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Sample records for transport physics section

  1. Overview. Department of Environmental and Radiation Transport Physics. Section 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loskiewicz, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Research activities in the Department of Environmental and Radiation Transport Physics are carried out by three Laboratories: Laboratory of Environmental Physics, Laboratory of Neutron Transport Physics and Laboratory of Physics and Modeling of Radiation Transport. The researches provided in 1994 cover: tracer transport and flows in porous media, studies on pollution in atmospheric air, physics of molecular phenomena in chromatographic detectors, studies on neutron transport in heterogenous media, studies on evaluation of neutron cross-section in the thermal region, studies on theory and utilization of neural network in data evaluation, numerical modelling of particle cascades for particle accelerator shielding purpose. In this section the description of mentioned activities as well as the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants is also given.

  2. Cross sectional analysis of the association between mode of school transportation and physical fitness in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-07-17

    To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents from 40 elementary schools and 23 high schools representing all regions in Norway were invited to participate in the study. Anthropometry, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were tested at the school location. Questionnaires were used in order to register mode of transport to school, age, gender and levels of leisure time physical activity. A total of 1694 (i.e. 60% of all invited participants) children and adolescents at a mean age of 9.6 and 15.6 respectively (SD = 0.4 for both groups) were analyzed for associations with physical fitness variables. Males cycling to school had lower sum of skin folds than adolescents walking to school. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents and male cyclists compared to walkers and passive commuters were observed. Among children, cycling and walking to school, higher isometric muscle endurance in the back extensors compared to passive commuters was observed. Based on this national representative cross-sectional examination of randomly selected children and adolescents there is evidence that active commuting, especially cycling, is associated with a favourable body composition and better cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness as compared to passive commuting.

  3. Transport, boundary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the contributions presented at the 18 th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of transport and boundary physics will be summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: H-mode physics, Internal Transport Barrier formation, transport studies, Radiative Improved modes and impurity seeding, divertor and He exhaust, new configurations. (author)

  4. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...

  5. Progress report : Plasma Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyyengar, S.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1975-08-01

    The activities of the plasma physics section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India over the last five years (1970-75) are reported. The R and D programme of the section has been divided into four cells mainly i.e., (i) Thermal plasma (ii) Relativistic Electron Beam (iii) Energetics and (iv) Electron beam technology. The salient features of the development activities carried out in these cells are outlined. In the Thermal plasma group, considerable research work has been done in (a) fundamental plasma studies, (b) industrial plasma technology and (c) open cycle MHD power generation project. The relativistic electron beam group is engaged in improving the technology to realize high power lasers, and pulsed thermonuclear fusion. The energetics programme is oriented to develop high voltage d.c. generators and pulse generators. The electron beam techniques developed here are routinely used for melting refractory and reactive metals. The technical know-how of the welding machines developed has been transfered to industries. Equipment developed by this section, such as, (1) electron beam furnace, (2) plasma cutting torch, (3) impulse magnet charger etc. are listed. (A.K.)

  6. Activity report of Reactor Physics Section - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    This Activity Report contains brief summaries of different studies made in Reactor Physics Section during the year 1985. These are presented under the headings Nuclear Data Processing and Validation, Reactor Design and Analysis, Safety and Noise Analysis, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Reactor Physics Experiments and Statistical Physics. The work on nuclear data during this period comprises primarily of validation of data of 232 Th and 233 U as a part of participation in the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) under IAEA research contract. The most significant event during 1985 at this centre has been the first criticality of FBTR (Fast Breeder Test Reactor), which was achieved on the 18th of October. Reactor Physics Section has played a key role in this event by carrying out the first approach to criticality with fuel loading in a safe manner and conducting some low power reactor physics experiments which are discussed. The studies made in the field reactor safety and shielding are also connected mainly with the FBTR problems in addition to some work on the PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor) detailed design of which has been just started. Studies pertaining to the other two Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) under IAEA contract, namely (1) on the comparative assessment of processing techniques for the analysis of sodium boiling noise detection and, (2) on the contribution of advanced reactors to energy supply have been continued during this year. At the end of this report, a list of publications made by the members of the section and also the sectional seminars held during this period is included. (author)

  7. Accelerator Physics Section progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report summarizes the work of the Accelerator Physics Section of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1985. Applications of the EN-tandem accelerator included 13 N production for tracer experiments in plants and animals, hydrogen profiling with a 19 F beam and direct detection of heavy ions with a surface barrier detector. Preparations for accelerator mass spectrometry continued steadily, with the commissioning of the pulsed EHT supply which selects the isotope to be accelerated, routine detection of 14 C ions, and completion of a sputter ion source with an eight position target wheel. It was shown that the hydrogen content of a material could be derived from a simultaneous measurement of the transmission of neutrons and gamma rays from a neutron source or accelerator target. The 11 CO 2 produced at the 3 MV accelerator was used in two studies of translocation in a large number of plant species: the effects of small quantities of SO 2 in the air, and the effect of cooling a short length of the stem. The nuclear microprobe was applied to studies of carbon pickup during welding of stainless steel, determination of trace elements in soil and vegetation and the measurement of sodium depth profiles in obsidian - in particular the effect of rastering the incident proton beams

  8. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 emissions. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 emissions. Results CO2 emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight. Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 emissions. Conclusions Establishing

  9. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David

    2012-08-03

    Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO₂ emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO₂ emissions. 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO₂ emissions. CO₂ emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO₂ emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO₂ emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO₂ emissions. Establishing the direction of causality between weight status

  10. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1993. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects nd work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics. In theoretical physics the group is concerned with the many-body description of nuclear properties as well as with the foundation of quantum physics

  11. Physical System Requirements: Transport Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for the conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Director subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. The functional analysis approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. This approach recognizes that just as the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being. The objective of this document is to establish the essential functions, requirements, interfaces, and system architecture for the Transport Waste mission. Based upon the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the mission of the Waste Transportation System is to transport SNF and/or HLW from the purchaser's/producer's facilities to, and between, NWMS facilities in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment makes effective use of financial and other resources, and to the fullest extent possible uses the private sector

  12. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1991. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed

  13. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1992. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed

  14. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for nuclear physics and energy physics at the University of Oslo in 1990. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. The experimental activities in nuclear physics have, as in the previous years, mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments in collaboration with the nuclear physics group at the University of Bergen have been completed. Some results have been published and were also presented at the international conference in Oak Ridge, USA, while more data remains to be analyzed

  15. Physical security during transportation, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, J.; Rudolph, D.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. government is in the process of quietly taking over the transportation of strategic special nuclear material. ERDA is beginning to transport ERDA-owned SSNM between contractor/license plants. This paper discusses the evolution of this program and the attendant security hysteria impinging on the nuclear industry. The history of Edlow International transport security operations for nuclear materials is presented. The need for government intervention is questioned

  16. Physics of transport in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Asp, E.; Bourdelle, C.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Angioni, C.; Manini, A.; Peeter, A.; Ryter, F.; Baranov, Y.; Cordey, G.; McDonald, D.C.; Parail, V.; Valovic, M.; Thyagaraja, A.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Budny, R.; Kirneva, N.; Hogeweij, D.; Nordman, H.; Weilland, J.; Tala, T.; Weisen, H.; Zabolotsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an overview of recent results related to turbulent particle and heat transport, and triggering of Internal Transport Barriers. Particle transport is characterised by a pinch velocity that is found to be larger than the value predicted by theory of collisional transport (Ware pinch) in L-mode plasmas. Also it increases with magnetic shear. In H-mode, density peaking decreases with collisionality. Pinch velocity reaches the Ware value for large collision frequencies. Heat transport has made progress along two directions: dimensionless scaling laws and analysis of modulation experiments. Dimensionless scaling law of thermal confinement agrees with the prediction for electrostatic turbulence. Dependence with collisionality remains to be understood. Heat modulation experiments have been investigated in several devices using a critical gradient model, micro-stability analysis and predictive modelling. Thresholds and stiffness are correctly reproduced by stability analysis and modelling with Weiland model. Analysis with a critical gradient model leads to a large variability of stiffness. Finally the question of triggering Internal Transport Barriers has been addressed by analysing electron transport barriers. It is confirmed that negative magnetic shear combined with Shafranov shift is a robust stabilizing mechanism. However, some well established features of internal barriers are hardly explained by theory, in particular the role of low order rational values of the minimum safety factor, and the existence of multiple barriers. (authors)

  17. Physics of transport in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbet, X.; Asp, E.; Bourdelle, C.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (DSM/DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Mantica, P.; Sozzi, C. [Euratom-ENEA/CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Milano (Italy); Angioni, C.; Manini, A.; Peeter, A.; Ryter, F. [Euratom Association, MPI fur Plasmaphysik, Garchin bei Munchen (Germany); Baranov, Y.; Cordey, G.; McDonald, D.C.; Parail, V.; Valovic, M.; Thyagaraja, A.; Voitsekhovitch, I. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX (United Kingdom); Budny, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab; Crisati, F. [Association Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Kirneva, N. [Kurchatov Institute, RRC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hogeweij, D. [Association Euratom-FOM Institute voor Plasmafysica, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Nordman, H.; Weilland, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, Goeteborg (Sweden); Tala, T. [Association Euratom-Tekes, VTT Processes (Finland); Weisen, H.; Zabolotsky, A. [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CRPP, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is an overview of recent results related to turbulent particle and heat transport, and triggering of Internal Transport Barriers. Particle transport is characterised by a pinch velocity that is found to be larger than the value predicted by theory of collisional transport (Ware pinch) in L-mode plasmas. Also it increases with magnetic shear. In H-mode, density peaking decreases with collisionality. Pinch velocity reaches the Ware value for large collision frequencies. Heat transport has made progress along two directions: dimensionless scaling laws and analysis of modulation experiments. Dimensionless scaling law of thermal confinement agrees with the prediction for electrostatic turbulence. Dependence with collisionality remains to be understood. Heat modulation experiments have been investigated in several devices using a critical gradient model, micro-stability analysis and predictive modelling. Thresholds and stiffness are correctly reproduced by stability analysis and modelling with Weiland model. Analysis with a critical gradient model leads to a large variability of stiffness. Finally the question of triggering Internal Transport Barriers has been addressed by analysing electron transport barriers. It is confirmed that negative magnetic shear combined with Shafranov shift is a robust stabilizing mechanism. However, some well established features of internal barriers are hardly explained by theory, in particular the role of low order rational values of the minimum safety factor, and the existence of multiple barriers. (au0011tho.

  18. Physical protection of radioactive material in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Safety in the transport of radioactive material is ensured by enclosing the material, when necessary, in packaging which prevents its dispersal and which absorbs to any adequate extent any radiation emitted by the material. Transport workers, the general public and the environment are thus protected against the harmful effects of the radioactive material. The packaging also serves the purpose of protecting its contents against the effects of rough handling and mishaps under normal transport conditions, and against the severe stresses and high temperatures that could be encountered in accidents accompanied by fires. If the radioactive material is also fissile, special design features are incorporated to prevent any possibility of criticality under normal transport conditions and in accidents. The safe transport requirements are designed to afford protection against unintentional opening of packages in normal handling and transport conditions and against damage in severe accident conditions; whereas the physical protection requirements are designed to prevent intentional opening of packages and deliberate damage. This clearly illustrates the difference in philosophical approach underlying the requirements for safe transport and for physical protection during transport. This difference in approach is, perhaps, most easily seen in the differing requirements for marking of consignments. While safety considerations dictate that packages be clearly labelled, physical protection considerations urge restraint in the use of special labels. Careful consideration must be given to such differences in approach in any attempt to harmonize the safety and physical protection aspects of transport. (author)

  19. Computer codes in particle transport physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation of transport and interaction of various particles in complex media and wide energy range (from 1 MeV up to 1 TeV) is very complicated problem that requires valid model of a real process in nature and appropriate solving tool - computer code and data library. A brief overview of computer codes based on Monte Carlo techniques for simulation of transport and interaction of hadrons and ions in wide energy range in three dimensional (3D) geometry is shown. Firstly, a short attention is paid to underline the approach to the solution of the problem - process in nature - by selection of the appropriate 3D model and corresponding tools - computer codes and cross sections data libraries. Process of data collection and evaluation from experimental measurements and theoretical approach to establishing reliable libraries of evaluated cross sections data is Ion g, difficult and not straightforward activity. For this reason, world reference data centers and specialized ones are acknowledged, together with the currently available, state of art evaluated nuclear data libraries, as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF, JENDL, CENDL, BROND, etc. Codes for experimental and theoretical data evaluations (e.g., SAMMY and GNASH) together with the codes for data processing (e.g., NJOY, PREPRO and GRUCON) are briefly described. Examples of data evaluation and data processing to generate computer usable data libraries are shown. Among numerous and various computer codes developed in transport physics of particles, the most general ones are described only: MCNPX, FLUKA and SHIELD. A short overview of basic application of these codes, physical models implemented with their limitations, energy ranges of particles and types of interactions, is given. General information about the codes covers also programming language, operation system, calculation speed and the code availability. An example of increasing computation speed of running MCNPX code using a MPI cluster compared to the code sequential option

  20. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  1. Progress report - physics and health sciences - physics section 1990 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    This is the ninth semi-annual report on the Physics section of Physics and Health Sciences. Major areas of discussion include: nuclear physics, accelerator physics, general physics, neutron's solid state physics, theoretical physics and fusion

  2. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State`s economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ``low probability, high consequence`` aspect of the transportation risk.

  3. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State's economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ''low probability, high consequence'' aspect of the transportation risk

  4. Overview. Health Physics Laboratory. Section 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waligorski, M.P.R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics are presented and namely: research in the area of radiation physics and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, theoretical research concerns radiation detectors, radiation protection and studies of concepts of radiation protection and experimental research concerns solid state dosimetry. In this report, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  5. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  6. Vertical Drop Test of a Transport Fuselage Section

    OpenAIRE

    熊倉, 郁夫; KUMAKURA, Ikuo

    2002-01-01

    The NAL Structures and Materials Research Center conducted a vertical drop test of a fuselage section from a YS-11A transport airplane in December 2001. This test program is part of research into the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft in the event of a crash accident, one of the subjects of Aviation Safety and Environmental Compatibility Technology Research(ASET) at NAL. Cooperative research related to this test program has also been carried out by NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industr...

  7. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.

  8. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  9. Section for nuclear physics annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The experimental activities have in 1987, as in the previous years, mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. Most of the nuclear physics experiments have been related to the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Theoretical studies of highly excited nuclei have continued, and there has been a fruitful cooperation between experimental and theoretical physicists

  10. Cross sections and transport properties for Na+ in (DXE gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Željka D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we select most probable reactions of alkali metal ion Na+ with dimethoxyethane (DXE molecule. Appropriate gas phase enthalpies of formation for the products were used to calculate scattering cross section as a function of kinetic energy with Denpoh-Nanbu theory. Calculated cross sections were compared with existing experimental results obtained by guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry. Three body association reactions of ions with DXE is studied and compared to experimental results. Calculated cross sections were used to obtain transport parameters for alkali metal ion in DXE gas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 171037 i br. III 410011

  11. Section for nuclear physics annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The experimental activities in nuclear physics have in 1988 mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. The CACTUS multidetector system has been realised and will soon be operating. With 8 particle telescopes, 28 NaI detectors and 2 Ge detectors this experimental arrangement represents a major improvement compared to earlier set-ups in the laboratory. Theoretical studies of many-body problems, nuclear structure and reactions have continued. The study of problems related to the foundations of quantum mechanics has also been persued

  12. Section for nuclear physics annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The experimental activities have in 1986 as in the previous years mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. Most of the nuclear physics experiments have been related to the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Experiments with the 3 He-beam up to a particle energy of 45 MeV have continued, and valuable information regarding the cooling process in highly excited nuclei has been obtained. Theoretical studies of highly excited nuclei have continued, and there has been a fruitful cooperation between experimental and theoretical physicists

  13. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  14. Classical scattering cross section in sputtering transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhulin

    2002-01-01

    For Lindhard scaling interaction potential scattering commonly used in sputtering theory, the authors analyzed the great difference between Sigmund's single power and the double power cross sections calculated. The double power cross sections can give a much better approximation to the Born-Mayer scattering in the low energy region (m∼0.1). In particular, to solve the transport equations by K r -C potential interaction given by Urbassek few years ago, only the double power cross sections (m∼0.1) can yield better approximate results for the number of recoils. Therefore, the Sigmund's single power cross section might be replaced by the double power cross sections in low energy collision cascade theory

  15. A method to obtain new cross-sections transport equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a method, that allows the calculation, by the mean of variational principle, of equivalent cross-sections in order to take into account the transport and mesh size effects on reactivity variation calculations. The method validation has been made in two and three dimensions geometries. The reactivity variations calculated in three dimensional hexagonal geometry with seven points by subassembly using two sets of equivalent cross-sections for control rods are in a very good agreement with the ones of a transport, extrapolated to zero mesh size, calculation. The difficulty encountered in obtaining a good flux distribution has lead to the utilisation of a single set of equivalent cross-sections calculated by starting from an appropriated R-Z model that allows to take into account also the axial transport effects for the control rod followers. The global results in reactivity variations are still satisfactory with a good performance for the flux distribution. The main interest of the proposed method is the possibility to simulate a full 3D transport calculation, with fine mesh size, using a 3D diffusion code, with a larger mesh size. The results obtained should be affected by uncertainties, which do not exceed ± 4% for a large LMFBR control rod worth and for very different rod configurations. This uncertainty is by far smaller than the experimental uncertainties. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 9 tabs

  16. Electron transport in silicon nanowires having different cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscato Orazio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport phenomena in silicon nanowires with different cross-section are investigated using an Extended Hydrodynamic model, coupled to the Schrödinger-Poisson system. The model has been formulated by closing the moment system derived from the Boltzmann equation on the basis of the maximum entropy principle of Extended Thermodynamics, obtaining explicit closure relations for the high-order fluxes and the production terms. Scattering of electrons with acoustic and non polar optical phonons have been taken into account. The bulk mobility is evaluated for square and equilateral triangle cross-sections of the wire.

  17. Department of Environmental and Radiation Transport Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    2001-01-01

    thermal neutron transport in heterogeneous media containing highly absorbing grains is presented in two announcements in ''Reports on research''. Our 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator, after a few years' revamp, became a valuable tool for experimental verification of theoretical solutions for the non-stationary thermal neutron diffusion in finite media. We also work on the applications of the radiation transport physics in other disciplines, namely: 1) Calculations of the neutron flux in the borehole cylindrical geometry made it possible to calibrate the geophysical well logging neutron tools. A need for measuring the thermal neutron absorption cross section of borehole brines has been proved with the experiments performed at the pulsed neutron generator. Correlations of the thermal neutron absorption cross section of rocks with their geological parameters (the K, U, Th concentration and the clay mineral content) have been theoretically suggested and experimentally confirmed. These relationships can be used as complementary methods in geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations; 2) The fields of neutrons, protons, and pions produced by electrons of energy up to 250 GeV hitting thick targets have been calculated for needs of the DESY facility, using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The same computer code has been used to calculate the radiation field and energy deposition in the water beam dump for the TESLA electron-positron collider; 3) Research on humidity measurements of coke, using the fast neutron and gamma transmission methods, has been finalised. The results were presented on the final IAEA meeting of the Research Programme on Bulk Hydrogen Analysis Using Neutrons. The latest research opens a possibility to build a prototype of an industrial device. (author)

  18. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The experimental activities in nuclear physics have in 1989 mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the Scanditronic MC-35 cyclotron. The installation of the CACTUS multidetector system has been completed. With 8 particle telescopes, 28 NaI detectors and 2 Ge detectors, this experimental arrangement represents a major improvement compared to earlier set-ups in the laboratory. Theoretical studies of manybody problems, and nuclear structure and reactions have continued. The study of problems related to the foundations of quantum mechanics has also been persued

  19. Progress report, Physics and Health Sciences: Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews the research and operational activities of the TASCC Division, the Physics Division, and the Fusion Office of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. TASCC, the 8π spectrometer, the on-line isotope separator, and the large scattering chamber completed their first year of operation with results including the discovery of the first nucleus, 153 Dy, to exhibit more than one superdeformed band. DUALSPEC, the double neutron spectrometer at the NRU reactor, should be commissioned in 1990. Investigations were carried out into the cold fusion phenomenon with negative results. Studies on food irradiation showed that the induced radioactivity is less than 0.25 percent of that already present. Substantial funding commitments have been made to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Theoretical work on multiple scattering of heavy ions appears to be expandable to relativistic energies. Canadian contributions to the NET project have been endorsed and continue to grow

  20. Progress report, Physics and Health Sciences: Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report reviews the research and operational activities of the TASCC Division, the Physics Division, and the Fusion Office of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Commissioning of the TASCC facilities continues; the cyclotron's 17 beams are routinely used in experiments. The MP tandem accelerator has operated at 15 MV. The Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry group has shown that it is able to measure internal strain and temperature in engineering components. Work is continuing on a cold source to be installed in NRU at the same time as the third reactor vessel. Assembly of the DUALSPEC spectrometer has begun. Progress in understanding and developing the theory of quantum groups resulted in the discovery of a new structure, the twisted quantum group

  1. MC++ and a transport physics framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Cummings, J.C.; Nolen, S.D.; Keen, N.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy has launched the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) to address a pressing need for more comprehensive computer simulation capabilities in the area of nuclear weapons safety and reliability. In light of the decision by the US Government to abandon underground nuclear testing, the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program is focused on using computer modeling to assure the continued safety and effectiveness of the nuclear stockpile. The authors believe that the utilization of object-oriented design and programming techniques can help in this regard. Object-oriented programming (OOP) has become a popular model in the general software community for several reasons. MC++ is a specific ASCI-relevant application project which demonstrates the effectiveness of the object-oriented approach. It is a Monte Carlo neutron transport code written in C++. It is designed to be simple yet flexible, with the ability to quickly introduce new numerical algorithms or representations of the physics into the code. MC++ is easily ported to various types of Unix workstations and parallel computers such as the three new ASCI platforms, largely because it makes extensive use of classes from the Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA) C++ class library. The MC++ code has been successfully benchmarked using some simple physics test problems, has been shown to provide comparable serial performance and a parallel efficiency superior to that of a well-known Monte Carlo neutronics package written in Fortran, and was the first ASCI-relevant application to run in parallel on all three ASCI computing platforms

  2. Physical nutrient transport in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, W.; Lott, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Use of the helium-3 flux gauge to estimate the physically mediated flux of new nutrients to the euphotic zone of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre broadly suggests a pathway whereby inorganic nutrients that have been remineralized within the main thermocline may be returned to the seasonally accessible layer in the Sargasso Sea: the so-called "Nutrient Spiral" (Jenkins and Doney (2003), Glob. Biog. Cyc., 17(4), doi:1110.1029/2003GB002085.) The challenge, however, is identifying the exact mechanism whereby this occurs. One possible process is that of "obduction", whereby the combination of strong advection and rapidly deepening winter mixed layers result in the effective outcropping of substantial amounts of thermocline nutrients and tritiugenic helium-3. We present here a quantitative estimate based on hydrographic sections and geostrophic transports of the fluxes and transformations of both tritugenic helium-3 and nitrate within the basin, and attempt to relate these estimates to the specific shallow-water behaviors of these tracers, and their global and regional physical transports. An important constraint for these estimates lies in the evolving distributions of the transient tracers tritium and helium-3. We compare these results with other tracer-based estimates of new, net-community, and export production.

  3. Analysis of a transport fuselage section drop test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Hayduk, R. J.; Robinson, M. P.; Widmayer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Transport fuselage section drop tests provided useful information about the crash behavior of metal aircraft in preparation for a full-scale Boeing 720 controlled impact demonstration (CID). The fuselage sections have also provided an operational test environment for the data acquisition system designed for the CID test, and data for analysis and correlation with the DYCAST nonlinear finite-element program. The correlation of the DYCAST section model predictions was quite good for the total fuselage crushing deflection (22 to 24 inches predicted versus 24 to 26 inches measured), floor deformation, and accelerations for the floor and fuselage. The DYCAST seat and occupant model was adequate to approximate dynamic loading to the floor, but a more sophisticated model would be required for good correlation with dummy accelerations. Although a full-section model using only finite elements for the subfloor was desirable, constraints of time and computer resources limited the finite-element subfloor model to a two-frame model. Results from the two-frame model indicate that DYCAST can provide excellent correlation with experimental crash behavior of fuselage structure with a minimum of empirical force-deflection data representing structure in the analytical model.

  4. Progress report. Physics and Health sciences, Physics Section (1988 January 01-June 30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    A report on the progress made in the Physics and Health Sciences Physics Section between January 01 and June 30 1988 was compiled. This document contains an overview of operations and research carried out by the nuclear physics branch, the TASCC operations branch, and the cyclotron group. In addition, a general discussion of the tandem and cyclotron operations for this period was presented

  5. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1996. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics

  6. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1996. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  7. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1997. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. The main auxiliary equipment consists of a multi-detector system CACTUS, and presently with a unique locally designed silicon strip detector array SIRI. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  8. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1997. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. The main auxiliary equipment consists of a multi-detector system CACTUS, and presently with a unique locally designed silicon strip detector array SIRI. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics

  9. Intracellular transport: from physics to ... biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Aurélien; Cuvelier, Damien; Bassereau, Patricia; Goud, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    Considerable effort over the past three decades has allowed the identification of the protein families that control the cellular machinery responsible for intracellular transport within eukaryotic cells. These proteins are estimated to represent about 10-20% of the human "proteome." The complexity of intracellular transport makes useful the development of model membranes. We describe here experimental systems based on lipid giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), which are attached to kinesin molecules. These systems give rise to thin membrane tubes and to complex tubular networks when incubated in vitro with microtubules and ATP. This type of assay, which mimics key events occurring during intracellular transport, allows physicists and biologists to understand how the unique mechanical properties of lipid membranes could be involved in the budding process, the sorting of cargo proteins and lipids, and the separation of the buds from a donor membrane.

  10. KAMCCO, a reactor physics Monte Carlo neutron transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnecke, G.; Borgwaldt, H.; Brandl, V.; Lalovic, M.

    1976-06-01

    KAMCCO is a 3-dimensional reactor Monte Carlo code for fast neutron physics problems. Two options are available for the solution of 1) the inhomogeneous time-dependent neutron transport equation (census time scheme), and 2) the homogeneous static neutron transport equation (generation cycle scheme). The user defines the desired output, e.g. estimates of reaction rates or neutron flux integrated over specified volumes in phase space and time intervals. Such primary quantities can be arbitrarily combined, also ratios of these quantities can be estimated with their errors. The Monte Carlo techniques are mostly analogue (exceptions: Importance sampling for collision processes, ELP/MELP, Russian roulette and splitting). Estimates are obtained from the collision and track length estimators. Elastic scattering takes into account first order anisotropy in the center of mass system. Inelastic scattering is processed via the evaporation model or via the excitation of discrete levels. For the calculation of cross sections, the energy is treated as a continuous variable. They are computed by a) linear interpolation, b) from optionally Doppler broadened single level Breit-Wigner resonances or c) from probability tables (in the region of statistically distributed resonances). (orig.) [de

  11. Electron transport in mercury vapor: cross sections, pressure and temperature dependence of transport coefficients and NDC effects★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirić, Jasmina; Simonović, Ilija; Petrović, Zoran Lj.; White, Ronald D.; Dujko, Saša

    2017-11-01

    In this work we propose a complete and consistent set of cross sections for electron scattering in mercury vapor. The set is validated through a series of comparisons between swarm data calculated using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulations, and the available experimental data. Other sets of cross sections for electron scattering in mercury vapor were also used as input in our numerical codes with the aim of testing their completeness, consistency and accuracy. The calculated swarm parameters are compared with measurements in order to assess the quality of the cross sections in providing data for plasma modeling. In particular, we discuss the dependence of transport coefficients on the pressure and temperature of mercury vapor, and the occurrence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in the limit of lower values of E/N. We have shown that the phenomenon of NDC is induced by the presence of mercury dimers and that can be controlled by varying either pressure or temperature of mercury vapor. The effective inelastic cross section for mercury dimers is estimated for a range of pressures and temperatures. It is shown that the measured and calculated drift velocities agree very well only if the effective inelastic cross section for mercury dimers and thermal motion of mercury atoms are carefully considered and implemented in numerical calculations. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  12. Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School Children in Kenya, Nigeria, and Mozambique ... presented during the Global Summit on Physical Activity of Children in 2014; - To modify the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale instrument (NEWS) for use in African countries, assess its reliability ...

  13. Cumulative Diminuations with Fibonacci Approach, Golden Section and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç, F.; Demirhan, D.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, physical quantities of a nonequilibrium system in the stages of its orientation towards equilibrium has been formulated by a simple cumulative diminuation mechanism and Fibonacci recursion approximation. Fibonacci p-numbers are obtained in power law forms and generalized diminuation sections are related to diminuation percents. The consequences of the fractal structure of space and the memory effects are concretely established by a simple mechanism. Thus, the reality why nature prefers power laws rather than exponentials ones is explained. It has been introduced that, Fibonacci p-numbers are elements of a Generalized Cantor set. The fractal dimensions of the Generalized Cantor sets have been obtained by different methods. The generalized golden section which was used by M.S. El Naschie in his works on high energy physics is evaluated in this frame.

  14. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  15. General Physics Section. Progress Report Fiscal Year 1969/70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.

    1970-12-01

    This report contains information regarding that part of the work performed at the General Physics Section of AB Atomenergi during the period July 1969 - July 1970, which has been supported by grants from the Swedish Board of Technical Development (STU). For projects still in progress the current status is described, for terminated projects, or distinguishable parts thereof, a summary is given. Where available, reports describing the work are listed. A substantial part of our resources has been concentrated on the physics of energy conversion: Investigation of recombination processes in a pulsed helium discharge; Theoretical and experimental investigation of MHD gas flow; Isotopic battery in the μW-range. Our section's interest in nuclear dosimetry and the general aspects of metrology has been manifested in two additional projects: Application of mass spectrometry on He in solids to analysis, nuclear physics and material technology; Servo system filter. As general information it can be added that other, not STU-supported, activities of the section are material dosimetry for irradiation monitoring and a fairly broad range of radiation shielding activities

  16. General Physics Section. Progress Report Fiscal Year 1969/70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.

    1970-12-15

    This report contains information regarding that part of the work performed at the General Physics Section of AB Atomenergi during the period July 1969 - July 1970, which has been supported by grants from the Swedish Board of Technical Development (STU). For projects still in progress the current status is described, for terminated projects, or distinguishable parts thereof, a summary is given. Where available, reports describing the work are listed. A substantial part of our resources has been concentrated on the physics of energy conversion: Investigation of recombination processes in a pulsed helium discharge; Theoretical and experimental investigation of MHD gas flow; Isotopic battery in the muW-range. Our section's interest in nuclear dosimetry and the general aspects of metrology has been manifested in two additional projects: Application of mass spectrometry on He in solids to analysis, nuclear physics and material technology; Servo system filter. As general information it can be added that other, not STU-supported, activities of the section are material dosimetry for irradiation monitoring and a fairly broad range of radiation shielding activities

  17. Cumulative growth with fibonacci approach, golden section and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueyuekkilic, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova - Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: fevzi.buyukkilic@ege.edu.tr; Demirhan, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova - Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a physical quantity belonging to a physical system in its stages of orientation towards growth has been formulated using Fibonacci recurrence approximation. Fibonacci p-numbers emerging in this process have been expressed as a power law for the first time as far as we are aware. The golden sections {tau}{sub p} are related to the growth percent rates {lambda}{sub p}. With this mechanism, the physical origins of the mathematical forms of e{sub q}(x) and ln{sub q}(x) encountered in Tsallis thermostatistics have been clarified. It has been established that Fibonacci p-numbers could be taken as elements of generalized random Cantor set. The golden section random cantor set is used by M.S. El Naschie in his fundamental works in high energy physics and is also considered in the present work. Moreover, we conclude that the cumulative growth mechanism conveys the consequences of the discrete structure of space and memory effect.

  18. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  19. Internal Transport Barrier Physics in Helical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Maassberg, H.; Ida, K.; Estrada, T.; Castejon, F.; Minami, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Yamagishi, O.; Shats, M. G.; Dinklage, A.; Tribaldos, V.; Beidler, C. D.; Shimozuma, T.; Takeiri, Y.; Herranz, J.; Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) in helical systems are reviewed. The common features are highly peaked Te profile with strongly positive Er in the core region. The transition nature of Er based on neoclassical (NC) ambipolarity, with the clear threshold feature such as ECH power and Ohmic current, is the common mechanism for the eITB formation. The electron heat confinement improvement has been revealed within the eITB region. The ECH power threshold can be lowered in the presence of ripple-trapped electrons-induced convective flux, and rational surfaces at the core region. The gyrokinetic calculations, for example eITB in LHD, have shown that the ETG mode is unstable in eITB region due to the large Te gradient. A larger zonal flow amplitude has been observed in eITB phase in CHS. The geodesic transfer of energy from stationary zonal flow to oscillatory modes (GAMs) recognized in H-1 implies that the stationary zonal flows can be maintained at a higher level by reducing the geodesic curvature in helical systems. This is the first report of the eITB branch in the framework of the International Stellarator Profile DataBase (ISPDB). (Author)

  20. Prediction of transport and other physical properties of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bretsznajder, S

    1971-01-01

    Prediction of Transport and Other Physical Properties of Fluids reviews general methods for predicting the transport and other physical properties of fluids such as gases and liquids. Topics covered range from the theory of corresponding states and methods for estimating the surface tension of liquids to some basic concepts of the kinetic theory of gases. Methods of estimating liquid viscosity based on the principle of additivity are also described. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and opens by presenting basic information on gases and liquids as well as intermolecular forces and con

  1. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics. Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In connection with that, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. The total beamtime used for experiments in 1998 was 1051 hours. 52 days were used by the Nuclear Physics section, 70 days by the University of Oslo Nuclear Chemistry section and the Norwegian Cancer Hospital used the cyclotron for 12 days. 42 days were spent on maintenance. In experimental nuclear physics, the section members are engaged within three main fields of research: Nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics

  2. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.

  3. Physics of F-theory compactifications without section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lara B. [Department of Physics, Robeson Hall, 0435, Virginia Tech,850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); García-Etxebarria, Iñaki; Grimm, Thomas W.; Keitel, Jan [Max Planck Institute for Physics,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2014-12-24

    We study the physics of F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibrations without section by using an M-theory dual description. The five-dimensional action obtained by considering M-theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold is compared with a six-dimensional F-theory effective action reduced on an additional circle. We propose that the six-dimensional effective action of these setups admits geometrically massive U(1) vectors with a charged hypermultiplet spectrum. The absence of a section induces NS-NS and R-R three-form fluxes in F-theory that are non-trivially supported along the circle and induce a shift-gauging of certain axions with respect to the Kaluza-Klein vector. In the five-dimensional effective theory the Kaluza-Klein vector and the massive U(1)s combine into a linear combination that is massless. This U(1) is identified with the massless U(1) corresponding to the multi-section of the Calabi-Yau threefold in M-theory. We confirm this interpretation by computing the one-loop Chern-Simons terms for the massless vectors of the five-dimensional setup by integrating out all massive states. A closed formula is found that accounts for the hypermultiplets charged under the massive U(1)s.

  4. Physics of F-theory compactifications without section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lara B.; García-Etxebarria, Iñaki; Grimm, Thomas W.; Keitel, Jan

    2014-12-01

    We study the physics of F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibrations without section by using an M-theory dual description. The five-dimensional action obtained by considering M-theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold is compared with a sixdimensional F-theory effective action reduced on an additional circle. We propose that the six-dimensional effective action of these setups admits geometrically massive U(1) vectors with a charged hypermultiplet spectrum. The absence of a section induces NS-NS and R-R three-form fluxes in F-theory that are non-trivially supported along the circle and induce a shift-gauging of certain axions with respect to the Kaluza-Klein vector. In the five-dimensional effective theory the Kaluza-Klein vector and the massive U(1)s combine into a linear combination that is massless. This U(1) is identified with the massless U(1) corresponding to the multi-section of the Calabi-Yau threefold in M-theory. We confirm this interpretation by computing the one-loop Chern-Simons terms for the massless vectors of the five-dimensional setup by integrating out all massive states. A closed formula is found that accounts for the hypermultiplets charged under the massive U(1)s.

