorously a closed quantum hydrodynamic transport within a Wigner function approach. The theoretical formalism is formulated in both thermodynamic equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions, and the quantum contributions are obtained by only assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of (ℎ/2π) 2 . In particular, by using an arbitrary number of moments, we prove that (1) on a macroscopic scale all nonlocal effects, compatible with the uncertainty principle, are imputable to high-order spatial derivatives, both of the numerical density n and of the effective temperature T; (2) the results available from the literature in the framework of both a quantum Boltzmann gas and a degenerate quantum Fermi gas are recovered as a particular case; (3) the statistics for the quantum Fermi and Bose gases at different levels of degeneracy are explicitly incorporated; (4) a set of relevant applications admitting exact analytical equations are explicitly given and discussed; (5) the quantum maximum entropy principle keeps full validity in the classical limit, when (ℎ/2π)→0.

  16. Neural-network quantum state tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Carrasquilla, Juan; Troyer, Matthias; Melko, Roger; Carleo, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    The experimental realization of increasingly complex synthetic quantum systems calls for the development of general theoretical methods to validate and fully exploit quantum resources. Quantum state tomography (QST) aims to reconstruct the full quantum state from simple measurements, and therefore provides a key tool to obtain reliable analytics1-3. However, exact brute-force approaches to QST place a high demand on computational resources, making them unfeasible for anything except small systems4,5. Here we show how machine learning techniques can be used to perform QST of highly entangled states with more than a hundred qubits, to a high degree of accuracy. We demonstrate that machine learning allows one to reconstruct traditionally challenging many-body quantities—such as the entanglement entropy—from simple, experimentally accessible measurements. This approach can benefit existing and future generations of devices ranging from quantum computers to ultracold-atom quantum simulators6-8.

  17. Nonequilibrium Green function techniques applied to hot electron quantum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauho, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    During the last few years considerable effort has been devoted to deriving quantum transport equations for semiconductors under extreme conditions (high electric fields, spatial quantization in one or two directions). Here we review the results obtained with nonequilibrium Green function techniques as formulated by Baym and Kadanoff, or by Keldysh. In particular, the following topics will be discussed: (i) Systematic approaches to reduce the transport equation governing the correlation function to a transport equation for the Wigner function; (ii) Approximations reducing the nonmarkovian quantum transport equation to a numerically tractable form, and results for model semiconductors; (iii) Recent progress in extending the formalism to inhomogeneous systems; and (iv) Nonequilibrium screening. In all sections we try to direct the reader's attention to points where the present understanding is (at best) incomplete, and indicate possible lines for future work. (orig.)

  18. Theory of quantum transport at nanoscale an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ryndyk, Dmitry A

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to a rapidly developing field of modern theoretical physics – the theory of quantum transport at nanoscale. The theoretical methods considered in the book are in the basis of our understanding of charge, spin and heat transport in nanostructures and nanostructured materials and are widely used in nanoelectronics, molecular electronics, spin-dependent electronics (spintronics) and bio-electronics. The book is based on lectures for graduate and post-graduate students at the University of Regensburg and the Technische Universität Dresden (TU Dresden). The first part is devoted to the basic concepts of quantum transport: Landauer-Büttiker method and matrix Green function formalism for coherent transport, Tunneling (Transfer) Hamiltonian and master equation methods for tunneling, Coulomb blockade, vibrons and polarons. The results in this part are obtained as possible without sophisticated techniques, such as nonequilibrium Green functions, which are considered in detail in the...

  19. Long-distance quantum communication over noisy networks without long-time quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Paweł; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Łodyga, Justyna; Pankowski, Łukasz; PrzysieŻna, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The problem of sharing entanglement over large distances is crucial for implementations of quantum cryptography. A possible scheme for long-distance entanglement sharing and quantum communication exploits networks whose nodes share Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. In Perseguers et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062324 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.062324] the authors put forward an important isomorphism between storing quantum information in a dimension D and transmission of quantum information in a D +1 -dimensional network. We show that it is possible to obtain long-distance entanglement in a noisy two-dimensional (2D) network, even when taking into account that encoding and decoding of a state is exposed to an error. For 3D networks we propose a simple encoding and decoding scheme based solely on syndrome measurements on 2D Kitaev topological quantum memory. Our procedure constitutes an alternative scheme of state injection that can be used for universal quantum computation on 2D Kitaev code. It is shown that the encoding scheme is equivalent to teleporting the state, from a specific node into a whole two-dimensional network, through some virtual EPR pair existing within the rest of network qubits. We present an analytic lower bound on fidelity of the encoding and decoding procedure, using as our main tool a modified metric on space-time lattice, deviating from a taxicab metric at the first and the last time slices.

  20. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced......Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...

  1. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  2. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.

    2013-08-05

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  3. Computationally Efficient Nonlinear Bell Inequalities for Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing

    2018-04-01

    The correlations in quantum networks have attracted strong interest with new types of violations of the locality. The standard Bell inequalities cannot characterize the multipartite correlations that are generated by multiple sources. The main problem is that no computationally efficient method is available for constructing useful Bell inequalities for general quantum networks. In this work, we show a significant improvement by presenting new, explicit Bell-type inequalities for general networks including cyclic networks. These nonlinear inequalities are related to the matching problem of an equivalent unweighted bipartite graph that allows constructing a polynomial-time algorithm. For the quantum resources consisting of bipartite entangled pure states and generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, we prove the generic nonmultilocality of quantum networks with multiple independent observers using new Bell inequalities. The violations are maximal with respect to the presented Tsirelson's bound for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and GHZ states. Moreover, these violations hold for Werner states or some general noisy states. Our results suggest that the presented Bell inequalities can be used to characterize experimental quantum networks.

  4. Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations

  5. QUANTUM TRANSPORT-THEORY OF NUCLEAR-MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOTERMANS, W; MALFLIET, R

    1990-01-01

    Quantum kinetic equations are derived using the Keldysh Green's function formalism to describe non-equilibrium processes in nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collisions. A general transport equation is proposed which includes energy spreading effects. We discuss a number of specific kinetic

  6. Charge injection and transport in quantum confined and disordered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum dots and conducting polymers are modern semiconductors with a high potential for applications such as lasers, LEDs, displays, solar cells etc. These applications require the controlled addition of charge carriers into the material and knowledge of the details of charge transport. This thesis

  7. Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations.

  8. Nonequilibrium transport through molecular junctions in the quantum regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koch, T.; Loos, Jan; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 12 (2011), 125131/1-125131/16 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : the ory of electron ic transport * scattering mechanisms * polarons and electron -phonon interactions * quantum dots Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  9. Quantum Communication Through a Two-Dimensional Spin Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoming; Gu Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the state or entanglement transfer through a two-dimensional spin network. We show that for state transfer, better fidelity can be gained along the diagonal direction but for entanglement transfer, when the initial entanglement is created along the boundary, the concurrence is more inclined to propagate along the boundary. This behavior is produced by quantum mechanical interference and the communication quality depends on the precise size of the network. For some number of sites, the fidelity in a two-dimensional channel is higher than one-dimensional case. This is an important result for realizing quantum communication through high dimension spin chain networks.

  10. Neural network decoder for quantum error correcting codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastanov, Stefan; Jiang, Liang

    Artificial neural networks form a family of extremely powerful - albeit still poorly understood - tools used in anything from image and sound recognition through text generation to, in our case, decoding. We present a straightforward Recurrent Neural Network architecture capable of deducing the correcting procedure for a quantum error-correcting code from a set of repeated stabilizer measurements. We discuss the fault-tolerance of our scheme and the cost of training the neural network for a system of a realistic size. Such decoders are especially interesting when applied to codes, like the quantum LDPC codes, that lack known efficient decoding schemes.

  11. Network geometry with flavor: From complexity to quantum geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Network geometry is attracting increasing attention because it has a wide range of applications, ranging from data mining to routing protocols in the Internet. At the same time advances in the understanding of the geometrical properties of networks are essential for further progress in quantum gravity. In network geometry, simplicial complexes describing the interaction between two or more nodes play a special role. In fact these structures can be used to discretize a geometrical d -dimensional space, and for this reason they have already been widely used in quantum gravity. Here we introduce the network geometry with flavor s =-1 ,0 ,1 (NGF) describing simplicial complexes defined in arbitrary dimension d and evolving by a nonequilibrium dynamics. The NGF can generate discrete geometries of different natures, ranging from chains and higher-dimensional manifolds to scale-free networks with small-world properties, scale-free degree distribution, and nontrivial community structure. The NGF admits as limiting cases both the Bianconi-Barabási models for complex networks, the stochastic Apollonian network, and the recently introduced model for complex quantum network manifolds. The thermodynamic properties of NGF reveal that NGF obeys a generalized area law opening a new scenario for formulating its coarse-grained limit. The structure of NGF is strongly dependent on the dimensionality d . In d =1 NGFs grow complex networks for which the preferential attachment mechanism is necessary in order to obtain a scale-free degree distribution. Instead, for NGF with dimension d >1 it is not necessary to have an explicit preferential attachment rule to generate scale-free topologies. We also show that NGF admits a quantum mechanical description in terms of associated quantum network states. Quantum network states evolve by a Markovian dynamics and a quantum network state at time t encodes all possible NGF evolutions up to time t . Interestingly the NGF remains fully classical but

  12. Efficient calculation of dissipative quantum transport properties in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greck, Peter

    2012-11-26

    We present a novel quantum transport method that follows the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but side steps any self-consistent calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. We termed this method the multi-scattering Buettiker-Probe (MSB) method. It generalizes the so-called Buettiker-Probe model but takes into account all relevant individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully selfconsistent non-equilibrium Green's function calculation for realistic devices, yet accurately reproduces the results of the latter method as well as experimental data. This method is fairly easy to implement and opens the path towards realistic three-dimensional quantum transport calculations. In this work, we review the fundamentals of the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for quantum transport calculations. Then, we introduce our novel MSB method after briefly reviewing the original Buettiker-Probe model. Finally, we compare the results of the MSB method to NEGF calculations as well as to experimental data. In particular, we calculate quantum transport properties of quantum cascade lasers in the terahertz (THz) and the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral domain. With a device optimization algorithm based upon the MSB method, we propose a novel THz quantum cascade laser design. It uses a two-well period with alternating barrier heights and complete carrier thermalization for the majority of the carriers within each period. We predict THz laser operation for temperatures up to 250 K implying a new temperature record.

  13. Spatial analysis of bus transport networks using network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmukhappa, Tanuja; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei; Tse, Chi Kong

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the bus transport network (BTN) structure considering the spatial embedding of the network for three cities, namely, Hong Kong (HK), London (LD), and Bengaluru (BL). We propose a novel approach called supernode graph structuring for modeling the bus transport network. A static demand estimation procedure is proposed to assign the node weights by considering the points of interests (POIs) and the population distribution in the city over various localized zones. In addition, the end-to-end delay is proposed as a parameter to measure the topological efficiency of the bus networks instead of the shortest distance measure used in previous works. With the aid of supernode graph representation, important network parameters are analyzed for the directed, weighted and geo-referenced bus transport networks. It is observed that the supernode concept has significant advantage in analyzing the inherent topological behavior. For instance, the scale-free and small-world behavior becomes evident with supernode representation as compared to conventional or regular graph representation for the Hong Kong network. Significant improvement in clustering, reduction in path length, and increase in centrality values are observed in all the three networks with supernode representation. The correlation between topologically central nodes and the geographically central nodes reveals the interesting fact that the proposed static demand estimation method for assigning node weights aids in better identifying the geographically significant nodes in the network. The impact of these geographically significant nodes on the local traffic behavior is demonstrated by simulation using the SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility) tool which is also supported by real-world empirical data, and our results indicate that the traffic speed around a particular bus stop can reach a jammed state from a free flow state due to the presence of these geographically important nodes. A comparison

  14. Quantum Bayesian networks with application to games displaying Parrondo's paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Michael

    Bayesian networks and their accompanying graphical models are widely used for prediction and analysis across many disciplines. We will reformulate these in terms of linear maps. This reformulation will suggest a natural extension, which we will show is equivalent to standard textbook quantum mechanics. Therefore, this extension will be termed quantum. However, the term quantum should not be taken to imply this extension is necessarily only of utility in situations traditionally thought of as in the domain of quantum mechanics. In principle, it may be employed in any modelling situation, say forecasting the weather or the stock market---it is up to experiment to determine if this extension is useful in practice. Even restricting to the domain of quantum mechanics, with this new formulation the advantages of Bayesian networks can be maintained for models incorporating quantum and mixed classical-quantum behavior. The use of these will be illustrated by various basic examples. Parrondo's paradox refers to the situation where two, multi-round games with a fixed winning criteria, both with probability greater than one-half for one player to win, are combined. Using a possibly biased coin to determine the rule to employ for each round, paradoxically, the previously losing player now wins the combined game with probabilitygreater than one-half. Using the extended Bayesian networks, we will formulate and analyze classical observed, classical hidden, and quantum versions of a game that displays this paradox, finding bounds for the discrepancy from naive expectations for the occurrence of the paradox. A quantum paradox inspired by Parrondo's paradox will also be analyzed. We will prove a bound for the discrepancy from naive expectations for this paradox as well. Games involving quantum walks that achieve this bound will be presented.

  15. Quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on scale-free networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hangmo

    2015-01-01

    I investigate the quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model in which nearest neighbors are defined according to the connectivity of scale-free networks. Using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and the finite-size scaling analysis, I identify the quantum critical point and study its scaling characteristics. For the degree exponent λ=6, I obtain results that are consistent with the mean-field theory. For λ=4.5 and 4, however, the results suggest that the quantum critical point belongs to a non-mean-field universality class. Further simulations indicate that the quantum critical point remains mean-field-like if λ>5, but it continuously deviates from the mean-field theory as λ becomes smaller.

  16. Hub location problems in transportation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a 4-index formulation for the uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem tailored for urban transport and liner shipping network design. This formulation is very tight and most of the tractable instances for MIP solvers are optimally solvable at the root node....... also introduce fixed cost values for Australian Post (AP) dataset....

  17. Transport Network Technologies – Study and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozorgebrahimi, K.; Channegowda, M.; Colmenero, A.

    Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS...

  18. Optimal Quantum Spatial Search on Random Temporal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shantanav; Novo, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Serena; Omar, Yasser

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the performance of quantum information tasks on networks whose topology changes in time, we study the spatial search algorithm by continuous time quantum walk to find a marked node on a random temporal network. We consider a network of n nodes constituted by a time-ordered sequence of Erdös-Rényi random graphs G(n,p), where p is the probability that any two given nodes are connected: After every time interval τ, a new graph G(n,p) replaces the previous one. We prove analytically that, for any given p, there is always a range of values of τ for which the running time of the algorithm is optimal, i.e., O(sqrt[n]), even when search on the individual static graphs constituting the temporal network is suboptimal. On the other hand, there are regimes of τ where the algorithm is suboptimal even when each of the underlying static graphs are sufficiently connected to perform optimal search on them. From this first study of quantum spatial search on a time-dependent network, it emerges that the nontrivial interplay between temporality and connectivity is key to the algorithmic performance. Moreover, our work can be extended to establish high-fidelity qubit transfer between any two nodes of the network. Overall, our findings show that one can exploit temporality to achieve optimal quantum information tasks on dynamical random networks.

  19. Optimal Quantum Spatial Search on Random Temporal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shantanav; Novo, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Serena; Omar, Yasser

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the performance of quantum information tasks on networks whose topology changes in time, we study the spatial search algorithm by continuous time quantum walk to find a marked node on a random temporal network. We consider a network of n nodes constituted by a time-ordered sequence of Erdös-Rényi random graphs G (n ,p ), where p is the probability that any two given nodes are connected: After every time interval τ , a new graph G (n ,p ) replaces the previous one. We prove analytically that, for any given p , there is always a range of values of τ for which the running time of the algorithm is optimal, i.e., O (√{n }), even when search on the individual static graphs constituting the temporal network is suboptimal. On the other hand, there are regimes of τ where the algorithm is suboptimal even when each of the underlying static graphs are sufficiently connected to perform optimal search on them. From this first study of quantum spatial search on a time-dependent network, it emerges that the nontrivial interplay between temporality and connectivity is key to the algorithmic performance. Moreover, our work can be extended to establish high-fidelity qubit transfer between any two nodes of the network. Overall, our findings show that one can exploit temporality to achieve optimal quantum information tasks on dynamical random networks.

  20. Controlling chaos-assisted directed transport via quantum resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jintao; Zou, Mingliang; Luo, Yunrong; Hai, Wenhua

    2016-06-01

    We report on the first demonstration of chaos-assisted directed transport of a quantum particle held in an amplitude-modulated and tilted optical lattice, through a resonance-induced double-mean displacement relating to the true classically chaotic orbits. The transport velocity is controlled by the driving amplitude and the sign of tilt, and also depends on the phase of the initial state. The chaos-assisted transport feature can be verified experimentally by using a source of single atoms to detect the double-mean displacement one by one, and can be extended to different scientific fields.

  1. Controlling chaos-assisted directed transport via quantum resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jintao; Zou, Mingliang; Luo, Yunrong; Hai, Wenhua, E-mail: whhai2005@aliyun.com [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2016-06-15

    We report on the first demonstration of chaos-assisted directed transport of a quantum particle held in an amplitude-modulated and tilted optical lattice, through a resonance-induced double-mean displacement relating to the true classically chaotic orbits. The transport velocity is controlled by the driving amplitude and the sign of tilt, and also depends on the phase of the initial state. The chaos-assisted transport feature can be verified experimentally by using a source of single atoms to detect the double-mean displacement one by one, and can be extended to different scientific fields.

  2. Disorder overtakes order in information concentration over quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, R.; Pradhan, Saurabh; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2011-01-01

    We consider different classes of quenched disordered quantum XY spin chains, including a quantum XY spin glass and a quantum XY model with a random transverse field, and investigate the behavior of genuine multiparty entanglement in the ground states of these models. We find that there are distinct ranges of the disorder parameter that give rise to a higher genuine multiparty entanglement than in the corresponding systems without disorder: an order-from-disorder phenomenon in genuine multiparty entanglement. Moreover, we show that such a disorder-induced advantage in the genuine multiparty entanglement is useful: It is almost certainly accompanied by a order-from-disorder phenomenon for a multiport quantum dense coding capacity with the same ground state used as a multiport quantum network.

  3. Perfect transfer of arbitrary states in quantum spin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christandl, Matthias; Kay, Alastair; Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony C.; Ekert, Artur; Landahl, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a class of qubit networks that admit perfect state transfer of any two-dimensional quantum state in a fixed period of time. We further show that such networks can distribute arbitrary entangled states between two distant parties, and can, by using such systems in parallel, transmit the higher-dimensional systems states across the network. Unlike many other schemes for quantum computation and communication, these networks do not require qubit couplings to be switched on and off. When restricted to N-qubit spin networks of identical qubit couplings, we show that 2 log 3 N is the maximal perfect communication distance for hypercube geometries. Moreover, if one allows fixed but different couplings between the qubits then perfect state transfer can be achieved over arbitrarily long distances in a linear chain. This paper expands and extends the work done by Christandl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004)

  4. A molecular quantum spin network controlled by a single qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipf, Lukas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Xu, Kebiao; Dasari, Durga Bhaktavatsala Rao; Zappe, Andrea; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Kern, Bastian; Azarkh, Mykhailo; Drescher, Malte; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Scalable quantum technologies require an unprecedented combination of precision and complexity for designing stable structures of well-controllable quantum systems on the nanoscale. It is a challenging task to find a suitable elementary building block, of which a quantum network can be comprised in a scalable way. We present the working principle of such a basic unit, engineered using molecular chemistry, whose collective control and readout are executed using a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The basic unit we investigate is a synthetic polyproline with electron spins localized on attached molecular side groups separated by a few nanometers. We demonstrate the collective readout and coherent manipulation of very few (≤ 6) of these S = 1/2 electronic spin systems and access their direct dipolar coupling tensor. Our results show that it is feasible to use spin-labeled peptides as a resource for a molecular qubit-based network, while at the same time providing simple optical readout of single quantum states through NV magnetometry. This work lays the foundation for building arbitrary quantum networks using well-established chemistry methods, which has many applications ranging from mapping distances in single molecules to quantum information processing.

  5. Compiling gate networks on an Ising quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowdrey, M.D.; Jones, J.A.; Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.

    2005-01-01

    Here we describe a simple mechanical procedure for compiling a quantum gate network into the natural gates (pulses and delays) for an Ising quantum computer. The aim is not necessarily to generate the most efficient pulse sequence, but rather to develop an efficient compilation algorithm that can be easily implemented in large spin systems. The key observation is that it is not always necessary to refocus all the undesired couplings in a spin system. Instead, the coupling evolution can simply be tracked and then corrected at some later time. Although described within the language of NMR, the algorithm is applicable to any design of quantum computer based on Ising couplings

  6. A Quantum Implementation Model for Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Daskin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The learning process for multilayered neural networks with many nodes makes heavy demands on computational resources. In some neural network models, the learning formulas, such as the Widrow–Hoff formula, do not change the eigenvectors of the weight matrix while flatting the eigenvalues. In infinity, these iterative formulas result in terms formed by the principal components of the weight matrix, namely, the eigenvectors corresponding to the non-zero eigenvalues. In quantum computing, the phase estimation algorithm is known to provide speedups over the conventional algorithms for the eigenvalue-related problems. Combining the quantum amplitude amplification with the phase estimation algorithm, a quantum implementation model for artificial neural networks using the Widrow–Hoff learning rule is presented. The complexity of the model is found to be linear in the size of the weight matrix. This provides a quadratic improvement over the classical algorithms. Quanta 2018; 7: 7–18.

  7. Network-based Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Graph State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongling; Li, Fei; Mao, Ningyi; Wang, Yijun; Guo, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Implementing an arbitrated quantum signature(QAS) through complex networks is an interesting cryptography technology in the literature. In this paper, we propose an arbitrated quantum signature for the multi-user-involved networks, whose topological structures are established by the encoded graph state. The determinative transmission of the shared keys, is enabled by the appropriate stabilizers performed on the graph state. The implementation of this scheme depends on the deterministic distribution of the multi-user-shared graph state on which the encoded message can be processed in signing and verifying phases. There are four parties involved, the signatory Alice, the verifier Bob, the arbitrator Trent and Dealer who assists the legal participants in the signature generation and verification. The security is guaranteed by the entanglement of the encoded graph state which is cooperatively prepared by legal participants in complex quantum networks.

  8. Physical approach to quantum networks with massive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Molte Emil Strange; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Assembling large-scale quantum networks is a key goal of modern physics research with applications in quantum information and computation. Quantum wires and waveguides in which massive particles propagate in tailored confinement is one promising platform for realizing a quantum network. In the literature, such networks are often treated as quantum graphs, that is, the wave functions are taken to live on graphs of one-dimensional edges meeting in vertices. Hitherto, it has been unclear what boundary conditions on the vertices produce the physical states one finds in nature. This paper treats a quantum network from a physical approach, explicitly finds the physical eigenstates and compares them to the quantum-graph description. The basic building block of a quantum network is an X-shaped potential well made by crossing two quantum wires, and we consider a massive particle in such an X well. The system is analyzed using a variational method based on an expansion into modes with fast convergence and it provides a very clear intuition for the physics of the problem. The particle is found to have a ground state that is exponentially localized to the center of the X well, and the other symmetric solutions are formed so to be orthogonal to the ground state. This is in contrast to the predictions of the conventionally used so-called Kirchoff boundary conditions in quantum graph theory that predict a different sequence of symmetric solutions that cannot be physically realized. Numerical methods have previously been the only source of information on the ground-state wave function and our results provide a different perspective with strong analytical insights. The ground-state wave function has a spatial profile that looks very similar to the shape of a solitonic solution to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, enabling an analytical prediction of the wave number. When combining multiple X wells into a network or grid, each site supports a solitonlike localized state. These

  9. Transport efficiency in open quantum systems with static and dynamical disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Celardo, G. Luca; Borgonovi, Fausto; Kaplan, Lev

    2017-12-01

    We study, under very general conditions and in a variety of geometries, quantum enhancement of transport in open systems. Both static disorder and dephasing associated with dynamical disorder (or finite temperature) are fully included in the analysis. We show that quantum coherence effects may significantly enhance transport in open quantum systems even in the semiclassical regime (where the decoherence rate is greater than the inter-site hopping amplitude), as long as the static disorder is sufficiently strong. When the strengths of static and dynamical disorder are fixed, there is an optimal opening strength at which the coherent transport enhancement is optimized. Analytic results are obtained in two simple paradigmatic tight-binding models of large systems: the linear chain and the fully connected network. The physical behavior is also reflected, for example, in the FMO photosynthetic complex, which may be viewed as being intermediate between these paradigmatic models. We furthermore show that a nonzero dephasing rate assists transport in an open linear chain when the disorder strength exceeds a critical value, and obtain this critical disorder strength as a function of the degree of opening.