  5. Physics of F-theory compactifications without section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; García-Etxebarria, Iñaki; Grimm, Thomas W.; Keitel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We study the physics of F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibrations without section by using an M-theory dual description. The five-dimensional action obtained by considering M-theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold is compared with a six-dimensional F-theory effective action reduced on an additional circle. We propose that the six-dimensional effective action of these setups admits geometrically massive U(1) vectors with a charged hypermultiplet spectrum. The absence of a section induces NS-NS and R-R three-form fluxes in F-theory that are non-trivially supported along the circle and induce a shift-gauging of certain axions with respect to the Kaluza-Klein vector. In the five-dimensional effective theory the Kaluza-Klein vector and the massive U(1)s combine into a linear combination that is massless. This U(1) is identified with the massless U(1) corresponding to the multi-section of the Calabi-Yau threefold in M-theory. We confirm this interpretation by computing the one-loop Chern-Simons terms for the massless vectors of the five-dimensional setup by integrating out all massive states. A closed formula is found that accounts for the hypermultiplets charged under the massive U(1)s.

  6. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

     This is the problems and solution manual for the graduate text with the same title and published as Lecture Notes in Physics Vol 877 which provides the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. The very detailed and self-contained problems and solutions will be an essential part of the training of any graduate student wishing to enter and pursuing research in this field. .

  7. Physical and transportation requirements for a FLIP fueled TRIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.; Anderson, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    Several major changes to the OSTR Physical Security Plan were required by the NRC prior to the August 1976 receipt and installation of a new core consisting entirely of FLIP fuel. The general nature of these changes will be reviewed along with several decisions we faced during their implementation. At the previous TRIGA Owners' Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah, we reported on Oregon's regulatory program for research reactor emergency response planning and physical security. The latter program was of particular interest to us in light of the projected FLIP fuel shipments. The impact of the State's program for physical security of FLIP fuel during transportation will be presented. (author)

  8. Numerical computation of discrete differential scattering cross sections for Monte Carlo charged particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Jonathan A., E-mail: walshjon@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Palmer, Todd S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Urbatsch, Todd J. [XTD-IDA: Theoretical Design, Integrated Design and Assessment, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Generation of discrete differential scattering angle and energy loss cross sections. • Gauss–Radau quadrature utilizing numerically computed cross section moments. • Development of a charged particle transport capability in the Milagro IMC code. • Integration of cross section generation and charged particle transport capabilities. - Abstract: We investigate a method for numerically generating discrete scattering cross sections for use in charged particle transport simulations. We describe the cross section generation procedure and compare it to existing methods used to obtain discrete cross sections. The numerical approach presented here is generalized to allow greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data computed with this method compare favorably with discrete data generated with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, Milagro. We verify the implementation of charged particle transport in Milagro with analytic test problems and we compare calculated electron depth–dose profiles with another particle transport code that has a validated electron transport capability. Finally, we investigate the integration of the new discrete cross section generation method with the charged particle transport capability in Milagro.

  9. A new modelling of the multigroup scattering cross section in deterministic codes for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloo, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    In reactor physics, calculation schemes with deterministic codes are validated with respect to a reference Monte Carlo code. The remaining biases are attributed to the approximations and models induced by the multigroup theory (self-shielding models and expansion of the scattering law using Legendre polynomials) to represent physical phenomena (resonant absorption and scattering anisotropy respectively). This work focuses on the relevance of a polynomial expansion to model the scattering law. Since the outset of reactor physics, the latter has been expanded on a truncated Legendre polynomial basis. However, the transfer cross sections are highly anisotropic, with non-zero values for a very small range of the cosine of the scattering angle. Besides, the finer the energy mesh and the lighter the scattering nucleus, the more exacerbated is the peaked shape of this cross section. As such, the Legendre expansion is less suited to represent the scattering law. Furthermore, this model induces negative values which are non-physical. In this work, various scattering laws are briefly described and the limitations of the existing model are pointed out. Hence, piecewise-constant functions have been used to represent the multigroup scattering cross section. This representation requires a different model for the diffusion source. The discrete ordinates method which is widely employed to solve the transport equation has been adapted. Thus, the finite volume method for angular discretization has been developed and implemented in Paris environment which hosts the S n solver, Snatch. The angular finite volume method has been compared to the collocation method with Legendre moments to ensure its proper performance. Moreover, unlike the latter, this method is adapted for both the Legendre moments and the piecewise-constant functions representations of the scattering cross section. This hybrid-source method has been validated for different cases: fuel cell in infinite lattice

  10. Collaboration between physical activity researchers and transport planners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crist, Katie; Bolling, Khalisa; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2018-01-01

    sources. Informants believed that research collaboration could increase capacity by providing unbiased data and access to students to assist with targeted research. Collaboration could also increase the relevance of academic research in applied settings. Identified barriers included: setting up contracts...... the benefits and barriers of researcher and transport agency collaboration, and 4) identify the facilitators to collaboration for these groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 transport modeling, planning or engineering professionals, transport agency directors, and academics with relevant...... expertise in health or transport planning. A thematic analysis was conducted following structural coding by two researchers. The analysis revealed that geographic and physical activity data that are current, local, objective and specific to individual AT trips would improve upon currently available data...

  11. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This TM is a compilation of abstracts of the papers and the posters presented at the conference. Web-based proceedings, including the charts used by the presenters, will be posted on the web shortly after the conference.

  12. Advanced physical protection systems for facilities and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing advanced physical protection safeguards in order to improve the security of special nuclear materials, facilities, and transportation. Computer models are being used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative systems for protecting facilities against external attack which may include internal assistance, and against internal theft or sabotage. Physical protection elements such as admittance controls, portals and detectors, perimeter and interior intrusion alarms, fixed and remotely activated barriers, and secure communications are being evaluated, adapted, and where required, developed. New facilities safeguards concepts which involve ''control loops'' between physical protection and materials control elements are being evolved jointly between Sandia Laboratories and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Special vehicles and digital communications equipment have been developed for the ERDA safe-secure transportation system. The current status and direction of these activities are surveyed

  13. Multigroup cross section collapsing optimization of a He-3 detector assembly model using deterministic transport techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Mi; Yi, Ce; Manalo, Kevin L.; Sjoden, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    Multigroup optimization is performed on a neutron detector assembly to examine the validity of transport response in forward and adjoint modes. For SN transport simulations, we discuss the multigroup collapse of an 80 group library to 40, 30, and 16 groups, constructed from using the 3-D parallel PENTRAN and macroscopic cross section collapsing with YGROUP contribution weighting. The difference in using P 1 and P 3 Legendre order in scattering cross sections is investigated; also, associated forward and adjoint transport responses are calculated. We conclude that for the block analyzed, a 30 group cross section optimizes both computation time and accuracy relative to the 80 group transport calculations. (author)

  14. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  15. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cope

    Full Text Available Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong, and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights, were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy.

  16. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  17. Physical activity during work, transport and leisure in Germany--prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed 1 to provide data estimates concerning overall moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA as well as MVPA during work, transport and leisure in Germany and 2 to investigate MVPA and possible associations with socio-demographic correlates. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed 2248 representative participants in the age of 18-65 years (1077 men; 42.4 ± 13.4 years; body mass index: 25.3 ± 4.5 kg • m(-2 regarding their self-reported physical activity across Germany. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to investigate MVPA during work, transport and leisure and questions were answered concerning their demographics. MVPA was stratified by gender, age, body mass index, residential setting, educational and income level. To identify socio-demographic correlates of overall MVPA as well as in the domains, we used a series of linear regressions. RESULTS: 52.8% of the sample achieved physical activity recommendations (53.7% men/52.1% women. Overall MVPA was highest in the age group 18-29 years (p < .05, in participants with 10 years of education (p < .05 and in participants with lowest income levels < 1.500 € (p < .05. Regression analyses revealed that age, education and income were negatively associated with overall and work MVPA. Residential setting and education was positively correlated with transport MVPA, whereas income level was negatively associated with transport MVPA. Education was the only correlate for leisure MVPA with a positive association. CONCLUSIONS: The present data underlines the importance of a comprehensive view on physical activity engagement according to the different physical activity domains and discloses a need for future physical activity interventions that consider socio-demographic variables, residential setting as well as the physical activity domain in Germany.

  18. 50 Years of Health Physics Section of the Roland Eotvos Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.; Deme, A.; Feher, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Health Physics Section of the Roland Eötvös Physical Society (Hungary) was founded 50 years ago in March 1962 by eighty radiation protection specialists. The main goal from the most beginning is to provide forum for people working in radiation protection in Hungary aiming at safe application of ionizing radiation and of atomic energy. Our Section is the member of IRPA since the first IRPA General Assembly (7 September 1966). The second European Regional Congress of IPRA was held in Budapest in 1972. Recently the Section has about 160 members. The permanent forms of our activities are: organisation every year of a 3-day upgrading course in radiation protection. The first course was held in 1976, last year (2012) we had the 37th course in Hajdúszoboszló, Hungary, regular issue of Radiation Newsletters, up to now 51 numbers, on-line paper Radiation Protection serves for publication of results, book on Radiation Protection (in Hungarian) got out in 2010, international cooperation in radiation with neighbouring countries including CRPA. Our paper presents other achievements of the Section as well.(author)

  19. Evidence for regulation of polar auxin transport at the efflux carrier in maize coleoptile sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Previously we have shown that conditions which result in an increased auxin-induced growth response in maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile sections also result in a decrease in the velocity of polar auxin transport. Coleoptile sections given conditions which result in slower transport of IAA have different kinetics for net IAA accumulation compared to sections given conditions which result in faster transport. In further experiments, sections were loaded with 30 nM ( 3 H)IAA in the presence of increasing unlabeled IAA at low pH. Efflux of ( 3 H)IAA was then followed as a function of unlabeled IAA. Saturation of efflux appears to occur at a lower conc. of IAA in sections showing slower transport

  20. Annual progress report for 1982 of Theoretical Reactor Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, B.P.; Kumar, Vinod

    1983-01-01

    The progress of work done in the Theoretical Reactor Physics Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1982 is reported in the form of write-ups and summaries. The main thrust of the work has been to master the neutronic design technology of four different types of nuclear reactor types, namely, pressurized heavy water reactors, boiling light water reactors, pressurized light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. The development work for the neutronic analysis, fuel design, and fuel management of the BWR type reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station has been completed. A new reactor simulator system for PHWR design analysis and core follow-up was completed. Three dimensional static analysis codes based on nodal and finite element methods for the design work of larger size (500-750 MWe) reactors have been developed. Space link kinetics codes in one, two and three dimensions for above-mentioned reactor systems have been written and validated. Fast reactor core disruptive analysis codes have been developed. In the course of R and D work concerning various types of reactor projects, investigations were also carried in the allied areas of Monte Carlo techniques, integral transform methods, path integral methods, high spin states in heavy nuclei and a hydrodynamics model for a laser driven fusion system. (M.G.B.)

  1. Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases, swarm parameters and cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Z Lj; Suvakov, M; Nikitovic, Z; Dujko, S; Sasic, O; Jovanovic, J; Malovic, G; Stojanovic, V

    2007-01-01

    In this review we discuss the current status of the physics of charged particle swarms, mainly electrons. The whole field is analysed mainly through its relationship to plasma modelling and illustrated by some recent examples developed mainly by our group. The measurements of the swarm coefficients and the availability of the data are briefly discussed. More time is devoted to the development of complete electron-molecule cross section sets along with recent examples such as NO, CF 4 and HBr. We extend the discussion to the availability of ion and fast neutral data and how swarm experiments may serve to provide new data. As a point where new insight into the kinetics of charge particle transport is provided, the role of kinetic phenomena is discussed and recent examples are listed. We focus here on giving two examples on how non-conservative processes make dramatic effects in transport, the negative absolute mobility and the negative differential conductivity for positrons in argon. Finally we discuss the applicability of swarm data in plasma modelling and the relationship to other fields where swarm experiments and analysis make significant contributions. (topical review)

  2. Progress report - Physics and Health Sciences - Physics Section - 1986 July 01 - December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This progress report of the Physics section of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories highlights work on major equipment: 1) Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC), 2) Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL), 3) Spectrometer Array for Particles Produced in Heavy Ion Reactions (SAPPHIRE), and 4) The Double Neutron Spectrometer for neutron scattering (DUALSPEC). Theoretical physics work includes fractal theory, non-topological soliton model of the nucleons, meson currents in relativistic shell model theories and supergravity. Progress of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and the National Fusion Program (NFP) is discussed. Two commercial aspects are included; the formation of Shar-Buc Enterprises, the first spin-off business of the Research Company and the Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry (ANDI), a major commercial activity

  3. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  4. On calculating phase shifts and performing fits to scattering cross sections or transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepburn, J.W.; Roy, R.J. Le

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods of calculating quantum mechanical phase shifts and for performing least-squares fits to scattering cross sections or transport properties, are described. Their use in a five-parameter fit to experimental differential cross sections reduces the computer time by a factor of 4-7. (Auth.)

  5. Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S; Butler, James P

    2013-10-01

    The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin air-blood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. The particle-lung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic. Conversely, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drugs. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this article. A large portion of this article deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: (i) the physical characteristics of particles, (ii) particle behavior in gas flow, and (iii) gas-flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The article concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1437-1471, 2013.

  6. Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, H.C.

    1990-08-01

    The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles.

  7. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  8. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute concerning theoretical physics, nuclear reactions, hyperfine structure, atomic collisions, and developments of the VICKSI accelerator together with a list of publications and talks. (HSI) [de

  9. Neutron standard cross sections in reactor physics - Need and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The design and improvement of nuclear reactors require detailed neutronics calculations. These calculations depend on comprehensive libraries of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Most of the cross sections that form the data base for these evaluations have been measured relative to neutron cross-section standards. The use of these standards can often simplify the measurement process by eliminating the need for a direct measurement of the neutron fluence. The standards are not known perfectly, however; thus the accuracy of a cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross section relative to which it is measured. Improvements in a standard cause all cross sections measured relative to that standard to be improved. This is the reason for the emphasis on improving the neutron cross-section standards. The continual process of measurement and evaluation has led to improvements in the accuracy and range of applicability of the standards. Though these improvements have been substantial, this process must continue in order to obtain the high-quality standards needed by the user community

  10. Physical activity and blood pressure. A cross-sectional review

    OpenAIRE

    Støyten, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is known as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the world-wide prevalence of hypertension is expected to rise to 30 % by the end of 2025. Physical activity has been shown to be a major part of the conservative treatment of hypertension, although the nature of the dose-response relationship is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between physical activity and blood pressure in the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study. Meth...

  11. Low emittance growth in a low energy beam transport line with un-neutralized section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, L.; Carneiro, J.-P.; Shemyakin, A.

    2018-02-01

    In a low energy beam transport line (LEBT), the emittance growth due to the beam's space charge is typically suppressed by way of neutralization from either electrons or ions, which originate from ionization of the background gas. In cases where the beam is chopped, the neutralization pattern usually changes throughout the beginning of the pulse, causing the Twiss parameters to differ significantly from their steady state values, which, in turn, may result in beam losses downstream. For a modest beam perveance, there is an alternative solution, in which the beam is kept un-neutralized in the portion of the LEBT that contains the chopper. The emittance can be nearly preserved if the transition to the un-neutralized section occurs where the beam exhibits low transverse tails. This report introduces the rationale for the proposed scheme and formulates the physical arguments for it as well as its limitations. An experimental realization of the scheme was carried out at Fermilab's PIP2IT where low beam emittance dilution was demonstrated for a 5 mA, 30 keV H- beam.

  12. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts of the scientific work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The scientific work is concerned with the theory of nuclear and atomic processes with heavy ions, the experimental study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure studies, nuclear solid-state physics, atomic collisions, and the operation of VICKSI. (HSI)

  13. Developing a multi-physics solver in APOLLO3 and applications to cross section homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, Kevin-James

    2016-01-01

    Multi-physics coupling is becoming of large interest in the nuclear engineering and computational science fields. The ability to obtain accurate solutions to realistic models is important to the design and licensing of novel reactor designs, especially in design basis accident situations. The physical models involved in calculating accident behavior in nuclear reactors includes: neutron transport, thermal conduction/convection, thermo-mechanics in fuel and support structure, fuel stoichiometry, among others. However, this thesis focuses on the coupling between two models, neutron transport and thermal conduction/convection.The goal of this thesis is to develop a multi-physics solver for simulating accidents in nuclear reactors. The focus is both on the simulation environment and the data treatment used in such simulations.This work discusses the development of a multi-physics framework based around the Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method. The framework includes linear and nonlinear solvers, along with interfaces to existing numerical codes that solve neutron transport and thermal hydraulics models (APOLLO3 and MCTH respectively) through the computation of residuals. a new formulation for the neutron transport residual is explored, which reduces the solution size and search space by a large factor; instead of the residual being based on the angular flux, it is based on the fission source.The question of whether using a fundamental mode distribution of the neutron flux for cross section homogenization is sufficiently accurate during fast transients is also explored. It is shown that in an infinite homogeneous medium, using homogenized cross sections produced with a fundamental mode flux differ significantly from a reference solution. The error is remedied by using an alternative weighting flux taken from a time dependent calculation; either a time-integrated flux or an asymptotic solution. The time-integrated flux comes from the multi-physics solution of the

  14. Electron Impact Multiple Ionization Cross Sections for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.; Mueller, A.

    2017-12-01

    We have compiled a set of electron-impact multiple ionization (EIMI) cross sections for astrophysically relevant ions. EIMI can have a significant effect on the ionization balance of non-equilibrium plasmas. For example, it can be important if there is a rapid change in the electron temperature, as in solar flares or in nanoflare coronal heating. EIMI is also likely to be significant when the electron energy distribution is non-thermal, such as if the electrons follow a kappa distribution. Cross sections for EIMI are needed in order to account for these processes in plasma modeling and for spectroscopic interpretation. Here, we describe our comparison of proposed semiempirical formulae to the available experimental EIMI cross section data. Based on this comparison, we have interpolated and extrapolated fitting parameters to systems that have not yet been measured. A tabulation of the fit parameters is provided for thousands of EIMI cross sections. We also highlight some outstanding issues that remain to be resolved.

  15. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  16. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)

    2015-01-22

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  17. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating

  18. Some Physics and Applications for DNA Transport Through Single Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasianowicz, J. J.

    2002-03-01

    In an effort to understand macromolecular transport in living systems, we are studying the ability of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to thread through single nanometer-scale pores. Some six years ago it was shown that an applied electrostatic potential can drive individual negatively charged molecules of ssDNA through a single Staphylococcus aureus a-hemolysin (aHL) protein ionic channel(Kasianowicz, J.J., et al. 1996. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 93, 13770). We also demonstrated that the mean rate at which polynucleotides enter this pore depends on the magnitude of the applied potential and the side through which the polymer enters. Although the flux of polynucleotides into the pore can be described by a simple Van't-Hoff rate law(Henrickson, S.E., et al. 2000. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3057), detailed models provide more physical insight into both this process and polymer translocation(Konkoli, Z., et al. submitted)/footnoteAmbjörnsson, T., et al. submitted. We show that modified polynucleotides can be used to probe the structure of channels formed by native aHL and modified aHL mutants(Henrickson, et al., submitted). These experimental results suggest that both the location of energy barriers to polymer transport and the channel's geometric properties can be determined. We discuss several potential biotechnological applications based on these findings(Kasianowicz, J.J. et al., Anal. Chem. 73, 2268)(Stanford, V. and J.J. Kasianowicz, submitted.)

  19. Effects of hydration and physical therapy on tracheal transport velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.K.; Taplin, G.V.; Simmons, D.H.; Coulson, A.; Elam, D.

    1976-01-01

    A new tracer method for quantitative measurements of tracheal transport velocity (TTV) in mm/min in dogs has been described recently. Using the same technique, the effects of dehydration, hydration, postural drainage and physical therapy on TTV were studied. There was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in TTV following dehydration and these values reverted to normal with hydration in all ten dogs. Tracheal transport velocity increased on the average of 39.7 percent with a mean change of 7.7 mm/min (p < 0.01) following postural drainage in seven dogs. On the other hand, TTV increased on the average of 51 percent with a mean change of 8.2 mm/min (p <0.01) following chest percussion in six dogs. Postural drainage and chest percussion each increased TTV significantly beyond the base-line values. However, hydration only restored TTV to base-line values when applied to dogs in the hydropenic state. These therapeutic measures have been used empirically in the past. The present study gives objective evidence of their beneficial effects in dogs and suggests that such treatments may have a definite scientific basis for clinical application in chronic obstructive airways disease

  20. An evaluation of transport mode shift policies on transport-related physical activity through simulations based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondeel, Ruben; Kestens, Yan; Chaix, Basile

    2017-10-23

    Physical inactivity is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of mortality, and transport accounts for a large part of people's daily physical activity. This study develops a simulation approach to evaluate the impact of the Ile-de-France Urban Mobility Plan (2010-2020) on physical activity, under the hypothesis that the intended transport mode shifts are realized. Based on the Global Transport Survey (2010, n = 21,332) and on the RECORD GPS Study (2012-2013, n = 229) from the French capital region of Paris (Ile-de-France), a simulation method was designed and tested. The simulation method used accelerometer data and random forest models to predict the impact of the transport mode shifts anticipated in the Mobility Plan on transport-related moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (T-MVPA). The transport mode shifts include less private motorized trips in favor of more public transport, walking, and biking trips. The simulation model indicated a mean predicted increase of 2 min per day of T-MVPA, in case the intended transport mode shifts in the Ile-de-France Urban Mobility Plan were realized. The positive effect of the transport mode shifts on T-MVPA would, however, be larger for people with a higher level of education. This heterogeneity in the positive effect would further increase the existing inequality in transport-related physical activity by educational level. The method presented in this paper showed a significant increase in transport-related physical activity in case the intended mode shifts in the Ile-de-France Urban Mobility Plan were realized. This simulation method could be applied on other important health outcomes, such as exposure to noise or air pollution, making it a useful tool to anticipate the health impact of transport interventions or policies.

  1. International Conference-Session of the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of RAS

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    From November 17 to 21, 2014 the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI will hold in MEPhI, Moscow, the International Conference-Session of SNP PSD RAS "Physics of Fundamental Interactions". The program of the session covers basic theoretical and experimental aspects of particle physics and related problems of nuclear physics and cosmology, and will consist of 30-minute highlight and review talks as well as 10-15-minute contributed reports. All highlight talks and part of contributed reports will be presented at plenary sessions of the conference. The remaining reports will be presented at the sections which will be formed after receiving of abstracts. On the recommendation of the Organizing Committee reports and talks containing new unpublished results will be published in special issues of journals "Nuclear Physics" and "Nuclear Physics and Engineering". For the institutions belonging to the Rosatom s...

  2. Linking Meander Initation to Instability in the Cross-Sectional Sediment Transport Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, B. C.

    2005-12-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on reach-scale channel dynamics suggests that stream channel response to changes in the discharge or sediment supply regime produce adjustments that are consistent with the optimality criteria (or extremal hypotheses) proposed by rational regime modellers. However, a general form of the optimality criteria based on the maximization of system-scale flow resistance permits multiple channel responses to the same imposed change, and is thus inadequate for predicting channel response, absent additional information. The way forward is to identify the geomorphic processes that produce various possible channel responses, and to develop an understanding of the conditions under which these processes may or may not be effective. Using a simple analytic model relating local sediment transport capacity to variance in the transverse shear stress distribution I develop a physically based conceptual model of the initiation of meandering in straight, bedload dominated streams as a result of a feedback mechanism. This corresponds to a channel response that is dominated by changes the energy slope, which appears to be dominant in channels having relatively erodible banks and transporting their bed material load at conditions near the threshold for entrainment. The feedback maximizes the cross sectional shear stress variance and, in order to achieve stability, minimizes the energy slope at repeated locations along the channel. These locations develop into pools in a fully developed meandering channel; they represent attractor states wherein sediment continuity is satisfied using the least possible energy expenditure per unit length of channel. Between two successive pools, a stream occupies a metastable, higher energy state (corresponding to a riffle) that requires greater energy expenditure per unit length of channel to transport the same volume of sediment. The model links processes at the scale of a channel width to adjustments of the

  3. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  4. Low energy transport coefficients and cross sections for electrons in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Z.L.; Crompton, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    For the design of negative ion sources the reliable cross section data of electron swarms in deuterium are necessary. Earlier theoretical calucations could not reproduce the experimental data. This paper presents new experimental data for drift velocities and mobility in the energy range above the treshold of 2.5 eV where vibrational excitation is the dominant inelastic process. The low energy cross sections are derived from the transport data and are compared with results of other experiments. (D.Gy.)

  5. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage center section including the wheel wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested to measure structural, seat, and anthropomorphic dummy response to vertical crash loads. The specimen had nominally zero pitch, roll and yaw at impact with a sink speed of 20 ft/sec. Results from this drop test and other drop tests of different transport sections will be used to prepare for a full-scale crash test of a B-720.

  6. Distance From Public Transportation and Physical Activity in Japanese Older Adults: The Moderating Role of Driving Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Anan, Yuya; Harada, Kenji; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-25

    Although previous studies have shown that good access to public transportation is positively related with physical activity, the moderators of this relationship have not been explored sufficiently in older adults. It is possible that driving status could moderate this relationship. The present study examined whether the objectively measured distance between public transportation and the home was associated with physical activity levels, and whether this association was moderated by driving status among Japanese older adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants (n = 2,878) completed questionnaires and wore accelerometers for at least 7 days, to measure their average daily step counts and minutes spent engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Road network distances between the home and the nearest bus stop or train station were measured using geographic information systems. Driving status was assessed using questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses stratified by driving status revealed that, among nondrivers, living further away from public transportation was associated with higher step counts (β = 0.08, p transportation was significantly associated with higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (β = -0.05, p = .042). Despite the small effect sizes, the direction of the association between distance from public transportation and physical activity was different for current drivers and nondrivers. These findings imply that good access to public transportation does not positively relate with greater engagement in physical activity among nondriving older adults. Shorter distances to public transportation might reduce opportunities for engaging in physical activity for them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  8. Neighbourhood environment, sitting time and motorised transport in older adults: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Ching, Claudia S-K; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2015-05-03

    Sitting time is a public health concern. This study examined associations of objectively measured neighbourhood environmental attributes with non-transport sitting time and motorised transport in 484 Hong Kong older adults. Neighbourhood attributes encouraging walking may help older adults replace some sitting time at home and on motorised transport with light-to-moderate-intensity activities such as strolling around the neighbourhood or walking to/from neighbourhood destinations. Thus, we hypothesised environmental attributes found to be related to walking would show associations with non-transport sitting time and motorised transport opposite to those seen for walking. Cross-sectional. Hong Kong, an ultradense urban environment. 484 ethnic Chinese Hong Kong residents aged 65+ recruited from membership lists of four Hong Kong Elderly Health Centres representing catchment areas of low and high transport-related walkability stratified by socioeconomic status (response rate: 78%). Attributes of participants' neighbourhood environments were assessed by environmental audits, while non-transport sitting time and motorised transport were ascertained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form (Chinese version). Daily non-transport sitting minutes were 283 (SD=128) and motorised transport 23 (SD=28). Prevalence of signs of crime/disorder, streetlights, public facilities (toilets and benches) and pedestrian safety were independently negatively related, and sloping streets positively related, to sitting outcomes. Places of worship in the neighbourhood were predictive of more, and prevalence of public transit points of less, non-transport sitting. Associations of either or both sitting outcomes with prevalence of food/grocery stores and presence of parks were moderated by path obstructions and signs of crime/disorder. The findings suggest that access to specific destinations and relatively low-cost, minimal impact modifications to the urban form, such

  9. Application of transport equivalent cross-sections obtained by the MONSTRE method to SPX1 case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, J.C.; Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.; Carta, M.; Peluso, V.

    1988-01-01

    Application of the MONSTRE method (method to obtain new transport equivalent cross-sections) to SPX1 case is described. E/C values on control rods antireactivities and flux distributions are reported and compared with those evaluated by a ''standard'' reference calculational route, where transport and finite mesh size correction are a posteriori applied. Results obtained by the two methods show a maximum deviation of about 3% on control rod values, in agreement with the ± 4% MONSTRE method uncertainty announced in a companion paper. Moreover, MONSTRE transport equivalent cross-sections reproduce rather well experimental profiles of reaction rates measured in the frame of T1-T2 measurements performed during SPX1 start up. (author). 5 refs, 11 figs, 8 tabs

  10. Neutron secondary-particle production cross sections and their incorporation into Monte-Carlo transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.; Little, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Realistic simulations of the passage of fast neutrons through tissue require a large quantity of cross-sectional data. What are needed are differential (in particle type, energy and angle) cross sections. A computer code is described which produces such spectra for neutrons above ∼14 MeV incident on light nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. Comparisons have been made with experimental measurements of double-differential secondary charged-particle production on carbon and oxygen at energies from 27 to 60 MeV; they indicate that the model is adequate in this energy range. In order to utilize fully the results of these calculations, they should be incorporated into a neutron transport code. This requires defining a generalized format for describing charged-particle production, putting the calculated results in this format, interfacing the neutron transport code with these data, and charged-particle transport. The design and development of such a program is described. 13 refs., 3 figs

  11. Physical processes that control droplet transport in rock fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Katrina Moran

    Aquifer recharge is generally driven by fluids that move from the Earths surface to groundwater through the unsaturated zone, also known as the vadose zone. When the vadose zone is fractured, fluids, which may include contaminants, can move through the fracture network as well as the porous matrix. Such a network of fractures can provide a more rapid path, thereby reducing contact time between the fluid and the matrix. Contact time allows for exchange of solutes between the fluid and the porous matrix, thus being able to quantify contact time is important. In addition, the behavior of fluids within a fracture network has been found to be very complex; large-scale models are yet not able to predict transport paths or flux rates. Because, small-scale flow phenomena can strongly influence the large-scale behavior of fluid movement through systems of fractures, it is important that small-scale dynamics be properly understood in order to improve our predictive capabilities in these complex systems. Relevant flow dynamics includes the impact of boundary conditions, fluid modes that evolve in time and space and transitions between modes. This thesis presents three investigations aimed at understanding the physical processes governing fluid movement in unsaturated fractures, with the ultimate goal of improving predictive relationships for fluid transport in rock fracture systems. These investigations include a theoretical analysis of the wetting of a rough surface, an experimental study of the dynamics of fluid droplets (or liquid bridges) moving in a single fracture and a theoretical analysis of the movement of a fluid droplet encountering a fracture intersection. Each investigation is motivated by environmental applications. Development of an analytical equation for the wetting of a rough surface is based on a balance between capillary forces and frictional resistive forces. The resulting equation predicts movement of the liquid invasion front driven solely by the

  12. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  13. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerjo Kok; Drs. Barbara Sassen; Drs. Henri Kiers; Herman Schaalma; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective

  14. A Boltzmann Transport Simulation Using Open Source Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Javier

    2004-03-01

    The speed of a charged particle, under an applied electric field, in a conducting media, is, usually, simply modelled by writing Newton's 2nd law in the form mfrac ddtv=qE-mfrac vτ ; (1), where v is the speed, E is the applied electric field, q is the charge, m is the mass, and τ is the scattering time between collisions. Here, we simulate a numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation,frac partial partial tf+ vot nabla _rf+Fot nabla _pf=frac partial partial tf|_coll (2), where in general the Boltzmann distribution function f=f(r,p,t) depends on position, momentum, and time. Our numerical solution is made possible by neglecting the 2nd term on the LHS, and by modelling the RHS collision term as fracpartial partial tf|_coll=-frac 1τ . With these approximations, in addition to considering only one dimension, we find, our numerical solution of (2). The average velocity numerically obtained through the resulting distribution is compared to that obtained by the analytic solution of (1). An efficient method of carrying out the numerical solution of (2) due to P. Drallos and M. Wadehra [Journal of Applied Physics 63, 5601(1988)] is incorporated here. A final version of an applet that performs the full Java simulation will be located at http://www.westga.edu/ jhasbun/osp/osp.htm.

  15. Active transportation and bullying in Canadian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, Ioana; Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-02-07

    Bullying is a recognized social problem within child populations. Engagement in childhood bullying often occurs in settings that are away from adult supervision, such as en route to and from school. Bullying episodes may also have a negative impact on school childrens' decisions to engage in active transportation. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed reports from the 2009/10 cycle of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Records from this general health survey were obtained for 3,997 urban students in grades 6-10 who lived in close proximity of their school and were hence ineligible for school bussing. Students who indicated walking or bicycling to school were classified as engaged in active transportation. Victims and perpetrators of bullying were defined using standard measures and a frequency cut-off of at least 2-3 times per month. Analyses focused on relations between bullying and active transportation, as well as barriers to active transportation as perceived by young people. 27% of young people indicated being victimized, and 12% indicated that they engaged in bullying. Girls were more likely to be victimized than boys, and younger students were more likely to be victimized than older students. Engagement in active transportation was reported by 63% of respondents, of these, 68% indicated that worrying about bullying on the way to school was an impediment to such transportation methods. Victimization by bullying (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.59) was reported more frequently by children who used active transportation. Health promotion efforts to promote engagement in active transportation of students to school have obvious value. The potential for modest increases in exposure to bullying should be considered in the planning of such initiatives.

  16. Transport coefficients and cross sections for electrons in water vapour: Comparison of cross section sets using an improved Boltzmann equation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; White, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits the issues surrounding computation of electron transport properties in water vapour as a function of E/n0 (the ratio of the applied electric field to the water vapour number density) up to 1200 Td. We solve the Boltzmann equation using an improved version of the code of Ness and Robson [Phys. Rev. A 38, 1446 (1988)], facilitating the calculation of transport coefficients to a considerably higher degree of accuracy. This allows a correspondingly more discriminating test of the various electron-water vapour cross section sets proposed by a number of authors, which has become an important issue as such sets are now being applied to study electron driven processes in atmospheric phenomena [P. Thorn, L. Campbell, and M. Brunger, PMC Physics B 2, 1 (2009)] and in modeling charged particle tracks in matter [A. Munoz, F. Blanco, G. Garcia, P. A. Thorn, M. J. Brunger, J. P. Sullivan, and S. J. Buckman, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 277, 175 (2008)].

  17. Active transport between home and school assessed with GPS: a cross-sectional study among Dutch elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; de Vries, S.I.; Graham, J.M.A.; Pierik, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active transport to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport has therefore gained attention as a potential target to increase children's physical activity levels. Recent studies have recognized that the distance between home

  18. Active transport between home and school assessed with GPS: a cross-sectional study among Dutch elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Graham, J.M.A.; Pierik, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Active transport to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport has therefore gained attention as a potential target to increase children’s physical activity levels. Recent studies have recognized that the distance between home

  19. A Collaborative Approach to Transportation Planning: Federal and State Perspectives on Section 180(c) Program Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaluso, C.; Strong, T.; Janairo, L.; Helvey, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) committed in its November 2003 Strategic Plan for the Safe Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to Yucca Mountain: A Guide to Stakeholder Interactions to develop the transportation system collaboratively with stakeholders. The Strategic Plan further stated that four state regional groups (SRGs) would be the 'anchors' for OCRWM's collaboration with the states. The first major transportation planning activity that OCRWM initiated after publication of the Strategic Plan was the development of the Section 180(c) grant program. This document describes that collaboration and its outcomes from the perspective of the OCRWM participants and one of the SRGs, the Council of State Governments - Midwestern Office (CSG Midwest). (authors)

  20. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics. Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1998[Oslo Univ., Oslo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In connection with that, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. The total beamtime used for experiments in 1998 was 1051 hours. 52 days were used by the Nuclear Physics section, 70 days by the University of Oslo Nuclear Chemistry section and the Norwegian Cancer Hospital used the cyclotron for 12 days. 42 days were spent on maintenance. In experimental nuclear physics, the section members are engaged within three main fields of research: Nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  1. Positron Scattering from Molecules: An Experimental Cross Section Compilation for Positron Transport Studies and Benchmarking Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2017-06-01

    We present a compilation of recommended positron-molecule cross sections for a range of scattering processes including elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, discrete electronic-state excitation, positronium formation, ionization, and also for the grand total cross section. Where possible, in particular for possible application in positron transport simulations for a given molecule, we try and list data for energies in the range 0.1-1000 eV although in practice the actual energy is highly target-molecule and scattering process specific. Aside from being relevant to positron transport studies, through, for example, Monte Carlo simulations, the present compilation should also be germane for benchmarking the validity and accuracy of positron-molecule scattering calculations and, just as importantly, to allow a comparison with corresponding electron scattering results. That latter comparison can shed real light on the projectile-target interactions that underpin the scattering dynamics.