  10. Continuous variable multipartite entanglement and optical implementations of quantum communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Yimin; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi

    2007-01-01

    A variety of optical quantum information networks based on the multipartite entanglement of amplitude and phase quadratures of an electromagnetic field have been proposed and experimentally realized in recent years. The multipartite entanglement of optical continuous variables provides flexible and reliable quantum resources for developing unconditional quantum information networks. In this paper, we review the generation schemes of the multipartite entangled states of optical continuous quantum variables and some applications in the quantum communication networks with emphasis on the experimental implementations

  11. Parallel Transport Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clercq, Ludwig E; Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2016-02-26

    We demonstrate single-qubit operations by transporting a beryllium ion with a controlled velocity through a stationary laser beam. We use these to perform coherent sequences of quantum operations, and to perform parallel quantum logic gates on two ions in different processing zones of a multiplexed ion trap chip using a single recycled laser beam. For the latter, we demonstrate individually addressed single-qubit gates by local control of the speed of each ion. The fidelities we observe are consistent with operations performed using standard methods involving static ions and pulsed laser fields. This work therefore provides a path to scalable ion trap quantum computing with reduced requirements on the optical control complexity.

  12. Quantum-mechanical transport equation for atomic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical transport equation (QMTE) is derived which should be applicable to a wide range of problems involving the interaction of radiation with atoms or molecules which are also subject to collisions with perturber atoms. The equation follows the time evolution of the macroscopic atomic density matrix elements of atoms located at classical position R and moving with classical velocity v. It is quantum mechanical in the sense that all collision kernels or rates which appear have been obtained from a quantum-mechanical theory and, as such, properly take into account the energy-level variations and velocity changes of the active (emitting or absorbing) atom produced in collisions with perturber atoms. The present formulation is better suited to problems involving high-intensity external fields, such as those encountered in laser physics.

  13. Toward Designing a Quantum Key Distribution Network Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralem Mehic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As research in quantum key distribution network technologies grows larger and more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. In this paper, we described the design of simplified simulation environment of the quantum key distribution network with multiple links and nodes. In such simulation environment, we analyzed several routing protocols in terms of the number of sent routing packets, goodput and Packet Delivery Ratio of data traffic flow using NS-3 simulator.

  14. The climatogenetic factors and the transport network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAXIM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the climatogenic factors and how they influence the transport system (network of the Republic of Moldova. The following climatogenetic factors were analysed: dynamic, physical-geographic, etc. as well as some specific climatic elements as the temperature of the air, cloud amount, humidity, direction and speed of the wind. As a conclusion it can be mentioned that when tracing the terrestrial transport system it is necessary to take into consideration the climatic factors which directly influence this field of human activity.

  15. Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic and Controlled Teleportation of Unknown Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting

    2004-01-01

    We present simplification schemes for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of the unknown quantum states of both one particle and two particles and construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new schemes by means of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates, two-qubit controlled-not gates, Von Neumann measurement, and classically controlled operations. In these schemes the teleportation are not always successful but with certain probability.

  16. Quantum-confined nanowires as vehicles for enhanced electrical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S Noor

    2012-01-01

    Electrical transport in semiconductor nanowires taking quantum confinement and dielectric confinement into account has been studied. A distinctly new route has been employed for the study. The fundamental science underlying the model is based on a relationship between the quantum confinement and the structural disorder of the nanowire surface. The role of surface energy and thermodynamic imbalance in nanowire structural disorder has been described. A model for the diameter dependence of energy bandgap of nanowires has been developed. Ionized impurity scattering, dislocation scattering and acoustic phonon scattering have been taken into account to study carrier mobility. A series of calculations on silicon nanowires show that carrier mobility in nanowires can be greatly enhanced by quantum confinement and dielectric confinement. The electron mobility can, for example, be a factor of 2–10 higher at room temperature than the mobility in a free-standing silicon nanowire. The calculated results agree well with almost all experimental and theoretical results available in the literature. They successfully explain experimental observations not understood before. The model is general and applicable to nanowires from all possible semiconductors. It is perhaps the first physical model highlighting the impact of both quantum confinement and dielectric confinement on carrier transport. It underscores the basic causes of thin, lowly doped nanowires in the temperature range 200 K ≤ T ≤ 500 K yielding very high carrier mobility. It suggests that the scattering by dislocations (stacking faults) can be very detrimental for carrier mobility. (paper)

  17. Distribution of tunnelling times for quantum electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Samuel L.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    In electron transport, the tunnelling time is the time taken for an electron to tunnel out of a system after it has tunnelled in. We define the tunnelling time distribution for quantum processes in a dissipative environment and develop a practical approach for calculating it, where the environment is described by the general Markovian master equation. We illustrate the theory by using the rate equation to compute the tunnelling time distribution for electron transport through a molecular junction. The tunnelling time distribution is exponential, which indicates that Markovian quantum tunnelling is a Poissonian statistical process. The tunnelling time distribution is used not only to study the quantum statistics of tunnelling along the average electric current but also to analyse extreme quantum events where an electron jumps against the applied voltage bias. The average tunnelling time shows distinctly different temperature dependence for p- and n-type molecular junctions and therefore provides a sensitive tool to probe the alignment of molecular orbitals relative to the electrode Fermi energy.

  18. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  19. Quantum transport in d -dimensional lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzano, Daniel; Chuang, Chern; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-01-01

    We show that both fermionic and bosonic uniform d -dimensional lattices can be reduced to a set of independent one-dimensional chains. This reduction leads to the expression for ballistic energy fluxes in uniform fermionic and bosonic lattices. By the use of the Jordan–Wigner transformation we can extend our analysis to spin lattices, proving the coexistence of both ballistic and non-ballistic subspaces in any dimension and for any system size. We then relate the nature of transport to the number of excitations in the homogeneous spin lattice, indicating that a single excitation always propagates ballistically and that the non-ballistic behaviour of uniform spin lattices is a consequence of the interaction between different excitations. (paper)

  20. Quantum transport in the FMO photosynthetic light-harvesting complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllidis, Ioannis G

    2017-06-01

    The very high light-harvesting efficiency of natural photosynthetic systems in conjunction with recent experiments, which showed quantum-coherent energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes, raised questions regarding the presence of non-trivial quantum effects in photosynthesis. Grover quantum search, quantum walks, and entanglement have been investigated as possible effects that lead to this efficiency. Here we explain the near-unit photosynthetic efficiency without invoking non-trivial quantum effects. Instead, we use non-equilibrium Green's functions, a mesoscopic method used to study transport in nano-conductors to compute the transmission function of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex using an experimentally derived exciton Hamiltonian. The chlorosome antenna and the reaction center play the role of input and output contacts, connected to the FMO complex. We show that there are two channels for which the transmission is almost unity. Our analysis also revealed a dephasing-driven regulation mechanism that maintains the efficiency in the presence of varying dephasing potentials.

  1. Currents and fluctuations of quantum heat transport in harmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motz, T; Ankerhold, J; Stockburger, J T

    2017-01-01

    Heat transport in open quantum systems is particularly susceptible to the modeling of system–reservoir interactions. It thus requires us to consistently treat the coupling between a quantum system and its environment. While perturbative approaches are successfully used in fields like quantum optics and quantum information, they reveal deficiencies—typically in the context of thermodynamics, when it is essential to respect additional criteria such as fluctuation-dissipation theorems. We use a non-perturbative approach for quantum dissipative dynamics based on a stochastic Liouville–von Neumann equation to provide a very general and extremely efficient formalism for heat currents and their correlations in open harmonic chains. Specific results are derived not only for first- but also for second-order moments, which requires us to account for both real and imaginary parts of bath–bath correlation functions. Spatiotemporal patterns are compared with weak coupling calculations. The regime of stronger system–reservoir couplings gives rise to an intimate interplay between reservoir fluctuations and heat transfer far from equilibrium. (paper)

  2. Observation of quantum interference in molecular charge transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedon, Constant M.; Valkenier, Hennie; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    for such behaviour has been indirect. Here, we report the observation of destructive quantum interference in charge transport through two-terminal molecular junctions at room temperature. We studied five different rigid p-conjugated molecular wires, all of which form self-assembled monolayers on a gold surface......, and find that the degree of interference can be controlled by simple chemical modifications of the molecular wire....

  3. The Landauer-Büttiker formula and resonant quantum transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Jensen, Arne; Moldoveanu, Valeriu

    2006-01-01

    We give a short presentation of two recent results. The first one is a rigorous proof of the Landauer-Büttiker formula, and the second one concerns resonant quantum transport. The detailed results are in [2]. In the last section we present the results of som numerical computations on a model system....... Concerning the literature, then see the starting point of our work [6]. In [4] a related, but different, problem is studied. See also [5] and the recent work [1]....

  4. The Landauer-Büttiker formula and resonant quantum transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Jensen, Arne; Moldoveanu, Valeriu

    We give a short presentation of two recent results. The firrst one is a rigorous proof of the Landauer-Büttiker formula, and the second one concerns resonant quantum transport. The detailed results are in [2]. In the last section we present the results of some numerical computations on a model...... system.Concerning the literature, then see the starting point of our work, [6]. In [4] a related, but different, problem is studied. See also [5] and the recentwork [1]....

  5. High-electric-field quantum transport theory for semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Shon; Nazareno, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    Based on the Baym-Kadanoff-Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions technique, a quantum transport theory for semiconductor superlattices under high-electric field is developed. This theory is capable of considering collisional broadening, intra-collisional field effects and band transport and hopping regimes simultaneously. Numerical calculations for narrow-miniband superlattices in high electric field, when the hopping regime dominates are in reasonable agreement with experimental results and show a significant deviation from the Boltzmann theory. A semiphenomenological formula for current density in hopping regime is proposed. (author). 60 refs, 4 figs

  6. Quantum metropolitan optical network based on wavelength division multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurana, A; Martínez-Mateo, J; Peev, M; Poppe, A; Walenta, N; Zbinden, H; Martín, V

    2014-01-27

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is maturing quickly. However, the current approaches to its application in optical networks make it an expensive technology. QKD networks deployed to date are designed as a collection of point-to-point, dedicated QKD links where non-neighboring nodes communicate using the trusted repeater paradigm. We propose a novel optical network model in which QKD systems share the communication infrastructure by wavelength multiplexing their quantum and classical signals. The routing is done using optical components within a metropolitan area which allows for a dynamically any-to-any communication scheme. Moreover, it resembles a commercial telecom network, takes advantage of existing infrastructure and utilizes commercial components, allowing for an easy, cost-effective and reliable deployment.

  7. Two path transport measurements on a triple quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Maximilian C.; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel triple quantum dot device made with local anodic oxidation on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The geometry provides two path transport via a three lead setup with each lead connected to one of the three quantum dots. In addition charge detection is implemented via a quantum point contact. One lead is used as a common source contact, the other two are used as two separate drain contacts with independent current measurement. Thus two paths are formed with two dots in each path. Along both paths serial transport is observed at the triple points of the two corresponding dots. With four side gates a wide tunability is given. Thus the system can be tuned in and out of triple dot resonances. When all three dots come into resonance, quadruple points are formed with simultaneous transport along both paths. The data are analysed in combined two colour plots and compared to the charge detection showing sets of three different lines, one for each dot. This way the two path setup allows to investigate the transition from double dot physics to triple dot physics.

  8. Quantum stochastic walks on networks for decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ismael; Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Recent experiments report violations of the classical law of total probability and incompatibility of certain mental representations when humans process and react to information. Evidence shows promise of a more general quantum theory providing a better explanation of the dynamics and structure of real decision-making processes than classical probability theory. Inspired by this, we show how the behavioral choice-probabilities can arise as the unique stationary distribution of quantum stochastic walkers on the classical network defined from Luce’s response probabilities. This work is relevant because (i) we provide a very general framework integrating the positive characteristics of both quantum and classical approaches previously in confrontation, and (ii) we define a cognitive network which can be used to bring other connectivist approaches to decision-making into the quantum stochastic realm. We model the decision-maker as an open system in contact with her surrounding environment, and the time-length of the decision-making process reveals to be also a measure of the process’ degree of interplay between the unitary and irreversible dynamics. Implementing quantum coherence on classical networks may be a door to better integrate human-like reasoning biases in stochastic models for decision-making.

  9. Quantum stochastic walks on networks for decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ismael; Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo

    2016-03-31

    Recent experiments report violations of the classical law of total probability and incompatibility of certain mental representations when humans process and react to information. Evidence shows promise of a more general quantum theory providing a better explanation of the dynamics and structure of real decision-making processes than classical probability theory. Inspired by this, we show how the behavioral choice-probabilities can arise as the unique stationary distribution of quantum stochastic walkers on the classical network defined from Luce's response probabilities. This work is relevant because (i) we provide a very general framework integrating the positive characteristics of both quantum and classical approaches previously in confrontation, and (ii) we define a cognitive network which can be used to bring other connectivist approaches to decision-making into the quantum stochastic realm. We model the decision-maker as an open system in contact with her surrounding environment, and the time-length of the decision-making process reveals to be also a measure of the process' degree of interplay between the unitary and irreversible dynamics. Implementing quantum coherence on classical networks may be a door to better integrate human-like reasoning biases in stochastic models for decision-making.

  10. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Kwiat, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network. (paper)

  11. Quantum networks in divergence-free circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rodriguez, A.; Rico, E.; Solano, E.; Egusquiza, I. L.

    2018-04-01

    Superconducting circuits are one of the leading quantum platforms for quantum technologies. With growing system complexity, it is of crucial importance to develop scalable circuit models that contain the minimum information required to predict the behaviour of the physical system. Based on microwave engineering methods, divergent and non-divergent Hamiltonian models in circuit quantum electrodynamics have been proposed to explain the dynamics of superconducting quantum networks coupled to infinite-dimensional systems, such as transmission lines and general impedance environments. Here, we study systematically common linear coupling configurations between networks and infinite-dimensional systems. The main result is that the simple Lagrangian models for these configurations present an intrinsic natural length that provides a natural ultraviolet cutoff. This length is due to the unavoidable dressing of the environment modes by the network. In this manner, the coupling parameters between their components correctly manifest their natural decoupling at high frequencies. Furthermore, we show the requirements to correctly separate infinite-dimensional coupled systems in local bases. We also compare our analytical results with other analytical and approximate methods available in the literature. Finally, we propose several applications of these general methods to analogue quantum simulation of multi-spin-boson models in non-perturbative coupling regimes.

  12. Electron-phonon interaction in quantum transport through quantum dots and molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, J. H.; Duque, C. A.; Laroze, D.

    2016-12-01

    The quantum transport and effects of decoherence properties are studied in quantum dots systems and finite homogeneous chains of aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. We study these systems based on the tight-binding approach through Green's function technique within a real space renormalization and polaron transformation schemes. In particular, we calculate the transmission probability following the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the I - V characteristics and the noise power of current fluctuations taken into account the decoherence. Our results may explain the inelastic effects through nanoscopic systems.

  13. A Quantum Implementation Model for Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    The learning process for multi layered neural networks with many nodes makes heavy demands on computational resources. In some neural network models, the learning formulas, such as the Widrow-Hoff formula, do not change the eigenvectors of the weight matrix while flatting the eigenvalues. In infinity, this iterative formulas result in terms formed by the principal components of the weight matrix: i.e., the eigenvectors corresponding to the non-zero eigenvalues. In quantum computing, the phase...

  14. A Quantum Implementation Model for Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Daskin

    2018-01-01

    The learning process for multilayered neural networks with many nodes makes heavy demands on computational resources. In some neural network models, the learning formulas, such as the Widrow–Hoff formula, do not change the eigenvectors of the weight matrix while flatting the eigenvalues. In infinity, these iterative formulas result in terms formed by the principal components of the weight matrix, namely, the eigenvectors corresponding to the non-zero eigenvalues. In quantum computing, the pha...

  15. Quantum transport through a deformable molecular transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, P. S.; Grempel, D. R.; Ness, H.

    2005-02-01

    The linear transport properties of a model molecular transistor with electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions were investigated analytically and numerically. The model takes into account phonon modulation of the electronic energy levels and of the tunneling barrier between the molecule and the electrodes. When both effects are present they lead to asymmetries in the dependence of the conductance on gate voltage. The Kondo effect is observed in the presence of electron-phonon interactions. There are important qualitative differences between the cases of weak and strong coupling. In the first case the standard Kondo effect driven by spin fluctuations occurs. In the second case, it is driven by charge fluctuations. The Fermi-liquid relation between the spectral density of the molecule and its charge is altered by electron-phonon interactions. Remarkably, the relation between the zero-temperature conductance and the charge remains unchanged. Therefore, there is perfect transmission in all regimes whenever the average number of electrons in the molecule is an odd integer.

  16. Complex Chemical Reaction Networks from Heuristics-Aided Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Dmitrij; Galvin, Cooper J; Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-03-11

    While structures and reactivities of many small molecules can be computed efficiently and accurately using quantum chemical methods, heuristic approaches remain essential for modeling complex structures and large-scale chemical systems. Here, we present a heuristics-aided quantum chemical methodology applicable to complex chemical reaction networks such as those arising in cell metabolism and prebiotic chemistry. Chemical heuristics offer an expedient way of traversing high-dimensional reactive potential energy surfaces and are combined here with quantum chemical structure optimizations, which yield the structures and energies of the reaction intermediates and products. Application of heuristics-aided quantum chemical methodology to the formose reaction reproduces the experimentally observed reaction products, major reaction pathways, and autocatalytic cycles.

  17. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME S. COUTO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  18. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  19. A Quantum Network with Atoms and Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Section 5. The experimental design used a 1324-nm laser with beam splitters and wave-plates to measure the polarization drift as shown in Fig. 58. A...pump pulse on the beam splitter . ......................................................... 42 Fig. 32 Initial quantum density matrix tomography...photon pairs. BS is a 50-50 beam splitter and DM is a dichroic mirror that transmits idler photons and reflects signal photons. PM is polarization

  20. A Quantum Network with Atoms and Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    98, 111115. 5. Karmakar, S, Shih, Y. Two- color ghost imaging with enhanced angular resolving power. Physical Review A. 2010; 81, 033845. 6. Karmakar...information. We constructed the rubidium (⁸⁷Rb) atomic memory magneto optical trap (MOT) cell and laser controls, and developed protocols, hardware, and...software to control the secure teleportation of information between quantum memories at ARL and JQI. Notably, we performed successful in-laboratory

  1. Quantum Steering Beyond Instrumental Causal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, R. V.; Taddei, M. M.; Chaves, R.; Aolita, L.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict, and experimentally verify with entangled photons, that outcome communication is not enough for hidden-state models to reproduce quantum steering. Hidden-state models with outcome communication correspond, in turn, to the well-known instrumental processes of causal inference but in the one-sided device-independent scenario of one black-box measurement device and one well-characterized quantum apparatus. We introduce one-sided device-independent instrumental inequalities to test against these models, with the appealing feature of detecting entanglement even when communication of the black box's measurement outcome is allowed. We find that, remarkably, these inequalities can also be violated solely with steering, i.e., without outcome communication. In fact, an efficiently computable formal quantifier—the robustness of noninstrumentality—naturally arises, and we prove that steering alone is enough to maximize it. Our findings imply that quantum theory admits a stronger form of steering than known until now, with fundamental as well as practical potential implications.

  2. Application of AVK and selective encryption in improving performance of quantum cryptography and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The subject of quantum cryptography has emerged as an important area of research. Reported theoretical and practical investigations have conclusively established the reliable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols with a higher level of security. For perfect security, the implementation of a time variant key is essential. The nature of cost and operation involved in quantum key distribution to distribute a time variant key from session to session/message to message has yet to be addressed from an implementation angle, yet it is understood to be hard with current available technology. Besides, the disadvantages of the subject quantum cryptanalysis, in the name of 'quantum cheating' and quantum error are demonstrated in the literature. This calls for an investigation for an affordable hybrid solution using QKD with conventional classical methods of key distribution to implement a time variant key. The paper proposes a hybrid solution towards this investigation. The solutions suggested will improve the performance of computer networks for secure transport of data in general. (author)

  3. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  4. Quantum transport model for zigzag molybdenum disulfide nanoribbon structures : A full quantum framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chun-Nan; Shyu, Feng-Lin; Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Chiun-Yan; Wu, Jhao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Mainly based on non-equilibrium Green’s function technique in combination with the three-band model, a full atomistic-scale and full quantum method for solving quantum transport problems of a zigzag-edge molybdenum disulfide nanoribbon (zMoSNR) structure is proposed here. For transport calculations, the relational expressions of a zMoSNR crystalline solid and its whole device structure are derived in detail and in its integrity. By adopting the complex-band structure method, the boundary treatment of this open boundary system within the non-equilibrium Green’s function framework is so straightforward and quite sophisticated. The transmission function, conductance, and density of states of zMoSNR devices are calculated using the proposed method. The important findings in zMoSNR devices such as conductance quantization, van Hove singularities in the density of states, and contact interaction on channel are presented and explored in detail.

  5. Quantum transport model for zigzag molybdenum disulfide nanoribbon structures : A full quantum framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Nan, E-mail: quantum@mail.tku.edu.tw, E-mail: ccn1114@kimo.com [Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New Taipei 25137, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Feng-Lin [Department of Physics, R.O.C. Military Academy, Kaohsiung 830, Taiwan (China); Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Chiun-Yan [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jhao-Ying [Center of General Studies, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Mainly based on non-equilibrium Green’s function technique in combination with the three-band model, a full atomistic-scale and full quantum method for solving quantum transport problems of a zigzag-edge molybdenum disulfide nanoribbon (zMoSNR) structure is proposed here. For transport calculations, the relational expressions of a zMoSNR crystalline solid and its whole device structure are derived in detail and in its integrity. By adopting the complex-band structure method, the boundary treatment of this open boundary system within the non-equilibrium Green’s function framework is so straightforward and quite sophisticated. The transmission function, conductance, and density of states of zMoSNR devices are calculated using the proposed method. The important findings in zMoSNR devices such as conductance quantization, van Hove singularities in the density of states, and contact interaction on channel are presented and explored in detail.

  6. Quantum gravity vacuum and invariants of embedded spin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikovic, A

    2003-01-01

    We show that the path integral for the three-dimensional SU(2) BF theory with a Wilson loop or a spin network function inserted can be understood as the Rovelli-Smolin loop transform of a wavefunction in the Ashtekar connection representation, where the wavefunction satisfies the constraints of quantum general relativity with zero cosmological constant. This wavefunction is given as a product of the delta functions of the SU(2) field strength and therefore it can be naturally associated with a flat connection spacetime. The loop transform can be defined rigorously via the quantum SU(2) group, as a spin foam state sum model, so that one obtains invariants of spin networks embedded in a three-manifold. These invariants define a flat connection vacuum state in the q-deformed spin network basis. We then propose a modification of this construction in order to obtain a vacuum state corresponding to the flat metric spacetime

  7. Topological networks for quantum communication between distant qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolai; Büchler, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    Efficient communication between qubits relies on robust networks, which allow for fast and coherent transfer of quantum information. It seems natural to harvest the remarkable properties of systems characterized by topological invariants to perform this task. Here, we show that a linear network of coupled bosonic degrees of freedom, characterized by topological bands, can be employed for the efficient exchange of quantum information over large distances. Important features of our setup are that it is robust against quenched disorder, all relevant operations can be performed by global variations of parameters, and the time required for communication between distant qubits approaches linear scaling with their distance. We demonstrate that our concept can be extended to an ensemble of qubits embedded in a two-dimensional network to allow for communication between all of them.

  8. Information processing by networks of quantum decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a model of a multi-agent society of decision makers taking decisions being based on two criteria, one is the utility of the prospects and the other is the attractiveness of the considered prospects. The model is the generalization of quantum decision theory, developed earlier for single decision makers realizing one-step decisions, in two principal aspects. First, several decision makers are considered simultaneously, who interact with each other through information exchange. Second, a multistep procedure is treated, when the agents exchange information many times. Several decision makers exchanging information and forming their judgment, using quantum rules, form a kind of a quantum information network, where collective decisions develop in time as a result of information exchange. In addition to characterizing collective decisions that arise in human societies, such networks can describe dynamical processes occurring in artificial quantum intelligence composed of several parts or in a cluster of quantum computers. The practical usage of the theory is illustrated on the dynamic disjunction effect for which three quantitative predictions are made: (i) the probabilistic behavior of decision makers at the initial stage of the process is described; (ii) the decrease of the difference between the initial prospect probabilities and the related utility factors is proved; (iii) the existence of a common consensus after multiple exchange of information is predicted. The predicted numerical values are in very good agreement with empirical data.

  9. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.

    2009-12-01

    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of network harness. It is described by the harness distribution P(r, s): the number of sequences of s consecutive stations that are serviced by r parallel routes. For certain PTNs that we have analyzed we observe that the harness distribution may be described by power laws. These power laws indicate a certain level of organization and planning which may be driven by the need to minimize the costs of infrastructure and secondly by the fact that points of interest tend to be clustered in certain locations of a city. This effect may be seen as a result of the strong interdependence of the evolutions of both the city and its PTN. To further investigate the significance of the empirical results we have studied one- and two-dimensional models of randomly placed routes modeled by different types of walks. While in one dimension an analytic treatment was successful, the two dimensional case was studied by simulations showing that the empirical results for real PTNs deviate significantly from those expected for randomly placed routes.

  10. Faithful qubit transmission in a quantum communication network with heterogeneous channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhang, Lin Xi; Pei, Chang Xing

    2018-04-01

    Quantum communication networks enable long-distance qubit transmission and distributed quantum computation. In this paper, a quantum communication network with heterogeneous quantum channels is constructed. A faithful qubit transmission scheme is presented. Detailed calculations and performance analyses show that even in a low-quality quantum channel with serious decoherence, only modest number of locally prepared target qubits are required to achieve near-deterministic qubit transmission.

  11. Coherent transport in a system of periodic linear chain of quantum dots situated between two parallel quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, Lyudvig S

    2016-01-01

    We study coherent transport in a system of periodic linear chain of quantum dots situated between two parallel quantum wires. We show that the resonant-tunneling conductance between the wires exhibits a Rabi splitting of the resonance peak as a function of Fermi energy in the wires. This effect is an electron transport analogue of the Rabi splitting in optical spectra of two interacting systems. The conductance peak splitting originates from the anticrossing of Bloch bands in a periodic system that is caused by a strong coupling between the electron states in the quantum dot chain and quantum wires. (paper)

  12. Deterministic Single-Photon Source for Distributed Quantum Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Axel; Hennrich, Markus; Rempe, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    A sequence of single photons is emitted on demand from a single three-level atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. The photons are generated by an adiabatically driven stimulated Raman transition between two atomic ground states, with the vacuum field of the cavity stimulating one branch of the transition, and laser pulses deterministically driving the other branch. This process is unitary and therefore intrinsically reversible, which is essential for quantum communication and networking, and the photons should be appropriate for all-optical quantum information processing

  13. Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems: formalism, transport coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanokov, Z.; Palchikov, Yu.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G.G.; Scheid, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The generalized Linbland equations with non-stationary transport coefficients are derived from the Langevin equations for the case of nonlinear non-Markovian noise [1]. The equations of motion for the collective coordinates are consistent with the generalized quantum fluctuation dissipation relations. The microscopic justification of the Linbland axiomatic approach is performed. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent transport coefficients are presented for the case of FC- and RWA-oscillators and a general linear coupling in coordinate and in momentum between the collective subsystem and heat bath. The explicit equations for the correlation functions show that the Onsanger's regression hypothesis does not hold exactly for the non-Markovian equations of motion. However, under some conditions the regression of fluctuations goes to zero in the same manner as the average values. In the low and high temperature regimes we found that the dissipation leads to long-time tails in correlation functions in the RWA-oscillator. In the case of the FC-oscillator a non-exponential power-like decay of the correlation function in coordinate is only obtained only at the low temperature limit. The calculated results depend rather weakly on the memory time in many applications. The found transient times for diffusion coefficients D pp (t), D qp (t) and D qq (t) are quite short. The value of classical diffusion coefficients in momentum underestimates the asymptotic value of quantum one D pp (t), but the asymptotic values of classical σ qq c and quantum σ qq second moments are close due to the negativity of quantum mixed diffusion coefficient D qp (t)

  14. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salim, Najeh [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Clothier, Brent, E-mail: brent.clothier@plantandfood.co.nz [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Malone, Louise [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weir, Graham [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: {yields} Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. {yields} Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants

  15. Silicon nanophotonics for scalable quantum coherent feedback networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Brif, Constantin [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Soh, Daniel B.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States); Cox, Jonathan; DeRose, Christopher T.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The emergence of coherent quantum feedback control (CQFC) as a new paradigm for precise manipulation of dynamics of complex quantum systems has led to the development of efficient theoretical modeling and simulation tools and opened avenues for new practical implementations. This work explores the applicability of the integrated silicon photonics platform for implementing scalable CQFC networks. If proven successful, on-chip implementations of these networks would provide scalable and efficient nanophotonic components for autonomous quantum information processing devices and ultra-low-power optical processing systems at telecommunications wavelengths. We analyze the strengths of the silicon photonics platform for CQFC applications and identify the key challenges to both the theoretical formalism and experimental implementations. In particular, we determine specific extensions to the theoretical CQFC framework (which was originally developed with bulk-optics implementations in mind), required to make it fully applicable to modeling of linear and nonlinear integrated optics networks. We also report the results of a preliminary experiment that studied the performance of an in situ controllable silicon nanophotonic network of two coupled cavities and analyze the properties of this device using the CQFC formalism. (orig.)

  16. Silicon nanophotonics for scalable quantum coherent feedback networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Brif, Constantin; Soh, Daniel B.S.; Cox, Jonathan; DeRose, Christopher T.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of coherent quantum feedback control (CQFC) as a new paradigm for precise manipulation of dynamics of complex quantum systems has led to the development of efficient theoretical modeling and simulation tools and opened avenues for new practical implementations. This work explores the applicability of the integrated silicon photonics platform for implementing scalable CQFC networks. If proven successful, on-chip implementations of these networks would provide scalable and efficient nanophotonic components for autonomous quantum information processing devices and ultra-low-power optical processing systems at telecommunications wavelengths. We analyze the strengths of the silicon photonics platform for CQFC applications and identify the key challenges to both the theoretical formalism and experimental implementations. In particular, we determine specific extensions to the theoretical CQFC framework (which was originally developed with bulk-optics implementations in mind), required to make it fully applicable to modeling of linear and nonlinear integrated optics networks. We also report the results of a preliminary experiment that studied the performance of an in situ controllable silicon nanophotonic network of two coupled cavities and analyze the properties of this device using the CQFC formalism. (orig.)

  17. Transport Studies of Quantum Magnetism: Physics and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhyea [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The main goal of this project was to understand novel ground states of spin systems probed by thermal and electrical transport measurements. They are well-suited to characterize the nature of low-energy excitations as unique property of the ground state. More specifically, it was aimed to study the transverse electrical conductivity in the presence of non-collinear and non-coplanar spin ordering and the effects of gauge field as well as novel spin excitations as a coherent heat transport channel in insulating quantum magnets. Most of works done during the grant period focused on these topics. As a natural extension of the project's initial goals, the scope was broadened to include transport studies on the spin systems with strong spin-orbit coupling. One particular focus was an exploration of systems with strong magnetic anisotropy combined with non-trivial spin configuration. Magnetic anisotropy is directly related to implement the non-collinear spin ordering to the existing common geometry of planar devices and thus poses a significant potential. Work in this direction includes the comparison of the topological Hall signal under hydrostatic pressure and chemical doping, as well as the angular dependence dependence of the non-collinear spin ordered phase and their evolution up on temperature and field strength. Another focus was centered around the experimental identification of spin-originated heat carrying excitation in quasi two dimensional honeycomb lattice, where Kitaev type of quantum spin liquid phase is expected to emerge. In fact, when its long range magnetic order is destroyed by the applied field, we discovered anomalously large enhancement of thermal conductivity, for which proximate Kitaev excitations in field-induced spin liquid state are responsible for. This work, combined with further investigations in materials in the similar class may help establish the experimental characterization of new quantum spin liquid and their unique low energy

  18. Novel quantum inspired binary neural network algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This parameter is taken as the threshold of neuron for learning of neural network. This algorithm is tested with three benchmark datasets and ... Author Affiliations. OM PRAKASH PATEL1 ARUNA TIWARI. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552, India ...

  19. Single, double, and triple quantum dots in the transport; Einzel-, Doppel- und Dreifachquantenpunkte im Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Maximilian Christoph

    2008-12-03

    This thesis describes the fabrication of different lateral single, double and triple quantum dots as well as the investigation of these devices with electronic transport. Based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, the fabrication was carried out using optical lithography and lithography with a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. The latter ones were also used in combination. Aside from basic effects like Coulomb blockade the analysis of single quantum dots particularly yielded results by charge detection and magneto transport. With charge detection using quantum point contacts conclusions were attained concerning tunneling rates and the extension of wave functions. In a magnetic field the influence of the electronic spin is important aside from aspects concerning the Fock-Darwin spectrum. Analyses were performed on Zeeman effect, spin pairing, spin blockade and Kondo effect. The combination of spin blockade and Kondo effect allows statements concerning the spin configuration, which depends on the electron number. With double quantum dots of different geometries the two mechanisms of capacitive coupling and tunnel coupling were analyzed. They were found in spectra of ground and excited states. With gate voltage and magnetic field it was possible to freely vary character and strength of coupling. With capacitive coupling, spin blockade was investigated again. The analysis of coupling effects was performed using transport and charge measurements. Aside from results on tunneling rates the latter one allows to detect molecular states. Concerning triple quantum dots the three dimensional stability diagram was analyzed. The free variation of energies of all three dots was achieved. The evolution of resonances was observed with transport and charge detection. With a starlike device geometry it was possible to perform two-path measurements. They provide a new measurand, the distinguishability of double and triple dot physics. (orig.)

  20. Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit

  1. Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng-yang; Liu, Bao; Chen, Zi-hong; Wu, Song-lin; Song, He-shan

    2014-01-01

    We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale

  2. Nonreciprocal signal routing in an active quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelmann, A.; Türeci, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    As superconductor quantum technologies are moving towards large-scale integrated circuits, a robust and flexible approach to routing photons at the quantum level becomes a critical problem. Active circuits, which contain parametrically driven elements selectively embedded in the circuit, offer a viable solution. Here, we present a general strategy for routing nonreciprocally quantum signals between two sites of a given lattice of oscillators, implementable with existing superconducting circuit components. Our approach makes use of a dual lattice of overdamped oscillators linking the nodes of the main lattice. Solutions for spatially selective driving of the lattice elements can be found, which optimally balance coherent and dissipative hopping of microwave photons to nonreciprocally route signals between two given nodes. In certain lattices these optimal solutions are obtained at the exceptional point of the dynamical matrix of the network. We also demonstrate that signal and noise transmission characteristics can be separately optimized.

  3. Optimal and secure measurement protocols for quantum sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Zachary; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gross, Jonathan A.; Rolston, S. L.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared with unentangled states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the measured quantity is a linear function of parameters individually coupled to each qubit. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of nonlocal observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multiparameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose measurement protocols that can make use of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states or spin-squeezed states and show that in the case of GHZ states the protocol is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound. We also identify nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging as a promising setting for this technology.

  4. [Establishment of regional active neonatal transport network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-yong; Gao, Xin; Yin, Xiao-juan; Hong, Xiao-yang; Fang, Huan-sheng; Wang, Zi-zhen; Li, Ai-hua; Luo, Fen-ping; Feng, Zhi-chun

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical function and significance of establishing a regional active neonatal transport network (ANTN) in Beijing. The authors retrospectively studied intensive care and the role of ANTN system in management of critically ill neonates and compared the outcome of newborn infants transported to our NICU before and after we established standardized NICU and ANTN system (phase 1: July 2004 to June 2006 vs phase 2: July 2006 to May 2008). The number of neonatal transport significantly increased from 587 during phase 1 to 2797 during phase 2. Success rate of transport and the total cure rate in phase 2 were 97.85% and 91.99% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in phase 1 (94.36% and 88.69%, respectively, P capacity of our NICU was enlarged following the development of ANTN. There are 200 beds for level 3 infants in phase 2, but there were only 20 beds in phase 1. Significantly less patients in the phase 2 had hypothermia, acidosis and the blood glucose instability than those in phase 1 (P transported to our NICU were higher in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1, especially infants whose gestational age was below 32 weeks. The proportions of asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were lower in phase 2 than that in phase 1, but the total cure rates of these two diseases had no significant changes between the two phases. The most important finding was that the improvement of outcome of premature infants and those with asphyxia and aspiration syndrome was noted following the development of ANTN. Establishing regional ANTN for a tertiary hospital is very important to elevate the total level in management of critically ill newborn infants. It plays a very important role in reducing mortality and improving total outcomes of newborn infants. There are still some problems remained to solve after four years practice in order to optimize the ANTN to meet needs of the development of neonatology.

  5. Quantum and semiclassical spin networks: from atomic and molecular physics to quantum computing and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P.; Ferreira, Cristiane da S.; Marzuoli, Annalisa; Ragni, Mirco

    2008-11-01

    The mathematical apparatus of quantum-mechanical angular momentum (re)coupling, developed originally to describe spectroscopic phenomena in atomic, molecular, optical and nuclear physics, is embedded in modern algebraic settings which emphasize the underlying combinatorial aspects. SU(2) recoupling theory, involving Wigner's 3nj symbols, as well as the related problems of their calculations, general properties, asymptotic limits for large entries, nowadays plays a prominent role also in quantum gravity and quantum computing applications. We refer to the ingredients of this theory—and of its extension to other Lie and quantum groups—by using the collective term of 'spin networks'. Recent progress is recorded about the already established connections with the mathematical theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (the so-called Askey scheme), providing powerful tools based on asymptotic expansions, which correspond on the physical side to various levels of semi-classical limits. These results are useful not only in theoretical molecular physics but also in motivating algorithms for the computationally demanding problems of molecular dynamics and chemical reaction theory, where large angular momenta are typically involved. As for quantum chemistry, applications of these techniques include selection and classification of complete orthogonal basis sets in atomic and molecular problems, either in configuration space (Sturmian orbitals) or in momentum space. In this paper, we list and discuss some aspects of these developments—such as for instance the hyperquantization algorithm—as well as a few applications to quantum gravity and topology, thus providing evidence of a unifying background structure.

  6. A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valivarthi, Raju; Zhou, Qiang; John, Caleb; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally realize a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system. It is based on cost-effective and commercially available hardware such as distributed feedback lasers and field-programmable gate arrays that enable time-bin qubit preparation and time-tagging, and active feedback systems that allow for compensation of time-varying properties of photons after transmission through deployed fiber. We examine the performance of our system, and conclude that its design does not compromise performance. Our demonstration paves the way for MDI-QKD-based quantum networks in star-type topology that extend over more than 100 km distance.

  7. Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucki, D; Gisin, N; Thew, R; Legré, M; Clausen, B; Monat, L; Page, J-B; Ribordy, G; Rochas, A; Robyr, S; Trinkler, P; Buntschu, F; Perroud, D; Felber, N; Henzen, L; Junod, P; Monbaron, P; Ventura, S; Litzistorf, G; Tavares, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution (QKD) network. The network was installed in the Geneva metropolitan area and ran for more than one-and-a-half years, from the end of March 2009 to the beginning of January 2011. The main goal of this experiment was to test the reliability of the quantum layer over a long period of time in a production environment. A key management layer has been developed to manage the key between the three nodes of the network. This QKD-secure network was utilized by end-users through an application layer. (paper)

  8. Complex Quantum Network Manifolds in Dimension d > 2 are Scale-Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    In quantum gravity, several approaches have been proposed until now for the quantum description of discrete geometries. These theoretical frameworks include loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulations, causal sets, quantum graphity, and energetic spin networks. Most of these approaches describe discrete spaces as homogeneous network manifolds. Here we define Complex Quantum Network Manifolds (CQNM) describing the evolution of quantum network states, and constructed from growing simplicial complexes of dimension . We show that in d = 2 CQNM are homogeneous networks while for d > 2 they are scale-free i.e. they are characterized by large inhomogeneities of degrees like most complex networks. From the self-organized evolution of CQNM quantum statistics emerge spontaneously. Here we define the generalized degrees associated with the -faces of the -dimensional CQNMs, and we show that the statistics of these generalized degrees can either follow Fermi-Dirac, Boltzmann or Bose-Einstein distributions depending on the dimension of the -faces.

  9. Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.

  10. Finger-gate manipulated quantum transport in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleftogiannis, Ioannis; Cheng, Shun-Jen; Tang, Chi-Shung

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the quantum transport properties of multichannel nanoribbons made of materials described by the Dirac equation, under an in-plane magnetic field. In the low energy regime, positive and negative finger-gate potentials allow the electrons to make intra-subband transitions via hole-like or electron-like quasibound states (QBS), respectively, resulting in dips in the conductance. In the high energy regime, double dip structures in the conductance are found, attributed to spin-flip or spin-nonflip inter-subband transitions through the QBSs. Inverting the finger-gate polarity offers the possibility to manipulate the spin polarized electronic transport to achieve a controlled spin-switch. (paper)

  11. Quantum transport in topological semimetals under magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Topological semimetals are three-dimensional topological states of matter, in which the conduction and valence bands touch at a finite number of points, i.e., the Weyl nodes. Topological semimetals host paired monopoles and antimonopoles of Berry curvature at the Weyl nodes and topologically protected Fermi arcs at certain surfaces. We review our recent works on quantum transport in topological semimetals, according to the strength of the magnetic field. At weak magnetic fields, there are competitions between the positive magnetoresistivity induced by the weak anti-localization effect and negative magnetoresistivity related to the nontrivial Berry curvature. We propose a fitting formula for the magnetoconductivity of the weak anti-localization. We expect that the weak localization may be induced by inter-valley effects and interaction effect, and occur in double-Weyl semimetals. For the negative magnetoresistance induced by the nontrivial Berry curvature in topological semimetals, we show the dependence of the negative magnetoresistance on the carrier density. At strong magnetic fields, specifically, in the quantum limit, the magnetoconductivity depends on the type and range of the scattering potential of disorder. The high-field positive magnetoconductivity may not be a compelling signature of the chiral anomaly. For long-range Gaussian scattering potential and half filling, the magnetoconductivity can be linear in the quantum limit. A minimal conductivity is found at the Weyl nodes although the density of states vanishes there.

  12. Opto-electronic and quantum transport properties of semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabathil, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a novel and efficient method for the calculation of the ballistic transport properties of open semiconductor nanostructures connected to external reservoirs is presented. It is based on the Green's function formalism and reduces the effort to obtain the transmission and the carrier density to a single solution of a hermitian eigenvalue problem with dimensions proportional to the size of the decoupled device and the multiple inversion of a small matrix with dimensions proportional to the size of the contacts to the leads. Using this method, the 4-band GaAs hole transport through a 2-dimensional three-terminal T-junction device, and the resonant tunneling current through a 3-dimensional InAs quantum dot molecule embedded into an InP heterostructure have been calculated. The further extension of the method into a charge self-consistent scheme enables the efficient prediction of the IV-characteristics of highly doped nanoscale field effect transistors in the ballistic regime, including the influence of quasi bound states and the exchange-correlation interaction. Buettiker probes are used to emulate the effect of inelastic scattering on the current for simple 1D devices, systematically analyzing the dependence of the density of states and the resulting self-consistent potential on the scattering strength. The second major topic of this work is the modeling of the optical response of quantum confined neutral and charged excitons in single and coupled self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. For this purpose the existing device simulator nextnano{sup 3} has been extended to incorporate particle-particle interactions within the means of density functional theory in local density approximation. In this way the exciton transition energies for neutral and charged excitons as a function of an externally applied electric field have been calculated, revealing a systematic reduction of the intrinsic dipole with the addition of extra holes to the exciton, a finding

  13. Quantum communication network utilizing quadripartite entangled states of optical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Heng; Su Xiaolong; Jia Xiaojun; Xie Changde

    2009-01-01

    We propose two types of quantum dense coding communication networks with optical continuous variables, in which a quadripartite entangled state of the optical field with totally three-party correlations of quadrature amplitudes is utilized. In the networks, the exchange of information between any two participants can be manipulated by one or two of the remaining participants. The channel capacities for a variety of communication protocols are numerically calculated. Due to the fact that the quadripartite entangled states applied in the communication systems have been successfully prepared already in the laboratory, the proposed schemes are experimentally accessible at present.

  14. Quantum Google algorithm. Construction and application to complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, G. D.; Müller, M.; Comellas, F.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    We review the main findings on the ranking capabilities of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm (G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 444 (2012) and G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2773 (2013)) applied to large complex networks. The algorithm has been shown to identify unambiguously the underlying topology of the network and to be capable of clearly highlighting the structure of secondary hubs of networks. Furthermore, it can resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low-lying part of the list of rankings. Examples of applications include real-world instances from the WWW, which typically display a scale-free network structure and models of hierarchical networks. The quantum algorithm has been shown to display an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance among the nodes, as compared to the classical algorithm.

  15. Electrostatic and Quantum Transport Simulations of Quantum Point Contacts in the Integer Quantum Hall Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Harshad; Fallahi, Saeed; Nakamura, James; Povolotskyi, Michael; Novakovic, Bozidar; Rahman, Rajib; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard

    Quantum Point Contacts (QPCs) are extensively used in semiconductor devices for charge sensing, tunneling and interference experiments. Fabry-Pérot interferometers containing 2 QPCs have applications in quantum computing, in which electrons/quasi-particles undergo interference due to back-scattering from the QPCs. Such experiments have turned out to be difficult because of the complex structure of edge states near the QPC boundary. We present realistic simulations of the edge states in QPCs based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, which can be used to predict conductance and edge state velocities. Conduction band profile is obtained by solving decoupled effective mass Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently on a finite element mesh of a realistic geometry. In the integer quantum Hall regime, we obtain compressible and in-compressible regions near the edges. We then use the recursive Green`s function algorithm to solve Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions for calculating transmission and local current density in the QPCs. Impurities are treated by inserting bumps in the potential with a Gaussian distribution. We compare observables with experiments for fitting some adjustable parameters. The authors would like to thank Purdue Research Foundation and Purdue Center for Topological Materials for their support.

  16. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  17. An Artificial Neural Network Controller for Intelligent Transportation Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems appli...

  18. QUANTUM NETWORKS WITH SINGLE ATOMS, PHOTONS AND PHONONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    there is interference between two different transport channels. For instance, in a cavity far from resonance, there is interference arising from all...recovers the well-known form of a Beer -Lambert law, reading T (∆A)/T0(∆A) = exp [ −N ln ∆ 2 A + (Γ′ + Γ1D)2/4 ∆2A + Γ′2/4 ] ’ exp [ − OD1 + (2∆A/Γ′)2...Elements of Quantum Optics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007. [39] J.-T. Shen and S. Fan. Coherent photon transport from spontaneous emission in one

  19. Diamond-based Fabry-Perot microcavities for quantum networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    A quantumnetwork would allow the distribution of a quantum state over many spatially separated quantum nodes which individually possess the ability to generate, process and store quantum information. Connecting these nodes through quantum communication channels would enable sending quantum

  20. Strongly correlated quantum transport out-of-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Prasenjit

    The revolutionary advances in nanotechnology and nanofabrication have facilitated the precise control and manipulation of mesoscopic systems where quantum effects are pronounced. Quantum devices with tunable gates have made it possible to access regimes far beyond the purview of linear response theory. In particular, the influence of strong voltage and thermal biases has led to the observation of novel phenomena where the non-equilibrium characteristics of the system are of paramount importance. We study transport through quantum-impurity systems in the regime of strong correlations and determine the effects of large temperature and potential gradients on its many-body physics. In Part I of this thesis we focus on the steady-state dynamics of the system, a commonly encountered experimental scenario. For a system consisting of several leads composed of non-interacting electrons, each individually coupled to a quantum impurity with interactions and maintained at different chemical potentials, we reformulate the system in terms of an effective-equilibrium density matrix. This density matrix has a simple Boltzmann-like form in terms of the system's Lippmann-Schwinger (scattering) operators. We elaborate the conditions for this description to be valid based on the microscopic Hamiltonian of the system. We then prove the equivalence of physical observables computed using this formulation with corresponding expressions in the Schwinger-Keldysh approach and provide a dictionary between Green's functions in either scheme. An imaginary-time functional integral framework to compute finite temperature Green's functions is proposed and used to develop a novel perturbative expansion in the interaction strength which is exact in all other system parameters. We use these tools to study the fate of the Abrikosov-Suhl regime on the Kondo-correlated quantum dot due to the effects of bias and external magnetic fields. Next, we expand the domain of this formalism to additionally

  1. Quantum transport through mesoscopic disordered interfaces, junctions, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    2002-01-01

    This study explores perpendicular transport through macroscopically inhomogeneous three-dimensional disordered conductors using mesoscopic methods (the real-space Green function technique in a two-probe measuring geometry). The nanoscale samples (containing ∼ 1000 atoms) are modelled by a tight-binding Hamiltonian on a simple cubic lattice where disorder is introduced in the on-site potential energy. I compute the transport properties of: disordered metallic junctions formed by concatenating two homogeneous samples with different kinds of microscopic disorder, a single strongly disordered interface, and multilayers composed of such interfaces and homogeneous layers characterized by different strengths of the same type of microscopic disorder. This allows us to: contrast the resistor model (semiclassical) approach with a fully quantum description of dirty mesoscopic multilayers; study the transmission properties of dirty interfaces (where the Schep-Bauer distribution of transmission eigenvalues is confirmed for a single interface, as well as for a stack of such interfaces that is thinner than the localization length); and elucidate the effect of coupling to ideal leads ('measuring apparatus') on the conductance of both bulk conductors and dirty interfaces. When a multilayer contains a ballistic layer in between two interfaces, its disorder-averaged conductance oscillates as a function of the Fermi energy. I also address some fundamental issues in quantum transport theory - the relationship between the Kubo formula in the exact state representation and the 'mesoscopic Kubo formula' (which gives the exact zero-temperature conductance of a finite-size sample attached to two semi-infinite ideal leads) is thoroughly re-examined by comparing their outcomes for both the junctions and homogeneous samples. (author)

  2. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    We have studied the low-temperature transport properties of nanowires contacted by a normal metal as well as by superconducting electrodes. As a consequence of quantum coherence, we have demonstrated the electron interference effect in different aspects. The mesoscopic phase coherent transport properties were studied by contacting the semiconductor InAs and InSb nanowires with normal metal electrodes. Moreover, we explored the interaction of the microscopic quantum coherence of the nanowires with the macroscopic quantum coherence of the superconductors. In superconducting Nb contacted InAs nanowire junctions, we have investigated the effect of temperature, magnetic field and electric field on the supercurrent. Owing to relatively high critical temperature of superconducting Nb (T{sub c} ∝ 9 K), we have observed the supercurrent up to 4 K for highly doped nanowire-based junctions, while for low doped nanowire-based junctions a full control of the supercurrent was achieved. Due to low transversal dimension of the nanowires, we have found a monotonous decay of the critical current in magnetic field dependent measurements. The experimental results were analyzed within narrow junction model which has been developed recently. At high bias voltages, we have observed subharmonic energy gap structures as a consequence of multiple Andreev reflection. Some of the nanowires were etched, such that the superconducting Nb electrodes are connected to both ends of the nanowire rather than covering the surface of the nanowire. As a result of well defined nanowire-superconductor interfaces, we have examined quasiparticle interference effect in magnetotransport measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a new junction geometry, such that one of the superconducting Nb electrodes is replaced by a superconducting Al. Owing to the smaller critical magnetic field of superconducting Al (B{sub c} ∝ 15-50,mT), compared to superconducting Nb (B{sub c} ∝ 3 T), we were able to studied

  3. Quantum Logic Network for Cloning a State Near a Given One Based on Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Wei, Zhang; Xiao-Qiang, Shao; Ai-Dong, Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A quantum logic network is constructed to simulate a cloning machine which copies states near a given one. Meanwhile, a scheme for implementing this cloning network based on the technique of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented. It is easy to implement this network of cloning machine in the framework of cavity QED and feasible in the experiment. (general)

  4. Logical spin-filtering in a triangular network of quantum nanorings with a Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, E.; Sanavi Khoshnoud, D.; Naeimi, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The spin-resolved electron transport through a triangular network of quantum nanorings is studied in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and a magnetic flux using quantum waveguide theory. This study illustrates that, by tuning Rashba constant, magnetic flux and incoming electron energy, the triangular network of quantum rings can act as a perfect logical spin-filtering with high efficiency. By changing in the energy of incoming electron, at a proper value of the Rashba constant and magnetic flux, a reverse in the direction of spin can take place in the triangular network of quantum nanorings. Furthermore, the triangular network of quantum nanorings can be designed as a device and shows several simultaneous spintronic properties such as spin-splitter and spin-inverter. This spin-splitting is dependent on the energy of the incoming electron. Additionally, different polarizations can be achieved in the two outgoing leads from an originally incoming spin state that simulates a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  5. Influence of quantum phase transition on spin transport in the quantum antiferromagnet in the honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.