  2. Theoretical study of hydrogen and nitrogen interactions - N-H transport cross sections and collision integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Bauschlischer, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Potential energy curves have been calculated for the X 3Sigma(-) and 5Sigma(-) states of NH using a complete-active-space self-consistent-field/multireference configuration-interaction procedure and extensive Gaussian basis sets. An accurate dipole moment function is computed for the X 3Sigma(-) state. Transport cross sections have been calculated for the collisions of hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in their ground states. The mean transport cross sections are tabulated for collision energies in the range 0.0001-1 E(h); the mean collision integrals are listed for temperatures between 100 and 100,000 K. The ab initio energies for the 5 Sigma(-) state of NH are found to be consistent with the results of correlation studies and agree well with the prediction from combining relations using the energies of the highest spin states of H2 and N2.

  3. Macroscopic cross sections for analyzing the transport of neutral particles in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tadakazu; Taji, Yuukichi; Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1975-05-01

    Algorithms have been developed for calculating the ionization and charge exchange cross sections required for analyzing the neutral transport in plasmas. In our algorithms, the integration of the expression for reaction rate of neutrals with plasmas is performed by expanding the integrand with the use of polynomials. At present, multi-energy-group sets of the cross sections depending on plasma temperature and energy of neutrals can be prepared by means of Maxwellian averages over energy. Calculational results are printed out in the FIDO format. Some numerical examples are given for several forms of spatial distributions assumed for the plasma ion temperature and source neutral energy. (auth.)

  4. Electronic transport in graphene-based structures: An effective cross-section approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uppstu, Andreas; Saloriutta, Karri; Harju, Ari

    2012-01-01

    We show that transport in low-dimensional carbon structures with finite concentrations of scatterers can be modeled by utilizing scaling theory and effective cross sections. Our results are based on large-scale numerical simulations of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, using a tight......-binding model with parameters obtained from first-principles electronic structure calculations. As shown by a comprehensive statistical analysis, the scattering cross sections can be used to estimate the conductance of a quasi-one-dimensional system both in the Ohmic and localized regimes. They can be computed...

  5. Physical activity and associated factors from a cross-sectional survey among adults in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Beatrice; Todd, Jim; Mboya, Innocent; Mosha, Mary; Urassa, Mark; Mtuy, Tara

    2017-06-20

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is a major contributing factor in the growing problem of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in urban and rural Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to determine PA and associated factors among adults in Northern Tanzania. We analyzed secondary data from a cross-sectional serological survey nested within the Magu health and demographic sentinel surveillance population in Magu District Northwestern Tanzania. All resident adults aged 15 years and older were invited to participate in the study, and physical activity data were analyzed for 5663 participants. Data were analyzed using Stata version 13.0. We used logistic regression to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk factors associated with differences in PA. In this mainly rural population, 96% reported sufficient PA, with a higher proportion in males (97.3%) compared to females (94.8%). In males the odds of sufficient PA were lower in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 0.19; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 0.08-0.42), while in females the odds of sufficient PA were higher in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.59-3.24). Leisure-related activity was low compared to work-related and transport-related activity. Farmers had a higher odds of sufficient PA than those in professional jobs in both males (OR = 9.75; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 3.68-5.82) and females (OR = 2.83; P = 0.021; 95% CI = 1.17-6.86). The prevalence of PA in this population was high. However, there is need for PA programs to maintain the high level of compliance during and following the transition to a more urban-based culture.

  6. Physics and modelling of scrape-off layer transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H.; Allen, S.L.; Crotinger, J.A.; Kaiser, T.B.; Milovich, J.L.; Mattor, N.; Nevins, W.M.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Berk, H.L. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Campbell, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diamond, P.H.; Rosenbluth, M.N. [California Univ., San Diego, CA (United States); Hinton, F.L.; Staebler, G.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Knoll, D.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Modi, B.; Xu, X.Q. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Prinja, A.K. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Y.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russia)

    1992-12-31

    We present studies of three schemes for reducing the peak heat flux on divertor plates, divertor biasing, impurity injection (``radiative divertor``) and neutral gas injection (``gas target divertor``). We report on theoretical analysis of a likely source of turbulent transport in the SOL and incorporation of the resultant transport coefficients into self-consistent models.

  7. Physics and modelling of scrape-off layer transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H.; Allen, S.L.; Crotinger, J.A.; Kaiser, T.B.; Milovich, J.L.; Mattor, N.; Nevins, W.M.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Rognlien, T.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Berk, H.L. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Campbell, R.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Diamond, P.H.; Rosenbluth, M.N. (California Univ., San Di

    1992-01-01

    We present studies of three schemes for reducing the peak heat flux on divertor plates, divertor biasing, impurity injection ( radiative divertor'') and neutral gas injection ( gas target divertor''). We report on theoretical analysis of a likely source of turbulent transport in the SOL and incorporation of the resultant transport coefficients into self-consistent models.

  8. Physics and modelling of scrape-off layer transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Allen, S.L.; Crotinger, J.A.; Kaiser, T.B.; Milovich, J.L.; Mattor, N.; Nevins, W.M.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Rognlien, T.D.; Berk, H.L.; Diamond, P.H.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Hinton, F.L.; Staebler, G.M.; Knoll, D.A.; Modi, B.; Xu, X.Q.; Prinja, A.K.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Y.A.

    1992-01-01

    We present studies of three schemes for reducing the peak heat flux on divertor plates, divertor biasing, impurity injection (''radiative divertor'') and neutral gas injection (''gas target divertor''). We report on theoretical analysis of a likely source of turbulent transport in the SOL and incorporation of the resultant transport coefficients into self-consistent models

  9. Progress report, physics and health sciences, physics section, 1986 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The two progress reports PR-PHS-P-1 (AECL-9262) and PR-PHS-HS-1 (AECL-9263) are continuations of the former series in Physics, PR-P-142, (AECL-9103) and in Health Sciences, PH-HS-20 (AECL-9102). The new series have been initiated to take into account the reorganization of the Research Company effective 1986 February 1. It is intended to issue the reports semi-annually on June 30 and December 31 covering the previous six months. The new series cover the same areas as before except that the Accelerator Physics Branch and the Mathematics and Computation Branch activities are no longer included in Physics, and the activities of the Medical Biophysics Branch at Whiteshell are now included in Health Sciences. The latest progress report on the Medical Biophysics work appeared in the WNRE report PR-WHS-73. This report (AECL-9262) covers the research, business and commercial activities of Nuclear Physics, TASCC Operations, Neutron and Solid State Physics, Theoretical Physics and the Fusion Office

  10. Technical activities report for June 1953 physics unit - applied research sub-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, J.E.; Devenport, D.E.; Duvall, G.E.

    1953-07-03

    This report describes work within the applied research section of the physics group at Hanford during June 1953, both experimental and theoretical. It includes work on carbon 12 thermal neutron cross sections, tritium conversion efficiency, critical mass studies, fission cross sections of Pu-239 and U-235, studies of exponential piles and slug buckling, theoretical studies of lattice experiments to study neutron fluxes, and studies of radiation damage effects on thermal conductivity of graphite.

  11. Analysis of EBR-II neutron and photon physics by multidimensional transport-theory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacqmin, R.P.; Finck, P.J.; Palmiotti, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a review of the challenges specific to the EBR-II core physics, a description of the methods and techniques which have been developed for addressing these challenges, and the results of some validation studies relative to power-distribution calculations. Numerical tests have shown that the VARIANT nodal code yields eigenvalue and power predictions as accurate as finite difference and discrete ordinates transport codes, at a small fraction of the cost. Comparisons with continuous-energy Monte Carlo results have proven that the errors introduced by the use of the diffusion-theory approximation in the collapsing procedure to obtain broad-group cross sections, kerma factors, and photon-production matrices, have a small impact on the EBR-II neutron/photon power distribution

  12. Assessing apical transportation in curved canals: comparison between cross-sections and micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Gonzales Freire

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two methods of assessing apical transportation in curved canals after rotary instrumentation, namely, cross-sections and micro-computed tomography (µCT. Thirty mandibular molars were divided into two groups and prepared according to the requirements of each method. In G1 (cross-sections, teeth were embedded in resin blocks and sectioned at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex. Pre- and postoperative sections were photographed and analyzed. In G2 (µCT, teeth were embedded in a rubber-base impression material and scanned before and after instrumentation. Mesiobuccal canals were instrumented with the Twisted File (TF system (SybronEndo, Orange, USA, and mesiolingual canals, with the EndoSequence (ES system (Brasseler, Savannah, USA. Images were reconstructed, and sections corresponding to distances 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex were selected for comparison. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test at a 5% significance level. The TF and ES instruments produced little deviation from the root canal center, with no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05. The canal transportation results were significantly lower (0.056 mm in G2 than in G1 (0.089 mm (p = 0.0012. The µCT method was superior to the cross-section method, especially in view of its ability to preserve specimens and provide results that are more closely related to clinical situations.

  13. Assessing apical transportation in curved canals: comparison between cross-sections and micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Laila Gonzales; Gavini, Giulio; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Santos, Marcelo dos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of assessing apical transportation in curved canals after rotary instrumentation, namely, cross-sections and micro-computed tomography (µCT). Thirty mandibular molars were divided into two groups and prepared according to the requirements of each method. In G1 (cross-sections), teeth were embedded in resin blocks and sectioned at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex. Pre- and postoperative sections were photographed and analyzed. In G2 (µCT), teeth were embedded in a rubber-base impression material and scanned before and after instrumentation. Mesiobuccal canals were instrumented with the Twisted File (TF) system (SybronEndo, Orange, USA), and mesiolingual canals, with the EndoSequence (ES) system (Brasseler, Savannah, USA). Images were reconstructed, and sections corresponding to distances 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex were selected for comparison. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test at a 5% significance level. The TF and ES instruments produced little deviation from the root canal center, with no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05). The canal transportation results were significantly lower (0.056 mm) in G2 than in G1 (0.089 mm) (p = 0.0012). The µCT method was superior to the cross-section method, especially in view of its ability to preserve specimens and provide results that are more closely related to clinical situations.

  14. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Interactions of Hydrogen and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interaction energies for N2-He and N2-H2 are calculated by accurate ab initio methods. The virial coefficient and differential scattering cross section for N2-H2 are calculated; the theoretical results are compared with experimental data. The transport collision integrals for N2-H2 and N2-N2 interactions are calculated and tabulated; the results yield transport coefficients that compare well with measured data. Transport coefficients are found to be determined accurately from the interaction energies for a specific configuration of the molecule formed from the interaction partners. Comparisons with results of measurement and accurate calculations demonstrate that the transport properties of complex molecular interactions can be determined rapidly and fairly accurately from the interaction energies of simpler system using combination rules for the short-range parameters of effective interaction energies and the coefficients for the long-range forces. The coefficients for a two-parameter temperature expansion of diffusion and viscosity are tabulated for a realistic universal potential energy that is based primarily on the results of very accurate calculations of the He-He interaction energy.

  15. An integrated risk assessment of the environmental hazards influence on Kazakhstan section (from Khorgas and Dostyk dry ports to Aktau seaport) of the international transport corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyanova, F. Zh; Arykbayeva, Z. K.; Atalikhova, A. M.; Dauilbayev, B. A.; Zinabdin, N. B.; Kubeyev, A. B.; Tkach, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article outlines research results on the assessment of natural hazards impact risk on the international transport corridors’ Kazakhstan section (from Khorgas and Dostyk dry ports to the seaport of Aktau) functioning. Based on the component-by-stage analysis of physical and geographical conditions with the use of qualimetric approach, the areas with different risk levels of natural disasters were identified. To minimize the risk of natural problems exposure, a set of environmental recommendations has been developed.

  16. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  17. Dynamics of students’ physical fitness during sectional crossfit and football sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Hrygoriev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the influence of crossfit and football in the sectional work on physical education on the dynamics of physical fitness of students. Material & Methods: studies of the level of physical preparedness of students were carried out with the help of two tests before and after the introduction of experimental techniques in the survey groups. Two experimental (18 girls, 16 boys and two control groups (22 girls and boys from the 2nd year students of the Kherson State University. Results: the analysis of the physical readiness of the students of the University was carried out under the influence of the classes of crossfit and football in the framework of the sectional work on physical education on the dynamics of the indicators of the development of high-speed, strength and speed-strength qualities, the development of agility and flexibility. Conclusion: use of developed methodological approaches to the application of sectional forms of physical education contributed to significant changes in the indicators of physical preparedness.

  18. Generation of discrete scattering cross sections and demonstration of Monte Carlo charged particle transport in the Milagro IMC code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J. A. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NW12-312 Albany, St. Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Palmer, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Urbatsch, T. J. [XTD-5: Air Force Systems, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A new method for generating discrete scattering cross sections to be used in charged particle transport calculations is investigated. The method of data generation is presented and compared to current methods for obtaining discrete cross sections. The new, more generalized approach allows greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data generated with the new method is verified through a comparison with discrete data obtained with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code package, Milagro. The implementation of this capability is verified using test problems with analytic solutions as well as a comparison of electron dose-depth profiles calculated with Milagro and an already-established electron transport code. An initial investigation of a preliminary integration of the discrete cross section generation method with the new charged particle transport capability in Milagro is also presented. (authors)

  19. Orienteering section as a form of extracurricular activities in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracurricular activities offer students the opportunity to learn and train sports not provided by curriculum of physical education. Staying active in nature in terms of the orientation movement is greatly beneficial for the development of mental and physical abilities. The aim of this paper is to present opportunities for the organizing orienteering section in elementary school. Descriptive method was applied to be shown plan and program of the section designed so that teachers of physical education in their schools provide implementation of orienteering section for 30 classes. The expected outcome of orienteering section is to enable students to independently perform at competitions. Training is done through the implementation of goals and objectives of sections, using methodological procedures with respect to the pupils' age, prior knowledge and the pace of overcoming the training. Plan and program section includes mastering the basic technique in orienteering, through theoretical and practical work. In working with students who are for the first time in orienteering, the main focus should be on reading the maps, and understanding the relationship between nature and maps. In primary schools there are possibilities to organize orienteering section, and there is a significant correlation with other subjects. The presented model provides the optimal level of theoretical and practical knowledge that students can apply in school competitions.

  20. Physical protection in the transport of nuclear materials (Legal aspects of the domestic system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, F.J.G.

    1978-04-01

    A study of the physical protection system is made. Emphasis is given to some considerations in the nuclear material transport area, mainly the details of the domestic system, from a juridic pont of view. (Author) [pt

  1. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change: opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward; Steg, Linda; Anable, Jillian

    2009-10-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options--walking or cycling--or with public transportation. In this commentary, we review a number of immediate, practical opportunities to implement policies and programs that reduce short car trips and increase active transportation.

  2. A novel two-dimensional model for colloid transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, N; Elimelech, M; Sun, N Z; Ryan, J N

    2001-06-01

    A two-dimensional model for colloid transport in geochemically and physically heterogeneous porous media is presented. The model considers patchwise geochemical heterogeneity, which is suitable to describe the chemical variability of many surficial aquifers with ferric oxyhydroxide-coated porous matrix, as well as spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, which results in heterogeneous flow field. The model is comprised of a transient fluid flow equation, a transient colloid transport equation, and an equation for the dynamics of colloid deposition and release. Numerical simulations were carried out with the model to investigate the colloid transport behavior in layered and randomly heterogeneous porous media. Results demonstrate that physical and geochemical heterogeneities markedly affect the colloid transport behavior. Layered physical or geochemical heterogeneity can result in distinct preferential flow paths of colloidal particles. Furthermore, the combined effect of layered physical and geochemical heterogeneity may result in enhanced or reduced preferential flow of colloids. Random distribution of physical heterogeneity (hydraulic conductivity) results in a random flow field and an irregularly distributed colloid concentration profile in the porous medium. Contrary to random physical heterogeneity, the effect of random patchwise geochemical heterogeneity on colloid transport behavior is not significant. It is mostly the mean value of geochemical heterogeneity rather than its distribution that governs the colloid transport behavior.

  3. A CUMULATIVE MIGRATION METHOD FOR COMPUTING RIGOROUS TRANSPORT CROSS SECTIONS AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS FOR LWR LATTICES WITH MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoyuan Liu; Kord Smith; Benoit Forget; Javier Ortensi

    2016-05-01

    A new method for computing homogenized assembly neutron transport cross sections and dif- fusion coefficients that is both rigorous and computationally efficient is proposed in this paper. In the limit of a homogeneous hydrogen slab, the new method is equivalent to the long-used, and only-recently-published CASMO transport method. The rigorous method is used to demonstrate the sources of inaccuracy in the commonly applied “out-scatter” transport correction. It is also demonstrated that the newly developed method is directly applicable to lattice calculations per- formed by Monte Carlo and is capable of computing rigorous homogenized transport cross sections for arbitrarily heterogeneous lattices. Comparisons of several common transport cross section ap- proximations are presented for a simple problem of infinite medium hydrogen. The new method has also been applied in computing 2-group diffusion data for an actual PWR lattice from BEAVRS benchmark.

  4. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  5. Physics basis of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Departments of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Assoc., S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The derivation of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module version 8.1 (MMM8.1) is presented. The MMM8.1 module is advanced, relative to MMM7.1, by the inclusion of peeling modes, dependence of turbulence correlation length on flow shear, electromagnetic effects in the toroidal momentum diffusivity, and the option to compute poloidal momentum diffusivity. The MMM8.1 model includes a model for ion temperature gradient, trapped electron, kinetic ballooning, peeling, collisionless and collision dominated magnetohydrodynamics modes as well as model for electron temperature gradient modes, and a model for drift resistive inertial ballooning modes. In the derivation of the MMM8.1 module, effects of collisions, fast ion and impurity dilution, non-circular flux surfaces, finite beta, and Shafranov shift are included. The MMM8.1 is used to compute thermal, particle, toroidal, and poloidal angular momentum transports. The fluid approach which underlies the derivation of MMM8.1 is expected to reliably predict, on an energy transport time scale, the evolution of temperature, density, and momentum profiles in plasma discharges for a wide range of plasma conditions.

  6. Physics of gas breakdown for ion beam transport in gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Rose, D.V.; Hubbard, R.F.; Lampe, M.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.; Welch, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed analysis, experiments, and computer simulations are producing a new understanding of gas breakdown during intense ion beam transport in neutral gas. Charge neutralization of beam micro clumps is shown to limit the net clump potentials to a non-zero value π min , which can lead to divergence growth and axial energy spreading. At pressures approx-gt 1 Torr, plasma shielding should substantially reduce this effect Current neutralization has been studied in experiments on the GAMBLE II accelerator. The importance of fast electrons (knockons and runaways) has been established in IPROP simulations, which are in agreement with the experiments. For light ion fusion parameters with pressures approx-gt 1 Torr, very small net current fractions (much-lt 1%) appear feasible, permitting ballistic transport in gas. Self-pinched requires higher net current fractions (≥ 2%) and preliminary IPROP code results indicate that this appears achievable for small-radius intense beams in lower pressure gases (approx-gt Torr). Several self-pinched transport concepts look promising. The importance of these results for both light ion fusion and heavy ion fusion is discussed

  7. Design of a cross-sectional study on physical fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents after burn injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disseldorp Laurien M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries have a major impact on the patient’s physical and psychological functioning. The consequences can, especially in pediatric burns, persist long after the injury. A decrease in physical fitness seems logical as people survive burn injuries after an often extensive period of decreased activity and an increased demand of proteins leading to catabolism, especially of muscle mass. However, knowledge on the possibly affected levels of physical fitness in children and adolescents after burn injury is limited and pertains only to children with major burns. The current multidimensional study aims to determine the level of physical fitness, the level of physical activity, health-related quality of life and perceived fatigue in children after a burn injury. Furthermore, interrelations between those levels will be explored, as well as associations with burn characteristics. Methods/design Children and adolescents in the age range of 6 up to and including 18 years are invited to participate in this cross-sectional descriptive study if they have been admitted to one of the three Dutch burn centers between 6 months and 5 years ago with a burn injury involving at least 10% of the total body surface area and/or were hospitalized ≥ 6 weeks. Physical fitness assessments will take place in a mobile exercise lab. Quantitative measures of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, body composition and flexibility will be obtained. Outcomes will be compared with Dutch reference values. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and fatigue will be assessed using accelerometry and age-specific questionnaires. Discussion The findings of the current study will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term consequences of burn injury in children and adolescents after burns. The results can guide rehabilitation to facilitate a timely and optimal physical recovery. Trial registration The study is registered in

  8. Progress report. Physics and health sciences. Health sciences section. 1988 January 01-June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Work of the Health Sciences section in the first half of 1988 covered the areas of radiation risks; neutron, thermoluminescence and beta dosimetry; tritium, stack and effluent monitoring; radiochemical analysis; atmospheric, lake and river processes; groundwater and streamflow interactions; flow and contaminant transport in groundwater; environmental assessment criteria, techniques and implementation; environmental monitoring; radiation sensitivity and mutagenesis; and radiobiology. Members of the section were closely involved with the international re-evaluation of risk estimates taking into account the new data on dose for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors

  9. The cross-sectional relation between medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) and the Cortisol Awakening Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen-van Dessel, Nikki; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Dekker, Joost; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; van der Horst, Henriette E.

    Objectives: We aimed to assess the cross-sectional relation between levels of cortisol and specific symptom clusters, symptom severity and duration of symptoms in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Methods: Baseline data of a cohort of MUPS patients were used. We chose the

  10. Cycling and walking for transport: Estimating net health effects from comparison of different transport mode users' self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Flügel, Stefan; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Minken, Harald

    2011-07-20

    There is comprehensive evidence of the positive health effects of physical activity, and transport authorities can enable this by developing infrastructure for cycling and walking. In particular, cycling to work or to school can be a relatively high intensity activity that by itself might suffice for maximum health gain. In this paper, we present estimates of net health effects that can be assumed for demand responses to infrastructure development. The estimation was based on comparing current cyclists/pedestrians against potential cyclists/pedestrians, applying the international physical activity questionnaire, which is a survey-based method for estimating metabolic equivalent task levels from self-reported types of physical activity, and their frequency, duration and level of intensity (moderate or vigorous).. By comparing between shares of individuals with medium or high intensity levels, within the segments of current cyclists/pedestrians and potential cyclists/pedestrians, we estimate the possible net health effects of potential new users of improved cycling/walking infrastructure. For an underpinning of the estimates, we also include the respondents' assessments of the extent to which cycling/walking for transport replaces other physical activity, and we carry out a regression of cycling/walking activity levels on individual characteristics and cycle/walk facility features. The estimated share of new regular cyclists obtaining net health gains was ca. 30%, while for new regular pedestrians this was only ca. 15%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the new users of improved cycle/walk facilities are best represented by self-declared potential users of such improved facilities. For potential cyclists/pedestrians, exercise was stated as the main motivation for physical active transport, but among current regular cyclists "fast and flexible" was just as important as exercising. Measured intensity levels from physically active transport increased with

  11. Barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschny Anna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse barriers to physical activity in a cohort of older adults, allowing comparisons between men and women, and age groups. Methods 1,937 older adults with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years (53.3% female took part in the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort. Participants who stated that they did not get enough physical activity were surveyed with respect to barriers to physical activity. Barriers were analysed for all respondents, as well as by sex and age group for cases with complete data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate differences between sexes and age groups. The level of significance (alpha Results 1,607 (83.0% participants stated that they were sufficiently physically active. 286 participants rated their physical activity as insufficient and responded to questions on barriers to physical activity completely. The three most frequently cited barriers were poor health (57.7%, lack of company (43.0%, and lack of interest (36.7%. Lack of opportunities for sports or leisure activities (30.3% vs. 15.6%, and lack of transport (29.0% vs. 7.1% were more frequently stated by female respondents than male respondents. These differences between men and women were significant (p = .003; p Conclusions The present study provides relevant data on barriers to physical activity in older adults. By revealing appreciable differences between men and women, and age groups, this study has implications for efforts to increase older adults' physical activity. Promotion and intervention strategies should consider the barriers and tailor measures to the specific needs of older adults in order to reduce their constraints to physical activity.

  12. School physical activity policies and active transport to school among pupils in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollein, Tomas; Vasickova, Jana; Bucksch, Jens; Kalman, Michal; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Background: Previous studies indicate that the level of physical activity (PA) significantly affects children's health. Active transport to school is PA on a daily basis that may contribute substantially to the overall volume of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Aim of our study was to

  13. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  14. Transport Studies of Quantum Magnetism: Physics and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhyea [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The main goal of this project was to understand novel ground states of spin systems probed by thermal and electrical transport measurements. They are well-suited to characterize the nature of low-energy excitations as unique property of the ground state. More specifically, it was aimed to study the transverse electrical conductivity in the presence of non-collinear and non-coplanar spin ordering and the effects of gauge field as well as novel spin excitations as a coherent heat transport channel in insulating quantum magnets. Most of works done during the grant period focused on these topics. As a natural extension of the project's initial goals, the scope was broadened to include transport studies on the spin systems with strong spin-orbit coupling. One particular focus was an exploration of systems with strong magnetic anisotropy combined with non-trivial spin configuration. Magnetic anisotropy is directly related to implement the non-collinear spin ordering to the existing common geometry of planar devices and thus poses a significant potential. Work in this direction includes the comparison of the topological Hall signal under hydrostatic pressure and chemical doping, as well as the angular dependence dependence of the non-collinear spin ordered phase and their evolution up on temperature and field strength. Another focus was centered around the experimental identification of spin-originated heat carrying excitation in quasi two dimensional honeycomb lattice, where Kitaev type of quantum spin liquid phase is expected to emerge. In fact, when its long range magnetic order is destroyed by the applied field, we discovered anomalously large enhancement of thermal conductivity, for which proximate Kitaev excitations in field-induced spin liquid state are responsible for. This work, combined with further investigations in materials in the similar class may help establish the experimental characterization of new quantum spin liquid and their unique low energy

  15. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference: Exposition Topical Areas 1-6. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This CP (conference proceeding) is a compilation of the abstracts, presentations, and posters presented at the conference.

  16. 75 FR 6413 - Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision to Standard Review Plan, Section 14.3.12 on Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Standard Review Plan, Section 14.3.12 on Physical Security Hardware Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and...), Section 14.3.12 on ``Physical Security Hardware--Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria... Security and Incident Response (NSIR) is revising SRP Section 14.3.12 (Enclosure 1), which updates the...

  17. Environmental correlates of physical activity in multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuley Edward

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disease that is associated with physical inactivity. Understanding the factors that correlate with physical activity is important for developing effective physical activity promotion programs for this population. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study that examined the association between features of the built environment with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour in adults with MS. Methods Participants with MS (n = 196 were sent a questionnaire packet that included self-report measures of the built environment and physical activity and a pedometer in the mail and were instructed to complete the questionnaires and wear the device for seven days. Participants returned the completed questionnaires in a pre-stamped, pre-addressed envelope. Bivariate correlation analysis was conducted for examining associations between items on the environmental questionnaire with the two measures of physical activity. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted for determining the independent contributions of the significant environmental correlates for explaining variation in physical activity. Results Correlational analysis indicated that presence of shops, stores, markets or other places within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .18, presence of a transit stop within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .16, and accessibility of free or low-cost recreation facilities (r = .16; ρ = .15 were related to pedometer, but not self-reported, measured physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that the presence of a transit stop within walking distance independently explained 4% of variance in pedometer measured physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity is an important behaviour to promote among individuals with MS. This study indicated that aspects of the built environment are related to this health promoting behaviour among those with MS. Further research should

  18. Perspectives of cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy for complex oxide physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aaron; Chien, TeYu

    2018-03-01

    Complex oxide heterostructure interfaces have shown novel physical phenomena which do not exist in bulk materials. These heterostructures can be used in the potential applications in the next generation devices and served as the playgrounds for the fundamental physics research. The direct measurements of the interfaces with excellent spatial resolution and physical property information is rather difficult to achieve with the existing tools. Recently developed cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (XSTM/S) for complex oxide interfaces have proven to be capable of providing local electronic density of states (LDOS) information at the interface with spatial resolution down to nanometer scale. In this perspective, we will briefly introduce the basic idea and some recent achievements in using XSTM/S to study complex oxide interfaces. We will also discuss the future of this technique and the field of the interfacial physics.

  19. Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W

    1988-06-01

    High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.

  20. Antiproton annihilation physics annihilation physics in the Monte Carlo particle transport code particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taasti, Vicki Trier; Knudsen, Helge; Holzscheiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    –Teller Z-law, which is implemented by default in SHIELD-HIT12A has been shown not to be a good approximation for the capture probability of negative projectiles by nuclei. We investigate other theories which have been developed, and give a better agreement with experimental findings. The consequence...... sections, which restores the agreement, but some small deviations still remain. Best agreement is achieved by using the most recent antiproton collision cross sections and the Fermi–Teller Z-law, even if experimental data conclude that the Z-law is inadequately describing annihilation on compounds. We...

  1. High-frequency limit of the transport cross section in scattering by an obstacle with impedance boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksenko, A I; Cruz, J P; Lakshtanov, E L

    2008-01-01

    The scalar scattering of a plane wave by a strictly convex obstacle with impedance boundary conditions is considered. A uniform bound of the total cross section for all values of the frequency is presented. The high-frequency limit of the transport cross section is calculated and presented as a classical functional of the variational calculus

  2. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  3. Clinical trial registration in physical therapy journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Rao, Pratiksha Tilak; Maiya, Arun G

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trial registration has become an important part of editorial policies of various biomedical journals, including a few physical therapy journals. However, the extent to which editorial boards enforce the need for trial registration varies across journals. The purpose of this study was to identify editorial policies and reporting of trial registration details in MEDLINE-indexed English-language physical therapy journals. This study was carried out using a cross-sectional design. Editorial policies on trial registration of MEDLINE-indexed member journals of the International Society of Physiotherapy Journal Editors (ISPJE) (Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, Journal of Hand Therapy, Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, Journal of Physiotherapy [formerly Australian Journal of Physiotherapy], Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Manual Therapy, Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy in Sport, Physiotherapy, Physiotherapy Research International, Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia) were reviewed in April 2013. Full texts of reports of clinical trials published in these journals between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012, were independently assessed for information on trial registration. Among the 13 journals, 8 recommended trial registration, and 6 emphasized prospective trial registration. As of April 2013, 4,618 articles were published between January 2008 and December 2012, of which 9% (417) were clinical trials and 29% (121/417) of these reported trial registration details. A positive trend in reporting of trial registration was observed from 2008 to 2012. The study was limited to MEDLINE-indexed ISPJE member journals. Editorial policies on trial registration of physical therapy journals and a rising trend toward reporting of trial registration details indicate a positive momentum toward trial registration. Physical therapy journal editors need to show

  4. CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Satorius, Michael; Busch, Andreas; Krooß, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a sub bituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg corrected permeability shows a gas type dependence. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa we observe with increasing mean pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability which we attribute to a cleat aperture widening. The cleat volume compressibility (cf) also shows a dependence on the mean pore pressure. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. This permeability hysteresis is in accordance with results reported by Harpalani and McPherson (1985). The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals

  5. Neutralisation and transport of negative ion beams: physics and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Antoni, V.; Aprile, D.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Brombin, M.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; Fellin, F.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pimazzoni, A.; Sartori, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Veltri, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zaupa, M.

    2017-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is one of the most important methods of plasma heating in thermonuclear fusion experiments, allowing the attainment of fusion conditions as well as driving the plasma current. Neutral beams are generally produced by electrostatically accelerating ions, which are neutralised before injection into the magnetised plasma. At the particle energy required for the most advanced thermonuclear devices and particularly for ITER, neutralisation of positive ions is very inefficient so that negative ions are used. The present paper is devoted to the description of the phenomena occurring when a high-power multi-ampere negative ion beam travels from the beam source towards the plasma. Simulation of the trajectory of the beam and of its features requires various numerical codes, which must take into account all relevant phenomena. The leitmotiv is represented by the interaction of the beam with the background gas. The main outcome is the partial neutralisation of the beam particles, but ionisation of the background gas also occurs, with several physical and technological consequences. Diagnostic methods capable of investigating the beam properties and of assessing the relevance of the various phenomena will be discussed. Examples will be given regarding the measurements collected in the small flexible NIO1 source and regarding the expected results of the prototype of the neutral beam injectors for ITER. The tight connection between measurements and simulations in view of the operation of the beam is highlighted.

  6. Annual report of the Neutron Physics Section : period ending December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Ramanandham, M.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities of the Neutron Physics Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, for the period July 1975 - December 1976 are reported. Work in the field of : (1) X-ray and neutron crystallography of molecules of biological interest, (2) phase transformations of various kinds and (3) reactor physics and applied neutron physics is being continued. Some of the highlights are : (1) TDC-312 computer controlled neutron diffractometer has been put into operation, (2) two critical configurations using U 233 -uranyl nitrate solution have been planned, (3) vapourisation, melting and other phenomena in rocks as a result of an underground nuclear explosion have been studied. In this connection, computer codes for the propagation of shock waves in rocks using numerical simulation techniques have been developed. (M.G.B.)

  7. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): protocol for a multi-centre, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Götschi, Thomas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; de Nazelle, Audrey; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Standaert, Arnout; Stigell, Erik; Uhlmann, Tina; Gerike, Regine; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-11-14

    Physical inactivity is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases, yet many are not sufficiently active. The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) study aims to better understand active mobility (walking and cycling for transport solely or in combination with public transport) as an innovative approach to integrate physical activity into individuals' everyday lives. The PASTA study will collect data of multiple cities in a longitudinal cohort design to study correlates of active mobility, its effect on overall physical activity, crash risk and exposure to traffic-related air pollution. A set of online questionnaires incorporating gold standard approaches from the physical activity and transport fields have been developed, piloted and are now being deployed in a longitudinal study in seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Oerebro, Rome, Vienna, Zurich). In total, 14000 adults are being recruited (2000 in each city). A first questionnaire collects baseline information; follow-up questionnaires sent every 13 days collect prospective data on travel behaviour, levels of physical activity and traffic safety incidents. Self-reported data will be validated with objective data in subsamples using conventional and novel methods. Accelerometers, GPS and tracking apps record routes and activity. Air pollution and physical activity are measured to study their combined effects on health biomarkers. Exposure-adjusted crash risks will be calculated for active modes, and crash location audits are performed to study the role of the built environment. Ethics committees in all seven cities have given independent approval for the study. The PASTA study collects a wealth of subjective and objective data on active mobility and physical activity. This will allow the investigation of numerous correlates of active mobility and physical activity using a data set that advances previous efforts in its richness, geographical coverage

  8. Physical activity, calcium intake and childhood bone mineral: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, N C; Cole, Z A; Crozier, S R; Kim, M; Ntani, G; Goodfellow, L; Robinson, S M; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Dennison, E M; Wareham, N; Ekelund, U; Cooper, C

    2012-01-01

    In a free-living cohort of 4-year old children, mean daily time in moderate-vigorous physical activity and daily calcium intake at 3 years, were positively related to hip bone size and density. Relationships between physical activity and bone indices were stronger when calcium intake was above compared with below median (966 mg/day). We examined the cross-sectional relationships between childhood physical activity, dietary calcium intake and bone size and density. Children aged 4 years were recruited from the Southampton Women's Survey. They underwent measurement of bone mass by DXA (Hologic Discovery). Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry (Actiheart, Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK) for seven continuous days. Four hundred twenty-two children (212 boys) participated. In a cross-sectional analysis, after adjusting for gender, daily mean time(minutes per day) spent in moderate to very vigorous activity (MVPA) was positively related to hip BA (R(2) = 3%, p childhood may help to optimise accrual of bone mass.