    2017-06-01

    We use the SU(3) Schwinger boson theory to study the spin transport properties of the two-dimensional anisotropic frustrated Heisenberg model in a honeycomb lattice at T = 0 with single ion anisotropy and third neighbor interactions. We have investigated the behavior of the spin conductivity for this model that presents exchange interactions J1 , J2 and J3 . We study the spin transport in the Bose-Einstein condensation regime where the bosons tz are condensed. Our results show an influence of the quantum phase transition point on the spin conductivity behavior. We also have made a diagrammatic expansion for the Green-function and did not obtain any significant change of the results.

  6. Enhancement of transport properties of a Brownian particle due to quantum effects: Smoluchowski limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into quantum Smoluchowski equation, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient and current of a quantum Brownian particle. Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects. Highlights:: ► Transport of a quantum Brownian particle in a periodic potential has been addressed. ► Governing quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE) includes state dependent diffusion. ► A coordinate transformation is used to recast QSE with constant diffusion. ► Transport properties increases in comparison to the corresponding classical result. ► This enhancement is purely a quantum effect. - Abstract: The transport property of a quantum Brownian particle that interacts strongly with a bath (in which a typical damping constant by far exceeds a characteristic frequency of the isolated system) under the influence of a tilted periodic potential has been studied by solving quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE). By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into QSE, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient of a quantum Brownian particle and the current (the average stationary velocity). Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects only if the bath temperature hovers around an appropriate range of intermediate values. Our findings also confirm the results obtained in the classical cases.

  7. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to the structure, dynamics, spectroscopy, and transport. Although several of water's macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using interaction potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen-bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class) and quantum (qm) descriptions of the nuclei with two interaction potentials that are at the two opposite ends of the range in describing quantum effects, namely the flexible, pair-wise additive q-TIP4P/F, and the flexible, polarizable TTM3-F, we found that the (class) and (qm) results can be superimposed over the temperature range T = 250-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(qm) = α T(class) + ΔT, where α = 0.99 and ΔT = -6 K for q-TIP4P/F and α = 1.24 and ΔT = -64 K for TTM3-F. This simple relationship suggests that the structural networks resulting from the quantum and classical treatment of the nuclei with those two very different interaction potentials are essentially similar to each other over this extended temperature range once a model-dependent linear temperature scaling law is applied.

  8. Theory of activated transport in bilayer quantum Hall systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, B; Mullen, K J; Fertig, H A; Simon, S H

    2008-07-25

    We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor nu=1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern-Simons theory that in drag geometries current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  9. Response to defects in multipartite and bipartite entanglement of isotropic quantum spin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipto Singha; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Rakshit, Debraj; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-05-01

    Quantum networks are an integral component in performing efficient computation and communication tasks that are not accessible using classical systems. A key aspect in designing an effective and scalable quantum network is generating entanglement between its nodes, which is robust against defects in the network. We consider an isotropic quantum network of spin-1/2 particles with a finite fraction of defects, where the corresponding wave function of the network is rotationally invariant under the action of local unitaries. By using quantum information-theoretic concepts like strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy and approximate quantum telecloning, we prove analytically that in the presence of defects, caused by loss of a finite fraction of spins, the network, composed of a fixed numbers of lattice sites, sustains genuine multisite entanglement and at the same time may exhibit finite moderate-range bipartite entanglement, in contrast to the network with no defects.

  10. Topological Effects and Performance Optimization in Transportation Continuous Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limitation of budget, in the planning of road works, increased efforts should be made on links that are more critical to the whole traffic system. Therefore, it would be helpful to model and evaluate the vulnerability and reliability of the transportation network when the network design is processing. This paper proposes a bilevel transportation network design model, in which the upper level is to minimize the performance of the network under the given budgets, while the lower level is a typical user equilibrium assignment problem. A new solution approach based on particle swarm optimization (PSO method is presented. The topological effects on the performance of transportation networks are studied with the consideration of three typical networks, regular lattice, random graph, and small-world network. Numerical examples and simulations are presented to demonstrate the proposed model.

  11. Road Transport Network Analysis In Port-Harcourt Metropolics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road transport network contributes to the economy of an area as it connects points of origin to destinations. The thrust of this article therefore, is on the analysis of the road networks in Port – Harcourt metropolis with the aim of determining the connectivity of the road networks and the most accessible node. Consequently ...

  12. Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D

    2003-11-21

    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.

  13. Short-Term Load Forecasting Model Based on Quantum Elman Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecasting model based on quantum Elman neural networks was constructed in this paper. The quantum computation and Elman feedback mechanism were integrated into quantum Elman neural networks. Quantum computation can effectively improve the approximation capability and the information processing ability of the neural networks. Quantum Elman neural networks have not only the feedforward connection but also the feedback connection. The feedback connection between the hidden nodes and the context nodes belongs to the state feedback in the internal system, which has formed specific dynamic memory performance. Phase space reconstruction theory is the theoretical basis of constructing the forecasting model. The training samples are formed by means of K-nearest neighbor approach. Through the example simulation, the testing results show that the model based on quantum Elman neural networks is better than the model based on the quantum feedforward neural network, the model based on the conventional Elman neural network, and the model based on the conventional feedforward neural network. So the proposed model can effectively improve the prediction accuracy. The research in the paper makes a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application of the short-term load forecasting model based on quantum Elman neural networks.

  14. Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Gang; Ding, Zhuo; Fan, Jing-Fang; Meng, Jun; Ding, Yi-Min; Ye, Fang-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2015-09-01

    The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. Project supported by the Major Projects of the China National Social Science Fund (Grant No. 11 & ZD154).

  15. Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen-Gang; Ding Zhuo; Fan Jing-Fang; Chen Xiao-Song; Meng Jun; Ye Fang-Fu; Ding Yi-Min

    2015-01-01

    The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. (rapid communication)

  16. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  17. Quantifying Complexity in Quantum Phase Transitions via Mutual Information Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marc Andrew; Jaschke, Daniel; Vargas, David L; Carr, Lincoln D

    2017-12-01

    We quantify the emergent complexity of quantum states near quantum critical points on regular 1D lattices, via complex network measures based on quantum mutual information as the adjacency matrix, in direct analogy to quantifying the complexity of electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the brain. Using matrix product state methods, we show that network density, clustering, disparity, and Pearson's correlation obtain the critical point for both quantum Ising and Bose-Hubbard models to a high degree of accuracy in finite-size scaling for three classes of quantum phase transitions, Z_{2}, mean field superfluid to Mott insulator, and a Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover.

  18. Quantifying Complexity in Quantum Phase Transitions via Mutual Information Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marc Andrew; Jaschke, Daniel; Vargas, David L.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2017-12-01

    We quantify the emergent complexity of quantum states near quantum critical points on regular 1D lattices, via complex network measures based on quantum mutual information as the adjacency matrix, in direct analogy to quantifying the complexity of electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the brain. Using matrix product state methods, we show that network density, clustering, disparity, and Pearson's correlation obtain the critical point for both quantum Ising and Bose-Hubbard models to a high degree of accuracy in finite-size scaling for three classes of quantum phase transitions, Z2, mean field superfluid to Mott insulator, and a Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover.

  19. Influence of Superconducting Leads Energy Gap on Electron Transport Through Double Quantum Dot by Markovian Quantum Master Equation Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsaneh, E.; Yavari, H.

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting reservoir effect on the current carrying transport of a double quantum dot in Markovian regime is investigated. For this purpose, a quantum master equation at finite temperature is derived for the many-body density matrix of an open quantum system. The dynamics and the steady-state properties of the double quantum dot system for arbitrary bias are studied. We will show that how the populations and coherencies of the system states are affected by superconducting leads. The energy parameter of system contains essentially four contributions due to dots system-electrodes coupling, intra dot coupling, two quantum dots inter coupling and superconducting gap. The coupling effect of each energy contribution is applied to currents and coherencies results. In addition, the effect of energy gap is studied by considering the amplitude and lifetime of coherencies to get more current through the system. (author)

  20. Computation of quantum electron transport with local current conservation using quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón, A; Oriols, X

    2009-01-01

    A recent proposal for modeling time-dependent quantum electron transport with Coulomb and exchange correlations using quantum (Bohm) trajectories (Oriols 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 066803) is extended towards the computation of the total (particle plus displacement) current in mesoscopic devices. In particular, two different methods for the practical computation of the total current are compared. The first method computes the particle and the displacement currents from the rate of Bohm particles crossing a particular surface and the time-dependent variations of the electric field there. The second method uses the Ramo–Shockley theorem to compute the total current on that surface from the knowledge of the Bohm particle dynamics in a 3D volume and the time-dependent variations of the electric field on the boundaries of that volume. From a computational point of view, it is shown that both methods achieve local current conservation, but the second is preferred because it is free from 'spurious' peaks. A numerical example, a Bohm trajectory crossing a double-barrier tunneling structure, is presented, supporting the conclusions

  1. Quantum Transport Simulation of High-Power 4.6-μm Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olafur Jonasson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantum transport simulation of a 4.6- μ m quantum cascade laser (QCL operating at high power near room temperature. The simulation is based on a rigorous density-matrix-based formalism, in which the evolution of the single-electron density matrix follows a Markovian master equation in the presence of applied electric field and relevant scattering mechanisms. We show that it is important to allow for both position-dependent effective mass and for effective lowering of very thin barriers in order to obtain the band structure and the current-field characteristics comparable to experiment. Our calculations agree well with experiments over a wide range of temperatures. We predict a room-temperature threshold field of 62 . 5 kV/cm and a characteristic temperature for threshold-current-density variation of T 0 = 199 K . We also calculate electronic in-plane distributions, which are far from thermal, and show that subband electron temperatures can be hundreds to thousands of degrees higher than the heat sink. Finally, we emphasize the role of coherent tunneling current by looking at the size of coherences, the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. At the design lasing field, efficient injection manifests itself in a large injector/upper lasing level coherence, which underscores the insufficiency of semiclassical techniques to address injection in QCLs.

  2. Noise spectrum of quantum transport through double quantum dots: Renormalization and non-Markovian effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengqin Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the time-nonlocal particle number-resolved master equation, we investigate the sequential electron transport through the interacting double quantum dots. Our calculations show that there exists the effect of energy renormalization in the dispersion of the bath interaction spectrum and it is sensitive to the the bandwidth of the bath. This effect would strongly affect the stationary current and its zero-frequency shot noise for weak inter-dot coherent coupling strength, but for strong inter-dot coupling regime, it is negligible due to the strong intrinsic Rabi coherent dynamics. Moreover, the possible observable effects of the energy renormalization in the noise spectrum are also investigated through the Rabi coherence signal. Finally, the non-Markovian effect is manifested in the finite-frequency noise spectrum with the appearance of quasisteps, and the magnitude of these quasisteps are modified by the dispersion function.

  3. Nonadditivity of quantum and classical capacities for entanglement breaking multiple-access channels and the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We analyze quantum network primitives which are entanglement breaking. We show superadditivity of quantum and classical capacity regions for quantum multiple-access channels and the quantum butterfly network. Since the effects are especially visible at high noise they suggest that quantum information effects may be particularly helpful in the case of the networks with occasional high noise rates. The present effects provide a qualitative borderline between superadditivities of bipartite and multipartite systems.

  4. Time-dependent quantum transport through an interacting quantum dot beyond sequential tunneling: second-order quantum rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, B; Ding, G H; Lei, X L

    2015-01-01

    A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime. (paper)

  5. Single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network based on Grover learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chein; Chang, Ching-Ter; Shih, Lun-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a novel single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network model is proposed based on some concepts and principles in the quantum theory. By combining the quantum mechanism with the feed-forward neural network, we defined quantum hidden neurons and connected quantum weights, and used them as the fundamental information processing unit in a single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network. The quantum neurons make a wide range of nonlinear functions serve as the activation functions in the hidden layer of the network, and the Grover searching algorithm outstands the optimal parameter setting iteratively and thus makes very efficient neural network learning possible. The quantum neuron and weights, along with a Grover searching algorithm based learning, result in a novel and efficient neural network characteristic of reduced network, high efficient training and prospect application in future. Some simulations are taken to investigate the performance of the proposed quantum network and the result show that it can achieve accurate learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of quantum key distribution network simulation module in the network simulator NS-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Miralem; Maurhart, Oliver; Rass, Stefan; Voznak, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    As the research in quantum key distribution (QKD) technology grows larger and becomes more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. Due to the specificity of the QKD link which requires optical and Internet connection between the network nodes, to deploy a complete testbed containing multiple network hosts and links to validate and verify a certain network algorithm or protocol would be very costly. Network simulators in these circumstances save vast amounts of money and time in accomplishing such a task. The simulation environment offers the creation of complex network topologies, a high degree of control and repeatable experiments, which in turn allows researchers to conduct experiments and confirm their results. In this paper, we described the design of the QKD network simulation module which was developed in the network simulator of version 3 (NS-3). The module supports simulation of the QKD network in an overlay mode or in a single TCP/IP mode. Therefore, it can be used to simulate other network technologies regardless of QKD.

  7. Complex quantum transport in a modulation doped strained Ge quantum well heterostructure with a high mobility 2D hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, C., E-mail: c.morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-05

    The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m{sub 0}. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.

  8. Complex quantum transport in a modulation doped strained Ge quantum well heterostructure with a high mobility 2D hole gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C.; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.

    2016-09-01

    The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm2/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m0. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.

  9. Computer-Supported Modelling of Multi modal Transportation Networks Rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Zelenika

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of shaping and functioning ofcomputer programs in the modelling and solving of multimoda Itransportation network problems. A methodology of an integrateduse of a programming language for mathematical modellingis defined, as well as spreadsheets for the solving of complexmultimodal transportation network problems. The papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral methods ofsolving multimodal transportation networks. The basic hypothesisset forth in this paper is that the integral method results inbetter multimodal transportation network rationalization effects,whereas a multimodal transportation network modelbased on the integral method, once built, can be used as the basisfor all kinds of transportation problems within multimodaltransport. As opposed to linear transport problems, multimodaltransport network can assume very complex shapes. This papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral approach totransp01tation network solving. In the partial approach, astraightforward model of a transp01tation network, which canbe solved through the use of the Solver computer tool within theExcel spreadsheet inteiface, is quite sufficient. In the solving ofa multimodal transportation problem through the integralmethod, it is necessmy to apply sophisticated mathematicalmodelling programming languages which supp01t the use ofcomplex matrix functions and the processing of a vast amountof variables and limitations. The LINGO programming languageis more abstract than the Excel spreadsheet, and it requiresa certain programming knowledge. The definition andpresentation of a problem logic within Excel, in a manner whichis acceptable to computer software, is an ideal basis for modellingin the LINGO programming language, as well as a fasterand more effective implementation of the mathematical model.This paper provides proof for the fact that it is more rational tosolve the problem of multimodal transportation networks by

  10. Magneto-transport study of quantum phases in wide GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang

    In this thesis we study several quantum phases in very high quality two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) confined to GaAs single wide quantum wells (QWs). In these systems typically two electric subbands are occupied. By controlling the electron density as well as the QW symmetry, we can fine tune the cyclotron and subband separation energies, so that Landau levels (LLs) belonging to different subbands cross at the Fermi energy EF. The additional subband degree of freedom enables us to study different quantum phases. Magneto-transport measurements at fixed electron density n and various QW symmetries reveal a remarkable pattern for the appearance and disappearance of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states at LL filling factors nu = 10/3, 11/3, 13/3, 14/3, 16/3, and 17/3. These q/3 states are stable and strong as long as EF lies in a ground-state (N = 0) LL, regardless of whether that level belongs to the symmetric or the anti-symmetric subband. We also observe subtle and distinct evolutions near filling factors nu = 5/2 and 7/2, as we change the density n, or the symmetry of the charge distribution. The even-denominator FQH states are observed at nu = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2 when EF lies in the N= 1 LLs of the symmetric subband (the S1 levels). As we increase n, the nu = 5/2 FQH state suddenly disappears and turns into a compressible state once EF moves to the spin-up, N = 0, anti-symmetric LL (the A0 ↑ level). The sharpness of this disappearance suggests a first-order transition from a FQH to a compressible state. Moreover, thanks to the renormalization of the susbband energy separation in a well with asymmetric change distribution, two LLs can get pinned to each other when they are crossing at E F. We observe a remarkable consequence of such pinning: There is a developing FQH state when the LL filling factor of the symmetric subband nuS equals 5/2 while the antisymmetric subband has filling 1 < nuA <2. Next, we study the evolution of the nu=5/2 and 7/2 FQH

  11. Electrical transport in strained silicon quantum wells on vicinal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis deals with the electrical transport studies of strained Si quantum wells grown on tilted Si substrates. Magnetotransport measurements at very low temperatures are used to investigate the high electron mobility, scattering processes and modified band structure for four different substrate orientations (2, 4, 6 and 10 deg.) and in two different directions of transport. We first discuss the morphology of the tilted system with the aid of, atomic force and optical microscopy. A clear change of surface morphology of tilted layers in comparison with the (001) type surfaces is explained by the degree of tilt in the system. The electron mobility and in-plane effective mass becomes anisotropic, which scale roughly with the tilt angle. The mobility anisotropy is shown to be the result of extra scattering when electrons travel across the steps common to vicinal surfaces. The extra scattering has characteristics similar to interface roughness scattering, as inferred from the trend that the transport (τ t ) and quantum scattering (τ q ) times follow. As the tilt angle grows, it is found that τ t /τ q →1 in the direction perpendicular to the steps. Electrons in tilted channels of multivalley semiconductors can involve a new interband scattering mechanism due to a one dimensional minigap opening in the conduction band. This effect, known from bulk Si MOSFETs, is investigated in strained Si for the first time in this thesis. First, the effect of applied electric fields on electron conduction is considered. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance data indicate a remarkably different electron scattering behaviour in tilted samples with increasing fields in directions parallel and perpendicular to the tilt direction. An FFT analysis of the data produces extra peaks in the electron density spectra. By clear contrast, flat samples grown under similar conditions do not show any unusual features. The difference is attributed to the existence of a minigap

  12. Charge transport in quantum dot organic solar cells with Si quantum dots sandwiched between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) absorber and bathocuproine (BCP) transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Upendra Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh

    2017-10-01

    We have modeled a multilayer quantum dot organic solar cell that explores the current-voltage characteristic of the solar cell whose characteristics can be tuned by varying the fabrication parameters of the quantum dots (QDs). The modeled device consists of a hole transport layer (HTL) which doubles up as photon absorbing layer, several quantum dot layers, and an electron transport layer (ETL). The conduction of charge carriers in HTL and ETL has been modeled by the drift-diffusion transport mechanism. The conduction and recombination in the quantum dot layers are described by a system of coupled rate equations incorporating tunneling and bimolecular recombination. Analysis of QD-solar cells shows improved device performance compared to the similar bilayer and trilayer device structures without QDs. Keeping other design parameters constant, solar cell characteristics can be controlled by the quantum dot layers. Bimolecular recombination coefficient of quantum dots is a prime factor which controls the open circuit voltage (VOC) without any significant reduction in short circuit current (JSC).

  13. Information services in social networked transportation : governance and ITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research seeks to understand the functions and the benefits of social : networked transportation (SNT), the processes that make SNT possible, and the institutional : innovations needed to facilitate those processes. First, this re...

  14. Neural-Network Quantum States, String-Bond States, and Chiral Topological States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Ivan; Pancotti, Nicola; August, Moritz; Rodriguez, Ivan D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    Neural-network quantum states have recently been introduced as an Ansatz for describing the wave function of quantum many-body systems. We show that there are strong connections between neural-network quantum states in the form of restricted Boltzmann machines and some classes of tensor-network states in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that short-range restricted Boltzmann machines are entangled plaquette states, while fully connected restricted Boltzmann machines are string-bond states with a nonlocal geometry and low bond dimension. These results shed light on the underlying architecture of restricted Boltzmann machines and their efficiency at representing many-body quantum states. String-bond states also provide a generic way of enhancing the power of neural-network quantum states and a natural generalization to systems with larger local Hilbert space. We compare the advantages and drawbacks of these different classes of states and present a method to combine them together. This allows us to benefit from both the entanglement structure of tensor networks and the efficiency of neural-network quantum states into a single Ansatz capable of targeting the wave function of strongly correlated systems. While it remains a challenge to describe states with chiral topological order using traditional tensor networks, we show that, because of their nonlocal geometry, neural-network quantum states and their string-bond-state extension can describe a lattice fractional quantum Hall state exactly. In addition, we provide numerical evidence that neural-network quantum states can approximate a chiral spin liquid with better accuracy than entangled plaquette states and local string-bond states. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of neural networks to describe complex quantum wave functions and pave the way towards the use of string-bond states as a tool in more traditional machine-learning applications.

  15. Entanglement entropy in the quantum networks of a coupled quantum harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarizadeh, M A; Nami, S; Eghbalifam, F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement of the ground state in the quantum networks that their nodes are considered as quantum harmonic oscillators. To this aim, the Schmidt numbers and entanglement entropy between two arbitrary partitions of a network are calculated.In partitioning an arbitrary graph into two parts there are some nodes in each part which are not connected to the nodes of the other part. So, these nodes of each part can be in distinct subsets. Therefore, the graph is separated into four subsets. The nodes of the first and last subsets are those which are not connected to the nodes of the other part. In theorem 1, by using the generalized Schur complement method in these four subsets, we prove that all the graphs whose connections between the two alternative subsets are complete, have the same entropy. A large number of graphs satisfy this theorem. Then the entanglement entropy in the limit of the large coupling and large size of the system is investigated in these graphs. Also, the asymptotic behaviors of the Schmidt numbers and entanglement entropy in the limit of infinite coupling are shown.One important quantity about partitioning is the conductance of the graph. The conductance of the graph is considered in various graphs. In these graphs we compare the conductance of the graph and the entanglement entropy. (paper)

  16. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  17. On the topology of optical transport networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, J P; Santiago, A; Losada, J C; Benito, R M; Mouronte, M L

    2010-01-01

    Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is the standard technology for information transmission in broadband optical networks. Unlike systems with unplanned growth, such as those of natural origin or the Internet network, the SDH systems are strictly planned as rings, meshes, stars or tree-branches structures designed to connect different equipments. In spite of that, we have found that the SDH network operated by Telefonica in Spain shares remarkable topological properties with other real complex networks as a product of its evolution since 1992. In fact, we have found power-law scaling in the degree distribution (N·P(k) = k -γ ) and small-world networks properties. The complexity found in SDH systems was reproduced by two models of complex networks, one of them considers real planning directives that take into account geographical and technological variables and the other one is based in the compatibility among SDH equipments.

  18. Coupled electron-phonon transport from molecular dynamics with quantum baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Wang, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Based on generalized quantum Langevin equations for the tight-binding wavefunction amplitudes and lattice displacements, electron and phonon quantum transport are obtained exactly using molecular dynamics (MD) in the ballistic regime. The electron-phonon interactions can be handled with a quasi...

  19. Giant electron-hole transport asymmetry in ultra-short quantum transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, A. C.; Tayari, V.; Porter, J. M.; Champagne, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Making use of bipolar transport in single-wall carbon nanotube quantum transistors would permit a single device to operate as both a quantum dot and a ballistic conductor or as two quantum dots with different charging energies. Here we report ultra-clean 10 to 100 nm scale suspended nanotube transistors with a large electron-hole transport asymmetry. The devices consist of naked nanotube channels contacted with sections of tube under annealed gold. The annealed gold acts as an n-doping top gate, allowing coherent quantum transport, and can create nanometre-sharp barriers. These tunnel barriers define a single quantum dot whose charging energies to add an electron or a hole are vastly different (e−h charging energy asymmetry). We parameterize the e−h transport asymmetry by the ratio of the hole and electron charging energies ηe−h. This asymmetry is maximized for short channels and small band gap tubes. In a small band gap device, we demonstrate the fabrication of a dual functionality quantum device acting as a quantum dot for holes and a much longer quantum bus for electrons. In a 14 nm-long channel, ηe−h reaches up to 2.6 for a device with a band gap of 270 meV. The charging energies in this device exceed 100 meV. PMID:28561024

  20. Use of artificial neural networks for transport energy demand modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, Yetis Sazi; Ceylan, Halim

    2006-01-01

    The paper illustrates an artificial neural network (ANN) approach based on supervised neural networks for the transport energy demand forecasting using socio-economic and transport related indicators. The ANN transport energy demand model is developed. The actual forecast is obtained using a feed forward neural network, trained with back propagation algorithm. In order to investigate the influence of socio-economic indicators on the transport energy demand, the ANN is analyzed based on gross national product (GNP), population and the total annual average veh-km along with historical energy data available from 1970 to 2001. Comparing model predictions with energy data in testing period performs the model validation. The projections are made with two scenarios. It is obtained that the ANN reflects the fluctuation in historical data for both dependent and independent variables. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the transport energy-forecasting problem

  1. Resource-aware system architecture model for implementation of quantum aided Byzantine agreement on quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Mohammand Amin; Navi, Keivan; Van Meter, Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Quantum aided Byzantine agreement is an important distributed quantum algorithm with unique features in comparison to classical deterministic and randomized algorithms, requiring only a constant expected number of rounds in addition to giving a higher level of security. In this paper, we analyze details of the high level multi-party algorithm, and propose elements of the design for the quantum architecture and circuits required at each node to run the algorithm on a quantum repeater network (QRN). Our optimization techniques have reduced the quantum circuit depth by 44% and the number of qubits in each node by 20% for a minimum five-node setup compared to the design based on the standard arithmetic circuits. These improvements lead to a quantum system architecture with 160 qubits per node, space-time product (an estimate of the required fidelity) {KQ}≈ 1.3× {10}5 per node and error threshold 1.1× {10}-6 for the total nodes in the network. The evaluation of the designed architecture shows that to execute the algorithm once on the minimum setup, we need to successfully distribute a total of 648 Bell pairs across the network, spread evenly between all pairs of nodes. This framework can be considered a starting point for establishing a road-map for light-weight demonstration of a distributed quantum application on QRNs.

  2. Quantum Transport in Solids: Bloch Dynamics and Role of Oscillating Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Ki

    1997-01-01

    .... The specific areas of research are those of Bloch electron dynamics, quantum transport in oscillating electric fields or in periodic potentials, and the capacitive nature of atomic size structures...

  3. Double Super-Exchange in Silicon Quantum Dots Connected by Short-Bridged Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Wu, Zhigang; Lusk, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots (QDs) with diameters in the range of 1-2 nm are attractive for photovoltaic applications. They absorb photons more readily, transport excitons with greater efficiency, and show greater promise in multiple-exciton generation and hot carrier collection paradigms. However, their high excitonic binding energy makes it difficult to dissociate excitons into separate charge carriers. One possible remedy is to create dot assemblies in which a second material creates a Type-II heterojunction with the dot so that exciton dissociation occurs locally. This talk will focus on such a Type-II heterojunction paradigm in which QDs are connected via covalently bonded, short-bridge molecules. For such interpenetrating networks of dots and molecules, our first principles computational investigation shows that it is possible to rapidly and efficiently separate electrons to QDs and holes to bridge units. The bridge network serves as an efficient mediator of electron superexchange between QDs while the dots themselves play the complimentary role of efficient hole superexchange mediators. Dissociation, photoluminescence and carrier transport rates will be presented for bridge networks of silicon QDs that exhibit such double superexchange. This material is based upon work supported by the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (REMRSEC) under Grant No. DMR-0820518 and Golden Energy Computing Organization (GECO).

  4. Improved Quantum Artificial Fish Algorithm Application to Distributed Network Considering Distributed Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tingsong; Hu, Yang; Ke, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    An improved quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (IQAFSA) for solving distributed network programming considering distributed generation is proposed in this work. The IQAFSA based on quantum computing which has exponential acceleration for heuristic algorithm uses quantum bits to code artificial fish and quantum revolving gate, preying behavior, and following behavior and variation of quantum artificial fish to update the artificial fish for searching for optimal value. Then, we apply the proposed new algorithm, the quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (QAFSA), the basic artificial fish swarm algorithm (BAFSA), and the global edition artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA) to the simulation experiments for some typical test functions, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can escape from the local extremum effectively and has higher convergence speed and better accuracy. Finally, applying IQAFSA to distributed network problems and the simulation results for 33-bus radial distribution network system show that IQAFSA can get the minimum power loss after comparing with BAFSA, GAFSA, and QAFSA.

  5. Flexible Transport Network Expansion via Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Skjoldstrup, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a successful test-bed implementation of a multi-vendor transport network interconnection via open WDM interfaces. The concept of applying Alien Wavelengths (AWs) for network expansion was successfully illustrated via deployment of multi-domain/multi-vendor end-to-end OTN servi...

  6. Quantum communication for satellite-to-ground networks with partially entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Na; Quan Dong-Xiao; Pei Chang-Xing; Yang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To realize practical wide-area quantum communication, a satellite-to-ground network with partially entangled states is developed in this paper. For efficiency and security reasons, the existing method of quantum communication in distributed wireless quantum networks with partially entangled states cannot be applied directly to the proposed quantum network. Based on this point, an efficient and secure quantum communication scheme with partially entangled states is presented. In our scheme, the source node performs teleportation only after an end-to-end entangled state has been established by entanglement swapping with partially entangled states. Thus, the security of quantum communication is guaranteed. The destination node recovers the transmitted quantum bit with the help of an auxiliary quantum bit and specially defined unitary matrices. Detailed calculations and simulation analyses show that the probability of successfully transferring a quantum bit in the presented scheme is high. In addition, the auxiliary quantum bit provides a heralded mechanism for successful communication. Based on the critical components that are presented in this article an efficient, secure, and practical wide-area quantum communication can be achieved. (paper)

  7. Network simulation of nonstationary ionic transport through liquid junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilla, J.; Horno, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nonstationary ionic transport across the liquid junctions has been studied using Network Thermodynamics. A network model for the time-dependent Nernst-Plack-Poisson system of equation is proposed. With this network model and the electrical circuit simulation program PSPICE, the concentrations, charge density, and electrical potentials, at short times, have been simulated for the binary system NaCl/NaCl. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength of multi......We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...

  9. Evolution of quantum and classical strategies on networks by group interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Chen Minyou; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, quantum strategies are introduced within evolutionary games in order to investigate the evolution of quantum and classical strategies on networks in the public goods game. Comparing the results of evolution on a scale-free network and a square lattice, we find that a quantum strategy outperforms the classical strategies, regardless of the network. Moreover, a quantum strategy dominates the population earlier in group interactions than it does in pairwise interactions. In particular, if the hub node in a scale-free network is occupied by a cooperator initially, the strategy of cooperation will prevail in the population. However, in other situations, a quantum strategy can defeat the classical ones and finally becomes the dominant strategy in the population. (paper)

  10. Recurrent neural network approach to quantum signal: coherent state restoration for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weizhao; Huang, Chunhui; Hou, Kun; Shi, Liting; Zhao, Huihui; Li, Zhengmei; Qiu, Jianfeng

    2018-05-01

    In continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD), weak signal carrying information transmits from Alice to Bob; during this process it is easily influenced by unknown noise which reduces signal-to-noise ratio, and strongly impacts reliability and stability of the communication. Recurrent quantum neural network (RQNN) is an artificial neural network model which can perform stochastic filtering without any prior knowledge of the signal and noise. In this paper, a modified RQNN algorithm with expectation maximization algorithm is proposed to process the signal in CV-QKD, which follows the basic rule of quantum mechanics. After RQNN, noise power decreases about 15 dBm, coherent signal recognition rate of RQNN is 96%, quantum bit error rate (QBER) drops to 4%, which is 6.9% lower than original QBER, and channel capacity is notably enlarged.

  11. Transport studies in p-type double quantum well samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The motivation for the study of double quantum well samples is that the extra spatial degree of freedom can modify the ground state energies of the system, leading to new and interesting many body effects. Electron bi-layers have been widely studied but the work presented here is the first systematic study of transport properties of a p-type, double quantum well system. The samples, grown on the 311 plane, consisted of two 100A GaAs wells separated by a 30A AlAs barrier. The thin barrier in our structures, gives rise to very strong inter-layer Coulombic interactions but in contrast to electron double quantum well samples, tunnelling between the two wells is very weak. This is due to the large effective mass of holes compared with electrons. It is possible to accurately control the total density of a sample and the relative occupancy of each well using front and back gates. A systematic study of the magnetoresistance properties of the p-type bi-layers, was carried out at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields, for samples covering a range of densities. Considerable care was required to obtain reliable results as the samples were extremely susceptible to electrical shock and were prone to drift in density slowly over time. With balanced wells, the very low tunnelling in the p-type bi-layer leads to a complete absence of all odd integers in both resistance and thermopower except for the v=1 state, ( v 1/2 in each layer) where v is the total Landau level filling factor. Unlike other FQHE features the v=1 state strengthens with increased density as inter-layer interactions increase in strength over intra-layer interactions. The state is also destroyed at a critical temperature, which is much lower than the measured activation temperature. This is taken as evidence for a finite temperature phase transition predicted for the bi-layer v=1. From the experimental observations, we construct a phase diagram for the state, which agree closely with theoretical predictions

  12. LOCATING HUBS IN TRANSPORT NETWORKS: AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Teodorović; Milica Šelmić; Ivana Vukićević

    2014-01-01

    Hub facilities serve as switching and transshipment points in transportation and communication networks as well as in logistic systems. Hub networks have an influence on flows on the hub-to-hub links and ensure benefit from economies of scale in inter-hub transportation. The key factors for designing a successful hub-and-spoke network are to determine the optimal number of hubs, to properly locate hubs, and to allocate the non-hubs to the hubs. This paper presents the model to determine the l...

  13. Multiscale Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Simulations with Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Wu, Jingheng; Yang, Weitao

    2016-10-11

    Molecular dynamics simulation with multiscale quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods is a very powerful tool for understanding the mechanism of chemical and biological processes in solution or enzymes. However, its computational cost can be too high for many biochemical systems because of the large number of ab initio QM calculations. Semiempirical QM/MM simulations have much higher efficiency. Its accuracy can be improved with a correction to reach the ab initio QM/MM level. The computational cost on the ab initio calculation for the correction determines the efficiency. In this paper we developed a neural network method for QM/MM calculation as an extension of the neural-network representation reported by Behler and Parrinello. With this approach, the potential energy of any configuration along the reaction path for a given QM/MM system can be predicted at the ab initio QM/MM level based on the semiempirical QM/MM simulations. We further applied this method to three reactions in water to calculate the free energy changes. The free-energy profile obtained from the semiempirical QM/MM simulation is corrected to the ab initio QM/MM level with the potential energies predicted with the constructed neural network. The results are in excellent accordance with the reference data that are obtained from the ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation or corrected with direct ab initio QM/MM potential energies. Compared with the correction using direct ab initio QM/MM potential energies, our method shows a speed-up of 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. It demonstrates that the neural network method combined with the semiempirical QM/MM calculation can be an efficient and reliable strategy for chemical reaction simulations.

  14. Time-resolved electron transport in quantum-dot systems; Zeitaufgeloester Elektronentransport in Quantendotsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croy, Alexander

    2010-06-30

    In this thesis the time-resolved electron transport in quantum dot systems was studied. For this two different formalisms were presented: The nonequilibrium Green functions and the generalized quantum master equations. For both formalisms a propagation method for the numerical calculation of time-resolved expectation values, like the occupation and the electron current, was developed. For the demonstration of the propagation method two different question formulations were considered. On the one hand the stochastically driven resonant-level model was studied. On the other hand the pulse-induced transport through a double quantum dot was considered.

  15. Social network analysis of sustainable transportation organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Studying how organizations communicate with each other can provide important insights into the influence, and policy success of different types of organizations. This study examines the communication networks of 121 organizations promoting sustainabl...

  16. Entanglement routers via a wireless quantum network based on arbitrary two qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, N

    2014-01-01

    A wireless quantum network is generated between multi-hops, where each hop consists of two entangled nodes. These nodes share a finite number of entangled two-qubit systems randomly. Different types of wireless quantum bridges (WQBS) are generated between the non-connected nodes. The efficiency of these WQBS to be used as quantum channels between its terminals to perform quantum teleportation is investigated. We suggest a theoretical wireless quantum communication protocol to teleport unknown quantum signals from one node to another, where the more powerful WQBS are used as quantum channels. It is shown that, by increasing the efficiency of the sources that emit the initial partial entangled states, one can increase the efficiency of the wireless quantum communication protocol. (paper)

  17. Squeezed light in an optical parametric oscillator network with coherent feedback quantum control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, Orion; Tezak, Nikolas; Soh, Daniel B S; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2013-07-29

    We present squeezing and anti-squeezing spectra of the output from a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) network arranged in different coherent quantum feedback configurations. One OPO serves as a quantum plant, the other as a quantum controller. The addition of coherent feedback enables shaping of the output squeezing spectrum of the plant, and is found to be capable of pushing the frequency of maximum squeezing away from the optical driving frequency and broadening the spectrum over a wider frequency band. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the developed theory, and illustrate the use of coherent quantum feedback to engineer the quantum-optical properties of the plant OPO output.

  18. Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua [School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guihua [Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: sdguoying@gmail.com, E-mail: rhshi@mail.edu.com, E-mail: ghzeng@sjtu.edu.cn

    2010-04-15

    A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.

  19. Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Zeng, Guihua

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.

  20. Transport through interacting quantum dots with Majorana fermions or phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetzen, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the search for Majorana fermions within condensed matter systems inspired the first part of the thesis. These hypothetical particles which are their own antiparticles are predicted to arise in the form of quasi-particle excitations called Majorana bound states at the surface of engineered condensed matter systems. An experimental detection is challenging since their defining property also implies that they possess no charge, no energy and no spin. This significantly reduces the possibilities to interact with them and get a proof of their existence from a measurement. The most promising experimental results are based on transport measurements where current-voltage-characteristics play the role of a spectroscopy signal. In this thesis, we investigate a single electron transistor setup which hosts a spatially separated pair of Majorana fermions with respect to their influence on its transport characteristics. We focus on a master equation approach including sequential and cotunneling contributions. After deducing all relevant rates we solve the system numerically over a broad parameter regime. For some limits, we also elaborate analytical solutions. In comparison with collaboratively worked out other methods we provide a broad understanding of the setup and make a proposal how our results could be used as a detection scheme for Majorana fermions. The second part of the thesis investigates the spinless Anderson-Holstein model which is the minimal model for molecular transport. It models a molecule with electronic and vibronic degrees of freedom which is placed between metallic leads at different chemical potentials to investigate again its transport properties. Also here we intended to gain access to a broad parameter regime and successfully extended the numerical ''iterative summation of path-integrals'' scheme to this model. It is based on a real-time path-integral approach in combination with the nonequilibrium Keldysh

  1. Transport through interacting quantum dots with Majorana fermions or phonons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetzen, Roland

    2013-07-04

    Recent advances in the search for Majorana fermions within condensed matter systems inspired the first part of the thesis. These hypothetical particles which are their own antiparticles are predicted to arise in the form of quasi-particle excitations called Majorana bound states at the surface of engineered condensed matter systems. An experimental detection is challenging since their defining property also implies that they possess no charge, no energy and no spin. This significantly reduces the possibilities to interact with them and get a proof of their existence from a measurement. The most promising experimental results are based on transport measurements where current-voltage-characteristics play the role of a spectroscopy signal. In this thesis, we investigate a single electron transistor setup which hosts a spatially separated pair of Majorana fermions with respect to their influence on its transport characteristics. We focus on a master equation approach including sequential and cotunneling contributions. After deducing all relevant rates we solve the system numerically over a broad parameter regime. For some limits, we also elaborate analytical solutions. In comparison with collaboratively worked out other methods we provide a broad understanding of the setup and make a proposal how our results could be used as a detection scheme for Majorana fermions. The second part of the thesis investigates the spinless Anderson-Holstein model which is the minimal model for molecular transport. It models a molecule with electronic and vibronic degrees of freedom which is placed between metallic leads at different chemical potentials to investigate again its transport properties. Also here we intended to gain access to a broad parameter regime and successfully extended the numerical ''iterative summation of path-integrals'' scheme to this model. It is based on a real-time path-integral approach in combination with the nonequilibrium Keldysh

  2. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf, E-mail: nra1@hi.is; Gudmundsson, Vidar, E-mail: vidar@raunvis.hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, 36003 Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  3. Exciton shelves for charge and energy transport in third-generation quantum-dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel; Singh, Vivek; Noh, Hyunwoo; Casamada, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Cha, Jennifer; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystallites with size-dependent quantum-confined energy levels. While they have been intensively investigated to utilize hot-carriers for photovoltaic applications, to bridge the mismatch between incident solar photons and finite bandgap of semiconductor photocells, efficient charge or exciton transport in quantum-dot films has proven challenging. Here we show development of new coupled conjugated molecular wires with ``exciton shelves'', or different energy levels, matched with the multiple energy levels of quantum dots. Using single nanoparticle and ensemble device measurements we show successful extraction and transport of both bandedge and high-energy charge carriers, and energy transport of excitons. We demonstrate using measurements of electronic density of states, that careful matching of energy states of quantum-dot with molecular wires is important, and any mismatch can generate midgap states leading to charge recombination and reduced efficiency. Therefore, these exciton-shelves and quantum dots can lead to development of next-generation photovoltaic and photodetection devices using simultaneous transport of bandedge and hot-carriers or energy transport of excitons in these nanostructured solution-processed films.

  4. Influences of a Side-Coupled Triple Quantum Dot on Kondo Transport Through a Quantum Dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhaotan; Yang Yannan; Qin Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    Kondo transport properties through a Kondo-type quantum dot (QD) with a side-coupled triple-QD structure are systematically investigated by using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We firstly derive the formulae of the current, the linear conductance, the transmission coefficient, and the local density of states. Then we carry out the analytical and numerical studies and some universal conductance properties are obtained. It is shown that the number of the conductance valleys is intrinsically determined by the side-coupled QDs and at most equal to the number of the QDs included in the side-coupled structure in the asymmetric limit. In the process of forming the conductance valleys, the side-coupled QD system plays the dominant role while the couplings between the Kondo-type QD and the side-coupled structure play the subsidiary and indispensable roles. To testify the validity of the universal conductance properties, another different kinds of side-coupled triple-QD structures are considered. It should be emphasized that these universal properties are applicable in understanding this kind of systems with arbitrary many-QD side structures.

  5. Heuristic urban transportation network design method, a multilayer coevolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Manan, Mohd Shahrudin Abd; Li, Rong; Wu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    The design of urban transportation networks plays a key role in the urban planning process, and the coevolution of urban networks has recently garnered significant attention in literature. However, most of these recent articles are based on networks that are essentially planar. In this research, we propose a heuristic multilayer urban network coevolution model with lower layer network and upper layer network that are associated with growth and stimulate one another. We first use the relative neighbourhood graph and the Gabriel graph to simulate the structure of rail and road networks, respectively. With simulation we find that when a specific number of nodes are added, the total travel cost ratio between an expanded network and the initial lower layer network has the lowest value. The cooperation strength Λ and the changeable parameter average operation speed ratio Θ show that transit users' route choices change dramatically through the coevolution process and that their decisions, in turn, affect the multilayer network structure. We also note that the simulated relation between the Gini coefficient of the betweenness centrality, Θ and Λ have an optimal point for network design. This research could inspire the analysis of urban network topology features and the assessment of urban growth trends.

  6. Efficient quantum computation in a network with probabilistic gates and logical encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, J.; Sørensen, A. S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2017-01-01

    An approach to efficient quantum computation with probabilistic gates is proposed and analyzed in both a local and nonlocal setting. It combines heralded gates previously studied for atom or atomlike qubits with logical encoding from linear optical quantum computation in order to perform high......-fidelity quantum gates across a quantum network. The error-detecting properties of the heralded operations ensure high fidelity while the encoding makes it possible to correct for failed attempts such that deterministic and high-quality gates can be achieved. Importantly, this is robust to photon loss, which...... is typically the main obstacle to photonic-based quantum information processing. Overall this approach opens a path toward quantum networks with atomic nodes and photonic links....

  7. Strategic Network Modelling for Passenger Transport Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E.-S.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade the Netherlands has experienced an economic recession. Now, in 2017, the economy is picking up again. This growth does not only come with advantages because economic growth demands more from the transport system. Congestion is increasing again, the capacity of the train system is

  8. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  9. Transport link scanner: simulating geographic transport network expansion through individual investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.C.; Jacobs, C.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a GIS-based model that simulates the geographic expansion of transport networks by several decision-makers with varying objectives. The model progressively adds extensions to a growing network by choosing the most attractive investments from a limited choice set. Attractiveness

  10. Quantum logic networks for controlled teleportation of a single particle via W state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hong-Chun; Qi Kai-Guo

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the scheme for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of an unknown state of one particle using the general three-particle W state as the quantum channel. The feature of this scheme is that teleportation between two sides depends on the agreement of the third side (Charlie), who may participate the process of quantum teleportation as a supervisor. In addition, we also construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new scheme by means of the primitive operations.

  11. Scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state to any node in a quantum communication network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋克慧; 张为俊; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state. In order to realize the teleportation to any node ina quantum communication network, an n-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is needed, which is utilizedas the quantum channel. From this n-atom GHZ state, two-node entanglement of processing and receiving teleportedstates can be obtained through the quantum logic gate manipulation. Finally, for the unequally weighted GHZ state,probabilistic teleportation is shown.

  12. Quantum logic gates based on ballistic transport in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoman, Daniela [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094 Bucharest (Romania); Dragoman, Mircea, E-mail: mircea.dragoman@imt.ro [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT), P.O. Box 38-160, 023573 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-03-07

    The paper presents various configurations for the implementation of graphene-based Hadamard, C-phase, controlled-NOT, and Toffoli gates working at room temperature. These logic gates, essential for any quantum computing algorithm, involve ballistic graphene devices for qubit generation and processing and can be fabricated using existing nanolithographical techniques. All quantum gate configurations are based on the very large mean-free-paths of carriers in graphene at room temperature.

  13. Towards a Room-Temperature Spin Quantum Bus in Diamond via Electron Photoionization, Transport, and Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Doherty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a proven solid-state platform for spin-based quantum technology. The nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond has been used to realize small-scale quantum information processing and quantum sensing under ambient conditions. A major barrier in the development of large-scale quantum information processing in diamond is the connection of nitrogen-vacancy spin registers by a quantum bus at room temperature. Given that diamond is expected to be an ideal spin transport material, the coherent transport of spin directly between the spin registers offers a potential solution. Yet, there has been no demonstration of spin transport in diamond due to difficulties in achieving spin injection and detection via conventional methods. Here, we exploit detailed knowledge of the paramagnetic defects in diamond to identify novel mechanisms to photoionize, transport, and capture spin-polarized electrons in diamond at room temperature. Having identified these mechanisms, we explore how they may be combined to realize an on-chip spin quantum bus.

  14. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  15. Consideration of analogies between magnetic and quantum notices for molecular network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piech Henryk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of spin glass materials [9,13] are close to quantum interpretation in their nature description [17]. Therefore, we can look for possible kinds of analogies in process of defining theoretic and practice conventions, rules and applications of the specific characteristics in elaboration quantum calculation strategies. We have not investigated possibilities to create directly quantum calculation units and practice calculation structures like qubits, registers, gates etc. [4,18], but dealing with spin and quantum definitions and descriptions we can try to involve these notices from different domains. Such a pragmatic approach only intuitively gives chances to create the transition theory and implement it even partially. Obviously, almost all of us have heard about quantum factorization, cryptography or teleportation but it is obtained as a result of exploration casually selected quantum properties and adapting them to mathematic problems. In our approach, we carefully investigate involutions among spin and quantum nature looking at possible implementation in molecular network.

  16. Quantum dynamics in transverse-field Ising models from classical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmitt, Markus Heyl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficient representation of quantum many-body states with classical resources is a key challenge in quantum many-body theory. In this work we analytically construct classical networks for the description of the quantum dynamics in transverse-field Ising models that can be solved efficiently using Monte Carlo techniques. Our perturbative construction encodes time-evolved quantum states of spin-1/2 systems in a network of classical spins with local couplings and can be directly generalized to other spin systems and higher spins. Using this construction we compute the transient dynamics in one, two, and three dimensions including local observables, entanglement production, and Loschmidt amplitudes using Monte Carlo algorithms and demonstrate the accuracy of this approach by comparisons to exact results. We include a mapping to equivalent artificial neural networks, which were recently introduced to provide a universal structure for classical network wave functions.