  9. Physics of turbulence control and transport barrier formation in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence control and transport barrier formation on DIII-D as determined from a synthesis of results from different enhanced confinement regimes, including quantitative and qualitative comparisons to theory. A wide range of DIII-D data support the hypothesis that a single underlying physical mechanism, turbulence suppression via E x B shear flow is playing an essential, though not necessarily unique, role in reducing turbulence and transport in all of the following improved confinement regimes: H-mode, VH-mode, high-ell i modes, improved performance counter-injection L-mode discharges and high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges. DIII-D data also indicate that synergistic effects are important in some cases, as in NCS discharges where negative magnetic shear also plays a role in transport barrier formation. This work indicates that in order to control turbulence and transport it is important to focus on understanding physical mechanisms, such as E x B shear, which can regulate and control entire classes of turbulent modes, and thus control transport. In the highest performance DIII-D discharges, NCS plasmas with a VH-mode like edge, turbulence is suppressed at all radii, resulting in neoclassical levels of ion transport over most of the plasma volume

  10. Purification and Crystal Growth of Lead Iodide by Physical Vapor Transport Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G. W.; Cole, M.; Chen, Y.-F.; Chen, K.-T.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Burger, A.

    1998-01-01

    Lead iodide (PbI2) is a layered compound semiconductor being developed as room temperature x- and gamma-ray detector. Compared to the more studied material, mercuric iodide, PbI2 has a higher melting temperature and no phase transition until liquid phase which are indications of better mechanical properties. In this study, the source material was purified by the zone-refining process, and the purest section was extracted from center of the the zone-refined ingot to be grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) method. The zone-refined material and as-grown crystals were characterized by optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to reveal the surface morphology, purity and stoichiometry. The results shows that both materials are near-stoichiometric composition, with the purity of the as-grown crystals higher than zone-refined materials. The resistivity of the as-grown crystal (10" Omega-cm) was derived from current-voltage (I-V) measurement, and is 10 times higher than the zone-refined materials. Detail results will be presented and discussed.

  11. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections: A Space- Physics Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electroncapture cross sections at energies relevant to the modeling of the transport, acceleration, and interaction of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in space (approximately few MeV per nucleon) and especially for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantum-mechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts for apace applications, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  12. Photoneutron reaction cross sections from various experiments - analysis and evaluation using physical criteria of data reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Vladimir; Ishkhanov, Boris; Orlin, Vadim; Peskov, Nikolai; Stepanov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    The majority of photonuclear reaction cross sections important for many fields of science and technology and various data files (EXFOR, RIPL, ENDF, etc.) supported by the IAEA were obtained in experiments using quasimonoenergetic annihilation photons. There are well-known systematic discrepancies between the partial photoneutron reactions (γ, 1n), (γ, 2n), (γ, 3n). For analysis of the data reliability the objective physical criteria were proposed. It was found out that the experimental data for many nuclei are not reliable because of large systematic uncertainties of the neutron multiplicity sorting method used. The experimentally-theoretical method was proposed for evaluating the reaction cross sections data satisfying the reliability criteria. The partial and total reaction cross sections were evaluated for many nuclei. In many cases evaluated data differ noticeably from both the experimental data and the data evaluated before for the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library. Therefore it became evident that the IAEA Library needs to be revised and updated.

  13. Evaluation of cross-section uncertainties using physical constraints for 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Saint Jean, Cyrille; Privas, Edwin; Archier, Pascal; Noguere, Gilles; Litaize, Olivier; Leconte, Pierre; Bernard, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced reactions between 0 eV and 20 MeV are based on various physical properties such as nuclear reaction models, microscopic and integral measurements. Most of the time, the evaluation work is done independently between the resolved resonance range and the continuum, giving rise to mismatches for the cross-sections, larger uncertainties on boundary and no cross-correlation between high-energy domain and resonance range. In addition the use of integral experiment is sometimes only related to central values (evaluation is 'working fine' on a dedicated set of benchmarks) and reductions of uncertainties are not straightforward on cross-sections themselves: working fine could be mathematically reflected by a reduced uncertainty. As the CIELO initiative is to bring experts in each field to propose/discuss these matters, after having presented the status of 238 U and 239 Pu cross-sections covariances evaluation (for JEFF-3.2 as well as the WPEC SG34 subgroup), this paper will present several methodologies that may be used to avoid such effects on covariances. A first idea based on the use of experiments overlapping two energy domains appeared in the near past. It was reviewed and extended to the use of systematic uncertainties (normalisation for example) and for integral experiments as well. In addition, we propose a methodology taking into account physical constraints on an overlapping energy domain where both nuclear reaction models are used (continuity of both cross-sections and derivatives for example). The use of Lagrange multiplier (related to these constraints) in a classical generalised least square procedure will be exposed. Some academic examples will then be presented for both point-wise and multi-group cross-sections to present the methodologies. In addition, new results for 239 Pu will be presented on resonance range and higher energies to reduce capture and fission cross-section uncertainties by using integral experiments (JEZEBEL experiment as

  14. Research on applying neutron transport Monte Carlo method in materials with continuously varying cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zeguang; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Xisi

    2011-01-01

    In traditional Monte Carlo method, the material properties in a certain cell are assumed to be constant, but this is no longer applicable in continuous varying materials where the material's nuclear cross-sections vary over the particle's flight path. So, three Monte Carlo methods, including sub stepping method, delta-tracking method and direct sampling method, are discussed in this paper to solve the problems with continuously varying materials. After the verification and comparison of these methods in 1-D models, the basic specialties of these methods are discussed and then we choose the delta-tracking method as the main method to solve the problems with continuously varying materials, especially 3-D problems. To overcome the drawbacks of the original delta-tracking method, an improved delta-tracking method is proposed in this paper to make this method more efficient in solving problems where the material's cross-sections vary sharply over the particle's flight path. To use this method in practical calculation, we implemented the improved delta-tracking method into the 3-D Monte Carlo code RMC developed by Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University. Two problems based on Godiva system were constructed and calculations were made using both improved delta-tracking method and the sub stepping method, and the results proved the effects of improved delta-tracking method. (author)

  15. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  16. Nuclear data physics issues in Monte Carlo simulations of neutron and photon transport in the Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this write-up, some of the basic issues of nuclear data physics in Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport in the Indian context are dealt with. In this lecture, some of the aspects associated with usage of the ENDF/B system, and of the PREPRO code system developed by D.E. Cullen and distributed by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section are briefly touched upon. Some aspects of the SIGACE code system which was developed by the author in collaboration with IPR, Ahmedabad and the IAEA Nuclear Data Section are also briefly covered. The validation of the SIGACE package included investigations using the NJOY and the MCNP compatible ACE files. Appendix-1 of the paper provides some useful discussions pointing out that voluminous and high-quality nuclear physics data required for nuclear applications usually evolve from a national effort to provide state-of-the-art data that are based upon established needs and uncertainties. Appendix-2 deals with some interesting work that was carried out using the SIGACE Code for Generating High Temperature ACE Files. Appendix-3 mentions briefly Integral nuclear data validation studies and use of Monte Carlo codes and nuclear data. Appendix-4 provides a brief summary report on selected Indian nuclear data physics activities for the interested reader in the light of BARC/DAE treating the subject area of nuclear data physics as a thrust area in our atomic energy programme

  17. The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, Alfredo; Silari, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. In these codes, photon transport is simulated by using the detailed scheme, i.e., interaction by interaction. Detailed simulation is easy to implement, and the reliability of the results is only limited by the accuracy of the adopted cross sections. Simulations of electron and positron transport are more difficult, because these particles undergo a large number of interactions in the course of their slowing down. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interacti...

  18. Association between Berg Balance, Physiological Profile Assessment and Physical Activity, Physical Function and Body Composition: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, D J; Berry, H L; Waddington, G; Anson, J

    2016-01-01

    Falls are of great concern to older adults and costly to the health system. In addition the relationship between falls risk and falls risk predictor characteristics is complex. This study aimed to explore the relationship between two objective fall-risk measures tools, the Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale and to determine how an individual's sex, level of physical function, health-related and body composition characteristics impact these objective falls risk measures. A cross-sectional, observational study. 245 community-dwelling older adults (M age=68.12 years, SD=6.21; 69.8% female). Participants were assessed for falls-risk (Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale), physical activity, physical functional and body composition characteristics. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine bivariate relationships and hierarchical multiple linear regression modelling was used to estimate the contribution of each predictor in explaining variance in falls-risk. In females, there was a weak association between the two objective falls-risk measures (r =-0.17 p falls in the previous 12 months explained 6% of variance in Physiological Profile Assessment scores, with bone density of the lumbar spine contributing a further 1%. In males and females, variance in the Berg Balance Scale showed that age (25%) and physical function (16% for females, 28% for males) contributed significantly to the explaining variance in the falls-risk measure. Sex differences are apparent and as such males and females should be assessed (and potentially treated) differently with regards to falls risk. Results indicate that both falls risk assessment tools measure aspects of balance but are not interchangeable. The Berg Balance Scale may be more discriminative in older, less functioning adults and the Physiological Profile Assessment is more useful in assessing falls risk in females.

  19. Analytical calculations of neutron slowing down and transport in the constant-cross-section problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some aspects of the problem of neutron slowing down and transport in an infinite medium consisting of a single nuclide that scatters elastically and isotropically and has energy-independent cross sections were investigated. The method of singular eigenfunctions was applied to the Boltzmann equation governing the Laplace transform (with respect to the lethargy variable) of the neutron flux. A new sufficient condition for the convergence of the coefficients of the expansion of the scattering kernel in Legendre polynomials was rigorously derived for this energy-dependent problem. Formulas were obtained for the lethargy-dependent spatial moments of the scalar flux that are valid for medium to large lethargies. In deriving these formulas, use was made of the well-known connection between the spatial moments of the Laplace-transformed scalar flux and the moments of the flux in the ''eigenvalue space.'' The calculations were greatly aided by the construction of a closed general expression for these ''eigenvalue space'' moments. Extensive use was also made of the methods of combinatorial analysis and of computer evaluation, via FORMAC, of complicated sequences of manipulations. For the case of no absorption it was possible to obtain for materials of any atomic weight explicit corrections to the age-theory formulas for the spatial moments M/sub 2n/(u) of the scalar flux that are valid through terms of the order of u -5 . The evaluation of the coefficients of the powers of n, as explicit functions of the nuclear mass, is one of the end products of this investigation. In addition, an exact expression for the second spatial moment, M 2 (u), valid for arbitrary (constant) absorption, was derived. It is now possible to calculate analytically and rigorously the ''age'' for the constant-cross-section problem for arbitrary (constant) absorption and nuclear mass. 5 figures, 1 table

  20. Analytical calculations of neutron slowing down and transport in the constant-cross-section problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.

    1978-04-01

    Aspects of the problem of neutron slowing down and transport in an infinite medium consisting of a single nuclide that scatters elastically and isotropically and has energy-independent cross sections were investigated. The method of singular eigenfunctions was applied to the Boltzmann Equation governing the Laplace transform (with respect to the lethargy variable) of the neutron flux. A new sufficient condition for the convergence of the coefficients of the expansion of the scattering kernel in Legendre polynomials was rigorously derived for this energy-dependent problem. Formulas were obtained for the lethargy-dependent spatial moments of the scalar flux that are valid for medium to large lethargies. Use was made of the well-known connection between the spatial moments of the Laplace-transformed scalar flux and the moments of the flux in the ''eigenvalue space.'' The calculations were aided by the construction of a closed general expression for these ''eigenvalue space'' moments. Extensive use was also made of the methods of combinatorial analysis and of computer evaluation of complicated sequences of manipulations. For the case of no absorption it was possible to obtain for materials of any atomic weight explicit corrections to the age-theory formulas for the spatial moments M/sub 2n/(u) of the scalar flux that are valid through terms of the order of u -5 . The evaluation of the coefficients of the powers of n, as explicit functions of the nuclear mass, represent one of the end products of this investigation. In addition, an exact expression for the second spatial moment, M 2 (u), valid for arbitrary (constant) absorption, was derived. It is now possible to calculate analytically and rigorously the ''age'' for the constant-cross-section problem for arbitrary (constant) absorption and nuclear mass. 5 figures, 1 table

  1. Analytical calculations of neutron slowing down and transport in the constant-cross-section problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacuci, D.G.

    1978-04-01

    Aspects of the problem of neutron slowing down and transport in an infinite medium consisting of a single nuclide that scatters elastically and isotropically and has energy-independent cross sections were investigated. The method of singular eigenfunctions was applied to the Boltzmann Equation governing the Laplace transform (with respect to the lethargy variable) of the neutron flux. A new sufficient condition for the convergence of the coefficients of the expansion of the scattering kernel in Legendre polynomials was rigorously derived for this energy-dependent problem. Formulas were obtained for the lethargy-dependent spatial moments of the scalar flux that are valid for medium to large lethargies. Use was made of the well-known connection between the spatial moments of the Laplace-transformed scalar flux and the moments of the flux in the ''eigenvalue space.'' The calculations were aided by the construction of a closed general expression for these ''eigenvalue space'' moments. Extensive use was also made of the methods of combinatorial analysis and of computer evaluation of complicated sequences of manipulations. For the case of no absorption it was possible to obtain for materials of any atomic weight explicit corrections to the age-theory formulas for the spatial moments M/sub 2n/(u) of the scalar flux that are valid through terms of the order of u/sup -5/. The evaluation of the coefficients of the powers of n, as explicit functions of the nuclear mass, represent one of the end products of this investigation. In addition, an exact expression for the second spatial moment, M/sub 2/(u), valid for arbitrary (constant) absorption, was derived. It is now possible to calculate analytically and rigorously the ''age'' for the constant-cross-section problem for arbitrary (constant) absorption and nuclear mass. 5 figures, 1 table.

  2. Monte Carlo 2000 Conference : Advanced Monte Carlo for Radiation Physics, Particle Transport Simulation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.

  3. Cross sections and transport coefficients for H3+ H3+ png" mimetype="image" xlink:href="d170295-eq1.png"/> H3+ ions in water vapour★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Vladimir; Raspopović, Zoran; Jovanović, Jasmina; Nikitović, Željka; Marić, Dragana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2017-11-01

    Scattering cross sections for positive H3+ ions in water vapour were calculated by a simple but quite general theory and then assessed by using the available data. Transport coefficients for H3+ ions in water vapour in DC fields were calculated by using a Monte Carlo simulation from low to moderate reduced electric fields E/N (E is electric field and N is gas number density) where the non-conservative collisions are also taken into account. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  4. Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 : section 109 implementation : a report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The U.S. Congress enacted the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Public Law 107- 295) on November 25, 2002. On April 3, 2003, the Secretary of Transportation (Secretary) delegated to the Maritime Administrator the authority to imple...

  5. One-, two- and three-dimensional transport codes using multi-group double-differential form cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto.

    1988-11-01

    We have developed a group of computer codes to realize the accurate transport calculation by using the multi-group double-differential form cross section. This type of cross section can correctly take account of the energy-angle correlated reaction kinematics. Accordingly, the transport phenomena in materials with highly anisotropic scattering are accurately calculated by using this cross section. They include the following four codes or code systems: PROF-DD : a code system to generate the multi-group double-differential form cross section library by processing basic nuclear data file compiled in the ENDF / B-IV or -V format, ANISN-DD : a one-dimensional transport code based on the discrete ordinate method, DOT-DD : a two-dimensional transport code based on the discrete ordinate method, MORSE-DD : a three-dimensional transport code based on the Monte Carlo method. In addition to these codes, several auxiliary codes have been developed to process calculated results. This report describes the calculation algorithm employed in these codes and how to use them. (author)

  6. Quality of life among persons with physical disability in udupi taluk: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kuvalekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under

  7. Quality of Life among Persons with Physical Disability in Udupi Taluk: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with disability act.

  8. Quality of Life among Persons with Physical Disability in Udupi Taluk: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with

  9. Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life: cross-sectional and longitudial associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, A.J.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies that relate change in physical activity to change in health-related quality of life in the general population are needed to confirm associations suggested by cross-sectional studies. In the present study, cross-sectional as well as longitudinal associations between leisure time physical

  10. Neutron slowing down and transport in a medium of constant cross section. I. Spatial moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Goldstein, H.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of the problem of neutron slowing down and transport have been investigated in an infinite medium consisting of a single nuclide scattering elastically and isotropically without absorption and with energy-independent cross sections. The method of singular eigenfunctions has been applied to the Boltzmann equation governing the Laplace transform (with respect to the lethargy variable) of the neutron flux. Formulas have been obtained for the lethargy dependent spatial moments of the scalar flux applicable in the limit of large lethargy. In deriving these formulas, use has been made of the well-known connection between the spatial moments of the Laplace-transformed scalar flux and the moments of the flux in the ''eigenvalue space.'' The calculations have been greatly aided by the construction of a closed general expression for these ''eigenvalue space'' moments. Extensive use has also been made of the methods of combinatorial analysis and of computer evaluation, via FORMAC, of complicated sequences of manipulations. It has been possible to obtain for materials of any atomic weight explicit corrections to the age theory formulas for the spatial moments M/sub 2n/(u), of the scalar flux, valid through terms of order of u -5 . Higher order correction terms could be obtained at the expense of additional computer time. The evaluation of the coefficients of the powers of n, as explicit functions of the nuclear mass, represent the end product of this investigation

  11. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Julie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-03

    Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls' participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=-0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=-0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the development of family-based interventions to improve

  12. E-COURSE BASED ON THE PLATFORM MOODLE IN TEACHING PHYSICS TO FUTURE SPECIALISTS OF RIVER AND SEA TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherniavskyі V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers that the fastest way to include Ukraine into the global educational system is to create conditions for widespread use of the Internet for training purposes, which is considered the most perfect model of communication in the global information society. It is stated that one of the most common and most convenient forms of distance learning for marine institutions of higher education is electronic courses. Their main advantage over traditional forms of education is to provide the conditions for productive individual work of the students. It is shown that the problem of individual work is particularly relevant for marine education, due to the specific schedule of the educational process, including the presence of long-term shipboard training. It is defined the peculiarities of usage of e-learning courses in Physics for training of the specialists of river and sea transport. It is proposed the interpretation of the term "e-learning course in Physics" as an information model of a specific topic or section of "Physics", which displays the oriented basis of cognitive activity of the student, it provides organic and natural formation, regulates mental and emotional processes, predicts the opportunities for educational tasks solving by offered means for stimulating the development of personal cognitive capabilities. The requirements for e-learning courses in Physics are determined and their advantages over other innovative teaching methods towards the realization of methodological features of the educational process are highlighted. The structure of e-learning courses in Physics is proposed and the experience of e-courses using in Physics for bachelors of specialty "River and Sea transport" is described.

  13. Parents' perception of neighbourhood environment as a determinant of screen time, physical activity and active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Kuhle, Stefan; Spence, John C; Veugelers, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    To study the importance of parents' perception of neighbourhood environment for health behaviours such as screen time, physical activity, and active transport in a Canadian context. As part of the REAL Kids Alberta project, 3,421 grade five students from 148 randomly selected schools in Alberta and their parents were surveyed in the spring of 2008. Physical activity was assessed by self-report using an adapted version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Screen time and active transport (walking and biking) was assessed by parent proxy reports. Parents were also surveyed on their perception of their neighbourhoods. These responses were reduced to three components (satisfaction/services, safety, sidewalks/parks) through principal component analysis. Subsequent multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to quantify the associations of these principal neighbourhood components with screen time, physical activity, and active transport. Children residing in neighbourhoods with good satisfaction/services and sidewalks/parks were significantly more likely to engage in 2 hours or less of screen time and to be physically active. Children in neighbourhoods with good sidewalks/parks were also more likely to engage in active transport to and from school. However, perceived neighbourhood safety had little impact on activity. The findings suggest physical activity and active transport may be increased and sedentary behaviours reduced through 1) increasing access to parks, playgrounds, and play spaces, 2) increasing access to sports and recreation programs, and 3) provision of sidewalks such that children and youth can walk or bike to school.

  14. The Association Between the Physical Environment of Primary Schools and Active School Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Kremers, S.P.J.; Gubbels, J.S.; Bartelink, N.H.M.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Jansen, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the physical environment characteristics of primary schools and active school transport among 3,438 5- to 12-year-old primary school children in the Netherlands. The environmental characteristics were categorized into four theory-based clusters (function,

  15. Associations between the Physical, Sociocultural, and Safety Environments and Active Transportation to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allison; Rodríguez, Ariel; Searle, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding why youth actively transport to school (ATS) has important health, programming, and policy implications. A growing body of research has revealed that there are common factors that influence this behavior. Collectively, these influences can be categorized into 3 domains: the physical environment (PE), sociocultural…

  16. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change : Opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maibach, E.; Steg, L.; Anable, J.

    2009-01-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options - walking or

  17. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  18. Physical protection of export/import and transportation of nuclear material in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclav, J

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains short overview about average amount of nuclear materials transported on the territory of the Slovak Republic in a year, and the physical protection of these nuclear materials. There are several types of transportation and export/import of nuclear materials in the SR: fresh fuel import; import of other unirradiated nuclear materials (e.g. depleted uranium, natural uranium); export of unirradiated nuclear materials (e.g. natural uranium); internal transportation of fresh fuel; internal transportation of other unirradiated nuclear materials; internal transportation of spent fuel. The main objective of the nuclear regulatory authority SR is to supervise observation of the national legislation as follows: the act no. 130 / 1998 on peaceful use of nuclear energy; UJD SR's regulation no. 186/1999 which details the physical protection of the nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, and radioactive waste (following requirements of INFCIRC 225 / Rev. 4); UJD SR's regulation no. 284 / 1999 which details conditions of nuclear material and radioactive wastes transportation. (author)

  19. Parents' use of physical and verbal punishment: cross-sectional study in underprivileged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vagner Dos; Silva, Paulo Henrique Dourado da; Gandolfi, Lenora

    2017-09-25

    To estimate the past-year prevalence of parental use of verbal and physical discipline in an urban sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two underprivileged neighborhoods with nearly 80,000 inhabitants. Complex sampling was used. The households were selected by applying two-stage probabilistic sampling with stratification. A total of 401 households (sample error=0.1) were selected by maximizing the variance (p=0.5). The cluster sampling indicated 33 census units (sample error=0.05). The Brazilian Portuguese version of the WorldSAFE Core Questionnaire was used to assess parental use of moderate verbal discipline, harsh verbal discipline, moderate physical discipline, and harsh physical discipline. This questionnaire asks how often mothers (respondent) and/or their husband or partner use specific disciplinary tactics. The mean age of children and adolescents was 9 years (SD: 4.5). The prevalence of harsh verbal discipline was approximately 37% (28.3% [95% CI: 23.4-33.3%] for more than three times). The prevalence of harsh physical discipline was approximately 30% (21.8% [CI: 18.2-25.4%] for more than three times). Boys had higher odds of receiving harsh physical discipline [OR: 1.56, p<0.05]. Children and adolescents with learning problems and developmental delays had higher odds of being exposed to harsh discipline than their peers without these problems. Children and adolescents with chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma) had lower odds of receiving harsh physical discipline (OR: 0.4; p<0.05). Parental abuse was embedded within CA rearing practices in these two underprivileged neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  1. Effect of physical training on glucose transporter protein and mRNA levels in rat adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Andersen, P H; Vinten, J

    1993-01-01

    Physical training increases insulin-stimulated glucose transport and the number of glucose transporters in adipocytes measured by cytochalasin B binding. In the present study we used immunoblotting to measure the abundance of two glucose transporters (GLUT-4, GLUT-1) in white adipocytes from...... trained rats. Furthermore, the abundance of the mRNAs for these proteins and glucose transport was measured. Rats were swim-trained for 10 wk, and adipocytes were isolated from epididymal fat pads. The amount of GLUT-4/adipocyte volume unit was significantly higher in trained animals compared with both...... age- and cell size-matched animals. The amount of GLUT-4 mRNA was also increased by training and it decreased with increasing age. Furthermore, young age as well as training was accompanied by relatively low GLUT-4 protein/mRNA and relatively high overall GLUT-4 efficiency (recruitability and...

  2. Discrete nodal integral transport-theory method for multidimensional reactor physics and shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.D.; Dorning, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A coarse-mesh discrete nodal integral transport theory method has been developed for the efficient numerical solution of multidimensional transport problems of interest in reactor physics and shielding applications. The method, which is the discrete transport theory analogue and logical extension of the nodal Green's function method previously developed for multidimensional neutron diffusion problems, utilizes the same transverse integration procedure to reduce the multidimensional equations to coupled one-dimensional equations. This is followed by the conversion of the differential equations to local, one-dimensional, in-node integral equations by integrating back along neutron flight paths. One-dimensional and two-dimensional transport theory test problems have been systematically studied to verify the superior computational efficiency of the new method

  3. Academic Training - The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29 June 11:00-12:00 - TH Conference Room, bldg. 4 The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona, A. FERRARI, CERN-AB, M. SILARI, CERN-SC Lecture 1. Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interaction models and multiple-scattering theories will be analyzed. Benchmark comparisons of simu...

  4. BOXER, Fine-flux cross section condensation, 2D few group diffusion and transport burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratte, J.M.; Grimm, P.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Neutron transport, calculation of multiplication factor and neutron fluxes in 2-D configurations: cell calculations, 2-D diffusion and transport, and burnup. 2 - Method of solution: Resonance treatment: pointwise calculation of flux in 2 zones in the resonance range, and interpolation in tables out of this range. Cell calculation: integral transport method. 2-D x-y: diffusion or transport (quadruple P1). Burnup: coupling of nuclides through matrices, development of nuclide densities as polynomials of the time. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Cells: cylindrical or slabs. 2-D: only x-y meshes, with homogenised cells

  5. Active transport between home and school assessed with GPS: a cross-sectional study among Dutch elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Dirk; de Vries, Sanne I; Graham, Jamie M A; Pierik, Frank H

    2014-03-05

    Active transport to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport has therefore gained attention as a potential target to increase children's physical activity levels. Recent studies have recognized that the distance between home and school is an important predictor for active travel among children. These studies did not yet use the promising global positioning system (GPS) methods to objectively assess active transport. This study aims to explore active transport to school in relation to the distance between home and school among a sample of Dutch elementary school children, using GPS. Seventy-nine children, aged 6-11 years, were recruited in six schools that were located in five cities in the Netherlands. All children were asked to wear a GPS receiver for one week. All measurements were conducted between December 2008 and April 2009. Based on GPS recordings, the distance of the trips between home and school were calculated. In addition, the mode of transport (i.e., walking, cycling, motorized transport) was determined using the average and maximum speed of the GPS tracks. Then, proportion of walking and cycling trips to school was determined in relation to the distance between home and school. Out of all school trips that were recorded (n=812), 79.2% were classified as active transport. On average, active commuting trips were of a distance of 422 meters with an average speed of 5.2 km/hour. The proportion of walking trips declined significantly at increased school trip distance, whereas the proportion of cycling trips (β=1.23, ptransport (β=3.61, ptransport between home and school was the most frequently used mode of travel. Increasing distance seems to be associated with higher levels of passive transport. These results are relevant for those involved in decisions on where to site schools and residences, as it may affect healthy behavior among children.

  6. Determination the most important physical and mechanical soil properties on increasing cross sections in Ardebil province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shohab Arkhazloo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gully erosion is an important type of soil erosion in Iran and Ardebil province (Moghimi and Salami, 2011; Khatibi, 2006. Increasing the cross section of gullies is an indicator for gully developing (Deng et al, 2015. Topography and soil properties are two important factors in gully developing in various regions of worldwide (Poesena et al, 2003. Despite the importance of soil properties in gully erosion, the direct effect of these agents was less investigated and few researches have been carried out to the effect of physical and mechanical soil properties on gully erosion. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine 1 the effect of topography on gully erosion, 2 effect of surface and subsurface soil physical and mechanical properties on increasing the cross section of gullies and 3 to select the most important soil properties affect developing the cross section of gullies in three regions of Ardebil province (Ortadagh, Molla Ahmad, and Sarcham. In addition, the relationship between the most soil properties and topographic agents was investigated Materials and Methods: The effect of topography on gully erosion was investigated by using of two methods i.e. topographic threshold of gully forming (as , where A and S is gully watershed cross section and slop, respectively, a and b is local coefficients and the relationship between slope classes with gullies density. In regard to catchment characteristics, a set of similar gullies was selected in each region and the changes of cross section area for gullies in four points along its length were measured as indicator of gully development during two years. 17 physical and mechanical of surface and subsurface soil properties in each point were measured and the most important properties that affect on gully development were selected based on principle component analysis (PCA method. Finally, the stepwise regression model was fitted to the soil properties selecting from PCA

  7. [Nonorganized and organized physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Burundian adults: cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimana, Jean Berchmans; Lawani, Mansourou Mohamed; Akplogan, Barnabé; Gaturagi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on health. This study aims to compare health-related physical fitness in adults engaged in organized physical exercise with these in adults engaged in nonorganized physical exercise and to establish a relationship between this physical fitness and physical activity level. We collected data on physical activity level and health-related physical fitness parameters. Independent samples T-test was used to compare the means of the two groups and Pearson correlation coefficient calculator was used to analyze the relationship between physical fitness parameters and physical activity level. Significant differences (p health-related physiological and lipid profiles in Burundian adult. However, organized physical activity provides additional health benefits on [Formula: see text], HR rest, anteroposterior flexibility and vertical jump.

  8. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child

  9. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  10. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie L; Wilson, Alexandra H; Perlmutter, Lisa S; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2012-04-30

    Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents' transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. 857 adolescents (aged 13-15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further 'extreme group analysis' was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results revealed that adolescents' perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational parenting behaviors (HIGH-LOW TP group

  11. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  12. Proceedings of the Fourth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference presents information to the scientific community on research results, future directions, and research opportunities in microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena within NASA's microgravity research program. The conference theme is "The International Space Station." Plenary sessions provide an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program, the International Space Station and the opportunities ISS presents to fluid physics and transport phenomena researchers, and the process by which researchers may become involved in NASA's program, including information about the NASA Research Announcement in this area. Two plenary lectures present promising areas of research in electrohydrodynamics/electrokinetics in the movement of particles and in micro- and meso-scale effects on macroscopic fluid dynamics. Featured speakers in plenary sessions present results of recent flight experiments not heretofore presented. The conference publication consists of this book of abstracts and the full Proceedings of the 4th Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference on CD-ROM, containing full papers presented at the conference (NASA/CP-1999-208526/SUPPL1).

  13. The importance of Active Transportation to and from school for daily physical activity among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Maximova, Katerina; Spence, John C; Vander Ploeg, Kerry; Wu, Biao; Veugelers, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    To investigate if students who use of Active Transportation (AT) to and from school among urban and rural Canadian children are more likely to meet physical activity recommendations. The Raising healthy Eating and Active Living in Alberta (REAL Kids Alberta) study is a population-based health survey among Grade 5 students. In 2009, physical activity levels were measured using time-stamped pedometers (number of steps/hour) among 688 children. Parents reported mode of transportation to and from school (AT/non-AT). Multilevel multiple linear regression analyses with corresponding β coefficients were conducted to quantify the relationship between mode of transportation to and from school with (1) overall step count, and (2) the likelihood of achieving at least 13,500 steps per day recommended for optimal growth and development. Among urban children, those who used AT to and from school accumulated more steps [β=1124(95% CI=170,2077)] and although not significant, were more likely to achieve the recommended 13,500 steps/day compared to those not using AT to and from school [OR=1.61(95% CI=0.93,2.81)]. Using AT to and from school appears to be beneficial to children by supplementing their physical activity, particularly those living in urban regions. Strategies to promote physical activity are needed, particular for children residing in rural regions and smaller towns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computerized transportation model for the NRC Physical Protection Project. Versions I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Details on two versions of a computerized model for the transportation system of the NRC Physical Protection Project are presented. The Version I model permits scheduling of all types of transport units associated with a truck fleet, including truck trailers, truck tractors, escort vehicles and crews. A fixed-fleet itinerary construction process is used in which iterations on fleet size are required until the service requirements are satisfied. The Version II model adds an aircraft mode capability and provides for a more efficient non-fixed-fleet itinerary generation process. Test results using both versions are included

  15. Progress in integrated 2-D models for analysis of scrape-off layer transport physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Braams, B.J. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Knoll, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States)

    1996-08-01

    We present the status of comprehensive two-dimensional (2-D) transport modeling for the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) using the UEDGE and B2.5 codes. These codes are now able to integrate a variety of physics, including coupling of plasma and neutral transport leading to detachment, complicated diverto-plate geometries, multispecies impurities, and currents and E x B drifts. These new models are outlined and the capabilities are illustrated by a number of examples that emphasize the importance of including the 2-D geometry. (orig.)

  16. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Julie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222 and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042 and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002 parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033 parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048 and week day (p=0.013 MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006; and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004, highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can

  17. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the

  18. A sampling scheme to assess persistence and transport characteristics of xenobiotics within an urban river section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwientek, Marc; Guillet, Gaelle; Kuch, Bertram; Rügner, Hermann; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Xenobiotic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals or personal care products typically are continuously introduced into the receiving water bodies via wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls and, episodically, via combined sewer overflows in the case of precipitation events. Little is known about how these chemicals behave in the environment and how they affect ecosystems and human health. Examples of traditional persistent organic pollutants reveal, that they may still be present in the environment even decades after they have been released. In this study a sampling strategy was developed which gives valuable insights into the environmental behaviour of xenobiotic chemicals. The method is based on the Lagrangian sampling scheme by which a parcel of water is sampled repeatedly as it moves downstream while chemical, physical, and hydrologic processes altering the characteristics of the water mass can be investigated. The Steinlach is a tributary of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany with a catchment area of 140 km². It receives the effluents of a WWTP with 99,000 inhabitant equivalents 4 km upstream of its mouth. The varying flow rate of effluents induces temporal patterns of electrical conductivity in the river water which enable to track parcels of water along the subsequent urban river section. These parcels of water were sampled a) close to the outlet of the WWTP and b) 4 km downstream at the confluence with the Neckar. Sampling was repeated at a 15 min interval over a complete diurnal cycle and 2 h composite samples were prepared. A model-based analysis demonstrated, on the one hand, that substances behaved reactively to a varying extend along the studied river section. On the other hand, it revealed that the observed degradation rates are likely dependent on the time of day. Some chemicals were degraded mainly during daytime (e.g. the disinfectant Triclosan or the phosphorous flame retardant TDCP), others as well during nighttime (e.g. the musk fragrance

  19. Objectively measured physical activity and cardiac biomarkers: A cross sectional population based study in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2018-03-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT) are markers of cardiac injury used in diagnosis of heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since physical activity is protective against cardiovascular disease and heart failure, we investigated whether higher levels of physical activity, and less sedentary behaviour were associated with lower NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Cross sectional study of 1130 men, age 70-91years, from the British Regional Heart Study, measured in 2010-2012. Fasting blood samples were analysed for NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured using ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. Relationships between activity and NT-proBNP or hsTnT were non-linear; biomarker levels were lower with higher total activity, steps, moderate/vigorous activity and light activity only at low to moderate levels of activity. For example, for each additional 10min of moderate/vigorous activity, NT-proBNP was lower by 35.7% (95% CI -47.9, -23.6) and hsTnT by 8.4% (95% CI -11.1, -5.6), in men who undertook <25 or 50min of moderate/vigorous activity per day respectively. Biomarker levels increased linearly with increasing sedentary behaviour, but not independently of moderate/vigorous activity. Associations between biomarkers and moderate/vigorous activity (and between hsTnT and light activity) were independent of sedentary behaviour, suggesting activity is driving the relationships. In these older men with concomitantly low levels of physical activity, activity may be more important in protecting against cardiac health deterioration in less active individuals, although reverse causality might be operating. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Methodology for Physical Interconnection Decisions of Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2011-01-01

    The physical interconnection for optical transport networks has critical relevance in the overall network performance and deployment costs. As telecommunication services and technologies evolve, the provisioning of higher capacity and reliability levels is becoming essential for the proper...... of possibilities when designing the physical network interconnection. This paper develops and presents a methodology in order to deal with aspects related to the interconnection problem of optical transport networks. This methodology is presented as independent puzzle pieces, covering diverse topics going from...... development of Next Generation Networks. Currently, there is a lack of specific procedures that describe the basic guidelines to design such networks better than "best possible performance for the lowest investment". Therefore, the research from different points of view will allow a broader space...