  17. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  18. Optimal Operation of Interdependent Power Systems and Electrified Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hadi Amini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrified transportation and power systems are mutually coupled networks. In this paper, a novel framework is developed for interdependent power and transportation networks. Our approach constitutes solving an iterative least cost vehicle routing process, which utilizes the communication of electrified vehicles (EVs with competing charging stations, to exchange data such as electricity price, energy demand, and time of arrival. The EV routing problem is solved to minimize the total cost of travel using the Dijkstra algorithm with the input from EVs battery management system, electricity price from charging stations, powertrain component efficiencies and transportation network traffic conditions. Through the bidirectional communication of EVs with competing charging stations, EVs’ charging demand estimation is done much more accurately. Then the optimal power flow problem is solved for the power system, to find the locational marginal price at load buses where charging stations are connected. Finally, the electricity prices were communicated from the charging stations to the EVs, and the loop is closed. Locational electricity price acts as the shared parameter between the two optimization problems, i.e., optimal power flow and optimal routing problem. Electricity price depends on the power demand, which is affected by the charging of EVs. On the other hand, location of EV charging stations and their different pricing strategies might affect the routing decisions of the EVs. Our novel approach that combines the electrified transportation with power system operation, holds tremendous potential for solving electrified transportation issues and reducing energy costs. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using Shanghai transportation network and IEEE 9-bus test system. The results verify the cost-savings for both power system and transportation networks.

  19. An intermodal transportation geospatial network modeling for containerized soybean shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Containerized shipping is a growing market for agricultural exports, particularly soybeans. In order to understand the optimal strategies for improving the United States’ economic competitiveness in this emerging market, this research develops an intermodal transportation network modeling framework, focusing on U.S. soybean container shipments. Built upon detailed modal cost analyses, a Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT model has been developed to understand the optimal network design for U.S. soybean exports. Based on market demand and domestic supply figures, the model is able to determine which domestically produced soybeans should go to which foreign markets, and by which transport modes. This research and its continual studies, will provide insights into future policies and practices that can improve the transportation efficiency of soybean logistics.

  20. Molecular transport network security using multi-wavelength optical spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunsiri, Surachai; Thammawongsa, Nopparat; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2016-01-01

    Multi-wavelength generation system using an optical spin within the modified add-drop optical filter known as a PANDA ring resonator for molecular transport network security is proposed. By using the dark-bright soliton pair control, the optical capsules can be constructed and applied to securely transport the trapped molecules within the network. The advantage is that the dark and bright soliton pair (components) can securely propagate for long distance without electromagnetic interference. In operation, the optical intensity from PANDA ring resonator is fed into gold nano-antenna, where the surface plasmon oscillation between soliton pair and metallic waveguide is established.

  1. Photo-induced Mass Transport through Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuan; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2014-03-01

    Among adaptable materials, photo-responsive polymers are especially attractive as they allow for spatiotemporal stimuli and response. We have recently developed a macromolecular network capable of photo-induced mass transport of covalently bound species. The system comprises of crosslinked chains that form an elastic network and photosensitive fluorescent arms that become mobile upon irradiation. We form loosely crosslinked polymer networks by Michael-Addition between multifunctional thiols and small molecule containing acrylate end-groups. The arms are connected to the network by allyl sulfide, that undergoes addition-fragmentation chain transfer (AFCT) in the presence of free radicals, releasing diffusible fluorophore. The networks are loaded with photoinitiator to allow for spatial modulation of the AFCT reactions. FRAP experiments within bulk elastomers are conducted to establish correlations between the fluorophore's diffusion coefficient and experimental variables such as network architecture, temperature and UV intensity. Photo-induced mass transport between two contacted films is demonstrated, and release of fluorophore into a solvent is investigated. Spatial and temporal control of mass transport could benefit drug release, printing, and sensing applications.

  2. Unifying neural-network quantum states and correlator product states via tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen R.

    2018-04-01

    Correlator product states (CPS) are a powerful and very broad class of states for quantum lattice systems whose (unnormalised) amplitudes in a fixed basis can be sampled exactly and efficiently. They work by gluing together states of overlapping clusters of sites on the lattice, called correlators. Recently Carleo and Troyer (2017 Science 355 602) introduced a new type sampleable ansatz called neural-network quantum states (NQS) that are inspired by the restricted Boltzmann model used in machine learning. By employing the formalism of tensor networks we show that NQS are a special form of CPS with novel properties. Diagramatically a number of simple observations become transparent. Namely, that NQS are CPS built from extensively sized GHZ-form correlators making them uniquely unbiased geometrically. The appearance of GHZ correlators also relates NQS to canonical polyadic decompositions of tensors. Another immediate implication of the NQS equivalence to CPS is that we are able to formulate exact NQS representations for a wide range of paradigmatic states, including superpositions of weighed-graph states, the Laughlin state, toric code states, and the resonating valence bond state. These examples reveal the potential of using higher dimensional hidden units and a second hidden layer in NQS. The major outlook of this study is the elevation of NQS to correlator operators allowing them to enhance conventional well-established variational Monte Carlo approaches for strongly correlated fermions.

  3. Continuous-variable Measurement-device-independent Quantum Relay Network with Phase-sensitive Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is now heading towards solving the practical problem of implementing scalable quantum networks. In this paper, we show that a solution can come from deploying an optical amplifier in the CV-MDI system, aiming to establish a high-rate quantum network. We suggest an improved CV-MDI protocol using the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, where the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Despite the possibility that the relay could be completely tampered with and imperfect links are subject to the powerful attacks, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Furthermore, we show that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the inherent imperfections and improve the secret key rate of the CV-MDI system.

  4. Carrier transport in THz quantum cascade lasers: Are Green's functions necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyas, A; Jirauschek, C; Kubis, T; Lugli, P

    2009-01-01

    We have applied two different simulation models for the stationary carrier transport and optical gain analysis in resonant phonon depopulation THz Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), based on the semiclassical ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) and fully quantum mechanical non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) method, respectively. We find in the incoherent regime near and above the threshold current a qualitative and quantitative agreement of both methods. Therefore, we show that THz-QCLs can be successfully optimized utilizing the numerically efficient EMC method.

  5. Pulsed neural networks consisting of single-flux-quantum spiking neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, T.; Asai, T.; Amemiya, Y.

    2007-01-01

    An inhibitory pulsed neural network was developed for brain-like information processing, by using single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuits. It consists of spiking neuron devices that are coupled to each other through all-to-all inhibitory connections. The network selects neural activity. The operation of the neural network was confirmed by computer simulation. SFQ neuron devices can imitate the operation of the inhibition phenomenon of neural networks

  6. Bulk Restoration for SDN-Based Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bulk restoration scheme for software defined networking- (SDN- based transport network. To enhance the network survivability and improve the throughput, we allow disrupted flows to be recovered synchronously in dynamic order. In addition backup paths are scheduled globally by applying the principles of load balance. We model the bulk restoration problem using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation. Then, a heuristic algorithm is devised. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation and the results are analyzed comparing with sequential restoration schemes.

  7. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  8. Transport properties of a Kondo dot with a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y S; Fan, X H; Xia, Y J; Yang, X F

    2008-01-01

    We investigate theoretically linear and nonlinear quantum transport through a smaller quantum dot in a Kondo regime connected to two leads in the presence of a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot, without tunneling coupling to the leads. To do this we employ the slave boson mean field theory with the help of the Keldysh Green's function at zero temperature. The numerical results show that the Kondo conductance peak may develop multiple resonance peaks and multiple zero points in the conductance spectrum owing to constructive and destructive quantum interference effects when the energy levels of the large side-coupled noninteracting dot are located in the vicinity of the Fermi level in the leads. As the coupling strength between two quantum dots increases, the tunneling current through the quantum device as a function of gate voltage applied across the two leads is suppressed. The spin-dependent transport properties of two parallel coupled quantum dots connected to two ferromagnetic leads are also investigated. The numerical results show that, for the parallel configuration, the spin current or linear spin differential conductance are enhanced when the polarization strength in the two leads is increased

  9. Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Markus

    2007-12-01

    Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg 0.3 Cd 0.7 Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)

  10. Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Markus

    2007-12-15

    Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg{sub 0.3}Cd{sub 0.7}Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)

  11. Parity effect of bipolar quantum Hall edge transport around graphene antidots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Sadashige; Nakaharai, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2015-06-30

    Parity effect, which means that even-odd property of an integer physical parameter results in an essential difference, ubiquitously appears and enables us to grasp its physical essence as the microscopic mechanism is less significant in coarse graining. Here we report a new parity effect of quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). We found and experimentally verified that the bipolar quantum Hall edge transport is drastically affected by the parity of the number of PNJs. This parity effect is universal in bipolar quantum Hall edge transport of not only graphene but also massless Dirac electron systems. These results offer a promising way to design electron interferometers in graphene.

  12. Fast long-range connections in transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares Viana, Matheus; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional scaling is applied in order to visualize an analogue of the small-world effect implied by edges having different displacement velocities in transportation networks. Our findings are illustrated for two real-world systems, namely the London urban network (streets and underground) and the US highway network enhanced by some of the main US airlines routes. We also show that the travel time in these two networks is drastically changed by attacks targeting the edges with large displacement velocities. - Highlights: → Multidimensional scaling used to visualize the effects of fast long-range connections. → Fast long-range connections are important to decrease the average travel time. → The average travel time diverges quickly when the network is under target attacks.

  13. Anomalous Transport in Natural Fracture Networks Induced by Tectonic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, P. K.; Lei, Q.; Lee, S.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport in fractured rock controls many natural and engineered processes in the subsurface. However, characterizing flow and transport through fractured media is challenging due to the high uncertainty and large heterogeneity associated with fractured rock properties. In addition to these "static" challenges, geologic fractures are always under significant overburden stress, and changes in the stress state can lead to changes in the fracture's ability to conduct fluids. While confining stress has been shown to impact fluid flow through fractures in a fundamental way, the impact of confining stress on transportthrough fractured rock remains poorly understood. The link between anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and confining stress has been shown, only recently, at the level of a single rough fracture [1]. Here, we investigate the impact of geologic (tectonic) stress on flow and tracer transport through natural fracture networks. We model geomechanical effects in 2D fractured rock by means of a finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) [2], which can capture the deformation of matrix blocks, reactivation of pre-existing fractures, and propagation of new cracks, upon changes in the stress field. We apply the model to a fracture network extracted from the geological map of an actual rock outcrop to obtain the aperture field at different stress conditions. We then simulate fluid flow and particle transport through the stressed fracture networks. We observe that anomalous transport emerges in response to confining stress on the fracture network, and show that the stress state is a powerful determinant of transport behavior: (1) An anisotropic stress state induces preferential flow paths through shear dilation; (2) An increase in geologic stress increases aperture heterogeneity that induces late-time tailing of particle breakthrough curves. Finally, we develop an effective transport model that captures the anomalous transport through the stressed fracture

  14. Performance analysis of quantum access network using code division multiple access model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Linxi; Yang Can; He Guangqiang

    2017-01-01

    A quantum access network has been implemented by frequency division multiple access and time division multiple access, while code division multiple access is limited for its difficulty to realize the orthogonality of the code. Recently, the chaotic phase shifters were proposed to guarantee the orthogonality by different chaotic signals and spread the spectral content of the quantum states. In this letter, we propose to implement the code division multiple access quantum network by using chaotic phase shifters and synchronization. Due to the orthogonality of the different chaotic phase shifter, every pair of users can faithfully transmit quantum information through a common channel and have little crosstalk between different users. Meanwhile, the broadband spectra of chaotic signals efficiently help the quantum states to defend against channel loss and noise. (paper)

  15. Maximal qubit violation of n-locality inequalities in a star-shaped quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Francesco; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Santodonato, Luca; Chaves, Rafael; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    Bell's theorem was a cornerstone for our understanding of quantum theory and the establishment of Bell non-locality played a crucial role in the development of quantum information. Recently, its extension to complex networks has been attracting growing attention, but a deep characterization of quantum behavior is still missing for this novel context. In this work we analyze quantum correlations arising in the bilocality scenario, that is a tripartite quantum network where the correlations between the parties are mediated by two independent sources of states. First, we prove that non-bilocal correlations witnessed through a Bell-state measurement in the central node of the network form a subset of those obtainable by means of a local projective measurement. This leads us to derive the maximal violation of the bilocality inequality that can be achieved by arbitrary two-qubit quantum states and arbitrary local projective measurements. We then analyze in details the relation between the violation of the bilocality inequality and the CHSH inequality. Finally, we show how our method can be extended to the n-locality scenario consisting of n two-qubit quantum states distributed among n+1 nodes of a star-shaped network.

  16. "Shorthaul" pulpwood transport in South Africa. A network analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... road conditions to the extent that highway type vehicles are unable to reach roadside landings. This necessitates the use of intermediate storage sites, from where timber is once again loaded and transported to its final destination. A network analysis model, assisted by newly developed and industry accepted terminology, ...

  17. Iterative Available Bandwidth Estimation for Mobile Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubeda Castellanos, Carlos; López Villa, Dimas; Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Available bandwidth estimation has lately been proposed to be used for end-to-end resource management in existing and emerging mobile communication systems, whose transport networks could end up being the bottleneck rather than the air interface. Algorithms for admission control, handover...

  18. Parallel SN transport calculations on a transputer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Cho, Nam Zin

    1994-01-01

    A parallel computing algorithm for the neutron transport problems has been implemented on a transputer network and two reactor benchmark problems (a fixed-source problem and an eigenvalue problem) are solved. We have shown that the parallel calculations provided significant reduction in execution time over the sequential calculations

  19. Connectivity, flow and transport in network models of fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1984-10-01

    In order to evaluate the safety of radioactive waste disposal underground it is important to understand the way in which radioactive material is transported through the rock to the surface. If the rock is fractured the usual models may not be applicable. In this work we look at three aspects of fracture networks: connectivity, flow and transport. These are studied numerically by generating fracture networks in a computer and modelling the processes which occur. Connectivity relates to percolation theory, and critical densities for fracture systems are found in two and three dimensions. The permeability of two-dimensional networks is studied. The way that permeability depends on fracture density, network size and spread of fracture length can be predicted using a cut lattice model. Transport through the fracture network by convection through the fractures and mixing at the intersections is studied. The Fickian dispersion equation does not describe the resulting hydrodynamic dispersion. Extensions to the techniques to three dimensions and to include other processes are discussed. (author)

  20. An elementary quantum network using robust nuclear spin qubits in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Humphreys, Peter; Blok, Machiel; van Bemmelen, Koen; Twitchen, Daniel; Markham, Matthew; Taminiau, Tim; Hanson, Ronald

    Quantum registers containing multiple robust qubits can form the nodes of future quantum networks for computation and communication. Information storage within such nodes must be resilient to any type of local operation. Here we demonstrate multiple robust memories by employing five nuclear spins adjacent to a nitrogen-vacancy defect centre in diamond. We characterize the storage of quantum superpositions and their resilience to entangling attempts with the electron spin of the defect centre. The storage fidelity is found to be limited by the probabilistic electron spin reset after failed entangling attempts. Control over multiple memories is then utilized to encode states in decoherence protected subspaces with increased robustness. Furthermore we demonstrate memory control in two optically linked network nodes and characterize the storage capabilities of both memories in terms of the process fidelity with the identity. These results pave the way towards multi-qubit quantum algorithms in a remote network setting.

  1. Quantum secure direct communication network with superdense coding and decoy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Li Chunyan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hongyu

    2007-01-01

    A quantum secure direct communication network scheme is proposed with quantum superdense coding and decoy photons. The servers on a passive optical network prepare and measure the quantum signal, i.e. a sequence of the d-dimensional Bell states. After confirming the security of the photons received from the receiver, the sender codes his secret message on them directly. For preventing a dishonest server from eavesdropping, some decoy photons prepared by measuring one photon in the Bell states are used to replace some original photons. One of the users on the network can communicate to any other one. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity, and it is more convenient than others as only a sequence of photons is transmitted in quantum line

  2. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  3. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%. PMID:23476142

  4. Charge transport in transparent single-wall carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Manu; Wang, Wei; Fernando, K A Shiral; Sun Yaping; Menon, Reghu

    2007-01-01

    We report the electric-field effects and magnetotransport in transparent networks of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The temperature dependence of conductance of the network indicates a 2D Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) transport mechanism. Electric field and temperature are shown to have similar effects on the carrier hops and identical exponents for the conductance of the network are obtained from the high electric field and temperature dependences. A power-law temperature dependence with an exponent 3/2 for the threshold field is obtained and explained as a result of the competing contributions from electric field and phonons to the carrier hop. A negative magnetoresistance (MR) is observed at low temperatures, which arises from a forward interference scattering mechanism in the weak scattering limit, consistent with the VRH transport

  5. Secure Media Independent Handover Message Transport in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Choong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 framework for Media Independent Handover (MIH provides seamless vertical handover support for multimode mobile terminals. MIH messages are exchanged over various wireless media between mobile terminals and access networks to facilitate seamless handover. This calls for the need to secure MIH messages against network security threats in the wireless medium. In this paper, we first analyze IPSec/IKEv2 and DTLS security solution for secure MIH message transport. We show that handover latency can be an impediment to the use of IPSec and DTLS solutions. To overcome the handover overhead and hence minimize authentication time, a new secure MIH message transport solution, referred as MIHSec in this paper, is proposed. Experimental results are obtained for MIH between WLAN and Ethernet networks and the impacts of MIH message security on the handover latency are evaluated for IPSec, DTLS, and MIHSec security solutions. The effectiveness of MIHSec is demonstrated.

  6. Quantum cryptography: Theoretical protocols for quantum key distribution and tests of selected commercial QKD systems in commercial fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz

    2016-06-01

    The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.

  7. The Swiss Education and Research Network - SWITCH - Upgrades Optical Network to Transport 10 Gbps Using Sorrento Networks DWDM Platform

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Sorrento Networks, a supplier of optical transport networking equipment for carriers and enterprises worldwide, today announced that SWITCH successfully completed 10 Gbps BER tests on the 220 km Zurich to Manno and 360 km Zurich to Geneva links in September and November 2003, using Sorrento's GigaMux DWDM system" (1/2 page).

  8. Quantum secure direct communication network with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Li Chunyan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hongyu

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the four requirements for a real point-to-point quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) first, and then present two efficient QSDC network schemes with an N ordered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. Any one of the authorized users can communicate another one on the network securely and directly

  9. Complex-network description of thermal quantum states in the Ising spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Valdez, Marc Andrew; Carr, Lincoln D.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.

    2018-05-01

    We use network analysis to describe and characterize an archetypal quantum system—an Ising spin chain in a transverse magnetic field. We analyze weighted networks for this quantum system, with link weights given by various measures of spin-spin correlations such as the von Neumann and Rényi mutual information, concurrence, and negativity. We analytically calculate the spin-spin correlations in the system at an arbitrary temperature by mapping the Ising spin chain to fermions, as well as numerically calculate the correlations in the ground state using matrix product state methods, and then analyze the resulting networks using a variety of network measures. We demonstrate that the network measures show some traits of complex networks already in this spin chain, arguably the simplest quantum many-body system. The network measures give insight into the phase diagram not easily captured by more typical quantities, such as the order parameter or correlation length. For example, the network structure varies with transverse field and temperature, and the structure in the quantum critical fan is different from the ordered and disordered phases.

  10. Performance verification of network function virtualization in software defined optical transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Hu, Liyazhou; Wang, Wei; Li, Yajie; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous opening of resource acquisition and application, there are a large variety of network hardware appliances deployed as the communication infrastructure. To lunch a new network application always implies to replace the obsolete devices and needs the related space and power to accommodate it, which will increase the energy and capital investment. Network function virtualization1 (NFV) aims to address these problems by consolidating many network equipment onto industry standard elements such as servers, switches and storage. Many types of IT resources have been deployed to run Virtual Network Functions (vNFs), such as virtual switches and routers. Then how to deploy NFV in optical transport networks is a of great importance problem. This paper focuses on this problem, and gives an implementation architecture of NFV-enabled optical transport networks based on Software Defined Optical Networking (SDON) with the procedure of vNFs call and return. Especially, an implementation solution of NFV-enabled optical transport node is designed, and a parallel processing method for NFV-enabled OTN nodes is proposed. To verify the performance of NFV-enabled SDON, the protocol interaction procedures of control function virtualization and node function virtualization are demonstrated on SDON testbed. Finally, the benefits and challenges of the parallel processing method for NFV-enabled OTN nodes are simulated and analyzed.

  11. Identifying quantum phase transitions with adversarial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huembeli, Patrick; Dauphin, Alexandre; Wittek, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The identification of phases of matter is a challenging task, especially in quantum mechanics, where the complexity of the ground state appears to grow exponentially with the size of the system. Traditionally, physicists have to identify the relevant order parameters for the classification of the different phases. We here follow a radically different approach: we address this problem with a state-of-the-art deep learning technique, adversarial domain adaptation. We derive the phase diagram of the whole parameter space starting from a fixed and known subspace using unsupervised learning. This method has the advantage that the input of the algorithm can be directly the ground state without any ad hoc feature engineering. Furthermore, the dimension of the parameter space is unrestricted. More specifically, the input data set contains both labeled and unlabeled data instances. The first kind is a system that admits an accurate analytical or numerical solution, and one can recover its phase diagram. The second type is the physical system with an unknown phase diagram. Adversarial domain adaptation uses both types of data to create invariant feature extracting layers in a deep learning architecture. Once these layers are trained, we can attach an unsupervised learner to the network to find phase transitions. We show the success of this technique by applying it on several paradigmatic models: the Ising model with different temperatures, the Bose-Hubbard model, and the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with disorder. The method finds unknown transitions successfully and predicts transition points in close agreement with standard methods. This study opens the door to the classification of physical systems where the phase boundaries are complex such as the many-body localization problem or the Bose glass phase.

  12. Routing protocol for wireless quantum multi-hop mesh backbone network based on partially entangled GHZ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Hua, Jing-Yu

    2017-08-01

    Quantum multi-hop teleportation is important in the field of quantum communication. In this study, we propose a quantum multi-hop communication model and a quantum routing protocol with multihop teleportation for wireless mesh backbone networks. Based on an analysis of quantum multi-hop protocols, a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is selected as the quantum channel for the proposed protocol. Both quantum and classical wireless channels exist between two neighboring nodes along the route. With the proposed routing protocol, quantum information can be transmitted hop by hop from the source node to the destination node. Based on multi-hop teleportation based on the partially entangled GHZ state, a quantum route established with the minimum number of hops. The difference between our routing protocol and the classical one is that in the former, the processes used to find a quantum route and establish quantum channel entanglement occur simultaneously. The Bell state measurement results of each hop are piggybacked to quantum route finding information. This method reduces the total number of packets and the magnitude of air interface delay. The deduction of the establishment of a quantum channel between source and destination is also presented here. The final success probability of quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks was simulated and analyzed. Our research shows that quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks through a partially entangled GHZ state is feasible.

  13. Interconnected TiO2 Nanowire Networks for PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method for the fabrication of an interconnected porous TiO2 nanostructured film via dip coating in a colloidal suspension of ultrathin TiO2 nanowires followed by high-temperature annealing. The spheroidization of the nanowires and the fusing of the loosely packed nanowire films at the contact points lead to the formation of nanopores. Using this interconnected TiO2 nanowire network for electron transport, a PbS/TiO2 heterojunction solar cell with a large short-circuit current of 2.5 mA/cm2, a Voc of 0.6 V, and a power conversion efficiency of 5.4% is achieved under 8.5 mW/cm2 white light illumination. Compared to conventional planar TiO2 film structures, these results suggest superior electron transport properties while still providing the large interfacial area between PbS quantum dots and TiO2 required for efficient exciton dissociation.

  14. Envisaging quantum transport phenomenon in a muddled base pair ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJAN VOHRA

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... effect of mispairs G(anti)·A(syn) and G(anti)·A(anti) on electron transport by replacing ... used by us with two-probe system consisting of three parts: right, left ... The ballistic transport results if probability of transmitting electrons ...

  15. A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm-parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm-which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes.

  16. A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm—parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm—which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes. PMID:29554140

  17. Functional characterization and axonal transport of quantum dot labeled BDNF

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Wenjun; Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2012-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the growth, development and maintenance of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Exogenous BDNF activates its membrane receptors at the axon terminal, and subsequently sends regulation signals to the cell body. To understand how BDNF signal propagates in neurons, it is important to follow the trafficking of BDNF after it is internalized at the axon terminal. Here we labeled BDNF with bright, photostable quantum dot (QD-BDNF) a...

  18. Charge transport model in nanodielectric composites based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guochang; Chen, George, E-mail: gc@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: sli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Electronic and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Li, Shengtao, E-mail: gc@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: sli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-08-08

    Charge transport properties in nanodielectrics present different tendencies for different loading concentrations. The exact mechanisms that are responsible for charge transport in nanodielectrics are not detailed, especially for high loading concentration. A charge transport model in nanodielectrics has been proposed based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps. In the model, the thermally assisted hopping (TAH) process for the shallow traps and the tunnelling process for the deep traps are considered. For different loading concentrations, the dominant charge transport mechanisms are different. The quantum tunneling mechanism plays a major role in determining the charge conduction in nanodielectrics with high loading concentrations. While for low loading concentrations, the thermal hopping mechanism will dominate the charge conduction process. The model can explain the observed conductivity property in nanodielectrics with different loading concentrations.