  1. Effects of a Danish multicomponent physical activity intervention on active school transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, Mette; Ersbøll, Annette K.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction Walking and bicycling to school yields great potential in increasing the physical activity levels of adolescents, but to date very few intervention studies have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity...... intervention on adolescent active school transport (AST) and three intermediate outcomes: perceived school route safety, parent support and attitude towards bicycling. Methods In total, 1014 adolescents at 14 schools filled in a transport diary at baseline and at a two-year follow-up and were included...... between the intervention and the comparison schools after the intervention, but more students perceived parental encouragement and had a positive attitude towards bicycling at the intervention schools. This difference was however only borderline significant. Conclusion The prevalence of AST was high...

  2. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Mark K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  4. Impact of New Transport Infrastructure on Walking, Cycling, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Jenna; Heinen, Eva; Mackett, Roger; Ogilvie, David

    2016-02-01

    Walking and cycling bring health and environmental benefits, but there is little robust evidence that changing the built environment promotes these activities in populations. This study evaluated the effects of new transport infrastructure on active commuting and physical activity. Quasi-experimental analysis nested within a cohort study. Four hundred and sixty-nine adult commuters, recruited through a predominantly workplace-based strategy, who lived within 30 kilometers of Cambridge, United Kingdom and worked in areas of the city to be served by the new transport infrastructure. The Cambridgeshire Guided Busway opened in 2011 and comprised a new bus network and a traffic-free walking and cycling route. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest distance from each participant's home to the busway. Change in weekly time spent in active commuting between 2009 and 2012, measured by validated 7-day recall instrument. Secondary outcomes were changes in total weekly time spent walking and cycling and in recreational and overall physical activity, measured using the validated Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed in 2014. In multivariable multinomial regression models--adjusted for potential sociodemographic, geographic, health, and workplace confounders; baseline active commuting; and home or work relocation-exposure to the busway was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of an increase in weekly cycle commuting time (relative risk ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.03, 1.76) and with an increase in overall time spent in active commuting among the least active commuters at baseline (relative risk ratio=1.76, 95% CI=1.16, 2.67). The study found no evidence of changes in recreational or overall physical activity. Providing new sustainable transport infrastructure was effective in promoting an increase in active commuting. These findings provide new evidence to support reconfiguring transport systems as part of public health improvement

  5. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  6. Overestimation of physical activity level is associated with lower BMI: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corder Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor recognition of physical inactivity may be an important barrier to healthy behaviour change, but little is known about this phenomenon. We aimed to characterize a high-risk population according to the discrepancies between objective and self-rated physical activity (PA, defined as awareness. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of PA awareness using baseline data collected from 365 ProActive participants between 2001 and 2003 in East Anglia, England. Self-rated PA was defined as 'active' or 'inactive' (assessed via questionnaire. Objective PA was defined according to achievement of guideline activity levels (≥30 minutes or Results 63.3% of participants (N = 231 were inactive according to objective measurement. Of these, 45.9% rated themselves as active ('Overestimators'. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age and smoking, males (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.98, those with lower BMI (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84, 0.95, younger age at completion of full-time education (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.93 and higher general health perception (OR = 1.02 CI = 1.00, 1.04 were more likely to overestimate their PA. Conclusions Overestimation of PA is associated with favourable indicators of relative slimness and general health. Feedback about PA levels could help reverse misperceptions.

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Physical Activity in Austrian College Students-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Martin; Frühauf, Anika; Kopp-Wilfling, Prisca; Rumpold, Gerhard; Kopp, Martin

    2018-01-30

    The age of college students is considered as crucial for developing health-related behaviors, e.g., alcohol consumption or a physically active lifestyle. Previous research reported a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and physical activity (PA) in college students. However, the main body of research was done in students from the United States who might differ from European students. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA in a sample of Austrian college students. In a cross-sectional design, 861 Austrian students from various study fields responded to a web-based questionnaire. Self-reported alcohol consumption, PA, and relevant sociodemographic variables were assessed. Multiple regression analyses were used to study the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA. In none of the regression models, a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and PA was found. There was a significant influence of sex, age, relationship status, education level, and study field on alcohol consumption. Male, older, and undergraduate students studying social sciences without a relationship reported higher alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Importance: The results do not support a general relationship between alcohol consumption and PA among urban Austrian college students of various study fields. Compared to other variables (e.g., sex, relationship status), PA seems to be less important in relation to the consumption of alcohol. This study challenges a global perspective on a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and PA and highlights the need for more cross-cultural investigations.

  8. Objectively measured occupational and leisure-time physical activity: cross-sectional associations with sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpsno, Eivind Schjelderup; Mork, Paul Jarle; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate (i) the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with insomnia symptoms and non-restorative sleep and (ii) the joint associations between OPA and LTPA with insomnia symptoms and non-restorative sleep, respectively. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study including 650 workers in the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto). OPA and LTPA were measured with accelerometers on the thigh and upper back for up to six consecutive days and subsequently divided into quartiles of "very low", "low", "medium" and "high" activity. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for insomnia symptoms and non-restorative sleep associated with OPA and LTPA. Results A 10% increase in OPA was associated with a higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-1.89) but not with the prevalence of non-restorative sleep (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.71-1.21). On the other hand, a 10% increase in LTPA was associated with a lower prevalence of non-restorative sleep (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.92). Although no significant additive interaction was found, analyses of the joint association of OPA and LTPA showed that people with high OPA and low LTPA had an OR of 2.07 (95% CI 1.01-4.24) for insomnia symptoms, compared to those with low OPA and high LTPA, whereas people with high levels of both OPA and LTPA had an OR of 1.47 (95% CI 0.73-2.96). Conclusions While LTPA was associated with lower prevalence of sleep problems, OPA was associated with higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms. A combination of high OPA and low LTPA were more strongly associated with insomnia symptoms compared to a combination of low OPA and high LTPA.

  9. Monostatic Radar Cross Section Estimation of Missile Shaped Object Using Physical Optics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Bhushana Rao, G.; Nambari, Swathi; Kota, Srikanth; Ranga Rao, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Stealth Technology manages many signatures for a target in which most radar systems use radar cross section (RCS) for discriminating targets and classifying them with regard to Stealth. During a war target’s RCS has to be very small to make target invisible to enemy radar. In this study, Radar Cross Section of perfectly conducting objects like cylinder, truncated cone (frustum) and circular flat plate is estimated with respect to parameters like size, frequency and aspect angle. Due to the difficulties in exactly predicting the RCS, approximate methods become the alternative. Majority of approximate methods are valid in optical region and where optical region has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the analysis given in this study is purely based on far field monostatic RCS measurements in the optical region. Computation is done using Physical Optics (PO) method for determining RCS of simple models. In this study not only the RCS of simple models but also missile shaped and rocket shaped models obtained from the cascaded objects with backscatter has been computed using Matlab simulation. Rectangular plots are obtained for RCS in dbsm versus aspect angle for simple and missile shaped objects using Matlab simulation. Treatment of RCS, in this study is based on Narrow Band.

  10. Approximate N3LO Higgs-boson production cross section using physical-kernel constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, D. de; Moch, S.; Hamburg Univ.; Vogt, A.

    2014-08-01

    The single-logarithmic enhancement of the physical kernel for Higgs production by gluon-gluon fusion in the heavy top-quark limit is employed to derive the leading so far unknown contributions, ln 5,4,3 (1-z), to the N 3 LO coefficient function in the threshold expansion. Also using knowledge from Higgs-exchange DIS to estimate the remaining terms not vanishing for z=m 2 H /s→1, these results are combined with the recently completed soft+virtual contributions to provide an uncertainty band for the complete N 3 LO correction. For the 2008 MSTW parton distributions these N 3 LO contributions increase the cross section at 14 TeV by (10±2)% and (3±2.5)% for the standard choices μ R =m H and μ R =m H /2 of the renormalization scale. The remaining uncertainty arising from the hard-scattering cross sections can be quantified as no more than 5%, which is smaller than that due to the strong coupling and the parton distributions.

  11. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Coasts around the world are affected by high-energy wave events like storm surges or tsunamis depending on their regional climatological and geological settings. By focusing on tsunami impacts, we combine the abilities and experiences of different scientific fields aiming at improved insights of near- and onshore tsunami hydrodynamics. We investigate the transport of coarse clasts - so called boulders - due to tsunami impacts by a multi-methodology approach of numerical modelling, laboratory experiments, and sedimentary field records. Coupled numerical hydrodynamic and boulder transport models (BTM) are widely applied for analysing the impact characteristics of the transport by tsunami, such as wave height and flow velocity. Numerical models able to simulate past tsunami events and the corresponding boulder transport patterns with high accuracy and acceptable computational effort can be utilized as powerful forecasting models predicting the impact of a coast approaching tsunami. We have conducted small-scale physical experiments in the tilting flume with real shaped boulder models. Utilizing the structure from motion technique (Westoby et al., 2012) we reconstructed real boulders from a field study on the Island of Bonaire (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Engel & May, 2012). The obtained three-dimensional boulder meshes are utilized for creating downscaled replica of the real boulder for physical experiments. The results of the irregular shaped boulder are compared to experiments with regular shaped boulder models to achieve a better insight about the shape related influence on transport patterns. The numerical model is based on the general two-phase mass flow model by Pudasaini (2012) enhanced for boulder transport simulations. The boulder is implemented using the immersed boundary technique (Peskin, 2002) and the direct forcing approach. In this method Cartesian grids (fluid and particle phase) and Lagrangian meshes (boulder) are combined. By applying the

  12. Cosmogenic nuclide shielding corrections determined via MCNPX radiation transport and spallation cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    Cosmogenic Nuclides (CNs) are a critical new tool for geomorphology, allowing researchers to date Earth surface events and measure process rates [1]. Prior to CNs, many of these events and processes had no absolute method for measurement and relied entirely on relative methods. Reliable absolute measurement methods impact research constraining ice age extents and provide important climatic data via well constrained erosion rates, etc. [2]. Continuing to improve CN methods is critical for these sciences. Significant progress has been made in the last two decades in refining the method and reducing analytic uncertainties [1,3]. CRONUS-Earth, a collaboration of cosmogenic nuclide researchers, has been developing calibration data and scaling methods to provide a self-consistent platform for use in interpreting nuclide concentration values into geologic data. However, several aspects of the radiation cascade have been exceedingly difficult to measure empirically with either accuracy or spatial extent. One such aspect is the angular distribution of secondary cosmic rays that are energetic enough to produce cosmogenic nuclides via spallation. Researchers studying the angular distribution of such cosmic rays have usually described the distribution as (cos(Θ))^m. Currently, the standard corrections, assume an m of 2.3, which is based on very sparse data sets with very limited spatial and altitude variation [1,4,5]. Researchers using CNs must know the production rate at the sample location, and then make corrections for the portion of the sky that is blocked by nearby topography. If the shielding correction model currently used is too simplistic, this introduces error into the final results. In this study, a Monte Carlo method radiation transport code, MCNPX is used to model the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) radiation impinging on the upper atmosphere and tracks the resulting secondary particles through a model of the Earth's atmosphere. Angle and energy distributions are

  13. Neighbourhood walkability, leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in a mixed urban-rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Eric; Ardern, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a walkability index specific to mixed rural/suburban areas, and to explore the relationship between walkability scores and leisure time physical activity. Methods. Respondents were geocoded with 500 m and 1,000 m buffer zones around each address. A walkability index was derived from intersections, residential density, and land-use mix according to built environment measures. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between the index and physical activity levels. Analyses used cross-sectional data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 1158; ≥18 y). Results. Respondents living in highly walkable 500 m buffer zones (upper quartiles of the walkability index) were more likely to walk or cycle for leisure than those living in low-walkable buffer zones (quartile 1). When a 1,000 m buffer zone was applied, respondents in more walkable neighbourhoods were more likely to walk or cycle for both leisure-time and transport-related purposes. Conclusion. Developing a walkability index can assist in exploring the associations between measures of the built environment and physical activity to prioritize neighborhood change.

  14. Progress report Physics and Health Sciences. Health Sciences section. 1987 July 01-December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report covers the fourth semi-annual period since the Research Company was reorganized. We now have eight research fellows on staff, six fully funded by Physics and Health Sciences (P and HS). The first section of this report contains an excellent topical review of the program in Health Sciences on tritium toxicity which involves scientists from all three of the Chalk River branches of Health Sciences. Their work on cancer proneness is expanding data on apparently normal people and has been extended to include cancer patients. All tests are now blind. The work was the subject of two very fine TV presentations, one each shown on the French and English networks of the CBC. Investigation also continues on the complex influence of hyperthermia on cancer induction and promotion. The potency of natural killer cells in human blood which have the ability to recognize and destroy cancerous cells have been shown to be very sensitive to temperature. A method may have been found for extending the life of T-lymphocytes grown in culture beyond the present 30 to 60-day limit. Activities in environmental research are moving in the direction of studies of a more fundamental nature so that the results will have a certain portability. Model studies form a large part of this new emphasis and notable among those is the Twin Lakes tracer study. Work is in progress to follow the plume the full 240 metres to the discharge zone with considerable success in the mathematical modelling. Members of the Health Sciences unit at CRNL were active as resource people for the Hare Commission on Ontario Nuclear Safety Review during the late fall. At Partnerships for Profit, which brought 85 senior executives of Canadian business in contact with the Research Company's capabilities, Physics and Health Sciences manned four booths on cancer screening, environmental protection, ANDI and nuclear physics instrumentation. Discussions with MOSST and other government departments were initiated on the

  15. Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model: analytical solution, moments, and application to colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leij, Feike J; Bradford, Scott A

    2009-11-20

    The transport of solutes and colloids in porous media is influenced by a variety of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes. A combined physical-chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was therefore used to describe general mass transport. The model partitions the pore space into "mobile" and "immobile" flow regions with first-order mass transfer between these two regions (i.e, "physical" nonequilibrium or PNE). Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases can either proceed as an equilibrium or a first-order process (i.e, "chemical" nonequilibrium or CNE) for both the mobile and immobile regions. An analytical solution for the PCNE model is obtained using iterated Laplace transforms. This solution complements earlier semi-analytical and numerical approaches to model solute transport with the PCNE model. The impact of selected model parameters on solute breakthrough curves is illustrated. As is well known, nonequilibrium results in earlier solute breakthrough with increased tailing. The PCNE model allows greater flexibility to describe this trend; for example, a closer resemblance between solute input and effluent pulse. Expressions for moments and transfer functions are presented to facilitate the analytical use of the PCNE model. Contours of mean breakthrough time, variance, and spread of the colloid breakthrough curves as a function of PNE and CNE parameters demonstrate the utility of a model that accounts for both physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes. The model is applied to describe representative colloid breakthrough curves in Ottawa sands reported by Bradford et al. (2002). An equilibrium model provided a good description of breakthrough curves for the bromide tracer but could not adequately describe the colloid data. A considerably better description was provide by the simple CNE model but the best description, especially for the larger 3.2-microm colloids, was provided by the PCNE model.

  16. Joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged Malays in a developing country: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H Y Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. METHODOLOGY: A total of 686 Malay men and women participated (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Self-reported sitting time was obtained with the validated Malay version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were asked about their time spent sitting during travel in a motor vehicle, e.g., car, motorcycle or bus, over the preceding 7 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with the confidence interval for the combined effects of sitting quartiles and physical activity categories with metabolic risk factors. RESULTS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our participants was 31.9%. Their average total sitting time (including transportation was 7.6 ± 2.4 h/day. After we adjusted for gender and educational level, higher sitting quartiles and physically inactive groups were associated with higher odds for metabolic syndrome compared with the referent group (sitting <6 h/day and physically active. In the physically active stratum, the odds for metabolic syndrome in participants who sat ≥ 9.3 h/day was 3.8 times that of participants who sat <6 h/day. Both higher sitting quartiles and insufficient physical activity were associated with adverse effects on abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION: In joint analyses of sitting time and physical activity, higher sitting time and insufficient physical activity

  17. Joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged Malays in a developing country: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. A total of 686 Malay men and women participated (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Self-reported sitting time was obtained with the validated Malay version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were asked about their time spent sitting during travel in a motor vehicle, e.g., car, motorcycle or bus, over the preceding 7 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with the confidence interval for the combined effects of sitting quartiles and physical activity categories with metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our participants was 31.9%. Their average total sitting time (including transportation) was 7.6 ± 2.4 h/day. After we adjusted for gender and educational level, higher sitting quartiles and physically inactive groups were associated with higher odds for metabolic syndrome compared with the referent group (sitting <6 h/day and physically active). In the physically active stratum, the odds for metabolic syndrome in participants who sat ≥ 9.3 h/day was 3.8 times that of participants who sat <6 h/day. Both higher sitting quartiles and insufficient physical activity were associated with adverse effects on abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia. In joint analyses of sitting time and physical activity, higher sitting time and insufficient physical activity were deleteriously associated with odds for metabolic risk factors in middle

  18. Nutritional status of the Iranian children with physical disability: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyestani, Tirang R; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Haydari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma; Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Houshyar-Rad, Anahita; Nematy, Mohsen; Maddah, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition can potentially prone a disabled child to further morbidities thus imposing further suffering to the affected child and his/her family. This is the first report on the nutritional status of physically disabled children from Iran. A total of 290 physically disabled children aged 6-12 years old, of both sexes, and from all specialized schools in Tehran, Meshed and Rasht were enrolled in a descriptive cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was performed for disabled children using 24hr and food-frequency questionnaires. Weight and height were assessed and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all subjects. In disabled children, while the mean energy intake was more than 90% of the amount required, mean calcium and iron intakes were 75.8% and 58.7% of the corresponding required amounts. Despite absence of significant difference in energy and fat intake, the intakes of protein, calcium and riboflavin were significantly lower in girls than in boys. Z score of weight showed that over 40% of disabled girls and boys were underweight. Comparison with anthropometric data from other studies showed that low weight was more prevalent in disabled than in non-disabled children (pdisabled boys and girls had significantly shorter statures than their non-disabled counterparts. Malnutrition (low weight and stunting) is quite prevalent among Iranian children with motor disabilities and it is more prevalent in girls than in boys. It seems that poor food composition is a more important contributing factor than total low calorie intake. These data warrant further studies.

  19. Personal health behaviors and role-modelpan>ing attitudes of physical therapists and physical therapist students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beth; Marcoux, Beth C; Stiller, Christine; Qu, Xianggui; Gellish, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    Physical therapists have been encouraged to engage in health promotion practice. Health professionals who engage in healthy behaviors themselves are more apt to recommend those behaviors, and patients are more motivated to change their behaviors when their health care provider is a credible role model. The purpose of this study was to describe the health behaviors and role-modelpan>ing attitudes of physical therapists and physical therapist students. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. A national sample of 405 physical therapists and 329 physical therapist students participated in the survey. Participants' attitudes toward role modeling and behaviors related to physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, abstention from smoking, and maintenance of a healthy weight were measured. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to examine differences in attitudes and behaviors between physical therapists and physical therapist students. A majority of the participants reported that they engage in regular physical activity (80.8%), eat fruits and vegetables (60.3%), do not smoke (99.4%), and maintain a healthy weight (78.7%). Although there were no differences in behaviors, physical therapist students were more likely to believe that role modeling is a powerful teaching tool, physical therapist professionals should "practice what they preach," physical activity is a desirable behavior, and physical therapist professionals should be role models for nonsmoking and maintaining a healthy weight. Limitations of this study include the potential for response bias and social desirability bias. Physical therapists and physical therapist students engage in health-promoting behaviors at similarly high rates but differ in role-modelpan>ing attitudes.

  20. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Atom-Molecule Interactions of Nitrogen and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The potential energy surfaces for H2-N and N2-N interactions are calculated by accurate ab initio methods and applied to determine transport data. The results confirm that an effective potential energy for accurately determining transport properties can be calculated using a single orientation. A simple method is developed to determine the dispersion coefficients of effective potential energies Effective potential energies required for O2-O collisions are determ=ined. The H2-N, N2-N, O2-H, and O2-O collision integrals are calculated and tabulated for a large range of temperatures. The theoretical values of the N2-N and O2-O diffusion coefficients compare well with measured data available at room temperature.

  1. Physical Layer Secret-Key Generation Scheme for Transportation Security Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2017-06-28

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are widely used in different disciplines, including transportation systems, agriculture field environment monitoring, healthcare systems, and industrial monitoring. The security challenge of the wireless communication link between sensor nodes is critical in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a new physical layer secret-key generation scheme for transportation security sensor network. The scheme is based on the cooperation of all the sensor nodes, thus avoiding the key distribution process, which increases the security of the system. Different passive and active attack models are analyzed in this paper. We also prove that when the cooperative node number is large enough, even when the eavesdropper is equipped with multiple antennas, the secret-key is still secure. Numerical results are performed to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  2. A physical model describing the interaction of nuclear transport receptors with FG nucleoporin domain assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Raphael; Osmanović, Dino; Ehret, Severin; Araya Callis, Carolina; Frey, Steffen; Stewart, Murray; You, Changjiang; Görlich, Dirk; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Richter, Ralf P

    2016-04-08

    The permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) controls bulk nucleocytoplasmic exchange. It consists of nucleoporin domains rich in phenylalanine-glycine motifs (FG domains). As a bottom-up nanoscale model for the permeability barrier, we have used planar films produced with three different end-grafted FG domains, and quantitatively analyzed the binding of two different nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), NTF2 and Importin β, together with the concomitant film thickness changes. NTR binding caused only moderate changes in film thickness; the binding isotherms showed negative cooperativity and could all be mapped onto a single master curve. This universal NTR binding behavior - a key element for the transport selectivity of the NPC - was quantitatively reproduced by a physical model that treats FG domains as regular, flexible polymers, and NTRs as spherical colloids with a homogeneous surface, ignoring the detailed arrangement of interaction sites along FG domains and on the NTR surface.

  3. Systems Models for Transportation Problems : Part 2. The Social Physics for Modern Societies - the Role of the Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The objective of the research was to make use of a physically based social systems model, developed earlier, to study the determinants of city sizes and their national interactions. In particular, information on the role of a transportation system in...

  4. Associations between asthma, overweight and physical activity in children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, Maartje; van de Kant, Kim D G; van der Velden, Charlotte A; van Schayck, Constant P; Dompeling, Edward

    2016-09-01

    Asthma and obesity are highly prevalent in children, and are interrelated resulting in a difficult-to-treat asthma-obesity phenotype. The exact underlying mechanisms of this phenotype remain unclear, but decreased physical activity (PA) could be an important lifestyle factor. We hypothesize that both asthma and overweight/obesity decrease PA levels and interact on PA levels in asthmatic children with overweight/obesity. School-aged children (n = 122) were divided in 4 groups (healthy control, asthma, overweight/obesity and asthma, and overweight/obesity). Children were asked to perform lung function tests and wear an activity monitor for 7 days. PA was determined by: step count, active time, screen time, time spent in organized sports and active transport forms. We used multiple linear regression techniques to investigate whether asthma, body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), or the interaction term asthma x BMI-SDS were associated with PA. Additionally, we tested if asthma features (including lung function and medication) were related to PA levels in asthmatic children. Asthma, BMI-SDS and the interaction between asthma x BMI-SDS were not related to any of the PA variables (p ≥ 0.05). None of the asthma features could predict PA levels (p ≥ 0.05). Less than 1 in 5 children reached the recommended daily step count guidelines of 12,000 steps/day. We found no significant associations between asthma, overweight and PA levels in school-aged children in this study. However, as PA levels were worryingly low, effective PA promotion in school-aged children is necessary.

  5. Don't worry, be happy: cross-sectional associations between physical activity and happiness in 15 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Justin; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Kelly, Paul; Chau, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-31

    Mental health disorders are major contributors to the global burden of disease and their inverse relationship with physical activity is widely accepted. However, research on the association between physical activity and positive mental health outcomes is limited. Happiness is an example of a positive construct of mental health that may be promoted by physical activity and could increase resilience to emotional perturbations. The aim of this study is to use a large multi-country dataset to assess the association of happiness with physical activity volume and its specificity to intensity and/or activity domain. We analysed Eurobarometer 2002 data from 15 countries (n = 11,637). This comprised one question assessing self-reported happiness on a six point scale (dichotomised: happy/unhappy) and physical activity data collected using the IPAQ-short (i.e. walking, moderate, vigorous) and four domain specific items (i.e. domestic, leisure, transport, vocation). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between happiness and physical activity volume adjusted for sex, age, country, general health, relationship status, employment and education. Analyses of intensity and domain specificity were assessed by logistic regression adjusted for the same covariates and physical activity volume. When compared to inactive people, there was a positive dose-response association between physical activity volume and happiness (highly active: OR = 1.52 [1.28-1.80]; sufficiently active: OR = 1.29 [1.11-1.49]; insufficiently active: OR = 1.20 [1.03-1.39]). There were small positive associations with happiness for walking (OR = 1.02 [1.00-1.03]) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (OR = 1.03 [1.01-1.05). Moderate-intensity physical activity was not associated with happiness (OR = 1.01 [0.99-1.03]). The strongest domain specific associations with happiness were found for "a lot" of domestic (OR = 1.42 [1.20-1.68]) and "some" vocational (OR = 1.33 [1.08-1.64]) physical

  6. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva

    2016-04-01

    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need

  7. [Domains of physical activity and education in São Paulo, Brazil: a serial cross-sectional study in 2003 and 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana Paula de Oliveira Barbosa; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Barros, Marilisa Berti Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luis Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of physical activity in different domains and the association with schooling, using a serial cross-sectional population-based design comparing data from two editions of a health survey in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participation included 1,667 adults in 2003 and 2,086 in 2008. Probabilistic sampling was performed by two-stage clusters. The long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) allowed evaluating multiple domains of physical activity. Poisson regression was used. Men were more active in their leisure time and at work and women in the home. Schooling was associated directly with leisure-time activity (2003 and 2008) and inversely with work-related physical activity (2003) for men and for women in housework. The studies showed that Brazilians with less schooling are becoming less active, so that intervention strategies should consider different educational levels. Interventions in the urban space and transportation can increase the opportunities for physical activity and broaden access by the population.

  8. Applied Physics of Carbon Nanotubes Fundamentals of Theory, Optics and Transport Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rotkin, Slava V

    2005-01-01

    The book describes the state-of-the-art in fundamental, applied and device physics of nanotubes, including fabrication, manipulation and characterization for device applications; optics of nanotubes; transport and electromechanical devices and fundamentals of theory for applications. This information is critical to the field of nanoscience since nanotubes have the potential to become a very significant electronic material for decades to come. The book will benefit all all readers interested in the application of nanotubes, either in their theoretical foundations or in newly developed characterization tools that may enable practical device fabrication.

  9. Application of the characteristics-based sectional method to spatially varying aerosol formation and transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederix, E.M.A.; Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Nordlund, M.; Veldman, A.E.P.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    The characteristics-based ssolution. It is easy to verify thatectional method (CBSM) offers an Eulerian description of an internally mixed aerosol. It was shown to be robust and capable of exact preservation of lower order moments, allowing for highly skewed sectional droplet size distributions. In

  10. Sedentary patterns, physical activity and health-related physical fitness in youth: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    J?dice, Pedro B.; Silva, Analiza M.; Berria, Juliane; Petroski, Edio L.; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Lu?s B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Strong evidence indicates that moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is positively associated with fitness in youth, independent of total sedentary-time. Sedentary-time appears negatively associated with fitness only when it replaces MVPA. However, whether different sedentary-patterns affect health-related fitness is unknown. Methods: The associations between MVPA and sedentary-patterns with physical fitness were examined in 2698 youths (1262 boys) aged 13.4 ± 2.28 years. Sed...

  11. Utilizing Monte-Carlo radiation transport and spallation cross sections to estimate nuclide dependent scaling with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J.

    2010-12-01

    Cosmogenic Nuclides (CNs) are a critical new tool for geomorphology, allowing researchers to date Earth surface events and measure process rates [1]. Prior to CNs, many of these events and processes had no absolute method for measurement and relied entirely on relative methods [2]. Continued improvements in CN methods are necessary for expanding analytic capability in geomorphology. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made in refining these methods and reducing analytic uncertainties [1,3]. Calibration data and scaling methods are being developed to provide a self consistent platform for use in interpreting nuclide concentration values into geologic data [4]. However, nuclide dependent scaling has been difficult to address due to analytic uncertainty and sparseness in altitude transects. Artificial target experiments are underway, but these experiments take considerable time for nuclide buildup in lower altitudes. In this study, a Monte Carlo method radiation transport code, MCNPX, is used to model the galactic cosmic-ray radiation impinging on the upper atmosphere and track the resulting secondary particles through a model of the Earth’s atmosphere and lithosphere. To address the issue of nuclide dependent scaling, the neutron flux values determined by the MCNPX simulation are folded in with estimated cross-section values [5,6]. Preliminary calculations indicate that scaling of nuclide production potential in free air seems to be a function of both altitude and nuclide production pathway. At 0 g/cm2 (sea-level) all neutron spallation pathways have attenuation lengths within 1% of 130 g/cm2. However, the differences in attenuation length are exacerbated with increasing altitude. At 530 g/cm2 atmospheric height (~5,500 m), the apparent attenuation lengths for aggregate SiO2(n,x)10Be, aggregate SiO2(n,x)14C and K(n,x)36Cl become 149.5 g/cm2, 151 g/cm2 and 148 g/cm2 respectively. At 700 g/cm2 atmospheric height (~8,400m - close to the highest

  12. Pseudo-point transport technique: a new method for solving the Boltzmann transport equation in media with highly fluctuating cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhai, B.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for solving radiation transport problems is presented. The heart of the technique is a new cross section processing procedure for the calculation of group-to-point and point-to-group cross sections sets. The method is ideally suited for problems which involve media with highly fluctuating cross sections, where the results of the traditional multigroup calculations are beclouded by the group averaging procedures employed. Extensive computational efforts, which would be required to evaluate double integrals in the multigroup treatment numerically, prohibit iteration to optimize the energy boundaries. On the other hand, use of point-to-point techniques (as in the stochastic technique) is often prohibitively expensive due to the large computer storage requirement. The pseudo-point code is a hybrid of the two aforementioned methods (group-to-group and point-to-point) - hence the name pseudo-point - that reduces the computational efforts of the former and the large core requirements of the latter. The pseudo-point code generates the group-to-point or the point-to-group transfer matrices, and can be coupled with the existing transport codes to calculate pointwise energy-dependent fluxes. This approach yields much more detail than is available from the conventional energy-group treatments. Due to the speed of this code, several iterations could be performed (in affordable computing efforts) to optimize the energy boundaries and the weighting functions. The pseudo-point technique is demonstrated by solving six problems, each depicting a certain aspect of the technique. The results are presented as flux vs energy at various spatial intervals. The sensitivity of the technique to the energy grid and the savings in computational effort are clearly demonstrated

  13. Nutrient transports in the Baltic Sea - results from a 30-year physical-biogeochemical reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Meier, H. E. Markus; Eilola, Kari

    2017-04-01

    Long-term oxygen and nutrient transports in the Baltic Sea are reconstructed using the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) coupled to the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO). Two simulations with and without data assimilation covering the period 1970-1999 are carried out. Here, the weakly coupled scheme with the Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI) method is adopted to assimilate observed profiles in the reanalysis system. The reanalysis shows considerable improvement in the simulation of both oxygen and nutrient concentrations relative to the free run. Further, the results suggest that the assimilation of biogeochemical observations has a significant effect on the simulation of the oxygen-dependent dynamics of biogeochemical cycles. From the reanalysis, nutrient transports between sub-basins, between the coastal zone and the open sea, and across latitudinal and longitudinal cross sections are calculated. Further, the spatial distributions of regions with nutrient import or export are examined. Our results emphasize the important role of the Baltic proper for the entire Baltic Sea, with large net transport (export minus import) of nutrients from the Baltic proper into the surrounding sub-basins (except the net phosphorus import from the Gulf of Riga and the net nitrogen import from the Gulf of Riga and Danish Straits). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the Bothnian Sea imports large amounts of phosphorus from the Baltic proper that are retained in this sub-basin. For the calculation of sub-basin budgets, the location of the lateral borders of the sub-basins is crucial, because net transports may change sign with the location of the border. Although the overall transport patterns resemble the results of previous studies, our calculated estimates differ in detail considerably.

  14. Coupling sections, emittance growth, and drift compensation in the use of bent solenoids as beam transport elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Norem

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Bent solenoids can transmit charged particle beams while providing momentum dispersion. While less familiar than quadrupole and dipole systems, bent solenoids can produce superficially simple transport lines and large acceptance spectrometers for use at low energies. Design issues such as drift compensation and coupling sections between straight and bent solenoids are identified, and aberrations such as shears produced by perpendicular error fields are discussed. Examples are considered which provide the basis for the design of emittance exchange elements for the cooling system of a muon collider.

  15. The Effects of Unheated Sections on Moisture Transport in the Emplacement Drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Danko; D. Bahrami; J.T. Birkholzer

    2006-01-01

    A thermal-hydrologic natural-ventilation model is configured for simulating temperature, humidity, and condensate distributions in the coupled domains of the in-drift airspace and the near-field rockmass. Meaningful results are obtained from the model for a practical application in which the beneficial effects of unheated drift sections are analyzed. Sensitivity to the axial dispersion coefficient is also studied with the model

  16. The Effect of Unheated Sections on Moisture Transport in the Emplacement Drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Danko; J. Birkholzer; D. Bahrami

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this study are: (1) to configure a thermal-hydrological, natural-ventilation model for simulating temperature, humidity, and condensate distributions in the coupled domains of in-drift airspace and near-field rockmass. Rokmass model: TOUGH2, in-drift model: MULTIFLUX (MF); (2) obtain meaningful results from the model for a practical application in which the beneficial effects of unheated drift sections are analyzed; and (3) study the sensitivity to the axial dispersion coefficient with the model

  17. On the Way to Future's High Energy Particle Physics Transport Code

    CERN Document Server

    Bíró, Gábor; Futó, Endre

    2015-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) needs a huge amount of computing resources. In addition data acquisition, transfer, and analysis require a well developed infrastructure too. In order to prove new physics disciplines it is required to higher the luminosity of the accelerator facilities, which produce more-and-more data in the experimental detectors. Both testing new theories and detector R&D are based on complex simulations. Today have already reach that level, the Monte Carlo detector simulation takes much more time than real data collection. This is why speed up of the calculations and simulations became important in the HEP community. The Geant Vector Prototype (GeantV) project aims to optimize the most-used particle transport code applying parallel computing and to exploit the capabilities of the modern CPU and GPU architectures as well. With the maximized concurrency at multiple levels the GeantV is intended to be the successor of the Geant4 particle transport code that has been used since two decades succe...

  18. Physics-based hybrid method for multiscale transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Mehrdad; Battiato, Ilenia

    2017-09-01

    Despite advancements in the development of multiscale models for flow and reactive transport in porous media, the accurate, efficient and physics-based coupling of multiple scales in hybrid models remains a major theoretical and computational challenge. Improving the predictivity of macroscale predictions by means of multiscale algorithms relative to classical at-scale models is the primary motivation for the development of multiscale simulators. Yet, very few are the quantitative studies that explicitly address the predictive capability of multiscale coupling algorithms as it is still generally not possible to have a priori estimates of the errors that are present when complex flow processes are modeled. We develop a nonintrusive pore-/continuum-scale hybrid model whose coupling error is bounded by the upscaling error, i.e. we build a predictive tightly coupled multiscale scheme. This is accomplished by slightly enlarging the subdomain where continuum-scale equations are locally invalid and analytically defining physics-based coupling conditions at the interfaces separating the two computational sub-domains, while enforcing state variable and flux continuity. The proposed multiscale coupling approach retains the advantages of domain decomposition approaches, including the use of existing solvers for each subdomain, while it gains flexibility in the choice of the numerical discretization method and maintains the coupling errors bounded by the upscaling error. We implement the coupling in finite volumes and test the proposed method by modeling flow and transport through a reactive channel and past an array of heterogeneously reactive cylinders.

  19. Proceedings of the Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provided the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program and research opportunities and plans for the near future. Consistent with the conference theme "Microgravity Research an Agency-Wide Asset" the conference focused not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. The conference included 14 invited plenary talks, 61 technical paper presentations, 61 poster presentations, exhibits and a forum on emerging research themes focusing on nanotechnology and biofluid mechanics. This web-based proceeding includes the presentation and poster charts provided by the presenters of technical papers and posters that were scanned at the conference site. Abstracts of all the papers and posters are included and linked to the presentations charts. The invited and plenary speakers were not required to provide their charts and are generally not available for scanning and hence not posted. The conference program is also included.

  20. Physical health outcomes in prisoners with intellectual disability: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, S; Ware, R S; Kinner, S A; Lennox, N G

    2013-12-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) in the general population and people in prison experience unrecognised medical conditions and inadequate disease prevention. Among prisoners, those with an ID may be particularly disadvantaged. The aim of this study was to identify demographic, health and health-related characteristics of adult prisoners who screened positive for ID. Cross-sectional data were collected via face-to-face administration of a structured questionnaire in seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, between 2008 and 2010. Participants were adult prisoners within 6 weeks of release from custody. We identified ID using a pragmatic screening tool. Prisoners who scored Prisoners who screened positive for ID were more likely to have been diagnosed with medical conditions such as heart disease (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval = 2.1; 1.0-4.2) and hearing problems (2.2; 1.3-3.7), after adjustment for age, sex, education level and Indigenous status. Screen-positive prisoners were less likely to have received preventive care interventions such as testing for hepatitis A infection (0.4; 0.2-0.6), and immunisation for tuberculosis (0.4; 0.2-0.8). Prisoners with possible ID were more likely to be obese (1.7; 1.1-2.7). Adult prisoners who screen positive for ID have worse health outcomes than their non-disabled peers. An improved understanding of physical health characteristics prior to release can direct treatment and support pathways out of the criminal justice system and inform transitional planning of health services for this profoundly disadvantaged group. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  1. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerike, Regine; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-07

    Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14,000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European Commission before the start of the survey. The PASTA website

  2. ARES: A Parallel Discrete Ordinates Transport Code for Radiation Shielding Applications and Reactor Physics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixue Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ARES is a multidimensional parallel discrete ordinates particle transport code with arbitrary order anisotropic scattering. It can be applied to a wide variety of radiation shielding calculations and reactor physics analysis. ARES uses state-of-the-art solution methods to obtain accurate solutions to the linear Boltzmann transport equation. A multigroup discretization is applied in energy. The code allows multiple spatial discretization schemes and solution methodologies. ARES currently provides diamond difference with or without linear-zero flux fixup, theta weighted, directional theta weighted, exponential directional weighted, and linear discontinuous finite element spatial differencing schemes. Discrete ordinates differencing in angle and spherical harmonics expansion of the scattering source are adopted. First collision source method is used to eliminate or mitigate the ray effects. Traditional source iteration and Krylov iterative method preconditioned with diffusion synthetic acceleration are applied to solve the linear system of equations. ARES uses the Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel sweep algorithm to obtain high parallel efficiency. Verification and validation for the ARES transport code system have been done by lots of benchmarks. In this paper, ARES solutions to the HBR-2 benchmark and C5G7 benchmarks are in excellent agreement with published results. Numerical results are presented which demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of these methods.

  3. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7-30.6), 0.6 (0.3-0.9), and 4.7 (2.1-7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches.

  4. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H.; Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.

    1997-03-01

    A compact accelerator with high current ion source, low energy beam transport elements and windowless gas target was designed to investigate the thermonuclear reaction cross section. The idea of this project focused on the cross section measurement of the fusion reaction data {sup 3}He+{sup 3}He-{sup 4}He+p+p at 25keV. The system will be installed in Otoh Cosmo Observatory (1270m.w.e.) to get rid of the huge cosmic and environmental background. It consists of NANOGUN ECR ion source, focusing elements made of permanent magnets window less {sup 3}He gas target and/or He{sup 3} plasma target and detector telescopes with low noise and low background. Requirements for these were discussed technically and various ideas were proposed. (author)

  5. Evaluation of HYLIFE-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566-group neutron transport and activation cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code allow enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross-section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from the FENDL/A-2.0 pointwise data. Neutron spectra have been calculated for the first walls of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero inertial fusion energy power plant designs and have been used in subsequent neutron activation calculations. The results obtained using the two different group structures are compared with each other as well as to those obtained using a 175-group version of the EAF3.1 activation cross-section library.

  6. Efficacy of adjusting working height and mechanizing of transport on physical work demands and local discomfort in construction work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Grouwstra, Robin; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of ergonomics measures to reduce physical work demands in a real working situation is often assumed, but seldom studied. In this study, the effect of adjusting working height and mechanization of transport on physical work demands and local discomfort of bricklayers' work was evaluated

  7. Influence of parental perception of school safety and gender on children's physical activity in Mexico: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Amy; Soltero, Erica G; Barquera, Simón; Lévesque, Lucie; Jauregui, Edtna; López Y Taylor, Juan; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children's physical activity (PA) levels. Parents of school aged Mexican children residing in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Puerto Vallarta, completed surveys about their children's PA measures. The physical activity indicators were evaluated using linear and logistical regression models. Analysis did not indicate that gender moderated the relationship between parental perception of safety and PA measures, but significant gender issues exist with girls participating less than boys in the three measures of PA in this study (p<0.001). Results suggest the need for additional interventions promoting physical activity in girls in Mexico.

  8. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The process of pp-de{sup +}{nu} is the basic fusion reaction for hydrogen burning in the sun and the prime reaction in chain producing photons and neutrinos. There are many works of the theoretical estimation of the reaction rate in the reaction chain in the sun. The precise measurement of the nutrinos from the sun is one of the most important current physics issues. The rate of the pp-de{sup +}{nu} is too small to be measured in laboratories. The construction of a compact ion accelerator facility with high current, low energy transport and plasma target is planned at the underground laboratory in Otoh Cosmo Observatory of Research Center for Nuclear Physics. The plasma target by using the EBIS type synthesized plasma was proposed as a bare {sup 3}He target. The production of helium ions of each charge state was tested by using the present NEOMAFIOS ECR ion source, and the obtained current is shown. For noncontaminated, high current beam transport, the strong focusing system was introduced. The design of windowless gas target, plasma target, the detection of the energetic reaction particles of protons, digital calorimeter, the couple of ECR ion source and plasma target, and the underground laboratory are reported. (K.I.)

  9. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe; Ogilvie, David; Marcus, Bess H; Perez, Lilian G; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation directly and indirectly affect levels of physical activity across countries of low, middle, and high income. The model suggested that the direct and potentiating eff ects of information and communication technology, especially mobile phones, are nearly equal in magnitude to the mean eff ects of planned physical activity interventions. The greatest potential to increase population physical activity might thus be in creation of synergistic policies in sectors outside health including communication and transportation. However, there remains a glaring mismatch between where studies on physical activity interventions are undertaken and where the potential lies in low-income and middle-income countries for population-level effects that will truly affect global health.

  10. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb2 +) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb2 + concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb2 + concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb2 + concentrations are the same for all three

  11. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Adam L; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb(2+)) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb(2+) concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb(2+) concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb(2+) concentrations are the same for all

  12. Comparisons of physical and chemical sputtering in high density divertor plasmas with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Loh, Y.S.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.

    1997-11-01

    The MCI transport model was used to compare chemical and physical sputtering for a DIII-D divertor plasma near detachment. With physical sputtering alone the integrated carbon influx was 8.4 x 10 19 neutral/s while physical plus chemical sputtering produced an integrated carbon influx of 1.7 x 10 21 neutrals/s. The average carbon concentration in the computational volume increased from 0.012% with only physical sputtering to 0.182% with both chemical and physical sputtering. This increase in the carbon inventory produced more radiated power which is in better agreement with experimental measurements

  13. Testing a self-determination theory model of children's physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-09-26

    Understanding children's physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children's physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children's minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children's motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is associated with their objectively-assessed physical

  14. Testing a self-determination theory model of children’s physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children’s physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. Results The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children’s minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children’s motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is

  15. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  17. Modelization of physical phenomena in research reactors with the help of new developments in transport methods, and methodology validation with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauck, St.

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a scheme for experimental reactors, based on transport equations. This type of reactors is characterized by a small core, a complex, very heterogeneous geometry and a large leakage. The possible insertion of neutron beams in the reflector and the presence of absorbers in the core increase the difficulty of the 3D-geometrical description and the physical modeling of the component parameters of the reactor. The Orphee reactor has been chosen for our study. Physical models (homogenization, collapsing cross section in few groups, albedo multigroup condition) have been developed in the APOLLO2 and CRONOS2 codes to calculate flux and power maps in a 3D-geometry, with different burnup and through transport equations. Comparisons with experimental measurements have shown the interest of taking into account anisotropy, steep flux gradients by using Sn methods, and on the other hand using a 12-group cross section library. The modeling of neutron beams has been done outside the core modeling through Monte Carlo calculations and with the total geometry, including a large thickness of heavy water. Thanks to this calculations, one can evaluate the neutron beams anti-reactivity and determinate the core cycle. We assure these methods more accurate than usual transport-diffusion calculations will be used for the conception of new research reactors. (author)

  18. Associations of parental education and parental physical activity (PA) with children's PA: The ENERGY cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Pavon, D.; Fernandez-Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Brug, J.; Bere, E.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Androutsos, O.; Manios, Y.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Moreno, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study sought to examine the independent associations of parental education and physical activity (PA) with children's PA across Europe. Methods: A total of 7214 children (10-12. years) were recruited from a school-based cross-sectional survey during 2010 in seven European

  19. Anthropometry, physical performance, and ultrasound patellar tendon abnormality in elite junior basketball players: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, J; Kiss, Z; Khan, K; Purdam, C; Webster, K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Patellar tendinopathy has been reported to be associated with many intrinsic risk factors. Few have been fully investigated. This cross-sectional study examined the anthropometric and physical performance results of elite junior basketball players with normal or abnormal patellar tendons to see if any measures were associated with changes in tendon morphology.

  20. Sextupole correction of the longitudinal transport of relativistic beams in dispersionless translating sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. England

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the use of sextupole magnets to correct nonlinearities in the longitudinal phase space transformation of a relativistic beam of charged particles in a dispersionless translating section, or dogleg. Through heuristic analytical arguments and examples derived from recent experimental efforts, augmented by simulations using the particle tracking codes PARMELA and ELEGANT, sextupole corrections are found to be effective in optimizing the use of such structures for beam compression or for shaping the current profile of the beam, by manipulation of the second-order longitudinal dispersion. Recent experimental evidence of the use of sextupoles to manipulate second-order horizontal and longitudinal dispersion of the beam is presented. The theoretical and experimental results indicate that these manipulations can be used to create an electron bunch with a current profile having a long ramp followed by a sharp cutoff, which is optimal for driving large-amplitude wake fields in a plasma wake field accelerator.

  1. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  2. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Cai Lian

    Full Text Available Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested.

  3. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested.

  4. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-09-29

    Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST

  5. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Van der Geest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an

  6. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n = 459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ≥4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  7. App use, physical activity and healthy lifestyle: a cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan Martine; Mennes, Matthijs; Alpay, Laurence; Bijwaard, Harmen; Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, Marije

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a growing public health concern. Use of mobile applications (apps) may be a powerful tool to encourage physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. For instance, apps may be used in the preparation of a running event. However, there is little evidence for

  8. Leisure-time Physical Activity of Polish White-collar Workers: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nawrocka

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of the physical activity identified were significantly different from the American College of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization recommendations. The lower percentage of workers who met American College of Sports Medicine recommendations was caused by insufficient frequency of physical efforts.

  9. Physical predictors of cognitive performance in healthy older adults: a cross-sectional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, C.G.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Wieling, M.B.; Hortobagyi, T.; Brouwer, WH; Geuze, R.H.; Heuvelen, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the

  10. Physical Predictors of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults : A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Wieling, Martijn B.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Geuze, Reint H.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the

  11. Engagement in physical education classes and health among young people: does sports practice matter? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli

    2017-01-01

    Physical education classes aim to promote health but it is unknown whether benefits occur independently of sports practice. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between engagement in physical education classes and physical fitness and obesity according to sports practice among Brazilian students. Cross-sectional school-based study involving 737 students aged 10-17 years in southern Brazil. Engagement in physical education classes and sports practice were analyzed using a self-report questionnaire. The health indicators analyzed were cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, obesity and combinations thereof. The covariates were sex, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and sedentary behavior. Prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for confounding variables were estimated using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified according to sports practice. Engagement in physical education classes was associated with achievement of health-related criteria for cardiorespiratory fitness (PR = 1.52), muscle strength (PR = 1.55), obesity + cardiorespiratory fitness (PR = 1.51), obesity + muscle strength (PR = 1.70), cardiorespiratory fitness + muscle strength (PR = 2.60) and the three outcomes combined (PR = 2.43), only among non-sports practitioners, all P education classes was not associated with obesity (PR = 1.00, P > 0.05). No associations were found for sports practitioners (P > 0.05). Engagement in physical education classes was associated with health among non-sports practitioners. However, to protect students from obesity and promote additional health benefits for sports practitioners, the conventional physical education program offered to the sample studied should be reformulated.

  12. Comparison of SERPENT and SCALE methodology for LWRs transport calculations and additionally uncertainty analysis for cross-section perturbation with SAMPLER module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labarile Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear safety research, the quality of the results of simulation codes is widely determined by the reactor design and safe operation, and the description of neutron transport in the reactor core is a feature of particular importance. Moreover, for the long effort that is made, there remain uncertainties in simulation results due to the neutronic data and input specification that need a huge effort to be eliminated. A realistic estimation of these uncertainties is required for finding out the reliability of the results. This explains the increasing demand in recent years for calculations in the nuclear fields with best-estimate codes that proved confidence bounds of simulation results. All this has lead to the Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs of the NEA. The UAM-Benchmark coupling multi-physics and multi-scale analysis using as a basis complete sets of input specifications of boiling water reactors (BWR and pressurized water reactors (PWR. In this study, the results of the transport calculations carried out using the SCALE-6.2 program (TRITON/NEWT and TRITON/KENO modules as well as Monte Carlo SERPENT code, are presented. Additionally, they have been made uncertainties calculation for a PWR 15 × 15 and a BWR 7 × 7 fuel elements, in two different configurations (with and without control rod, and two different states, Hot Full Power (HFP and Hot Zero Power (HZP, using the TSUNAMI module, which uses the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT, and SAMPLER, which uses stochastic sampling techniques for cross-sections perturbations. The results obtained and validated are compared with references results and similar studies presented in the exercise I-2 (Lattice Physics of UAM-Benchmark.

  13. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers based on invited talks and contributed posters presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center in Tsukuba, Japan, on 26-28 September 2007, and was organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tsukuba. The previous ten meetings in this series were held in San Diego (USA) 1987, Gut Ising (Germany) 1989, Abingdon (UK) 1991, Naka (Japan) 1993, Princeton (USA) 1995, Kloster Seeon (Germany) 1997, Oxford (UK) 1999, Toki (Japan) 2001, San Diego (USA) 2003, and St Petersburg (Russia) 2005. The purpose of the eleventh meeting was to present and discuss new results on H-mode (edge transport barrier, ETB) and internal transport barrier, ITB, experiments, theory and modeling in magnetic fusion research. It was expected that contributions give new and improved insights into the physics mechanisms behind high confinement modes of H-mode and ITBs. Ultimately, this research should lead to improved projections for ITER. As has been the tradition at the recent meetings of this series, the program was subdivided into six topics. The topics selected for the eleventh meeting were: H-mode transition and the pedestal-width Dynamics in ETB: ELM threshold, non-linear evolution and suppression, etc Transport relations of various quantities including turbulence in plasmas with ITB: rotation physics is especially highlighted Transport barriers in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields Theory and simulation on transport barriers Projections of transport barrier physics to ITER For each topic there was an invited talk presenting an overview of the topic, based on contributions to the meeting and on recently published external results. The six invited talks were: A Leonard (GA, USA): Progress in characterization of the H-mode pedestal and L-H transition N Oyama (JAEA, Japan): Progress and issues in

  14. Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

  15. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jago Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional study among 1,966 Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents was conducted in 2008/2009. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire across primary, middle, high and technical/vocational schools. Results Overall 52.3% and 52.4% of the participants met physical activity and television viewing guidelines respectively. Boys and younger children were more likely to meet guidelines. Boys who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week were more likely to be physically active (OR = 3.4, and those who listened to music for one or less than one hour per day were less likely to be physically active (OR = 0.6. Girls who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week and who watched television for two or less than two hours per day were more likely to be physically active, (OR = 3.0 and OR = 1.5 respectively. Girls who reported travelling by car/bus/motorbike for one or less than one hour per day were more likely to actively travel to school (OR = 1.8. Conclusions Findings from this study provide limited support for the displacement hypothesis whereby sedentary behaviours displace physically active time. About 50.0% of Greek children and adolescents in Cyprus meet existing physical activity and television viewing guidelines. Encouraging children to attend sports clubs for at least two times per week may markedly improve their physical activity levels.

  16. What Is the Effect on Obesity Indicators from Replacing Prolonged Sedentary Time with Brief Sedentary Bouts, Standing and Different Types of Physical Activity during Working Days? A Cross-Sectional Accelerometer-Based Study among Blue-Collar Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Aadahl, Mette; Korsh?j, Mette; J?rgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate if (a) substituting total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing or various types of physical activity and (b) substituting long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts; is associated with obesity indicators using a cross sectional isotemporal substitution approach among blue-collar workers.METHODS: A total of 692 workers from transportation, manufacturing and cleaning sectors wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the t...

  17. Cross-sectional associations of objectively measured physical activity with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Tarp, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 415 adolescents who participated in the 2015 follow......-up of the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (the CHAMPS-study DK). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry monitors. Serum BDNF levels were analyzed using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthropometrics and pubertal status were measured using.......035). In girls, mean physical activity and MVPA were not associated with serum BDNF. Without adjustment for wear time, sedentary time was not associated with serum BDNF in either sex. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that higher physical activity is associated with lower serum BDNF in boys, but not in girls....

  18. Crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1993-01-01

    The materials to be investigated are ZnSe and related ternary semiconducting alloys (e.g., ZnS(x)Se(1-x), ZnTe(x)Se(1-x), and Zn(1-x)Cd(x)Se). These materials are useful for opto-electronic applications such as high efficient light emitting diodes and low power threshold and high temperature lasers in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum. The recent demonstration of its optical bistable properties also makes ZnSe a possible candidate material for digital optical computers. The investigation consists of an extensive ground-based study followed by flight experimentation, and involves both experimental and theoretical work. The objectives of the ground-based work are to establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low gravity environment and to obtain the experimental data and perform the analyses required to define the optimum parameters for the flight experiments. During the six months of the Preliminary Definition Phase, the research efforts were concentrated on the binary compound ZnSe - the purification of starting materials of Se by zone refining, the synthesis of ZnSe starting materials, the heat treatments of the starting materials, the vapor transport rate measurements, the vapor partial pressure measurements of ZnSe, the crystal growth of ZnSe by physical vapor transport, and various characterization on the grown ZnSe crystals.

  19. Proposal for guidelines for the physical protection of nuclear materials, plants and transports in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    The guidelines are based on recommendations in the IAEA's ''Physical Protection of Nuclear Material,'' INFCIRC/225/rev.1. In accordance with practice in other countries, the guidelines give more detailed requirements for the protection of reactor plants than those given in the IAEA's present recommendations, which put more emphasis on the protection of nuclear materials. The measures to be taken for nuclear plants, or nuclear transports, are proposed made to fit the potential risk that the more closely defined actions imply. It is suggested that the more detailed rules for the scope of the protection of plants or materials should be laid down by the National Agency on the basis of recommendations made by the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations, which in turn are based on the safety documentation of the plant/material owners. It is further proposed that the National Agency, again on a recommendation from the Inspectorate, should lay down more detailed guidelines for the reporting of changes in stocks or transports of nuclear materials. (author)

  20. Association of sitting time and physical activity with CKD: a cross-sectional study in family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharakhada, Nilesh; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Wilmot, Emma G; Edwardson, Charlotte; Henson, Joe; Webb, David; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a significant and growing health care burden globally. Lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and sitting-related sedentary behavior, have been hypothesized to be directly associated with CKD; however, epidemiologic research is limited. Cross-sectional analysis. A population-level diabetes screening program conducted across 20 family practices in Leicester, United Kingdom, August 2004 to December 2007. Self-reported sitting time and physical activity, obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. CKD, defined using NKF-KDOQI (National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) criteria. 6,379 (52% women) individuals were included. Lower levels of sitting time were associated with lower risk of CKD after controlling for physical activity, body mass index, and other potential confounding variables (OR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.62-0.92] for lowest vs highest tertile). Interaction analysis showed that women trended toward a significantly higher risk of CKD with higher levels of sitting time compared with men. Participating in levels of physical activity that were at least consistent with the minimum recommendations for health was associated with lower risk of CKD. A significant interaction with sex was observed, with men showing a lower risk of CKD with high levels of physical activity compared with women. Cross-sectional design, self-reported lifestyle data, CKD defined at a single time, and estimated glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria were the only measures used to define CKD. This study suggests that higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of sitting time are associated with a lower prevalence of CKD independently of each other and other risk factors. However, results may vary by sex, with sitting time being the more important factor in women and physical activity the more important factor in men. These results have important implications for future research

  1. The dead and the dying - a difficult part of EMS transport: A Swiss cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Rebecca Maria; Stucky, Sandra; Bähler, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Neff, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Most deaths occur in the pre-hospital setting, whereas mortality in the emergency department (ED) is low (transported to hospital in devastating conditions with no likelihood of survival, but demanding extensive hospital resources. The decision on whether to transport a dying person to hospital or not is a difficult task for emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. As there is little epidemiological data about these patients, this paper aims to describe this special population. Retrospective cross-sectional study on adult patients transported by ground ambulance to the ED of a Swiss university hospital, who died during their stay in the ED between January 2008 and December 2012. Data was collected on the basis of ambulance report forms and discharge summaries of the ED. One hundred and sixty-one patients were analysed. Most deaths were due to cardiovascular diseases (43%). Only 9% of patients died of trauma. The median age was 70 years (IQR 56-81 years) and 70% (n = 112) were men. Trauma patients were significantly younger (median age 55 years, ptransported by EMS to the ED. About one third of all patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders (n = 53). The most common electrocardiogram (ECG) findings were asystole (n = 57) and pulseless electrical activity (n = 91). Fifty percent (n = 64) of the resuscitated patients were defibrillated. Three quarters (n = 115, 72%) of all patients were intubated on site. The mechanical chest compression device Lucas™2 was mainly used in cases of cardiovascular or uncertain cause of death and did not reduce the operating time on site. The low ED mortality rate of 0.9% shows that only a few dying patients are transported to hospital. However, transport to hospital has to be carefully evaluated, especially for elderly patients with asystole or PEA due to medical conditions. The low CPR rate from bystanders demonstrates that public CPR training should be promoted further. The use of Lucas™2 did not

  2. Nuclear Data for Reactor Physics: Cross sections and level densities in the actinide region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstein L.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data in the actinide region are particularly important because they are basis behind all simulations of nuclear reactor core behaviour over both long time scales (fuel depletion and waste production and short time scales (accident scenarios. Nuclear reaction cross sections must be known as precisely as possible so that core reaction rates can be accurately calculated. Although cross section measurements in this region have been widely performed, for certain nuclei, particularly those with short half lives, direct measurements are either very difficult or impossible and thus reactor simulations must rely on theoretical calculations or extrapolations from neighbouring nuclei. The greatest uncertainty in theoretical cross section calculations comes from the lack of knowledge of level densities, for which predicted values can often be incorrect by a factor of two or more. Therefore there is a strong case for a systematic experimental study of level densities in the actinide region for the purpose of a providing a stringent test of theoretical cross section calculations for nuclei where experimental cross section data are available and b for providing better estimations of cross sections for nuclei in which no cross section data are available.

  3. Sedentary patterns, physical activity and health-related physical fitness in youth: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júdice, Pedro B; Silva, Analiza M; Berria, Juliane; Petroski, Edio L; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-03-04

    Strong evidence indicates that moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is positively associated with fitness in youth, independent of total sedentary-time. Sedentary-time appears negatively associated with fitness only when it replaces MVPA. However, whether different sedentary-patterns affect health-related fitness is unknown. The associations between MVPA and sedentary-patterns with physical fitness were examined in 2698 youths (1262 boys) aged 13.4 ± 2.28 years. Sedentary-time (counts · minute -1  fitness. A standardized fitness composite-score (z-score) was calculated by summing the individual z-scores of the five tests adjusted to age and sex. Positive associations between MVPA and fitness were observed in both boys (β = 0.013, 95% CI: 0.005; 0.021) and girls (β = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.006; 0.022), independent of sedentary-patterns. Modest associations were found for the breaks in sedentary-time with fitness (β = 0.026, 95% CI: 0.009; 0.042), independent of total sedentary-time and MVPA in boys. In girls, non-prolonged sedentary bouts were positively associated with fitness (β = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.003; 0.024), independent of total sedentary-time and MVPA. These results reinforce that, independent of the time and patterns of sedentary behavior, MVPA is consistently associated with fitness in youth. Modest and inconsistent associations were found for sedentary behaviors. Breaking-up sedentary-time in boys and non-prolonged sedentary bouts in girls were positively associated with fitness, independent of total sedentary-time and MVPA. In order to enhance youth's fitness, public health recommendations should primarily target MVPA, still, suggestion to reduce and break-up sedentary-time may also be considered.

  4. Recreational Physical Activity and Premenstrual Syndrome in Young Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee R Kroll-Desrosiers

    Full Text Available It is estimated that up to 75% of premenopausal women experience at least one premenstrual symptom and 8-20% meet clinical criteria for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome substantially reduces quality of life for many women of reproductive age, with pharmaceutical treatments having limited efficacy and substantial side effects. Physical activity has been recommended as a method of reducing menstrual symptom severity. However, this recommendation is based on relatively little evidence, and the relationship between physical activity, premenstrual symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome remains unclear.We evaluated the relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual symptoms among 414 women aged 18-31. Usual premenstrual symptom experience was assessed with a modified version of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences. Total, physical, and affective premenstrual symptom scores were calculated for all participants. Eighty women met criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome, while 89 met control criteria. Physical activity, along with dietary and lifestyle factors, was assessed by self-report.Physical activity was not significantly associated with total, affective, or physical premenstrual symptom score. Compared to the women with the lowest activity, women in tertiles 2 and 3 of activity, classified as metabolic equivalent task hours, had prevalence odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6-3.7 and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.4, respectively (p-value for trend = 0.85.We found no association between physical activity and either premenstrual symptom scores or the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome.

  5. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  6. Modeling Soft Gluons and Fiducial Cross Sections: New Physics or Old QCD?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In this talk I will describe some of the consequences of the consistently discrepant WW cross section measured at ATLAS and CMS. I will describe models where stops can be as light as 200 GeV satisfying naturalness constraints. I will also discuss the current states of the art modeling of QCD effects in the measurement of the cross section using p_T resummation. I will show that there is a sizable effect caused by a jet veto in extrapolating to the total cross section, but ultimately not enough to explain the current discrepancy.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY PEOPLE: A CROSS SECTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Kamal M. Abdelbasset

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activitylevel and health related quality of life in elderly people. Design: Between January and April 2017, a cross-sectional study of 114 elderly people (73 males and 41 females conducted this study. Their mean age was (71±5.24 and the mean body mass index (BMI was (29±3.31.The participating elderly were classified according to walking duration into two groups, low level of physical activity (walking duration 300min/week.The health-related quality of life (HRQoL was measured using the Euro Qol-5dimensions-3 levels scale questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L. Statistical analysis was used to determine the relation between the physical activity and HRQoL scores in elderly people. Results:The measures showed statistically significant differences between high and low physical activity groups (p<0.05. The group of high physical activity showed higher HRQoL scores more than the group of low physical activity in the all five dimensions. The low level group showed high predominance of the chronic disease. Conclusions: High level of physical activity has a beneficial effect on all dimensions of the HRQoL in elderly people. Effort and awareness should be dedicated to encouraging the active lifestyle among different population especially elderly people

  8. Dog Ownership, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Veterinary Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Virginia K; Pierce, Bess J; Hosig, Kathy

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between dog ownership and physical activity in veterinary students. The secondary objective was to gain an understanding of veterinary students' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and whether dog ownership and/or physical activity were associated with HRQOL measures. Veterinary students were invited to complete surveys between September and November 2015. The primary outcome for multivariate analyses was self-reported physical activity. Bivariate analyses and descriptive statistics were performed to assess student HRQOL. The survey response rate was 33% (152/460). Self-efficacy to exercise (pdog ownership (p=.01, OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.31-8.71) independently predicted meeting physical activity guidelines when controlling for other variables. About two thirds of respondents met physical activity guidelines. Veterinary students had significantly worse self-reported mental health scores when compared to both national and state averages. Neither dog ownership nor meeting physical activity guidelines were significantly associated with measures of HRQOL. The poor mental health status of veterinary students remains a significant issue for the profession to address. Longitudinal studies are needed that examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health outcomes in this population.

  9. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  10. Growth of ZnO crystals by vapour transport: Some ways to act on physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tena-Zaera, R.; Martinez-Tomas, C.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Universitat de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Gomez-Garcia, C.J. [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universitat de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    Nowadays, the growth of ZnO by vapor transport in silica ampoules is generally made in presence of graphite. As it has been already shown, this means that the growth process is carried out in presence of a Zn excess. In order to control that and act, as a consequence, on the physical properties of crystals we have performed a systematic study of the growth process in a wide range of Zn excess compositions using well defined experimental conditions. As a preliminary characterization, optical absorption and electrical properties have been analyzed at room temperature. The results show how some physical properties of as-grown ZnO crystals can be changed in a controlled way by an adequate combination of different growth conditions such as graphite covering of inner ampoule walls, thermal difference between source material and crystallization zone and additional gas (composition and pressure). In this frame some post-growth annealing processes can be avoided reducing the time and cost of processes. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Physical activity at home, at leisure, during transportation and at work in French adults with type 2 diabetes: the ENTRED physical activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloix, L; Caille, A; Helmer, C; Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Fagot-Campagna, A; Fournier, C; Lecomte, P; Oppert, J M; Jacobi, D

    2015-02-01

    Our study assessed the distribution of physical activity during various typical tasks of daily life in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a population typified by low physical activity. We investigated the duration and intensity of physical activity in four domains (work, leisure, transportation and domestic), and how individual determinants might influence the repartition. The long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was administered to participants from the échantillon national témoin représentatif des personnes diabétiques (ENTRED), a study of French adults with T2D (n=724, 65% men, age 62±10y, BMI 29±5kg.m(-2), HbA1c 7.1±1.1%), and the associations between sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and categories of physical activity intensity (low, moderate or high) were examined by logistic regression. The median total physical activity was 2079 [Q1=893, Q3=3915]MET-min·week(-1). The main contributors to total physical activity were domestic chores, followed by leisure-time activities and transportation (median: 630, 347 and 198MET-min·week(-1), respectively). Absence of cardiovascular complications (OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.01-3.47), agephysical activity. In all patient subgroups (defined by category of physical activity intensity or stratified by determinants of physical activity level), domestic chores were always the main contributor to total physical activity (Pphysical activity. This emphasizes the vast potential for promoting voluntary leisure-time physical activity in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Benchmark shielding calculations for the NEACRP [Nuclear Energy Agency-Committee on Reactor Physics] Working Group on shielding assessment of transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Brady, M.C.; Parks, C.V.

    1990-11-01

    In 1985, the Nuclear Energy Agency-Committee on Reactor Physics (NEACRP) established a working group on shielding assessment of transportation packages. Following the initial distribution of a set of six problems, discussions were held at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Headquarters in Paris, France, in June/July 1986, May 1988, and February/March 1990. The US contribution to the working group is documented in this report. The results from this effort permit the evaluation of a number of approximations and effects that must be considered in a typical shielding analysis of a transportation cask. Among the effects reported here are the performance of multiple cross-section sets, the comparison of several source generation codes, and multidimensional versus one-dimensional (1-D) analyses. 18 refs., 16 figs., 33 tabs

  13. PREFACE: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases Preface: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The 19th Europhysics Sectional Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-2008) took place in Granada (Spain) from 15 to 19 July 2008. The conference was mainly organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), with the collaboration and support of the University of Córdoba (UCO) and the Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT). It is already 35 years since the first ESCAMPIG in 1973. The first editions of ESCAMPIG were in consecutive years (1973 and 1974) but later on it became a biennial conference of the European Physical Society (EPS) initially focusing on the collisional and radiative atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. The successive ESCAMPIGs took place in Bratislava in 1976 (3rd), Essen in 1978 (4th), Dubrovnik in 1980 (5th) and so on until the last one organized in Granada in 2008 (19th), the first ESCAMPIG in Spain. A number of changes have taken place in the Granada edition of ESCAMPIG. First, the previous six topics that have remained unchanged for almost two decades (since 1990) have now been updated to become twelve new topics which, in the opinion of the International Scientific Committee (ISC), will enhance the opportunity for discussions and communication of new findings and developments in the field of low temperature plasmas. The new list of topics for ESCAMPIG is: • Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas • Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function • Physical basis of plasma chemistry • Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) • Plasma diagnostics • Plasma and dicharges theory and simulation • Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas • Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas • Low pressure plasma sources • High pressure plasma sources • Plasmas and gas flows • Laser produced plasmas Secondly, a new prize has been created, the `William Crookes' prize in Plasma Physics to be

  14. Exploring Mothers' Influence on Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Time: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Alana M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2018-02-06

    Objectives Physical activity patterns can track from childhood into adulthood; therefore, establishing active behaviors early is imperative. Given the multidimensional nature of a mother's influence on their children, there is a need to utilize more comprehensive measures to assess the relationship between mother and child activity behaviors. Specifically, mothers have been identified as influencing preschoolers' activity behaviors and are often in control of organizing a family's opportunities to be active. The purpose of this study was to explore maternal influence on preschoolers' physical activity and sedentary time. Methods Preschoolers (n = 24) and their mothers (n = 24) wore Actical™ accelerometers for 7 consecutive days (e.g., 5 weekday, 2 weekend days), and mothers completed the adapted Environmental Determinants of Physical Activity in Preschool Children-Parent Survey. Direct entry regression analyses were conducted to explore maternal influence (e.g., role modeling through mothers' activity levels, maternal support, and enjoyment of being active) on preschoolers' activity levels. Results Maternal support was found to be a significant predictor of preschoolers' light and moderate-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary time (p < .05); accounting for 37.3-46.7% of the variation. Conclusions for Practice Mothers supportive behaviors influenced preschoolers' physical activity and sedentary time. Future research is needed to investigate facilitators/barriers that mothers with preschoolers encounter with regard to providing support to be active or modeling active behaviors themselves.

  15. Progress report - Physics and Health Sciences - Health Sciences Section - 1986 July 01 - December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This progress report contains a summary of major research in the Health Sciences Division. Separate chapters are included for each of the following branches: Dosimetric Research, Environmental Research, Radiation Biology, and Medical Biophysics. Some of the aspects discussed include measurement and application of environmental isotopes, environmental processes of radioisotope transport (e.g. atmospheric, ground water), dosimetry and employee monitoring, the effects of ionizing radiation on living cells (cancer, hyperthermia, DNA, etc.)

  16. Progress report - Physics and Health Sciences - Health Sciences Section - 1986 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This progress report contains a summary of major research in the Health Sciences Division. Separate chapters are included for each of the following branches: Dosimetric Research, Environmental Research, Radiation Biology, and Medical Biophysics. Some of the aspects discussed include measurement and application of environmental isotopes (e.g., Strontium 85, Strontium 90, Tritium), environmental processes of radioisotope transport (e.g. ground water) dosimetry and employee monitoring, the effects of ionizing radiation on living cells (cancer, hyperthermia, DNA, etc.)