  19. Investigation on photoluminescence quenching of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by organic charge transporting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different organic charge transporting materials on the photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots has been studied by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. With an increase in concentration of the organic charge transporting material in the quantum dots solutions, the photoluminescence intensity of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots was quenched greatly and the fluorescence lifetime was shortened gradually. The quenching efficiency of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots decreased with increasing the oxidation potential of organic charge transporting materials. Based on the analysis, two pathways in the photoluminescence quenching process have been defined: static quenching and dynamic quenching. The dynamic quenching is correlated with hole transporting from quantum dots to the charge transporting materials.

  20. Structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN). • We compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. • It is found that small-world property and rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by major airlines. - Abstract: Recently multilayer networks are attracting great attention because the properties of many real-world systems cannot be well understood without considering their different layers. In this paper, we investigate the structural properties of the Chinese air transportation multilayer network (ATMN) by progressively merging layers together, where each commercial airline (company) defines a layer. The results show that the high clustering coefficient, short characteristic path length and large collection of reachable destinations of the Chinese ATMN can only emerge when several layers are merged together. Moreover, we compare two main types of layers corresponding to major and low-cost airlines. It is found that the small-world property and the rich-club effect of the Chinese ATMN are mainly caused by those layers corresponding to major airlines. Our work will highlight a better understanding of the Chinese air transportation network.

  1. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H; Roche, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by t...... Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder....

  2. Solvable model of spin-dependent transport through a finite array of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, S A; Dmitrieva, L A; Kuperin, Yu A; Sartan, V V

    2005-01-01

    The problem of spin-dependent transport of electrons through a finite array of quantum dots attached to a 1D quantum wire (spin gun) for various semiconductor materials is studied. The Breit-Fermi term for spin-spin interaction in the effective Hamiltonian of the device is shown to result in a dependence of transmission coefficient on the spin orientation. The difference of transmission probabilities for singlet and triplet channels can reach a few per cent for a single quantum dot. For several quantum dots in the array due to interference effects it can reach approximately 100% for some energy intervals. For the same energy intervals the conductance of the device reaches the value ∼1 in [e 2 /πℎ] units. As a result a model of the spin gun which transforms the spin-unpolarized electron beam into a completely polarized one is suggested

  3. Classical and quantum transport through entropic barriers modeled by hardwall hyperboloidal constrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, R.; Waalkens, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the quantum transport through entropic barriers induced by hardwall constrictions of hyperboloidal shape in two and three spatial dimensions. Using the separability of the Schroedinger equation and the classical equations of motion for these geometries, we study in detail the quantum transmission probabilities and the associated quantum resonances, and relate them to the classical phase structures which govern the transport through the constrictions. These classical phase structures are compared to the analogous structures which, as has been shown only recently, govern reaction type dynamics in smooth systems. Although the systems studied in this paper are special due their separability they can be taken as a guide to study entropic barriers resulting from constriction geometries that lead to non-separable dynamics.

  4. Locating inefficient links in a large-scale transportation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Liu, Like; Xu, Zhongzhi; Jie, Yang; Wei, Dong; Wang, Pu

    2015-02-01

    Based on data from geographical information system (GIS) and daily commuting origin destination (OD) matrices, we estimated the distribution of traffic flow in the San Francisco road network and studied Braess's paradox in a large-scale transportation network with realistic travel demand. We measured the variation of total travel time Δ T when a road segment is closed, and found that | Δ T | follows a power-law distribution if Δ T 0. This implies that most roads have a negligible effect on the efficiency of the road network, while the failure of a few crucial links would result in severe travel delays, and closure of a few inefficient links would counter-intuitively reduce travel costs considerably. Generating three theoretical networks, we discovered that the heterogeneously distributed travel demand may be the origin of the observed power-law distributions of | Δ T | . Finally, a genetic algorithm was used to pinpoint inefficient link clusters in the road network. We found that closing specific road clusters would further improve the transportation efficiency.

  5. Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shenshen [Department of Chemical Engineering and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wolynes, Peter G. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.

  6. Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ming-Xun; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu; Wang, Guang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports

  7. Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ming-Xun [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Rui-Qiang, E-mail: rqwanggz@163.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Guang-Hui [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-06-13

    Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports.

  8. Inelastic Quantum Transport in Superlattices: Success and Failure of the Boltzmann Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Rott, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    the whole held range from linear response to negative differential conductivity. The quantum results are compared with the respective results obtained from a Monte Carlo solution of the Boltzmann equation. Our analysis thus sets the limits of validity for the semiclassical theory in a nonlinear transport...

  9. Ab initio calculation of transport properties between PbSe quantum dots facets with iodide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Patterson, R.; Chen, W.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, J.; Huang, S.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.

    2018-01-01

    The transport properties between Lead Selenide (PbSe) quantum dots decorated with iodide ligands has been studied using density functional theory (DFT). Quantum conductance at each selected energy levels has been calculated along with total density of states and projected density of states. The DFT calculation is carried on using a grid-based planar augmented wave (GPAW) code incorporated with the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) mode and Perdew Burke Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional. Three iodide ligand attached low index facets including (001), (011), (111) are investigated in this work. P-orbital of iodide ligand majorly contributes to density of state (DOS) at near top valence band resulting a significant quantum conductance, whereas DOS of Pb p-orbital shows minor influence. Various values of quantum conductance observed along different planes are possibly reasoned from a combined effect electrical field over topmost surface and total distance between adjacent facets. Ligands attached to (001) and (011) planes possess similar bond length whereas it is significantly shortened in (111) plane, whereas transport between (011) has an overall low value due to newly formed electric field. On the other hand, (111) plane with a net surface dipole perpendicular to surface layers leading to stronger electron coupling suggests an apparent increase of transport probability. Apart from previously mentioned, the maximum transport energy levels located several eVs (1 2 eVs) from the edge of valence band top.

  10. Introduction to quantum chromo transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.; Elze, H.Th.; Iwazaki, A.; Vasak, D.

    1986-08-01

    Upcoming heavy ion experiments at the AGS and SPS are aimed at producing and diagnosing a primordial form of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In these lectures some recent developments on formulating a quantum transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas are introduced. 46 refs

  11. Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Kaare P.; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sannarnes, Jan Gaute

    2004-11-01

    This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why it is possibly optimal with a mark-up on marginal transportation costs. First, there is a premium on public revenue if domestic taxation is distorting. Second, with incomplete national taxation of rents from the gas sector, the transportation tariffs can serve as a second best way of appropriating rents accruing to foreigners. In a situation where the network is run as a separate entity subject to a rate of return regulation, it will be optimal to discriminate the tariffs between shippers for the usual Ramseyean reasons. (Author)

  12. Understanding the tariff. Access to the public power transportation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Since the European directive of December 19, 1996 about the common rules of the European power market, the eligible companies can chose their power supplier anywhere in Europe. The manager of the French power transportation network (RTE) supplies a network access to these companies according to a tariff fixed by the decree no. 2002-1014 from July 19, 2002. The aim of this document is to explain this tariff: tariffing principles ('mail-stamp' principle, voltage domain, subscribed output power tariffs, input power tariffs), tariffing elements (access to the grid, elements of output tariffs (subscribed power, overload, emergency tariffs, modifications etc..)), invoicing modalities, output tariffs, definitions. (J.S.)

  13. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce...

  14. Modeling and Analysis of Modal Switching in Networked Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hante, Falk M.; Leugering, Guenter; Seidman, Thomas I.

    2009-01-01

    We consider networked transport systems defined on directed graphs: the dynamics on the edges correspond to solutions of transport equations with space dimension one. In addition to the graph setting, a major consideration is the introduction and propagation of discontinuities in the solutions when the system may discontinuously switch modes, naturally or as a hybrid control. This kind of switching has been extensively studied for ordinary differential equations, but not much so far for systems governed by partial differential equations. In particular, we give well-posedness results for switching as a control, both in finite horizon open loop operation and as feedback based on sensor measurements in the system

  15. SNMS: an intelligent transportation system network architecture based on WSN and P2P network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; LIU Yuan-an; TANG Bi-hua

    2007-01-01

    With the development of city road networks, the question of how to obtain information about the roads is becoming more and more important. In this article, sensor network with mobile station (SNMS), a novel two-tiered intelligent transportation system (ITS) network architecture based on wireless sensor network (WSN) and peer-to-peer (P2P) network, is proposed to provide significant traffic information about the road and thereby, assist travelers to take optimum decisions when they are driving. A detailed explanation with regard to the strategy of each level as well as the design of two main components in the network, sensor unit (SU) and mobile station (MS), is presented. Finally, a representative scenario is described to display the operation of the system.

  16. Electron transport in quantum wires: possible current instability mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablikov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electrons nonlinear and dynamic transition in quantum wires connecting the electron reservoirs, are studies with an account of the Coulomb interaction distribution of electron density between the reservoirs and the wire. It is established that there exist two processes, leading to electrical instability in such structure. One of them is expressed in form of multistability of the charge accumulated in the wire, and negative differential conductivity. The other one is connected with origination of negative dynamic conductivity in the narrow frequency range near the resonance frequency of the charge waves on the wire length [ru

  17. Quantum Networking and Sensing using a Diamond Nanophotonic Circuit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum mechanics offers new ways to compute, communicate, and measure that are inherently more powerful than classical physics would allow. Of particular interest...

  18. Modeling flow and transport in fracture networks using graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J. D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2018-03-01

    Fractures form the main pathways for flow in the subsurface within low-permeability rock. For this reason, accurately predicting flow and transport in fractured systems is vital for improving the performance of subsurface applications. Fracture sizes in these systems can range from millimeters to kilometers. Although modeling flow and transport using the discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is known to be more accurate due to incorporation of the detailed fracture network structure over continuum-based methods, capturing the flow and transport in such a wide range of scales is still computationally intractable. Furthermore, if one has to quantify uncertainty, hundreds of realizations of these DFN models have to be run. To reduce the computational burden, we solve flow and transport on a graph representation of a DFN. We study the accuracy of the graph approach by comparing breakthrough times and tracer particle statistical data between the graph-based and the high-fidelity DFN approaches, for fracture networks with varying number of fractures and degree of heterogeneity. Due to our recent developments in capabilities to perform DFN high-fidelity simulations on fracture networks with large number of fractures, we are in a unique position to perform such a comparison. We show that the graph approach shows a consistent bias with up to an order of magnitude slower breakthrough when compared to the DFN approach. We show that this is due to graph algorithm's underprediction of the pressure gradients across intersections on a given fracture, leading to slower tracer particle speeds between intersections and longer travel times. We present a bias correction methodology to the graph algorithm that reduces the discrepancy between the DFN and graph predictions. We show that with this bias correction, the graph algorithm predictions significantly improve and the results are very accurate. The good accuracy and the low computational cost, with O (104) times lower times than

  19. Design and management of networks with fixed transportation costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Reusable packages are logistic items used for the shipments of goods from a producer to its customers and which, once the goods have been consumed by the customers, are to be returned to the producer. This doctoral thesis addresses the strategic design and the operational management of large independent reverse networks for their return flows when fixed transportation costs apply. At the strategic level, we identify the economic logic by which the allocation of the customers should be made...

  20. Quantum breathers in small networks: dynamics, tunneling, correlations, and application to Josephson cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Rengifo, Ricardo Alberto

    2008-02-15

    We address the excitation of quantum breathers in small nonlinear networks of two and three degrees of freedom, in order to study their properties. The invariance under permutation of two sites of these networks substitutes the translation invariance that is present in nonlinear lattices, where (classical) discrete breathers are time periodic space localized solutions of the underlying classical equations of motion. We do a systematic analysis of the spectrum and eigenstates of such small systems, characterizing quantum breather states by their tunneling rate (energy splitting), site correlations, fluctuations of the number of quanta, and entanglement. We observe how these properties are reflected in the time evolution of initially localized excitations. Quantum breathers manifest as pairs of nearly degenerate eigenstates that show strong site correlation of quanta, and are characterized by a strong excitation of quanta on one site of the network which perform slow coherent tunneling motion from one site to another. They enhance the fluctuations of quanta, and are the least entangled states among the group of eigenstates in the same range of the energy spectrum. We use our analysis methods to consider the excitation of quantum breathers in a cell of two coupled Josephson junctions, and study their properties as compared with those in the previous cases. We describe how quantum breathers could be experimentally observed by employing the already developed techniques for quantum information processing with Josephson junctions. (orig.)

  1. Quantum breathers in small networks: dynamics, tunneling, correlations, and application to Josephson cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Rengifo, Ricardo Alberto

    2008-02-01

    We address the excitation of quantum breathers in small nonlinear networks of two and three degrees of freedom, in order to study their properties. The invariance under permutation of two sites of these networks substitutes the translation invariance that is present in nonlinear lattices, where (classical) discrete breathers are time periodic space localized solutions of the underlying classical equations of motion. We do a systematic analysis of the spectrum and eigenstates of such small systems, characterizing quantum breather states by their tunneling rate (energy splitting), site correlations, fluctuations of the number of quanta, and entanglement. We observe how these properties are reflected in the time evolution of initially localized excitations. Quantum breathers manifest as pairs of nearly degenerate eigenstates that show strong site correlation of quanta, and are characterized by a strong excitation of quanta on one site of the network which perform slow coherent tunneling motion from one site to another. They enhance the fluctuations of quanta, and are the least entangled states among the group of eigenstates in the same range of the energy spectrum. We use our analysis methods to consider the excitation of quantum breathers in a cell of two coupled Josephson junctions, and study their properties as compared with those in the previous cases. We describe how quantum breathers could be experimentally observed by employing the already developed techniques for quantum information processing with Josephson junctions. (orig.)

  2. Improved Quantum Artificial Fish Algorithm Application to Distributed Network Considering Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingsong Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (IQAFSA for solving distributed network programming considering distributed generation is proposed in this work. The IQAFSA based on quantum computing which has exponential acceleration for heuristic algorithm uses quantum bits to code artificial fish and quantum revolving gate, preying behavior, and following behavior and variation of quantum artificial fish to update the artificial fish for searching for optimal value. Then, we apply the proposed new algorithm, the quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (QAFSA, the basic artificial fish swarm algorithm (BAFSA, and the global edition artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA to the simulation experiments for some typical test functions, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can escape from the local extremum effectively and has higher convergence speed and better accuracy. Finally, applying IQAFSA to distributed network problems and the simulation results for 33-bus radial distribution network system show that IQAFSA can get the minimum power loss after comparing with BAFSA, GAFSA, and QAFSA.

  3. Quantum Transmission Conditions for Diffusive Transport in Graphene with Steep Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletti, Luigi; Negulescu, Claudia

    2018-05-01

    We present a formal derivation of a drift-diffusion model for stationary electron transport in graphene, in presence of sharp potential profiles, such as barriers and steps. Assuming the electric potential to have steep variations within a strip of vanishing width on a macroscopic scale, such strip is viewed as a quantum interface that couples the classical regions at its left and right sides. In the two classical regions, where the potential is assumed to be smooth, electron and hole transport is described in terms of semiclassical kinetic equations. The diffusive limit of the kinetic model is derived by means of a Hilbert expansion and a boundary layer analysis, and consists of drift-diffusion equations in the classical regions, coupled by quantum diffusive transmission conditions through the interface. The boundary layer analysis leads to the discussion of a four-fold Milne (half-space, half-range) transport problem.

  4. Carrier transport dynamics in Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma; Maloney, Francis S.; Sapkota, Keshab; Wang, Wenyong

    2017-10-01

    In this work quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were fabricated with CdSe and Mn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using the SILAR method. QDSSCs based on Mn-doped CdSe QDs exhibited improved incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Carrier transport dynamics in the QDSSCs were studied using the intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy technique, from which transport and recombination time constants could be derived. Compared to CdSe QDSSCs, Mn-CdSe QDSSCs exhibited shorter transport time constant, longer recombination time constant, longer diffusion length, and higher charge collection efficiency. These observations suggested that Mn doping in CdSe QDs could benefit the performance of solar cells based on such nanostructures.

  5. Temperature dependent transport of two dimensional electrons in the integral quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the temperature dependent electronic transport properties of a two dimensional electron gas subject to background potential fluctuations and a perpendicular magnetic field. The author carried out an extensive temperature dependent study of the transport coefficients, in the region of an integral quantum plateau, in an In/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As/InP heterostructure for 4.2K 10 cm -2 meV -1 ) even at the middle between two Landau levels, which is unexpected from model calculations based on short ranged randomness. In addition, the different T dependent behavior of rho/sub xx/ between the states in the tails and those near the center of a Landau level, indicates the existence of different electron states in a Landau level. Additionally, the author reports T-dependent transport measurements in the transition region between two quantum plateaus in several different materials

  6. Growth and quantum transport properties of vertical Bi2Se3 nanoplate films on Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M Z; Wang, Z H; Yang, L; Pan, D S; Li, Da; Gao, Xuan; Zhang, Zhi-Dong

    2018-05-14

    Controlling the growth direction (planar vs. vertical) and surface-to-bulk ratio can lead to lots of unique properties for two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. We report a simple method to fabricate continuous films of vertical Bi2Se3 nanoplates on Si substrate and investigate the quantum transport properties of such films. In contrast to (001) oriented planar Bi2Se3 nanoplate film, vertical Bi2Se3 nanoplate films are enclosed by (015) facets, which possess high surface-to-bulk ratio that can enhance the quantum transport property of topological surface states. And by controlling the compactness of vertical Bi2Se3 nanoplates, we realized an effective tuning of the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect from topological surface states in Bi2Se3 films. Our work paves a way for exploring the unique transport properties of this unconventional structure topological insulator film. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Pattern-recalling processes in quantum Hopfield networks far from saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    As a mathematical model of associative memories, the Hopfield model was now well-established and a lot of studies to reveal the pattern-recalling process have been done from various different approaches. As well-known, a single neuron is itself an uncertain, noisy unit with a finite unnegligible error in the input-output relation. To model the situation artificially, a kind of 'heat bath' that surrounds neurons is introduced. The heat bath, which is a source of noise, is specified by the 'temperature'. Several studies concerning the pattern-recalling processes of the Hopfield model governed by the Glauber-dynamics at finite temperature were already reported. However, we might extend the 'thermal noise' to the quantum-mechanical variant. In this paper, in terms of the stochastic process of quantum-mechanical Markov chain Monte Carlo method (the quantum MCMC), we analytically derive macroscopically deterministic equations of order parameters such as 'overlap' in a quantum-mechanical variant of the Hopfield neural networks (let us call quantum Hopfield model or quantum Hopfield networks). For the case in which non-extensive number p of patterns are embedded via asymmetric Hebbian connections, namely, p/N → 0 for the number of neuron N → ∞ ('far from saturation'), we evaluate the recalling processes for one of the built-in patterns under the influence of quantum-mechanical noise.

  8. The transportation management division institutional program: Networking and problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, K.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has several programs related to transportation. While these programs may have differing missions and legislative authority, the required activities are frequently similar. To ensure a DOE-wide perspective in developing transportation policies and procedures, a DOE Transportation Institutional Task Force (Task Force) has been formed, which is the primary focus of this paper. The Task Force, composed of representatives from each of the major DOE transportation programs, meets periodically to exchange experiences and insights on institutional issues related to Departmental shipping. The primary purpose of the group is to identify opportunities for productive interactions with the transportation community, including interested and affected members of the public. This paper will also focus sharply on the networking of DOE with the State, Tribal, and local officials in fostering better understanding and in solving problems. An example of such activity is the DOE's cooperative agreement with the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium. A major effort is to encourage cooperative action in identifying, addressing, and resolving issues that could impede the transportation of radioactive materials

  9. Research on Community Structure in Bus Transport Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuhua; Wang Bo; Sun Youxian

    2009-01-01

    We abstract the bus transport networks (BTNs) to two kinds of complex networks with space L and space P methods respectively. Using improved community detecting algorithm (PKM agglomerative algorithm), we analyze the community property of two kinds of BTNs graphs. The results show that the BTNs graph described with space L method have obvious community property, but the other kind of BTNs graph described with space P method have not. The reason is that the BTNs graph described with space P method have the intense overlapping community property and general community division algorithms can not identify this kind of community structure. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel community structure called N-depth community and present a corresponding community detecting algorithm, which can detect overlapping community. Applying the novel community structure and detecting algorithm to a BTN evolution model described with space P, whose network property agrees well with real BTNs', we get obvious community property. (general)

  10. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-09-08

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes.

  11. Fluid and solute transport in a network of channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1991-09-01

    A three-dimensional channel network model is presented. The fluid flow and solute transport are assumed to take place through a network of connected channels. The channels are generated assuming that the conductances are lognormally distributed. The flow is calculated resolving the pressure distribution and the sole transport is calculated by using a particle tracking technique. The model includes diffusion into the rock matrix and sorption within the matrix in addition to advection along the channel network. Different approaches are used to describe the channel volume and its relation to the conductivity. To quantify the diffusion into the rock matrix the size of the flow wetted surface (contact surface between the channel and the rock) is needed in addition to the diffusion properties and the sorption capacity of the rock. Two different geometries were simulated: regional parallel flow and convergent flow toward a tunnel. In the generation of the channel network, it is found that its connectivity is reduced when the standard deviation in conductances is increased. For large standard deviations, the water conducting channels are found to be few. Standard deviations for the distribution of the effluent channel flowrates were calculated. Comparisons were made with experimental data from drifts and tunnels as well as boreholes as a means to validate the model. (au) (31 refs.)

  12. Steerable sound transport in a 3D acoustic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bai-Zhan; Jiao, Jun-Rui; Dai, Hong-Qing; Yin, Sheng-Wen; Zheng, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ning; Yu, De-Jie

    2017-10-01

    Quasi-lossless and asymmetric sound transports, which are exceedingly desirable in various modern physical systems, are almost always based on nonlinear or angular momentum biasing effects with extremely high power levels and complex modulation schemes. A practical route for the steerable sound transport along any arbitrary acoustic pathway, especially in a three-dimensional (3D) acoustic network, can revolutionize the sound power propagation and the sound communication. Here, we design an acoustic device containing a regular-tetrahedral cavity with four cylindrical waveguides. A smaller regular-tetrahedral solid in this cavity is eccentrically emplaced to break spatial symmetry of the acoustic device. The numerical and experimental results show that the sound power flow can unimpededly transport between two waveguides away from the eccentric solid within a wide frequency range. Based on the quasi-lossless and asymmetric transport characteristic of the single acoustic device, we construct a 3D acoustic network, in which the sound power flow can flexibly propagate along arbitrary sound pathways defined by our acoustic devices with eccentrically emplaced regular-tetrahedral solids.

  13. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  14. GQ corrections in the circuit theory of quantum transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campagnano, G.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a finite-element technique that allows one to evaluate correction of the order of GQ to various transport characteristics of arbitrary nanostructures. Common examples of such corrections are the weak-localization effect on conductance and universal conductance fluctuations. Our approach,

  15. The multilayer temporal network of public transport in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability of information concerning public transport coming from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy access and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset.

  16. Nonequilibrium Transport through a Spinful Quantum Dot with Superconducting Leads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Brian Møller; Flensberg, Karsten; Koerting, Verena

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlinear cotunneling current through a spinful quantum dot contacted by two superconducting leads. Applying a general nonequilibrium Green function formalism to an effective Kondo model, we study the rich variation in the IV characteristics with varying asymmetry in the tunnel...... coupling to source and drain electrodes. The current is found to be carried, respectively, by multiple Andreev reflections in the symmetric limit, and by spin-induced Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states in the strongly asymmetric limit. The interplay between these two mechanisms leads to qualitatively different...... IV characteristics in the crossover regime of intermediate symmetry, consistent with recent experimental observations of negative differential conductance and repositioned conductance peaks in subgap cotunneling spectroscopy....

  17. Coherent exciton transport in dendrimers and continuous-time quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülken, Oliver; Bierbaum, Veronika; Blumen, Alexander

    2006-03-01

    We model coherent exciton transport in dendrimers by continuous-time quantum walks. For dendrimers up to the second generation the coherent transport shows perfect recurrences when the initial excitation starts at the central node. For larger dendrimers, the recurrence ceases to be perfect, a fact which resembles results for discrete quantum carpets. Moreover, depending on the initial excitation site, we find that the coherent transport to certain nodes of the dendrimer has a very low probability. When the initial excitation starts from the central node, the problem can be mapped onto a line which simplifies the computational effort. Furthermore, the long time average of the quantum mechanical transition probabilities between pairs of nodes shows characteristic patterns and allows us to classify the nodes into clusters with identical limiting probabilities. For the (space) average of the quantum mechanical probability to be still or to be again at the initial site, we obtain, based on the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, a simple lower bound which depends only on the eigenvalue spectrum of the Hamiltonian.

  18. Intrinsic errors in transporting a single-spin qubit through a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Barnes, Edwin; Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-07-01

    Coherent spatial transport or shuttling of a single electron spin through semiconductor nanostructures is an important ingredient in many spintronic and quantum computing applications. In this work we analyze the possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to leakage in transporting a single-spin qubit through a semiconductor double quantum dot. In particular, we consider three possible sources of leakage errors associated with such transport: finite ramping times, spin-dependent tunneling rates between quantum dots induced by finite spin-orbit couplings, and the presence of multiple valley states. In each case we present quantitative estimates of the leakage errors, and discuss how they can be minimized. The emphasis of this work is on how to deal with the errors intrinsic to the ideal semiconductor structure, such as leakage due to spin-orbit couplings, rather than on errors due to defects or noise sources. In particular, we show that in order to minimize leakage errors induced by spin-dependent tunnelings, it is necessary to apply pulses to perform certain carefully designed spin rotations. We further develop a formalism that allows one to systematically derive constraints on the pulse shapes and present a few examples to highlight the advantage of such an approach.

  19. Carrier transfer and magneto-transport in single modulation-doped V-grooved quantum wire modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.H.; Chen Zhanghai; Wang, F.Z.; Shen, S.C.; Tan, H.H.; Fu, L.; Fraser, M.; Jagadish, C.

    2006-01-01

    A single Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs V-grooved quantum wire modified by selective ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing was investigated by using spatially resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and magneto-resistance measurements. The results of spatially resolved photoluminescence indicate that the ion-implantation-induced quantum well intermixing significantly raises the electronic sub-band energies in the side quantum wells (SQWs) and vertical quantum wells, and a more efficient accumulation of electrons in the quantum wires is achieved. Processes of real space carrier transfer from the SQW to the quantum wire was experimentally observed, and showed the blocking effect of carrier transfer due to the existence of the necking quantum well region. Furthermore, magneto-transport investigation on the ion-implanted quantum wire samples shows the quasi-one-dimensional intrinsic motion of electrons, which is important for the design and the optimization of one-dimensional electronic devices

  20. Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian

    2015-07-01

    For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.

  1. Electronic transport through a quantum dot chain with strong dot-lead coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yisong; Gong, Weijiang; Gao, Wenzhu; Lue, Tianquan

    2007-01-01

    By means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique, the electronic transport through an N-quantum-dot chain is theoretically studied. By calculating the linear conductance spectrum and the local density of states in quantum dots, we find the resonant peaks in the spectra coincides with the eigen-energies of the N-quantum-dot chain when the dot-lead coupling is relatively weak. With the increase of the dot-lead coupling, such a correspondence becomes inaccurate. When the dot-lead coupling exceeds twice the interdot coupling, such a mapping collapses completely. The linear conductance turn to reflect the eigen-energies of the (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain instead. The two peripheral quantum dots do not manifest themselves in the linear conductance spectrum. More interestingly, with the further increase of the dot-lead coupling, the system behaves just like an (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain in weak dot-lead coupling limit, since the resonant peaks becomes narrower with the increase of dot-lead coupling

  2. Finite speed heat transport in a quantum spin chain after quenched local cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Pascal; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2017-04-01

    We study the dynamics of an initially thermalized spin chain in the quantum XY-model, after sudden coupling to a heat bath of lower temperature at one end of the chain. In the semi-classical limit we see an exponential decay of the system-bath heatflux by exact solution of the reduced dynamics. In the full quantum description however, we numerically find the heatflux to reach intermediate plateaus where it is approximately constant—a phenomenon that we attribute to the finite speed of heat transport via spin waves.

  3. Current correlations for the transport of interacting electrons through parallel quantum dots in a photon cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Sitek, Anna; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2018-06-01

    We calculate the current correlations for the steady-state electron transport through multi-level parallel quantum dots embedded in a short quantum wire, that is placed in a non-perfect photon cavity. We account for the electron-electron Coulomb interaction, and the para- and diamagnetic electron-photon interactions with a stepwise scheme of configuration interactions and truncation of the many-body Fock spaces. In the spectral density of the temporal current-current correlations we identify all the transitions, radiative and non-radiative, active in the system in order to maintain the steady state. We observe strong signs of two types of Rabi oscillations.

  4. Carrier transport in THz quantum cascade lasers: Are Green's functions necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, A; Jirauschek, C [Emmy Noether Research Group ' Modeling of Quantum Cascade Devices' , TU Muenchen, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); Kubis, T [Walter Schottky Institute, TU Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lugli, P, E-mail: alparmat@mytum.d [Institute of Nanoelectronics, TU Muenchen, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    We have applied two different simulation models for the stationary carrier transport and optical gain analysis in resonant phonon depopulation THz Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), based on the semiclassical ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) and fully quantum mechanical non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) method, respectively. We find in the incoherent regime near and above the threshold current a qualitative and quantitative agreement of both methods. Therefore, we show that THz-QCLs can be successfully optimized utilizing the numerically efficient EMC method.

  5. Giant magnetoresistance and quantum transport in magnetic hybrid nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanvito, S.

    2000-01-01

    Technological advances in device micro- and nano-fabrication over the past decade has enabled a variety of novel heterojunction device structures to be made. Among these, magnetic multilayers, superconductor/normal metal junctions and carbon nanotubes exhibit a rich variety of features, with the potential for future generations of electronic devices with improved sensitivity and higher packing density. The modeling of such structures in a flexible and accurate way, with a predictive capability is a formidable theoretical challenge. In this thesis I will present a very general numerical technique to compute transport properties of heterogeneous systems, which can be used together with accurate spd tight-binding Hamiltonians or simpler models. I will then apply this technique to several transport problems in the mesoscopic regime. Firstly I will review the material dependence of CPP GMR in perfect crystalline magnetic multilayers, analyze their conductance oscillations and discuss some preliminary results of magnetic tunneling junctions. In the contest of the conductance oscillations I will introduce a simple Kroenig-Penney model which gives a full understanding of the relevant periods involved in the oscillations. I will then present a simple model, which can be used to study disordered magnetic systems and the cross-over from ballistic to diffusive transport. This model explains recent experiments on CPP GMR, which cannot be understood within the usual Boltzmann transport framework. Then I will present results for superconducting/ normal metal and for superconducting/multilayer junctions. In the case of multilayers I will show that in both the ballistic and diffusive regimes the GMR is expected to vanish if a superconducting contact is added and go on to show why this is not the case in practice. Finally I will present features of ballistic transport in multiwall carbon nanotubes and show how the inter-tube interaction can, not only block some of the scattering

  6. Quantum transport in boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Kindl, Dobroslav; Nesládek, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 7-8 (2008), s. 161-172 ISSN 0948-1907 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0525; GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond film * ballistic transport * superconductivity * Josephson’s effects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2008

  7. Quantum Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...

  8. Quantum transport in defective phosphorene nanoribbons: Effects of atomic vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    Defects are almost inevitably present in realistic materials and defective materials are expected to exhibit very different properties than their nondefective (perfect) counterparts. Here, using a combination of the tight-binding approach and the scattering matrix formalism, we investigate the electronic transport properties of defective phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) containing atomic vacancies. We find that for both armchair PNRs (APNRs) and zigzag PNRs (ZPNRs), single vacancies can create quasilocalized states, which can affect their conductance. With increasing vacancy concentration, three different transport regimes are identified: ballistic, diffusive, and Anderson localized ones. In particular, ZPNRs that are known to be metallic due to the presence of edge states become semiconducting: edge conductance vanishes and transport gap appears due to Anderson localization. Moreover, we find that for a fixed vacancy concentration, both APNRs and ZPNRs of narrower width and/or longer length are more sensitive to vacancy disorder than their wider and/or shorter counterparts, and that for the same ribbon length and width, ZPNRs are more sensitive to vacancy disorder than APNRs.

  9. Prior entanglement between senders enables perfect quantum network coding with modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    We find a protocol transmitting two quantum states crossly in the butterfly network only with prior entanglement between two senders. This protocol requires only one qubit transmission or two classical bits (cbits) transmission in each channel in the butterfly network. It is also proved that it is impossible without prior entanglement. More precisely, an upper bound of average fidelity is given in the butterfly network when prior entanglement is not allowed. The presented result concerns only the butterfly network, but our techniques can be applied to a more general graph

  10. Transport through semiconductor nanowire quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaus, Stefan; Koerting, Verena; Woelfle, Peter [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Recent experiments on quantum dots made of semiconductor nanowires in the Coulomb blockade regime have shown the influence of several approximately equidistant levels on the conductance. We study a model with three levels occupied by three electrons. At finite bias voltage charge energy conserving excitations into several higher lying states occur leading to features in the differential conductance. We restrict our study to the six lowest lying states by performing a Schrieffer-Wolff type projection onto this subspace. The emerging effective Kondo Hamiltonian is treated in non-equilibrium perturbation theory in the coupling to the leads. For convenience we use a pseudoparticle representation and an exact projection method. The voltage-dependence of the occupation numbers is discussed. The density matrix on the dot turns out to be off-diagonal in the dot eigenstate Hilbert space in certain parameter regimes. The dependence of the differential conductance on magnetic field and temperature is calculated in lowest order in the dot-lead coupling and the results are compared with experiment.

  11. Connection Management and Recovery Strategies under Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2014-01-01

    The current trend in deploying automatic control plane solutions for increased flexibility in the optical transport layer leads to numerous advantages for both the operators and the customers, but also pose challenges related to the stability of the network and its ability to operate in a robust...... manner under attacks. This work proposes four policies for failure handling in a connection-oriented optical transport network, under Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching control plane, and evaluates their performance under multiple correlated large-scale failures. We employ the Susceptible...... of their transport infrastructures. Applying proactive methods for avoiding areas where epidemic failures spread results in 50% less connections requiring recovery, which translates in improved quality of service to customers....

  12. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cope

    Full Text Available Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong, and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights, were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy.

  13. Patterning of leaf vein networks by convergent auxin transport pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Megan G; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

  14. Patterning of leaf vein networks by convergent auxin transport pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan G Sawchuk

    Full Text Available The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1 intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

  15. Proposition of the CRE for the tariffs concerning the use of natural gas transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The national transportation network involves: the main network constituted by the transportation works binding the access and exit points of the national territory and the underground storages; the regional network for the regional distribution upstream of the main network. The chosen tariff model is a in-out type. Each tariff includes the access terms on the main network, the exit terms of the main network, sometimes the binding terms between the equilibrium zones, the transportation terms on the regional network and the delivery terms. (A.L.B.)

  16. Transport and Quantum Coherence in Graphene Rings: Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations, Klein Tunneling, and Particle Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filusch, Alexander; Wurl, Christian; Pieper, Andreas; Fehske, Holger

    2018-06-01

    Simulating quantum transport through mesoscopic, ring-shaped graphene structures, we address various quantum coherence and interference phenomena. First, a perpendicular magnetic field, penetrating the graphene ring, gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the conductance as a function of the magnetic flux, on top of the universal conductance fluctuations. At very high fluxes, the interference gets suppressed and quantum Hall edge channels develop. Second, applying an electrostatic potential to one of the ring arms, nn'n- or npn-junctions can be realized with particle transmission due to normal tunneling or Klein tunneling. In the latter case, the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations weaken for smooth barriers. Third, if potential disorder comes in to play, both Aharonov-Bohm and Klein tunneling effects rate down, up to the point where particle localization sets in.

  17. Coulomb effects on the transport properties of quantum dots in strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldoveanu, V.; Aldea, A.; Manolescu, A.; Nita, M.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate the transport properties of quantum dots placed in strong magnetic field using a quantum-mechanical approach based on the 2D tight-binding Hamiltonian with direct Coulomb interaction and the Landauer-Buettiker (LB) formalism. The electronic transmittance and the Hall resistance show Coulomb oscillations and also prove multiple addition processes. We identify this feature as the 'bunching' of electrons observed in recent experiments and give an elementary explanation in terms of spectral characteristics of the dot. The spatial distribution of the added electrons may distinguish between edge and bulk states and it has specific features for bunched electrons. The dependence of the charging energy on the number of electrons is discussed for strong magnetic field. The crossover from the tunneling to quantum Hall regime is analyzed in terms of dot-lead coupling. (author)

  18. Optical control of spin-dependent thermal transport in a quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf

    2018-05-01

    We report on calculation of spin-dependent thermal transport through a quantum ring with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The quantum ring is connected to two electron reservoirs with different temperatures. Tuning the Rashba coupling constant, degenerate energy states are formed leading to a suppression of the heat and thermoelectric currents. In addition, the quantum ring is coupled to a photon cavity with a single photon mode and linearly polarized photon field. In a resonance regime, when the photon energy is approximately equal to the energy spacing between two lowest degenerate states of the ring, the polarized photon field can significantly control the heat and thermoelectric currents in the system. The roles of the number of photon initially in the cavity, and electron-photon coupling strength on spin-dependent heat and thermoelectric currents are presented.

  19. Conserving GW scheme for nonequilibrium quantum transport in molecular contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Rubio, Angel

    2008-01-01

    We give a detailed presentation of our recent scheme to include correlation effects in molecular transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. The scheme is general and can be used with any quasiparticle self-energy, but for practical reasons, we mainly specialize to the so......-called GW self-energy, widely used to describe the quasiparticle band structures and spectroscopic properties of extended and low-dimensional systems. We restrict the GW self-energy to a finite, central region containing the molecule, and we describe the leads by density functional theory (DFT). A minimal...

  20. Quantum oscillations and the electronic transport properties in multichain nanorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racolta, D.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a system of multichain nanorings in static electric and magnetic field. The magnetic field induces characteristic phase changes. These phase shifts produce interference phenomena in the case of nanosystems for which the coherence length is larger than the sample dimension. We obtain energy solutions that are dependent on the number of sites N α characterizing a chain, of phase on the phase φ α and on the applied voltage. We found rich oscillations structures exhibited by the magnetic flux and we established the transmission probability. This proceeds by applying Landauer conductance formulae which opens the way to study electronic transport properties. (authors)

  1. Quantum field kinetics of QCD: Quark-gluon transport theory for light-cone-dominated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, K.

    1996-01-01

    A quantum-kinetic formalism is developed to study the dynamical interplay of quantum and statistical-kinetic properties of nonequilibrium multiparton systems produced in high-energy QCD processes. The approach provides the means to follow the quantum dynamics in both space-time and energy-momentum, starting from an arbitrary initial configuration of high-momentum quarks and gluons. Using a generalized functional integral representation and adopting the open-quote open-quote closed-time-path close-quote close-quote Green function techniques, a self-consistent set of equations of motions is obtained: a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a possible color background field, and Dyson-Schwinger equations for the two-point functions of the gluon and quark fields. By exploiting the open-quote open-quote two-scale nature close-quote close-quote of light-cone-dominated QCD processes, i.e., the separation between the quantum scale that specifies the range of short-distance quantum fluctuations, and the kinetic scale that characterizes the range of statistical binary interactions, the quantum field equations of motion are converted into a corresponding set of open-quote open-quote renormalization equations close-quote close-quote and open-quote open-quote transport equations.close-quote close-quote The former describe renormalization and dissipation effects through the evolution of the spectral density of individual, dressed partons, whereas the latter determine the statistical occurrence of scattering processes among these dressed partons. The renormalization equations and the transport equations are coupled, and, hence, must be solved self-consistently. This amounts to evolving the multiparton system, from a specified initial configuration, in time and full seven-dimensional phase space, constrained by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. Nonequilibrium Green's function method for quantum thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Sheng; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Huanan; Thingna, Juzar

    2014-12-01

    This review deals with the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method applied to the problems of energy transport due to atomic vibrations (phonons), primarily for small junction systems. We present a pedagogical introduction to the subject, deriving some of the well-known results such as the Laudauer-like formula for heat current in ballistic systems. The main aim of the review is to build the machinery of the method so that it can be applied to other situations, which are not directly treated here. In addition to the above, we consider a number of applications of NEGF, not in routine model system calculations, but in a few new aspects showing the power and usefulness of the formalism. In particular, we discuss the problems of multiple leads, coupled left-right-lead system, and system without a center. We also apply the method to the problem of full counting statistics. In the case of nonlinear systems, we make general comments on the thermal expansion effect, phonon relaxation time, and a certain class of mean-field approximations. Lastly, we examine the relationship between NEGF, reduced density matrix, and master equation approaches to thermal transport.

  3. Multi-agent model predictive control for transportation networks : Serial versus parallel schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the control of large-scale transportation networks, like road traffic networks, power distribution networks, water distribution networks, etc. Control of these networks is often not possible from a single point by a single intelligent control agent; instead control has to be performed

  4. Towards Device-Independent Information Processing on General Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciarán M.; Hoban, Matty J.

    2018-01-01

    The violation of certain Bell inequalities allows for device-independent information processing secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers. However, this only holds for the Bell network, in which two or more agents perform local measurements on a single shared source of entanglement. To overcome the practical constraints that entangled systems can only be transmitted over relatively short distances, large-scale multisource networks have been employed. Do there exist analogs of Bell inequalities for such networks, whose violation is a resource for device independence? In this Letter, the violation of recently derived polynomial Bell inequalities will be shown to allow for device independence on multisource networks, secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers.

  5. Generalized Bloch Theorem for Complex Periodic Potentials - A Powerful Application to Quantum Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Varga, Kalman; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2007-01-01

    Band-theoretic methods with periodically repeated supercells have been a powerful approach for ground-state electronic structure calculations, but have not so far been adapted for quantum transport problems with open boundary conditions. Here we introduce a generalized Bloch theorem for complex periodic potentials and use a transfer-matrix formulation to cast the transmission probability in a scattering problem with open boundary conditions in terms of the complex wave vectors of a periodic system with absorbing layers, allowing a band technique for quantum transport calculations. The accuracy and utility of the method is demonstrated by the model problems of the transmission of an electron over a square barrier and the scattering of a phonon in an inhomogeneous nanowire. Application to the resistance of a twin boundary in nanocrystalline copper yields excellent agreement with recent experimental data

  6. Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Jian; Liang, Hao; Liu, Wei-Yue; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Yuan; Wan, Xu; Cai, Wei-Qi; Ju, Lei; Chen, Luo-Kan; Wang, Liu-Jun; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Kai; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-12-20

    We have demonstrated a metropolitan all-pass quantum communication network in field fiber for four nodes. Any two nodes of them can be connected in the network to perform quantum key distribution (QKD). An optical switching module is presented that enables arbitrary 2-connectivity among output ports. Integrated QKD terminals are worked out, which can operate either as a transmitter, a receiver, or even both at the same time. Furthermore, an additional link in another city of 60 km fiber (up to 130 km) is seamless integrated into this network based on a trusted relay architecture. On all the links, we have implemented protocol of decoy state scheme. All of necessary electrical hardware, synchronization, feedback control, network software, execution of QKD protocols are made by tailored designing, which allow a completely automatical and stable running. Our system has been put into operation in Hefei in August 2009, and publicly demonstrated during an evaluation conference on quantum network organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2009. Real-time voice telephone with one-time pad encoding between any two of the five nodes (four all-pass nodes plus one additional node through relay) is successfully established in the network within 60 km.

  7. Development scheme of the public power transportation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Article 14 of the modified law from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric utility foresees that the development scheme of the public power transportation network is regularly submitted to the approval of the ministry of energy after advice from the energy regulation commission. The development scheme identifies the areas of 'power fragility' with respect to the existing or future constraints susceptible to occur at the short- or medium-term on the French power grid. This document comprises the text of the law 2000-108 from February 10, 2000, and the complete development scheme with its appendixes (regulatory and administrative context relative to network projects, constraints relative to each administrative region). (J.S.)

  8. Transport link scanner: simulating geographic transport network expansion through individual investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, C.; Koopmans, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a GIS-based model that simulates the geographic expansion of transport networks by several decision-makers with varying objectives. The model progressively adds extensions to a growing network by choosing the most attractive investments from a limited choice set. Attractiveness is defined as a function of variables in which revenue and broader societal benefits may play a role and can be based on empirically underpinned parameters that may differ according to private or public interests. The choice set is selected from an exhaustive set of links and presumably contains those investment options that best meet private operator's objectives by balancing the revenues of additional fare against construction costs. The investment options consist of geographically plausible routes with potential detours. These routes are generated using a fine-meshed regularly latticed network and shortest path finding methods. Additionally, two indicators of the geographic accuracy of the simulated networks are introduced. A historical case study is presented to demonstrate the model's first results. These results show that the modelled networks reproduce relevant results of the historically built network with reasonable accuracy.

  9. A new approach to shortest paths on networks based on the quantum bosonic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xin; Wang Hailong; Tang Shaoting; Ma Lili; Zhang Zhanli; Zheng Zhiming, E-mail: jiangxin@ss.buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Informatics and Behavioral Semantics, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 Beijing (China)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents quantum bosonic shortest path searching (QBSPS), a natural, practical and highly heuristic physical algorithm for reasoning about the recognition of network structure via quantum dynamics. QBSPS is based on an Anderson-like itinerant bosonic system in which a boson's Green function is used as a navigation pointer for one to accurately approach the terminals. QBSPS is demonstrated by rigorous mathematical and physical proofs and plenty of simulations, showing how it can be used as a greedy routing to seek the shortest path between different locations. In methodology, it is an interesting and new algorithm rooted in the quantum mechanism other than combinatorics. In practice, for the all-pairs shortest-path problem in a random scale-free network with N vertices, QBSPS runs in O({mu}(N) ln ln N) time. In application, we suggest that the corresponding experimental realizations are feasible by considering path searching in quantum optical communication networks; in this situation, the method performs a pure local search on networks without requiring the global structure that is necessary for current graph algorithms.

  10. Combining Topological Hardware and Topological Software: Color-Code Quantum Computing with Topological Superconductor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litinski, Daniel; Kesselring, Markus S.; Eisert, Jens; von Oppen, Felix

    2017-07-01

    We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall-superconductor hybrids.

  11. Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary Three-Particle State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Xue-Min; FANG Jian-Xing; ZHU Shi-Qun; XI Yong-Jun

    2005-01-01

    The scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state is proposed. By using single qubit gate and three two-qubit gates, efficient quantum logic networks for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state are constructed.

  12. Combining Topological Hardware and Topological Software: Color-Code Quantum Computing with Topological Superconductor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Litinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall–superconductor hybrids.

  13. Transport and Storage Economics of CCS Networks in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    A team from the Rotterdam Climate Initiative, CATO-2 (the Dutch national R and D programme on CCS) and the Clinton Climate Initiative, developed a financial model to assess the economics of alternative CO2 transport and storage options in the North Sea, based on common user infrastructure. The purpose of the financial model is to introduce a simple planning tool relating to the transport and storage components of an integrated CCS project using readily available, non-confidential data. A steering group of major emitters with advanced plans for CCS projects in the Netherlands and Belgium guided the project. Although the report focusses on potential projects in the Netherlands (Rotterdam and Eemshaven) and Belgium (Antwerp) in the short to medium term, the analysis and lessons could be useful to other regions considering CO2 network solutions.

  14. Information System for the Goods Transport Service Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal transport can reduce the load of the road infrastructure.Knowledge gives it the necessary competitiveness andhelps to control its costs. Fast reaction to changing conditions,opportunities and requirements gives remarkable advantage.Setting up integrated logistic chains using alternative transportmodes requires the trust and close interaction of a variety of actorsinvolved in managing the chain. Especially in the dynamicmobile environment, knowledge has so far not been effectivelyused. FREIGHTWISE tackles this complexity by developing aframework architecture anchored and validated in a range ofdemonstration cases involving commercial and public actors.This paper discusses the general FREIGHTWISE objectivesand its North-East Case, the Logistiikkainfo goods transportservice network information system to be implemented for theEstonian - Finnish transport chain.

  15. Full counting statistics of level renormalization in electron transport through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Junyan; Shen Yu; Cen Gang; He Xiaoling; Wang Changrong; Jiao Hujun

    2011-01-01

    We examine the full counting statistics of electron transport through double quantum dots coupled in series, with particular attention being paid to the unique features originating from level renormalization. It is clearly illustrated that the energy renormalization gives rise to a dynamic charge blockade mechanism, which eventually results in super-Poissonian noise. Coupling of the double dots to an external heat bath leads to dephasing and relaxation mechanisms, which are demonstrated to suppress the noise in a unique way.

  16. Circuit simulation model multi-quantum well laser diodes inducing transport and capture/escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuber-Okrog, K.

    1996-04-01

    This work describes the development of world's first circuit simulation model for multi-quantum well (MQW) semiconductor lasers comprising caier transport and capture/escape effects. This model can be seen as the application of a new semiconductor device simulator for quasineutral structures including MQW layers with an extension for simple single mode modeling of optical behavior. It is implemented in a circuit simulation program. The model is applied to Fabry-Perot laser diodes and compared to measured data. (author)

  17. Long and short time quantum dynamics: I. Between Green's functions and transport equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2005), s. 154-174 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0585; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green functions * quantum transport * density functional the ory Subject RIV: BE - The oretical Physics Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2005

  18. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.

  19. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Liu

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA, for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP, which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC. The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems and DNDPs (discrete network design problems repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions. Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.

  20. Urban transport, the environment and the network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2005-01-01

    Based on the conclusions of a completed Ph.D. thesis and post doctoral research activities, this paper describes and analyses environmental objectives and strategies have materialised in three cases of local transport policy making and planning; in the urban areas of Lund (Sweden), Groningen (The...... succeeded over conventional and more hierarchical ways of public policymaking. As such, these cases offer illuminating examples of collaborative dialogue, expressed through networks in which argumentative approaches and increased reflexivity about the ´rules of the game´ have been central elements. Finally...