  17. Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Helgadóttir

    Full Text Available Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity.The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9. Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns.No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts.The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  18. Assessing mediators between discrimination, health behaviours and physical health outcomes: a representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Priest, Naomi; Paradies, Yin Carl

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination is a social determinant of health; however, the pathways linking discrimination to ill-health are under-researched. This study investigated the mediators through which discrimination affects health behaviours and physical health outcomes, as well as assessed whether sex moderated these mechanisms. Data from a representative survey (n = 1023) of undergraduate students enrolled in a Brazilian university in 2012 were used. Structural equation models were applied to assess the following mediation mechanisms--(1) discrimination influences self-rated health and body mass index via anxiety/depression; (2) discrimination affects behaviours (alcohol consumption, problem drinking, smoking, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity) through discomfort associated with discriminatory experiences. The potential of sex to act as an effect-modifying variable was also explored in each of the postulated pathways. The effect of discrimination on self-rated poor health was totally (100.0%) mediated by anxiety/depression, while body mass index was not correlated with discrimination. Self-reported discrimination was associated with some behaviours via discomfort. Particularly, discomfort partially mediated the positive association between discrimination, leisure time physical activity (43.3%), and fruit/vegetable consumption (52.2%). Sex modified the association between discrimination, discomfort and physical activity in that such mechanism (more discrimination → more discomfort → more physical activity) was statistically significant in the entire sample and among females, but not among males. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that discrimination is associated with physical health outcomes and behaviours via distinct pathways. Future investigations should further explicate the mediational pathways between discrimination and key health outcomes.

  19. An objective assessment of toddlers' physical activity and sedentary levels: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-09-26

    Little evidence exists on the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian toddlers; this study objectively measured such behaviors and compared participants' activity levels to national guidelines. Levels of screen-viewing among toddlers were also explored. Forty toddlers (mean age = 25.7 months) wore Actical accelerometers for seven consecutive days (15 s epoch). Parents/guardians completed a wear-time log and a demographic and screen-viewing questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to determine participants' levels of physical activity and sedentary time, to identify whether toddlers were meeting physical activity/sedentary guidelines, and to explore demographic variables. T-tests were used to assess whether toddlers' activity levels differed based on cut-points applied and various demographic and screen-related variables. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between toddlers' sedentary time and screen-viewing levels. Toddlers engaged in 37.27 (SD = 3.79) to 49.40 (SD = 3.29) mins/hr of sedentary time, 9.79 (SD = 2.90) to 18.78 (SD = 3.22) mins/hr of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), 0.82 (SD = 0.72) to 3.95 (SD = 1.93) mins/hr of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and 10.60 (SD =3.29) to 22.73 (SD = 3.97) mins/hr of total physical activity (TPA), based on the Trost et al. and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cut-points respectively; these rates were significantly different (p physical activity guidelines. No statistically significant differences in sedentary time or physical activity (all intensities) based on sex were reported (p sedentary behavior guidelines on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. The implications of this work suggest that a greater understanding of toddlers' activity patterns is needed; additional mechanisms of promoting active behaviors among this group should be explored.

  20. Anthropometric, physical function and general health markers of Masters athletes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, Samantha; Climstein, Mike; Quilter, Clodagh; Buckley, Georgina; Henwood, Timothy; Grigg, Josie; Keogh, Justin W L

    2017-01-01

    Once the general decline in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance falls below specific thresholds, the middle aged or older adult will be diagnosed as having sarcopenia (a loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength). Sarcopenia contributes to a range of adverse events in older age including disability, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and falls. One potentially relevant but understudied population for sarcopenia researchers would be Masters athletes. Masters sport is becoming more common as it allows athletes (typically 40 years and older) the opportunity to participate in individual and/or team sports against individuals of similar age. This study examined a variety of measures of anthropometric, physical function and general health markers in the male and female Masters athletes who competed at the 2014 Pan Pacific Masters Games held on the Gold Coast, Australia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to collect body fat percentage, fat mass and fat-free mass; with body mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and sarcopenic status also recorded. Physical function was quantified by handgrip strength and habitual walking speed; with general health described by the number of chronic diseases and prescribed medications. Between group analyses utilised ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests to examine the effect of age group (40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and >70 years old) on the outcome measures for the entire sample as well as the male and female sub-groups. A total of 156 athletes (78 male, 78 female; mean 55.7 years) provided informed consent to participate in this study. These athletes possessed substantially better anthropometric, physical function and general health characteristics than the literature for their less physically active age-matched peers. No Masters athletes were categorised as being sarcopenic, although one participant had below normal physical performance and six participants had below normal muscle strength. In contrast, significant age

  1. Anthropometric, physical function and general health markers of Masters athletes: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Fien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the general decline in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance falls below specific thresholds, the middle aged or older adult will be diagnosed as having sarcopenia (a loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Sarcopenia contributes to a range of adverse events in older age including disability, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and falls. One potentially relevant but understudied population for sarcopenia researchers would be Masters athletes. Masters sport is becoming more common as it allows athletes (typically 40 years and older the opportunity to participate in individual and/or team sports against individuals of similar age. This study examined a variety of measures of anthropometric, physical function and general health markers in the male and female Masters athletes who competed at the 2014 Pan Pacific Masters Games held on the Gold Coast, Australia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to collect body fat percentage, fat mass and fat-free mass; with body mass, height, body mass index (BMI and sarcopenic status also recorded. Physical function was quantified by handgrip strength and habitual walking speed; with general health described by the number of chronic diseases and prescribed medications. Between group analyses utilised ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests to examine the effect of age group (40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and >70 years old on the outcome measures for the entire sample as well as the male and female sub-groups. A total of 156 athletes (78 male, 78 female; mean 55.7 years provided informed consent to participate in this study. These athletes possessed substantially better anthropometric, physical function and general health characteristics than the literature for their less physically active age-matched peers. No Masters athletes were categorised as being sarcopenic, although one participant had below normal physical performance and six participants had below normal muscle strength. In

  2. Fission Physics and Cross Section Measurements with a Lead Slowing down Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Catherine E.; Danon, Yaron; Block, Richard; Thompson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) provides a high neutron flux environment that enables measurements of small samples (∼μg) or samples with small cross sections (tens of μb). The LSDS at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) was previously used for fission cross section measurements and for studies of methods for assay of used nuclear fuel. The effective energy range for the LSDS is 0.1 eV to 10 keV with energy resolution of about 35%. Two new LSDS applications were recently developed at RPI; the first enables simultaneous measurements of the fission cross section and fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of the incident neutron energy. The second enables measurements of the (n,α) and (n; p) cross sections for materials with a positive Q value for these reactions. Fission measurements of 252 Cf, 235 U, and 239 Pu were completed and provide information on fission fragment and energy distributions in resonance clusters. Measurements of the (n,α) cross section for 147,149 Sm were completed and compared to previously measured data. The new data indicate that the existing evaluations need to be adjusted.

  3. Cross-sectional study of physical activity of adult population in South-Moravian area of the Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Nykodým

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA was defined in a worldwide scientific community as one of the most important factors in dealing with issues of prevention and public health. Regular PA has the undeniable positive effects on health, quality of life and renewal of an active old age. Improved conditions for active leisure time activities and active transport at the regional level can lead to the improvement of the regular participation in the PA AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze physical activity of adult population of the Southern Moravia area of the Czech Republic (Jihomoravský and Zlínský region and to observe differences in selected demographic aspects of active transport depending on environmental conditions. METHODS: To estimate the weekly level of PA we used randomized data in 1110 respondents in Southtern Moravia region (487 men and 623 women aged 41.67 ± 8.87 years. All respondents were asked face to face by trained distributors (university students to participate in a research study using the Czech administrative version of the ANEWS questionnaire. Data collection was carried out regularly in Spring (March-May and Fall (September-November from 2005 to 2009. Health enhancing PA is characterized in accordance with the general recommendations. Adults should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably it should be spread throughout the week (USDHHS, 2008. RESULTS: The total weekly PA did not affect either participation in organized PA or body mass index. Respondents who met the recommendations for PA reported significantly higher total PA and transport PA. People who have easy walking distances to many sites directly from home indicate higher transport PA. The most commonly performed

  4. Cross-sectional associations of objectively measured physical activity with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo; Peijs, Lone; Bugge, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 415 adolescents who participated in the 2015 follow-up of the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (the CHAMPS-study DK). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry monitors. Serum BDNF levels were analyzed using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthropometrics and pubertal status were measured using standardized procedures. With adjustment for age, pubertal status and body mass index, mean physical activity (counts per minute) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.013). Similarly, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.035). In girls, mean physical activity and MVPA were not associated with serum BDNF. Without adjustment for wear time, sedentary time was not associated with serum BDNF in either sex. These findings indicate that higher physical activity is associated with lower serum BDNF in boys, but not in girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, Douglas; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  6. Sarcopenia, calf circumference, and physical function of elderly women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yves; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Cournot, Maxime; Nourhashémi, Fati; Reynish, William; Rivière, Daniel; Vellas, Bruno; Grandjean, Hélène

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether calf circumference (CC), related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass, can be used as a measure of sarcopenia and is related to physical function. Retrospective analysis of data from 1992 to 1994 of the European Patient Information and Documentation Systems Study. Community setting in France. One thousand four hundred fifty-eight French women aged 70 and older without previous history of hip fracture were recruited from the electoral lists. Muscular mass was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). CC was measured using a tape measure. Anthropometric measurements (height; weight; and waist, hip, and calf circumference), strength markers (grip strength), and self-reported physical function were also determined. Sarcopenia was defined (using DEXA) as appendicular skeletal muscle mass (weight (kg)/height (m2)) less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young female reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.5%. CC was correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.63). CC under 31 cm was the best clinical indicator of sarcopenia (sensitivity = 44.3%, specificity = 91.4%). CC under 31 cm was associated with disability and self-reported physical function but not sarcopenia (defined using DEXA), independent of age, comorbidity, obesity, income, health behavior, and visual impairment. CC cannot be used to predict sarcopenia defined using DEXA but provides valuable information on muscle-related disability and physical function.

  7. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van De Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  8. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...

  9. Encoded physics knowledge in checking codes for nuclear cross section libraries at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. Kent

    2017-09-01

    Checking procedures for processed nuclear data at Los Alamos are described. Both continuous energy and multi-group nuclear data are verified by locally developed checking codes which use basic physics knowledge and common-sense rules. A list of nuclear data problems which have been identified with help of these checking codes is also given.

  10. Relationship between children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, and childcare environments: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele E. Peden

    2017-06-01

    This study extends previous research by identifying differences between toddlers and preschooler's physical activity and sedentary behaviors in relation to childcare environments. A greater understanding of how the childcare environment relates to sitting time for both toddlers and preschool aged children is needed.

  11. Vigorous physical activity and the neighborhood school environment: cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Purpose: To investigate the association between likelihood of frequent vigorous physical activity (VPA) outside of school hours and aspects of the built environment that support exercise. Methods: Self-reported VPA measured in 6046 boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level logistic regression...

  12. The relationship between physical activity and work ability - A cross-sectional study of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Małgorzata; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Powerska-Didkowska, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    To assess relationship between physical activity (PA) and perceived work ability amongst teachers from the Upper Silesia, Poland. The study involved 171 teachers (129 women, 42 men) of primary and secondary schools of the Upper Silesia, Poland. Physical education teachers were excluded from the study. The level of PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version, and perceived work ability was estimated using Work Ability Index (WAI). Male teachers had significantly higher levels of vigorous-intensity PA, moderateintensity PA, and total weekly PA than female teachers. The recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) met 46% of studied women and 74% of men. Work ability did not differ between male and female teachers. Work ability was related to age, body mass index (BMI), and PA (vigorous-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, total weekly PA). The female teachers with excellent or good WAI had significantly higher levels of vigorous-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA and total weekly PA than female teachers with moderate or poor WAI. The teachers involving in high or moderate intensity PA could improve their work ability. Further studies should focus on relation between physical activity and work ability among teachers of various age and seniority, from both, urban and rural schools. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):1-9. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  14. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientzek, A.; Diaz, M.J.T.; Castano, J.M.H.; Amiano, P.; Arriola, L.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Charles, M.A.; Fagherazzi, G.; Palli, D.; Bendinelli, B.; Skeie, G.; Borch, K.B.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Hollander, de E.L.; May, A.M.; Ouden, den M.E.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Valanou, E.; Soderberg, S.; Franks, P.W.; Brage, S.; Vigl, M.; Boeing, H.; Ekelund, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits

  15. ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AMONG TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushwant Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary driver of the epidemic of diabetes is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity as evident from the higher prevalence of diabetes in urban population. Diabetes mellitus is increasing at an alarming rate in India. It is evident that physical activity (walking is beneficial in management of this disease. Walking can be effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist hip circumference, body fat, blood pressure and thus cholesterol, high density lipoproteins ratio and may be effective in improving mood and quality of life. The objective of the present study was measuring the normal physical activity in terms of step counts done by the type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and analyse the dietary pattern followed by T2DM. Methods: Eighty adults with type-2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated for observation of their normal daily physical activity using pedometer for whole day which means starting from early morning get up till bedtime in night. The subjects had been asked to count their steps in a particular activity also. Results: The mean value of step count with standard deviation among females (n=31 was found to be 9173.23 ± 3862.025 which was lesser than that among males (n=49 that is 9695.49 ± 5221.291. After measuring step count in any particular activity task, the mean value 2583.35 ± 2562.08 was found to be more in males than females where mean value was found to be 2197.13 ± 1732.75. The mean step count among total sample (n=80 was 9493.11 ± 4721.626 and mean particular activity step count was 2433.69 ± 2272.541. Discussion: This study showed that some subjects were so aware of their disease that they were found to be highly active after knowing their disease and condition. On other hand, there were some subjects having sedentary lifestyle with their HbA1c at the high risk level. They thought it to be as it is for the rest of

  16. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  17. Epidemiological determinants of the physical activity among the urban community of Ahmedabad, India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Nayak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activities (PA and proper nutrition are the most important measures in preventing lifestyle related disorders. Study was performed to describe the pattern of physical activity and its association with the health problems. METHODS: A cross sectional community based study was carried out in the six zones of Ahmedabad Municipal corporation areas. Information was collected in predesigned and pretested standard proforma by house to house survey. Results- Overall prevalence of physical activity was only 18% while 82% people werephysicallyinactive. Males were more engaged in PA than of Females (26% Vs 10.9%, P0.05, 25.2% had Diabetes (P0.05. CONCLUSION: PA is significantly associated with male gender, education, sedentary occupation, higher SES, high calorie consumption and people with diabetes. Sensitisation of population for lifestyle modification is recommended to curtail modern epidemic of lifestyle related disorders.

  18. X-ray cross-sections and crossroads (The International Radiation Physics Society) - Richard Pratt's contributions to both

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbell, J H

    2000-01-01

    Some examples of the impact of the theoretical contributions by Richard Pratt and his collaborators on photon cross section compilations at NBS/NIST and elsewhere over the past several decades are presented. Both the theoretical and measurement works which combine to provide this data base, and the contact with the varied user groups in medical applications, nuclear engineering, crystallography and X-ray astronomy, have formed a global crossroads of researchers now embodied in the International Radiation Physics Society (IRPS). Since the founding of the IRPS at the 3 rd International Symposium on Radiation Physics (ISRP-3) in Ferrara, Italy, in 1985, the Secretariat for this 'global radiation physics family' (the IRPS) has resided at the University of Pittsburgh under the direction of Richard Pratt. A brief account of the origins and history of the IRPS, beginning with ISRP-1 in Calcutta in 1974, is presented.

  19. X-ray cross-sections and crossroads (The International Radiation Physics Society) - Richard Pratt's contributions to both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, J. H.

    2000-08-01

    Some examples of the impact of the theoretical contributions by Richard Pratt and his collaborators on photon cross section compilations at NBS/NIST and elsewhere over the past several decades are presented. Both the theoretical and measurement works which combine to provide this data base, and the contact with the varied user groups in medical applications, nuclear engineering, crystallography and X-ray astronomy, have formed a global crossroads of researchers now embodied in the International Radiation Physics Society (IRPS). Since the founding of the IRPS at the 3rd International Symposium on Radiation Physics (ISRP-3) in Ferrara, Italy, in 1985, the Secretariat for this ``global radiation physics family'' (the IRPS) has resided at the University of Pittsburgh under the direction of Richard Pratt. A brief account of the origins and history of the IRPS, beginning with ISRP-1 in Calcutta in 1974, is presented.

  20. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural adults in Suixi, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Hovell, Melbourne F; Du, Jianzhong; Zheng, Miao; He, Haiying; Owen, Neville

    2011-04-26

    Modernisation and urbanisation have led to lifestyle changes and increasing risks for chronic diseases in China. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural populations need to be better understood, as the rural areas are undergoing rapid transitions. This study assessed levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours of farming and non-farming adults in rural Suixi, described activity differences between farming and non-farming seasons, and examined correlates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and TV viewing. A random sample of rural adults (n=287) in Suixi County, Guangdong, China were surveyed in 2009 by trained interviewers. Questionnaires assessed multiple physical activities and sedentary behaviours, and their correlates. Analysis of covariance compared activity patterns across occupations, and multiple logistic regressions assessed correlates of LTPA and TV viewing. Quantitative data analyses were followed by community consultation for validation and interpretation of findings. Activity patterns differed by occupation. Farmers were more active through their work than other occupations, but were less active and more sedentary during the non-farming season than the farming season. Rural adults in Suixi generally had a low level of LTPA and a high level of TV viewing. Marital status, household size, social modelling for LTPA and owning sports equipment were significantly associated with LTPA but not with TV time. Most findings were validated through community consultation. For chronic disease prevention, attention should be paid to the currently decreasing occupational physical activity and increasing sedentary behaviours in rural China. Community and socially-based initiatives provide opportunities to promote LTPA and prevent further increase in sedentary behaviours. © 2011 Ding et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Physical and logistical considerations of using ultrasonic anemometers in aeolian sediment transport research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian J.

    2005-05-01

    Recently, ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) have become available for precise, high-frequency measurement of three-dimensional velocity and turbulence properties. Except for a few wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, advances in aeolian sediment transport and bedform research have been limited to field studies using instrumentation that is either incapable of measuring turbulence (e.g., cup anemometers) or unable to withstand sediment-laden airflow (e.g., hotfilms). In contrast, extensive progress has occurred in fluvial research where turbulence instrumentation has been available for some time. This paper provides a pragmatic discussion on using UAs in aeolian research. Recent advances using this technology are reviewed and key physical and logistical considerations for measuring airflow properties and near-surface shear stress using UAs over complex terrain are discussed. Physical considerations include limitations of applying boundary layer theory to flow over natural surfaces such as non-logarithmic velocity profiles resulting from roughness- and topographically induced effects and the inability of instrumentation to measure within the thin constant-stress region. These constraints hinder accurate shear velocity ( u*), shear stress and sand transport estimation. UAs allow measurement of turbulent Reynolds stress (RS) that, in theory, should equal profile-derived shear stress. Discrepancies often exist between these quantities however due to three-dimensional (spanwise) flow components and rapid distortion effects (i.e., unbalanced production and dissipation of turbulence) common in flow over complex terrain. While the RS approach yields information on turbulent contributions to near-surface stress generation, little evidence exists showing that RS is a better measure of forces responsible for sediment transport. Consequently, predictive equations for sediment transport using RS do not exist. There is also a need to identify the role of

  2. Bengal Fan sediment transport activity and response to climate forcing inferred from sediment physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Wiedicke-Hombach, M.; Kudrass, H. R.; Erlenkeuser, H.

    2003-02-01

    We obtained sediment physical properties and geochemical data from 47 piston and gravity cores located in the Bay of Bengal, to study the complex history of the Late Pleistocene run-off from the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and its imprint on the Bengal Fan. Grain-size parameters were predicted from core logs of density and velocity to infer sediment transport energy and to distinguish different environments along the 3000-km-long transport path from the delta platform to the lower fan. On the shelf, 27 cores indicate rapidly prograding delta foresets today that contain primarily mud, whereas outer shelf sediment has 25% higher silt contents, indicative of stronger and more stable transport regime, which prevent deposition and expose a Late Pleistocene relic surface. Deposition is currently directed towards the shelf canyon 'Swatch of No Ground', where turbidites are released to the only channel-levee system that is active on the fan during the Holocene. Active growth of the channel-levee system occurred throughout sea-level rise and highstand with a distinct growth phase at the end of the Younger Dryas. Coarse-grained material bypasses the upper fan and upper parts of the middle fan, where particle flow is enhanced as a result of flow-restriction in well-defined channels. Sandier material is deposited mainly as sheet-flow deposits on turbidite-dominated plains at the lower fan. The currently most active part of the fan with 10-40-cm-thick turbidites is documented for the central channel including inner levees (e.g., site 40). Site 47 from the lower fan far to the east of the active channel-levee system indicates the end of turbidite sedimentation at 300 ka for that location. That time corresponds to the sea-level lowering during late isotopic stage 9 when sediment supply to the fan increased and led to channel avulsion farther upstream, probably indicating a close relation of climate variability and fan activity. Pelagic deep-sea sites 22 and 28 contain a 630

  3. Electronic transport in semiconductor nanowires: physics studies and possible device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Lars

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are attractive for physics as well as for applications due to the highly ideal character of their electronic and structural properties. We grow our III-V nanowires by what can be described as guided self-assembly, by which we can accurately control location as well as dimensions of epitaxially nucleated nanowires. The level of control of growth allows controlled formation of axial as well as radial heterostructures. I will describe studies of charge transport via single, double and multiple quantum dots positioned inside InAs/InP nanowires. Such studies have allowed detailed studies of the addition of electrons one-by-one, from the very first electron into an empty quantum dot to the addition of up to 50 electrons. By replacing the one-dimensional emitter by a small quantum dot in a double-dot configuration, the discrete character of the injecting state allows ever more detailed spectroscopic studies of the charge additions to the second dot. Comparisons will be made with transport through quantum dots defined by tunnel barriers induced via gating techniques. Finally, a recently developed technique for the formation vertical wrap-gate field-effect transistors around InAs nanowires will be described, suggesting interesting opportunities for the realization of high-speed and low-power transistors and circuits. The geometrical design of such nanowire wrap-gate field-effect transistors, offers exciting ways of formation of ultra-short transistor gate-lengths as well as the use of heterostructures to further enhance the performance of such devices.

  4. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lin Hsieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.

  5. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trampisch Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA and domestic activities (DA, in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany, the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about their everyday physical activity patterns. Time per week (hh:mm spent in SA and DA (heavy housework, gardening was analyzed for men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the odds of participating in SA and DA for at least 2.5 hours/week in association with sociodemographic factors, a broad range of physical health-related factors and interview date (season of the year. Results A total of 1,610 primary health care patients (51.6% women with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years were included in the analyses. Men engaged in SA more often than women (01:45 vs. 01:10, whereas women did more DA per week than men (04:00 vs. 03:00. Being interviewed in spring or summer was associated with increased performance of DA in both sexes. Participation in these activities was reduced in more highly educated men and women. Living alone increased the odds of sports participation in women, but not in men. Most physical health-related factors were only selectively associated with either SA or DA, in men or women, respectively. The need for a walking aid was the only factor that consistently lowered the odds of being active in both activity domains and sexes. Conclusions This exploratory study delivers reliable and relevant data on the participation in and correlates of sporting and domestic activities of community-dwelling older adults for whom there had previously been only limited information at a population level in Germany

  6. Climate change and larval transport in the ocean: fractional effects from physical and physiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matt; Karnauskas, Kristopher B

    2016-04-01

    Changes in larval import, export, and self-seeding will affect the resilience of coral reef ecosystems. Climate change will alter the ocean currents that transport larvae and also increase sea surface temperatures (SST), hastening development, and shortening larval durations. Here, we use transport simulations to estimate future larval connectivity due to: (1) physical transport of larvae from altered circulation alone, and (2) the combined effects of altered currents plus physiological response to warming. Virtual larvae from islands throughout Micronesia were moved according to present-day and future ocean circulation models. The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) spanning 2004-2012 represented present-day currents. For future currents, we altered HYCOM using analysis from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model, version 1-Biogeochemistry, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 experiment. Based on the NCAR model, regional SST is estimated to rise 2.74 °C which corresponds to a ~17% decline in larval duration for some taxa. This reduction was the basis for a separate set of simulations. Results predict an increase in self-seeding in 100 years such that 62-76% of islands experienced increased self-seeding, there was an average domainwide increase of ~1-3% points in self-seeding, and increases of up to 25% points for several individual islands. When changed currents alone were considered, approximately half (i.e., random) of all island pairs experienced decreased connectivity but when reduced PLD was added as an effect, ~65% of connections were weakened. Orientation of archipelagos relative to currents determined the directional bias in connectivity changes. There was no universal relationship between climate change and connectivity applicable to all taxa and settings. Islands that presently export large numbers of larvae but that also maintain or enhance this role into the future should be the focus of conservation

  7. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt Raymond R; Goldberg Jeanne P; Hughes Sheryl O; Hennessy Erin; Economos Christina D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and ...

  8. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...

  9. Progress report - Physics and Health Sciences - Health Sciences Section 1987 January 1 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report covers the third semi-annual period since the Reserach Company was reorganized. A highlight of the period was the first peer review of all the activities in Physics and Health Sciences by external examiners. The review was conducted in April by three separate Technical Review Committees (TRC) one for each of the three main areas: health sciences, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. In all cases the TRCs gave strong support to our programs having a mandate to assess research programs with respect to (a) their quality and (b) their relevance to Canada. The principal programs reviewed were: DNA damage and repair mechanisms; synergistic effects of chemicals and radiation; the tritium RBE study; radiosensitivity of human bone marrow cells; radioprotective enzymes; radiation biochemistry; chemistry of oxazolinones, benzofuroxanes and cyclodextrins; myeloid leukemia in mice; tritium monitoring, and quality factors; metabolic modeling; neutron dosimetry; groundwater/contaminant modeling; sediment exchange and speciation; and atmospheric dispersion. Very considerable effort was spent on preparing a proposal for a centre of excellence in toxicology for presentation in March to the Premier's Council in the Province of Ontario. Although the proposal was not one of the 7 (out of 28) successful proposals, much useful preparatory work was done towards the establishing of a centre for health and environmental research on toxic agents

  10. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology...... and transportation directly and indirectly aff ect levels of physical activity across countries of low, middle, and high income. The model suggested that the direct and potentiating eff ects of information and communication technology, especially mobile phones, are nearly equal in magnitude to the mean eff ects...

  11. Associations between physical activity and self-rated wellbeing in European adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, pwellbeing (men, pwellbeing total score (men, pwellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (pwellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Healthcare Providers’ Recommendations for Physical Activity among US Arthritis Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamly Austin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We examined racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare providers’ recommendations for physical activity among individuals with arthritis and evaluated this association among groups of individuals who adhered to physical activity guidelines and those who did not. Methods. With a cross-sectional design based on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we analyzed individuals with self-reported physician-diagnosed arthritis, ≥18 years of age (n = 83,376. Outcome variable was healthcare providers’ recommendations for physical activity. Race/ethnicity was categorized as African American, Hispanic, and White. Associations were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results. African Americans (Adjusted OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55–0.79 and Hispanics (Adjusted OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.56–0.83 were less likely to receive providers’ recommendations. Conclusions. Although the importance of physical activity to improve health outcomes for adults with arthritis, as well as providers’ influence on individuals’ behavior change, is well established, providers are less likely to recommend physical activity to minorities. Further studies are required to identify the causes for this quality-of-care issue.

  13. Barriers in accessing care services for physically disabled in a hospital setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawai, Fatimah MohammedAli; Alowayyed, Abdullah Saad

    2017-03-01

    Objective : The aim of this study was to identify the significant difficulties in access to health care services experienced by patients with physical disabilities. Method : A cross-sectional study at King Abdul Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on 235 persons with physical disability, from 1 January to 30 June 2014. Results : A total of 88% of the people with disability reported having the need for someone to accompany them. Over 52% were unsatisfied with parking, 49.8% with the waiting area, 51.3% with wheel-chair services, and nearly 45% were unsatisfied with toilet facilities for the physically disabled. Those who were wheel-chair bound had statistically significant lower mean score for satisfaction with services and facilities related to parking area, reception, and appointment, elevator, and physiotherapy.The majority were satisfied with the attitude of the clinical staff. Conclusion : The majority of patients with physical disability require assistance and cannot move around independently in the healthcare facilities. Nearly half of these patients face several challenges in accessing health care services and are unsatisfied with the services received. Patients with physical disability who are wheel-chair bound have a lesser degree of satisfaction than those who are not wheel-chair bound.

  14. A prospective Cross-sectional Cohort Assessment of Health, Physical, and Behavioral Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnostically defined by impaired socialization/communication and stereotypical behaviors. Health, physical, and behavioral problems have also been described in subjects diagnosed with an ASD, but have usually been examined in isolation. The purpose of the present study was to for the first time, systematically and quantitatively, examines health, physical and behavioral problems in a cohort of subjects diagnosed with an ASD. A prospective cross-sectional ASD cohort (n=54) was evaluated for health, physical, and behavioral symptoms derived from parentally completed Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) forms. The study protocol received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval from Liberty IRB, Inc (Deland, FL). The results showed the following occurrence of symptoms among study participants: gastrointestinal disturbances=48%, incontinence=57%, sleep problems=57%, eating disorders=94%, hyperactivity=67%, lethargy=26%, sensory processing problems=85%, anxiety/fear=74%, behavioral problems=89%, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors=92%. Of all of the areas examined, eating problems, behavioral problems, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, were reported by the parents to be the most serious and problematic. The present findings, taken together with previous research, suggest that subjects diagnosed with an ASD have significant health, physical, and behavioral problems beyond the symptoms evaluated in the diagnostic criteria used to diagnosis an ASD. The present findings also suggest the ATEC provides an economical means for healthcare providers to identify health, physical, and behavioral problems in subjects diagnosed with an ASD.

  15. A cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometer-based physical activity among elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Georgina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who participate in regular physical activity obtain health benefits. Preliminary pedometer-based cut-points representing sufficient levels of physical activity among youth have been established; however limited evidence regarding correlates of achieving these cut-points exists. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of pedometer-based cut-points among elementary school-aged children. Method A cross-section of children in grades 5-7 (10-12 years of age were randomly selected from the most (n = 13 and least (n = 12 'walkable' public elementary schools (Perth, Western Australia, stratified by socioeconomic status. Children (n = 1480; response rate = 56.6% and parents (n = 1332; response rate = 88.8% completed a survey, and steps were collected from children using pedometers. Pedometer data were categorized to reflect the sex-specific pedometer-based cut-points of ≥15000 steps/day for boys and ≥12000 steps/day for girls. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary and active leisure-time behavior, independent mobility, active transportation and built environmental variables - collected from the child and parent surveys - and meeting pedometer-based cut-points were estimated (odds ratios: OR using generalized estimating equations. Results Overall 927 children participated in all components of the study and provided complete data. On average, children took 11407 ± 3136 steps/day (boys: 12270 ± 3350 vs. girls: 10681 ± 2745 steps/day; p After adjusting for all other variables and school clustering, meeting the pedometer-based cut-points was negatively associated (p Conclusions Comprehensive multi-level interventions that reduce screen-time, encourage active travel to/from school and foster a physically active classroom culture might encourage more physical activity among children.

  16. A cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometer-based physical activity among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Giles-Corti, Billie; Timperio, Anna; Wood, Georgina; Villanueva, Karen

    2011-04-12

    Children who participate in regular physical activity obtain health benefits. Preliminary pedometer-based cut-points representing sufficient levels of physical activity among youth have been established; however limited evidence regarding correlates of achieving these cut-points exists. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of pedometer-based cut-points among elementary school-aged children. A cross-section of children in grades 5-7 (10-12 years of age) were randomly selected from the most (n = 13) and least (n = 12) 'walkable' public elementary schools (Perth, Western Australia), stratified by socioeconomic status. Children (n = 1480; response rate = 56.6%) and parents (n = 1332; response rate = 88.8%) completed a survey, and steps were collected from children using pedometers. Pedometer data were categorized to reflect the sex-specific pedometer-based cut-points of ≥15000 steps/day for boys and ≥12000 steps/day for girls. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary and active leisure-time behavior, independent mobility, active transportation and built environmental variables - collected from the child and parent surveys - and meeting pedometer-based cut-points were estimated (odds ratios: OR) using generalized estimating equations. Overall 927 children participated in all components of the study and provided complete data. On average, children took 11407 ± 3136 steps/day (boys: 12270 ± 3350 vs. girls: 10681 ± 2745 steps/day; p travel to/from school and foster a physically active classroom culture might encourage more physical activity among children.

  17. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  18. Electrical characterization of 6H-SiC grown by physical vapor transport method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaremba, G., E-mail: gzaremba@ite.waw.p [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kaniewska, M.; Jung, W. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Guziewicz, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Semiconductor Processing for Photonics, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-11-25

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements have been used to study the electrical properties of electron traps in n-type 6H-silicon carbide (SiC) grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) technique, designed as Schottky diodes. Ir Schottky- and Ni ohmic-contacts were deposited by sputtering. Current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showed that sputter deposition of the Schottky contact yields diodes with a reduced barrier height and poor rectification characteristics. Four main electron traps revealed in DLTS spectra have activation energies at 0. 39, 0.41, 0,66, and 0.74 eV below the conduction band. Based on a comparison made with electron traps reported in the literature, we conclude that three of them are well-known traps found in the as-grown or irradiated material. There was no emission signature in the literature to make such a correspondence for the trap at 0.74 eV. Strongly nonhomogenous spatial distribution with a tendency of the trap to accumulation at the surface was found by DLTS and C-V profiling. This together with the fact that the trap at 0.74 eV has not been previously reported in as-grown or processed material makes it possible that the trap is sputter deposition induced defect.

  19. Physical control of carrier-mediated ion-transporters by entrainment of their turnover rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mathis, Clausell; Fang, Zhihui; Mast, Jason; Hamidi, Karim; Kelly, Patrick; Eve, Max

    2012-02-01

    In the past, tremendous efforts have been made to physically activate carrier-mediated ion-transporters, such as Na/K pumps. However, the outcome is not significant. Recently, we developed a new technique which can effectively and efficiently control the pumping rate by introducing a concept of an electronic synchrotron accelerator to the biological system. The approach consists of two steps. First, a specially designed oscillating electric field is used to force or synchronize individual pump molecules to run at the same turnover rate and phase as the field oscillation frequency. Then, by gradually changing the field frequency and carefully keeping the pump synchronization we can entrain the pump molecules so that their pumping rate can be progressively modulated, either decelerated or accelerated, following the field frequency to a defined value. Based on theoretical analysis of the underlying mechanisms involved in the technique, computer simulation of the entrainment process, and intensive experimental studies we have realized significant activation of the Na/K pumping rate up to ten-folds quickly in less than ten seconds.

  20. Single channel atmospheric pressure transporting plasma and plasma stream demultiplexing: physical characterization and application to E. coli bacteria inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valinataj Omran, A; Arefi-Khonsari, F; Sohbatzadeh, F; Siadati, S N; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, A; Akishev, Y

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we developed transporting plasma sources that operate at atmospheric pressure. The effect of electrode configuration on plasma transporting was investigated. In order to increase the transporting plasma cross-section, we converted a plasma stream into four plasma channels by a cylindrical housing. Electron excitation and rotational temperatures were estimated using optical emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrical and temporal characteristics of the plasma, discharge power and charge deposition on the target were investigated. The propagation characteristics of single and multi-channel transporting plasma were compared with the same cross-sectional area. Two configurations for multi-channels were designed for this purpose. Escherichia coli bacteria were exposed to the single and multi-channel transporting discharge for different time durations. After exposure, the results indicated that the inactivation zones were significantly increased by a multi-channel transporting plasma. Finally, E. coli inactivation by those plasma apparatuses was compared with that of several standard antimicrobial test discs such as Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin and Cefixime. (paper)

  1. Physical Activity and Anthropometric Characteristics Among Urban Youth in Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nathan; Atrooshi, Darran; Lévesque, Lucie; Jauregui, Edtna; Barquera, Simón; Taylor, Juan Lopez Y; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a critical problem among Mexican youth, but few studies have investigated associations among physical activity (PA) modes and anthropometrics in this population. This study examined associations among active commuting to school (ACS), sports or other organized PA, outdoor play, and body mass index (BMI) percentile and waist circumference (WC) among Mexican youth. Parents of school children (N = 1996, ages 6 to 14 years, 53.1% female) in 3 Mexican cities reported PA participation using the (modified) fourth grade School Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey. Trained assessors measured BMI percentile and WC in person. Parents reported that 52.3% of children engaged in ACS, 57.3% participated in sports or organized PA, and a median of 2 days in the previous week with at least 30 minutes of outdoor play. In complete case analyses (n = 857), ACS was negatively associated with BMI percentile, and outdoor play was negatively associated with WC after adjusting for school, age, sex, and income. In analyses incorporating data from multiple imputation (N = 1996), outdoor play was negatively associated with WC (all Ps obesity in Mexico. ACS and outdoor play should be priorities for increasing youth PA in Mexico.

  2. Physical Activity Levels Among Adults in Uganda: Findings From a Countrywide Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guwatudde, David; Kirunda, Barbara E; Wesonga, Ronald; Mutungi, Gerald; Kajjura, Richard; Kasule, Hafisa; Muwonge, James; Bahendeka, Silver K

    2016-09-01

    Being physically active is associated with lower risk of many noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed physical activity (PA) data collected as part of Uganda's countrywide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe PA levels in Uganda. PA data were collected on the domains of work, travel and leisure. We calculated the percentage of participants meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA recommendations, and the types of intense-specific duration of PA. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to identify factors associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations. Of the 3987 participants, 3758 (94.3%) met the WHO PA recommendations. Work-related PA of moderate intensity, and travel-related PA contributed most to participants' overall weekly duration of PA, each contributing 49.6% and 25.2% respectively. The median weekly duration of all moderate-intensity PA was 1470 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 540 to 2460). Weekly duration of all vigorous-intensity PA was low with a median of 0 minutes (IQR = 0 to 1080). The median daily sedentary time was 120 minutes (IQR = 60 to 240). Factors significantly associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations were body mass index and level of education. PA levels in Uganda are high, mostly achieved through travel and work-related activities of moderate intensity.

  3. Advanced Monte Carlo for radiation physics, particle transport simulation and applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, A.; Barao, F.J.C.; Nakagawa, M.; Tavora, L.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Electron and photon interactions and transport mechanisms, random number generation, applications in medical physisc, microdosimetry, track structure, radiobiological modeling, Monte Carlo method in radiotherapy, dosimetry, and medical accelerator simulation, neutron transport, high-energy hadron transport. (HSI)

  4. Physical Functioning, Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life Among Individuals With Chronic Heart Failure in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejung; Boo, Sunjoo; Yu, Jihyoung; Suh, Soon-Rim; Chun, Kook Jin; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Both the beneficial relationship between exercise and quality of life and the important role played by exercise self-efficacy in maintaining an exercise regimen among individuals with chronic heart failure are well known. However, most nursing interventions for Korean patients with chronic heart failure focus only on providing education related to risk factors and symptoms. Little information is available regarding the influence of physical functions, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life. This study was conducted to examine the impact of physical functioning, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life among individuals with chronic heart failure. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Data were collected from 116 outpatients with chronic heart failure in Korea. Left ventricular ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classifications were chart reviewed. Information pertaining to levels of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions. About 60% of participants were physically inactive, and most showed relatively low exercise self-efficacy. The mean quality-of-life score was 80.09. The significant correlates for quality of life were poverty, functional status, physical inactivity, and exercise self-efficacy. Collectively, these four variables accounted for 50% of the observed total variance in quality of life. Approaches that focus on enhancing exercise self-efficacy may improve patient-centered outcomes in those with chronic heart failure. In light of the low level of exercise self-efficacy reported and the demonstrated ability of this factor to predict quality of life, the development of effective strategies to enhance exercise self-efficacy offers a novel and effective approach to improving

  5. The physical health of British adults with intellectual disability: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris; Baines, Susannah; Robertson, Janet

    2016-01-20

    Adults with intellectual disability have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. However, little is known about the health of the 'hidden majority' of adults with primarily mild intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. The aims of the present study were: to estimate the physical health status of a population-based sample of British adults with and without mild intellectual disability while controlling for any potentially confounding effects resulting from between-group differences in gender, age, socio-economic disadvantage and neighborhood social capital. Secondary analysis of data from Understanding Society, a new longitudinal study focusing on the life experiences of UK citizens. We identified 299 participants aged 16-49 (1.2 % of the unweighted age-restricted sample) as having intellectual disability, and 22,927 as not having intellectual disability. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate between group differences adjusting for potential confounding personal characteristics (e.g., gender). Unadjusted comparisons indicated that British adults with intellectual disability have markedly poorer health than their non-disabled peers on the majority of indicators investigated including self-rated health, multiple morbidity, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, obesity, measured grip strength, measured lung function and polypharmacy. Adjusting for between-group differences in age and gender had a marginal impact on these estimates. Further adjusting for between-group differences in socio-economic disadvantage and neighborhood quality had a more marked impact on estimates with the number of statistically significant differences reducing from 13 to 8 and statistically significant attenuation of odds on three indicators (self-rated health, SF-12 physical component and multiple morbidity). The 'hidden majority' of adults with primarily mild intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services have

  6. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women; Cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Al-Habsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour (SB. Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time was self-reported using the Domain- Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population.

  7. Phonon-engineered thermal transport in Si wires with constant and periodically modulated cross-sections: A crossover between nano- and microscale regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocemasov, A. I.; Nika, D. L.; Fomin, V. M.; Grimm, D.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2015-07-01

    The transition between nanoscale and microscale thermal transport regime at room temperature in silicon wires with constant and periodically modulated cross-section is theoretically investigated. Extrapolating the calculated thermal conductivity from the nano- to micrometer range, we find the characteristic dimensions of the wires where a crossover between nanoscale and microscale thermal transport occurs. This crossover is observed in both generic (smooth) and cross-section-modulated wires. In case of smooth silicon wires, we reveal a strong dependence of the crossing point position on the boundary roughness. For silicon wires with weak boundary roughness, the crossover occurs at cross-sections ˜60 nm × 300 nm, while for very rough boundaries it occurs at cross-sections ˜150 nm × 750 nm. In case of the periodically modulated wires, the crossover between nano- and microscale regimes occurs at typical cross-sections ˜120 nm × 120 nm of the narrow segment, and it is almost independent of boundary roughness. A strong distinction from the case of smooth wires is attributed (i) to the different trends at the nanometer scale, wherefrom the extrapolation was performed, and (ii) to the different phonon-boundary scattering due to the specific geometry. For modulated silicon wires, the influence of modulation thickness, modulation length, and cross-sectional area on the phonon thermal conductivity at the room temperature is analyzed. A possibility of thermal transport engineering in cross-section-modulated wires by resizing them is revealed in both nano- and microscale regimes. The presented results pave the way towards a better understanding of thermal transport reduction in Si nanowires with engineered diameter modulations and shed light on the crossover between nano- and microscale regimes of thermal transport.

  8. Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol microphysics representations within the same 3-D global chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Mann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the most advanced aerosol-climate models it is common to represent the aerosol particle size distribution in terms of several log-normal modes. This approach, motivated by computational efficiency, makes assumptions about the shape of the particle distribution that may not always capture the properties of global aerosol. Here, a global modal aerosol microphysics module (GLOMAP-mode is evaluated and improved by comparing against a sectional version (GLOMAP-bin and observations in the same 3-D global offline chemistry transport model. With both schemes, the model captures the main features of the global particle size distribution, with sub-micron aerosol approximately unimodal in continental regions and bi-modal in marine regions. Initial bin-mode comparisons showed that the current values for two size distribution parameter settings in the modal scheme (mode widths and inter-modal separation sizes resulted in clear biases compared to the sectional scheme. By adjusting these parameters in the modal scheme, much better agreement is achieved against the bin scheme and observations. Annual mean surface-level mass of sulphate, sea-salt, black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC are within 25% in the two schemes in nearly all regions. Surface level concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, surface area density and condensation sink also compare within 25% in most regions. However, marine CCN concentrations between 30° N and 30° S are systematically 25–60% higher in the modal model, which we attribute to differences in size-resolved particle growth or cloud-processing. Larger differences also exist in regions or seasons dominated by biomass burning and in free-troposphere and high-latitude regions. Indeed, in the free-troposphere, GLOMAP-mode BC is a factor 2–4 higher than GLOMAP-bin, likely due to differences in size-resolved scavenging. Nevertheless, in most parts of the atmosphere, we conclude that bin

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards eating and physical activity among primary school children in Brunei: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murang, Zaidah Rizidah; Tuah, Naa; Naing, Lin

    2017-11-30

    Background Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. Many studies have been conducted to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices towards eating and physical activity amongst parents and healthcare workers. However, very little is known amongst children. It is imperative to understand these factors as they have been associated with obesity among children. Objective This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Bruneian children towards eating and physical activity, in order to identify the factors that influence the development of obesity. Methods The study involved 353 children from four primary schools in Brunei. The data collection tool used was modified validated questionnaires with sections on demographic characteristic, knowledge about obesity, eating habits and physical activity. Results The majority of children (>60%) had good knowledge of obesity and intake of healthy food, but, 84.2% lacked knowledge on the required daily servings of fruits and vegetables. 68.8% purchased food and beverages from their school canteen. 93.8% were aware about the health benefits of physical activity and 70.2% spent only 1-2 h of screen time per day, however, 46.9% did not meet the recommended amount of physical activity although they reported to have performed enough. This suggested that a comprehensive education on food intake requirements and physical activity are necessary in order to better educate children. Conclusion Health educators and public health professionals may find our findings useful in order to plan and develop tailored interventions for children, as well as better promotion of a healthy lifestyle to children and their families.

  10. Work-site wellness programmes in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of physical activity, self-efficacy, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gånedahl, H; Zsaludek Viklund, P; Carlén, K; Kylberg, E; Ekberg, J

    2015-05-01

    In Sweden, a work-site wellness programme implies reimbursing some of the expenses for health-promoting activities. Although work-site wellness programmes are readily available in Sweden, a large number of employees elect not to participate. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity, self-reported general health assessment and self-efficacy with participation in a work-site wellness programme. A cross-sectional study design was used. An online questionnaire was distributed to employees of a manufacturing company with 2500 employees in southwest Sweden. Those who took advantage of the work-site wellness programme assessed their general health as better and had higher assessment of physical activity. The study showed that being enlisted also implies a higher level of physical activity and general health; however, the effect sizes of these correlations were small. Self-efficacy, i.e. perceived behavioural control, was not associated with participation in the work-site wellness programme. However, self-efficacy was correlated with both general health assessment and physical activity. A regression analysis to determine explanatory contributions to the general health assessment score showed no significant contribution from participation in a work-site wellness programme, but was instead explained by perceived behavioural control and physical activity. Given the small effect size of the difference in physical activity between participators and non-participators in the work-site wellness programme, it is probable that only a small proportion of participators changed their health-promoting activities as a result of the work-site wellness programme. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01-1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18-2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal research is needed to assess the mediation pathways through which gender-stereotyped traits influence functional

  12. Physical fitness among urban and rural Ecuadorian adolescents and its association with blood lipids: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical fitness has been proposed as a marker for health during adolescence. Currently, little is known about physical fitness and its association with blood lipid profile in adolescents from low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is therefore to assess physical fitness among urban and rural adolescents and its associations with blood lipid profile in a middle-income country. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2008 and April 2009 in 648 Ecuadorian adolescents (52.3% boys), aged 11 to 15 years, attending secondary schools in Cuenca (urban n = 490) and Nabón (rural n = 158). Data collection included anthropometric measures, application of the EUROFIT battery, dietary intake (2-day 24 h recall), socio-demographic characteristics, and blood samples from a subsample (n = 301). The FITNESGRAM standards were used to evaluate fitness. The associations of fitness and residential location with blood lipid profile were assessed by linear and logistic regression after adjusting for confounding factors. Results The majority (59%) of the adolescents exhibited low levels of aerobic capacity as defined by the FITNESSGRAM standards. Urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores in five EUROFIT tests (20 m shuttle, speed shuttle run, plate tapping, sit-up and vertical jump) and significantly most favorable improved plasma lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL) as compared to rural adolescents. There was a weak association between blood lipid profile and physical fitness in both urban and rural adolescents, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions Physical fitness, in our sample of Ecuadorian adolescents, was generally poor. Urban adolescents had better physical fitness and blood lipid profiles than rural adolescents. The differences in fitness did not explain those in blood lipid profile between urban and rural adolescents. PMID:24745348

  13. Decreased health-related physical fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    (1) Assess the health-related physical fitness of adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and compare these to the general population, and (2) examine the relationships between physical fitness and condition-specific outcomes. Cross-sectional, controlled study. Exercise research laboratory. Thirty-nine adults with AS (32 men, 7 women) and 39 age- and gender-matched controls. Comprehensive physical fitness assessment, and completion of questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality-of-life. Body composition was assessed by bio-impedance analysis. Flexibility was measured with the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI). Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Muscular strength and endurance were measured by isokinetic dynamometry of concentric knee flexion/extension. The AS group demonstrated significantly lower cardiorespiratory fitness [mean difference -1.3mLmin(-1)kg(-1) (95% CI -1.1 to -1.4)], flexibility [0.4 BASMI units (0.2 to 0.7)], muscular strength [-31.6 peak torque per body weight dominant knee extension (-56.1 to -7.1)], and increased body fat [0.4% (0.0 to 1.2)] compared to population controls (pfitness component and physical function (pFitness was not significantly associated with disease activity. Adults with AS have significantly reduced health-related physical fitness compared to population controls. Decreased body fat, and higher aerobic capacity, muscular fitness and flexibility are significantly associated with improved function. These findings have implications for clinicians assessing adults with AS, and for targeted-exercise prescription in this cohort. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. W/Z+Jets Production Cross Section Ratio as a New Physics Search with the ATLAS Detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, James Douglas

    One of the dominant backgrounds in new physics searches at the Large Hadron Collider comes from the leptonic decays of Standard Model W and Z bosons recoiling off jets associated with the underlying event. The ratio of the W+jets and Z+jets cross sections, Rn, is predicted with high precision due to the similar masses and production mechanisms of the W and Z bosons. Any significant departures of Rn from predicted values would be an indication of new physics. This thesis studies a strategy to enhance the sensitivity of Rn to a specific type of signal. A measurement of the ratio Rn is presented, and its sensitivity to pair production of top quarks and leptoquarks is studied. Using a set of topology-discriminating variables, based upon calorimeter topoclusters, the sensitivity of Rn to top quark and leptoquark signals is enhanced using multivariate analysis techniques.

  15. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic

  16. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P. D.; Noh, K. A. B. M.; Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave

  17. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997, whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  18. Gender differences in characteristics of physical and sexual victimization in patients with dual diagnosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Marleen M; Dekker, Jack J M; Kikkert, Martijn J; Kleinhesselink, Maaike D; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2017-07-25

    Patients with substance use disorders and co-occurring mental health disorders are vulnerable to violent victimization. However, no evidence-based interventions are available to reduce patients' vulnerability. An exploration of the characteristics of physical and sexual violence can provide valuable information to support the development of interventions for these patients. This study aimed to examine gender differences in characteristics of violent victimization in patients with dual diagnosis. In this cross-sectional survey study recent incidents of physical and sexual assault were examined with the Safety Monitor in 243 patients with dual diagnosis. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences in the prevalence of physical and sexual victimization. Fisher's exact tests and Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences between victimized men and women with regard to perpetrators, locations, reporting to the police and speaking about the assault with others. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of physical violence in men (35%) and women (47%) with dual diagnosis. There was a significant association between gender of the victim and type of perpetrator (P women were most frequently abused by an (ex)partner. Sexual violence was more prevalent in women (29%) compared to men (4%) (P women with dual diagnosis. Women with dual diagnosis are more often victims of sexual violence compared to men. Interventions aimed at reducing patients' vulnerability for victimization should take gender differences into account.

  19. The impacts of pore-scale physical and chemical heterogeneities on the transport of radionuclide-carrying colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WU, Ning

    2018-04-24

    Independent of the methods of nuclear waste disposal, the degradation of packaging materials could lead to mobilization and transport of radionuclides into the geosphere. This process can be significantly accelerated due to the association of radionuclides with the backfill materials or mobile colloids in groundwater. The transport of these colloids is complicated by the inherent coupling of physical and chemical heterogeneities (e.g., pore space geometry, grain size, charge heterogeneity, and surface hydrophobicity) in natural porous media that can exist on the length scale of a few grains. In addition, natural colloids themselves are often heterogeneous in their surface properties (e.g., clay platelets possess opposite charges on the surface and along the rim). Both physical and chemical heterogeneities influence the transport and retention of radionuclides under various groundwater conditions. However, the precise mechanisms how these coupled heterogeneities influence colloidal transport are largely elusive. This knowledge gap is a major source of uncertainty in developing accurate models to represent the transport process and to predict distribution of radionuclides in the geosphere.

  20. Physical models of renal malignancies using standard cross-sectional imaging and 3-dimensional printers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Maddox, Michael M; Dorsey, Phillip; Feibus, Allison; Thomas, Raju; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    To construct high-fidelity, patient customized, physical, 3-dimensional (3D) models of renal units with enhancing renal lesions identified on cross-sectional imaging, which may aid patients, trainees, and clinicians in their comprehension, characterization, localization, and extirpation of suspicious renal masses. Specialized software was used to import patient's diagnostic computerized tomography cross-sectional imaging into 3D printers and create physical 3D models of renal units with enhancing in situ lesions. Patients and trainees had the opportunity to manipulate the individualized model before surgical resection. Sterolithography additive manufacturing, a technique in which an ultraviolet laser is used to cure a photosensitive resin in sequential horizontally oriented layers, was used to build the models (Medical Modeling Inc., Golden, CO). Normal renal parenchyma was printed with a clear translucent resin, and red translucent resin delineated suspicious lesions. Renal vasculature and the proximal collecting system were printed in some models. We constructed 5 physical models of renal units with suspected malignancies before surgery. All patients successfully underwent partial nephrectomy (4 robotic and 1 open). Average ischemia time was 21 minutes, nephrometry score was 6.8, and all margins were negative. Anecdotally, patients, their families, and trainees consistently stated that the models enhanced their comprehension of the renal tumor in relation to surrounding normal renal parenchyma and hilar structures and improved understanding of the goals of the surgery. Preoperative physical 3D models using available printing techniques can be constructed and may potentially influence both patients' and trainees' understanding of renal malignancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived family functioning and friendship quality: cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Andrew J; Corder, Kirsten; Goodyer, Ian; Bamber, Diane; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Dunn, Valerie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-02-21

    This study examined the association of adolescent-reported family functioning and friendship quality with objectively-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and self-reported sedentary behaviours. Data are from the ROOTS study. MVPA and sedentary time were assessed using combined movement and heart rate sensing. Time spent TV viewing, using the internet, playing video games, doing homework and reading for pleasure was self-reported. Data on objectively-measured and self-reported outcomes for weekdays was available for 738 (age 14.5y, 55.7% female) and 800 (56.3% female) participants, respectively. Adolescents perceived family functioning and friendship quality (Two subscales: 'Good friendship qualities', 'Friendship difficulties') was assessed by questionnaire. Analyses were conducted using multi-level linear or logistic regression. Adolescents reporting better family functioning accumulated more MVPA on weekdays (beta; 95% confidence interval: 0.57; 0.17,0.98). Higher scores on the good friendship qualities subscale was associated with greater MVPA throughout the week (weekdays: 1.13; 0.62,1.65, weekend: 0.56; 0.09,1.02) and lower sedentary time on weekdays (-10.34; -17.03,-3.66). Boys from better functioning families were less likely to report playing video games at the weekend (OR; 95% confidence interval: 0.73; 0.57,0.93) or reading for pleasure (weekday: 0.73; 0.56,0.96 weekend: 0.75; 0.58,0.96). Boys who attained higher scores on the good friendship qualities scale were less likely to play video games at the weekend (0.61; 0.44,0.86) or report high homework on weekdays (0.54; 0.31,0.94). A higher score for good friendship qualities was associated with lower odds of girls playing video games during the week (0.76; 0.58,1.00) or reading for pleasure at the weekend (0.61; 0.42,0.88). Girls that reported fewer friendship difficulties had lower odds of high TV viewing (0.76; 0.62,0.93) or playing video games (0.71; 0.52,0.97) at

  2. Patterns of physical activity in different domains and implications for intervention in a multi-ethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai E Shyong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of regular physical activity for quality of life and disease prevention have been well documented. Identification of low activity groups would facilitate interventional programs. Many studies have focussed on leisure time activity, which may not capture the spectrum of physical activity relevant to disease prevention. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted in urban Asian settings. Methods We evaluated physical activity in different domains (leisure time, occupational, household and transportation and its sociodemographic determinants in 4750 adult Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian Singaporeans. Physical activity was assessed using locally validated questionnaires. Results Occupational and household activity contributed substantially more to total physical activity than leisure time or transportation activity. However, when only activity of at least moderate intensity was considered leisure time activity contributed most to total physical activity. Higher socio-economic status was associated with more leisure time activity, but less total physical activity due to reduced activity in the other domains. Chinese ethnicity was also associated with less total physical activity as a result of less activity in non-leisure time domains. Conclusions In assessing levels of physical activity and recommending changes, it is important to consider physical activity in different domains. Focus on leisure-time physical activity alone could identify the wrong groups for intervention and miss opportunities for increasing physical activity in populations.

  3. Proposal for Streamlining the Railway Infrastructure Capacity on the Specific Track Section in the Context of Establishing an Integrated Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopka Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is processed based on assessing the current capacity condition of the specific railway track section which connects two cities. Particularly, it proposes a set of possible measures in order to increase the permeable railway tracks performance (permeability for the purpose of establishing an integrated transport system. In detail, it examines the capacity solutions by the construction of a double-track liner for smooth crossing and a second track on a single-track railway section.

  4. Physics of non-diffusive turbulent transport of momentum and the origins of spontaneous rotation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Güran, Ö.D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent results in the theory of turbulent momentum transport and the origins of intrinsic rotation are summarized. Special attention is focused on aspects of momentum transport critical to intrinsic rotation, namely the residual stress and the edge toroidal flow velocity pinch. Novel results...... include a systematic decomposition of the physical processes which drive intrinsic rotation, a calculation of the critical external torque necessary to hold the plasma stationary against the intrinsic residual stress, a simple model of net velocity scaling which recovers the salient features...

  5. Evaluation of Neutron-induced Cross Sections and their Related Covariances with Physical Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Archier, P.; Privas, E.; Noguère, G.; Habert, B.; Tamagno, P.

    2018-02-01

    Nuclear data, along with numerical methods and the associated calculation schemes, continue to play a key role in reactor design, reactor core operating parameters calculations, fuel cycle management and criticality safety calculations. Due to the intensive use of Monte-Carlo calculations reducing numerical biases, the final accuracy of neutronic calculations increasingly depends on the quality of nuclear data used. This paper gives a broad picture of all ingredients treated by nuclear data evaluators during their analyses. After giving an introduction to nuclear data evaluation, we present implications of using the Bayesian inference to obtain evaluated cross sections and related uncertainties. In particular, a focus is made on systematic uncertainties appearing in the analysis of differential measurements as well as advantages and drawbacks one may encounter by analyzing integral experiments. The evaluation work is in general done independently in the resonance and in the continuum energy ranges giving rise to inconsistencies in evaluated files. For future evaluations on the whole energy range, we call attention to two innovative methods used to analyze several nuclear reaction models and impose constraints. Finally, we discuss suggestions for possible improvements in the evaluation process to master the quantification of uncertainties. These are associated with experiments (microscopic and integral), nuclear reaction theories and the Bayesian inference.

  6. Factors associated with nonadherence to diet and physical activity among Nepalese type 2 diabetes patients; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Janaki; Saleh, Farzana; Thapa, Narbada; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-10-24

    Nonadherence to diet and physical activity is a major problem in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. This study was undertaken to measure the factors associated with nonadherence to diet and physical activity advice among Nepalese type 2 diabetic patients. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetic patients (age, M ± SD, 54.4 ± 11.5 yrs) and interviewed using three days recall method for dietary history and Compendium of Physical Activity for physical activity. Data were analysed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Out of 385 patients, 87.5% were nonadherent and 12.5% poorly adherent to dietary advice. 42.1% were nonadherent, 36.6% partially adherent while 21.3% good adherent to physical activity. Adherence to dietary advice was higher in males than females (M ± SD, 33 ± 16.7 vs 27 ± 15.5, p = 0.001), those staying nearer to hospital than farther (M ± SD, 32 ± 18.6 vs 28 ± 13.5, p = 0.013), those advice by physician than others (p = 0.001) and from nuclear family than joint and extended (p = 0.001). With increasing age, dietary advice adherence decreased (p = 0.06) and was positively correlated with the knowledge about diabetes mellitus (r = 0.115, p = 0.024). Physical activity adherence was higher in those with positive family history of diabetes than others (M ± SD, 74 ± 24.2 vs 65 ± 23.6, p = 0.001), upper middle socioeconomic class respondents than lower ones (p = 0.047) and from extended family than nuclear or joint ones (p = 0.041). Divorced were more nonadherent to physical activity than married and widowed patients (p = 0.021). Determinants of nonadherence to dietary advice: Female gender, increasing age, joint or extended family members, farther distance from hospital, poor knowledge about diabetes mellitus and advice by others than physicians. Determinants for nonadherence to physical activity: negative family history of DM, divorced status, lower socioeconomic class.

  7. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  8. Present status of reactor physics in the United States and Japan-II. 1. Deterministic Transport Methods for Reactor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Marvin L.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss deterministic transport methods used today in neutronic analysis of nuclear reactors. This discussion is not exhaustive; our goal is to provide an overview of the methods that are most widely used for analyzing light water reactors (LWRs) and that (in our opinion) hold the most promise for the future. The current practice of LWR analysis involves the following steps: 1. Evaluate cross sections from measurements and models. 2. Obtain weighted-average cross sections over dozens to hundreds of energy intervals; the result is a 'fine-group' cross-section set. 3. [Optional] Modify the fine-group set: Further collapse it using information specific to your class of reactors and/or alter parameters so that computations better agree with experiments. The result is a 'many-group library'. 4. Perform pin cell transport calculations (usually one-dimensional cylindrical); use the results to collapse the many-group library to a medium-group set, and/or spatially average the cross sections over the pin cells. 5. Perform assembly-level transport calculations with the medium-group set. It is becoming common practice to use essentially exact geometry (no pin cell homogenization). It may soon become common to skip step 4 and use the many-group library. The output is a library of few-group cross sections, spatially averaged over the assembly, parameterized to cover the full range of operating conditions. 6. Perform full-core calculations with few-group diffusion theory that contains significant homogenizations and limited transport corrections. We discuss steps 4, 5, and 6 and focus mainly on step 5. One cannot review a large topic in a short summary without simplifying reality, omitting important details, and neglecting some methods that deserve attention; for this we apologize in advance. (author)

  9. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Ahmed

    Full Text Available To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context.A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil, Manizales (Colombia, Tirana (Albania, Kingston (Ontario, Canada, and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada. We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles.In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03-1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01-1.88, respectively or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18-2.12, respectively. Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant.Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal research is needed to assess the mediation

  10. Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors—A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Khalaf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5. Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors—A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Atika; Ekblom, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Berggren, Vanja; Westergren, Albert; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23939387

  12. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  13. Patterns and perceptions of physical activity and sedentary time in male transport drivers working in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; Bush, Robert A; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-08-01

    To objectively measure physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time, and explore perceptions of workplace PA opportunities in regional male transport workers. A multi-method study involving 28 drivers (52.4±9.69 years) working at a bus company in South-East Queensland, Australia. PA was measured using accelerometers (n=23) to determine the proportion of time spent in sedentary (take advantage of existing workplace-related PA opportunities. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Philip D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Current plans for treatment and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) from Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks include vitrification and storage of the glass waste form in a nearsurface disposal facility. This Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Central Plateau. Performance assessment (PA) of the IDF requires numerical modeling of subsurface flow and reactive transport processes over very long periods (thousands of years). The models used to predict facility performance require parameters describing various physical, hydraulic, and transport properties. This report provides updated estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport properties and parameters for both near- and far-field materials, intended for use in future IDF PA modeling efforts. Previous work on physical and hydraulic property characterization for earlier IDF PA analyses is reviewed and summarized. For near-field materials, portions of this document and parameter estimates are taken from an earlier data package. For far-field materials, a critical review is provided of methodologies used in previous data packages. Alternative methods are described and associated parameters are provided.

  15. Contribution of Physical Education and Active Transport to Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Menno Slingerland; dr. Lars B. Borghouts

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It has been suggested that physical education (PE) can make a meaningful contribution to children's physical activity (PA) levels. The amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in PE has been quantified in various manners, including heart rate monitoring and direct

  16. Turbulence and Fluid Flow: Perspectives. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James R.

    This module is part of a series on Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems. The materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process.…

  17. Thermal neutron absorption cross-section measured on rock samples and brines in the Institute of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Igielski, A.; Woznicka, U.

    1983-01-01

    In consecutive measurements the rock sample (having a fixed and well known shape -in our case it is a sphere or a cylinder and the sample is powdered or liquid) is enveloped in shells of a plexiglass moderator (the neutron parameters of which are known) of variable thickness and irradiated with the pulsed beam of fast neutrons. The die-away rate of thermal neutrons escaping from the whole system is measured. The absorption cross-section of the sample is found as the intersection of the experimental curve (i.e. die -away rate vs thickness of the moderator) with the theoretical one. The theoretical curve is calculated for a given moderator under the assumption of a constant value of the neutron flux inside the sample. This method is independent of the value of the transport cross-section of the sample. It has been checked on artificial materials with a well known elemental composition (liquid or solid) and on the natural brines and rock samples (basalts and dolomite). A special method of calculation of the variance of the measurement has been established. It is based on the multiple computer simulations of all experimental data used in the computation. The one standard deviation of our methods is of the order of 1 up to 3 capture units (1 c.u. = 10 -3 cm -1 ). The volume of the sample needed is of the order of 500ccm. (author)

  18. Accuracy of physical examination in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a common, potentially treatable endocrine disorder. Since hypothyroidism is not always associated with the signs and symptoms typically attributed to it, the diagnosis is often missed. Conversely, patients with typical signs and symptoms may not have the disease when laboratory tests are performed. Aims: We aimed to determine the accuracy of physical examination in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Setting and design: Prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional diagnostic study. Material and Methods: Consecutive outpatients from the medicine department were screened and an independent comparison of physical signs (coarse skin, puffy face, slow movements, bradycardia, pretibial oedema and ankle reflex against thyroid hormone assay (TSH and FT4 was performed. Statistical analysis: Diagnostic accuracy was measured as sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios, negative likelihood ratios and positive and negative predictive values. Results: Of the 1450 patients screened, 130 patients (102 women and 28 men underwent both clinical examination and thyroid function tests. Twenty-three patients (18% were diagnosed to have hypothyroidism by thyroid hormone assays. No single sign could easily discriminate a euthyroid from a hypothyroid patient (range of positive likelihood ratio (LR+ 1.0 to 3.88; range of negative likelihood ratio (LR-: 0.42 to 1.0. No physical sign generated a likelihood ratio large enough to increase the post-test probability significantly. The combination of signs that had the highest likelihood ratios (coarse skin, bradycardia and delayed ankle reflex was associated with modest accuracy (LR+ 3.75; LR- 0.48. Conclusion: Clinicians cannot rely exclusively on physical examination to confirm or rule out hypothyroidism. Patients with suspected hypothyroidism require a diagnostic workup that includes thyroid hormone assays.

  19. Modeling and simulation of multi-physics multi-scale transport phenomenain bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenjereš, Saša

    2014-01-01

    We present a short overview of some of our most recent work that combines the mathematical modeling, advanced computer simulations and state-of-the-art experimental techniques of physical transport phenomena in various bio-medical applications. In the first example, we tackle predictions of complex blood flow patterns in the patient-specific vascular system (carotid artery bifurcation) and transfer of the so-called 'bad' cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) within the multi-layered artery wall. This two-way coupling between the blood flow and corresponding mass transfer of LDL within the artery wall is essential for predictions of regions where atherosclerosis can develop. It is demonstrated that a recently developed mathematical model, which takes into account the complex multi-layer arterial-wall structure, produced LDL profiles within the artery wall in good agreement with in-vivo experiments in rabbits, and it can be used for predictions of locations where the initial stage of development of atherosclerosis may take place. The second example includes a combination of pulsating blood flow and medical drug delivery and deposition controlled by external magnetic field gradients in the patient specific carotid artery bifurcation. The results of numerical simulations are compared with own PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in the PDMS (silicon-based organic polymer) phantom. A very good agreement between simulations and experiments is obtained for different stages of the pulsating cycle. Application of the magnetic drug targeting resulted in an increase of up to ten fold in the efficiency of local deposition of the medical drug at desired locations. Finally, the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) of the aerosol distribution within the human respiratory system that includes up to eight bronchial generations is performed. A very good agreement between simulations and MRV (Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry) measurements is

  20. Aerosol optical and physical properties during winter monsoon pollution transport in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Bhanja, S N; Pani, S K; Misra, A

    2014-04-01

    We analysed aerosol optical and physical properties in an urban environment (Kolkata) during winter monsoon pollution transport from nearby and far-off regions. Prevailing meteorological conditions, viz. low temperature and wind speed, and a strong downdraft of air mass, indicated weak dispersion and inhibition of vertical mixing of aerosols. Spectral features of WinMon aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed larger variability (0.68-1.13) in monthly mean AOD at short-wavelength (SW) channels (0.34-0.5 μm) compared to that (0.28-0.37) at long-wavelength (LW) channels (0.87-1.02 μm), thereby indicating sensitivity of WinMon AOD to fine aerosol constituents and the predominant contribution from fine aerosol constituents to WinMon AOD. WinMon AOD at 0.5 μm (AOD 0. 5) and Angstrom parameter ( α) were 0.68-0.82 and 1.14-1.32, respectively, with their highest value in December. Consistent with inference from spectral features of AOD, surface aerosol loading was primarily constituted of fine aerosols (size 0.23-3 μm) which was 60-70 % of aerosol 10- μm (size 0.23-10 μm) concentration. Three distinct modes of aerosol distribution were obtained, with the highest WinMon concentration at a mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.3 μm during December, thereby indicating characteristics of primary contribution related to anthropogenic pollutants that were inferred to be mostly due to contribution from air mass originating in nearby region having predominant emissions from biofuel and fossil fuel combustion. A relatively higher contribution from aerosols in the upper atmospheric layers than at the surface to WinMon AOD was inferred during February compared to other months and was attributed to predominant contribution from open burning emissions arising from nearby and far-off regions. A comparison of ground-based measurements with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data showed an underestimation of MODIS AOD and α values for most of the days. Discrepancy in

  1. Using the Health Physics Student Volunteer Program for a Research Project Sponsored by the Medical Section of the Health Physics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Joseph; Leinwander, Penny

    2017-04-01

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) Medical Health Physics Section (MHPS) received a request to research data on radiation safety guidance related to the death of patients who have recently received therapeutic doses of sealed or unsealed therapy sources. The MHPS elected to use student volunteers to perform this research. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe and provide a template for the process used by the MHPS to develop a student volunteer program. To implement the student volunteer program, the MHPS collaborated with the HPS Student Support Committee to develop a research proposal and a student volunteer selection process. The research proposal was sent to HPS student members in a call for volunteers. Two student volunteers were chosen based on predetermined qualifications to complete the work effort outlined in the research proposal. This project progressed with the use of milestones and culminated with the students presenting their findings at the annual HPS meeting. The students received HPS student travel awards to present at the conference. This work effort proved to be extremely beneficial to all parties involved.

  2. Addressing the Safety of Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems: Development and Validation of a Verbal Warning Utility Scale for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important application of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS, advances in intelligent transportation systems (ITS improve driving safety by informing drivers of hazards with warnings in advance. The evaluation of the warning effectiveness is an important issue in facilitating communication of ITS. The goal of the present study was to develop a scale to evaluate the warning utility, namely, the effectiveness of a warning in preventing accidents in general. A driving simulator study was conducted to validate the Verbal Warning Utility Scale (VWUS in a simulated driving environment. The reliability analysis indicated a good split-half reliability for the VWUS with a Spearman-Brown Coefficient of 0.873. The predictive validity of VWUS in measuring the effectiveness of the verbal warnings was verified by the significant prediction of safety benefits indicated by variables, including reduced kinetic energy and collision rate. Compared to conducting experimental studies, this scale provides a simpler way to evaluate overall utility of verbal warnings in communicating associated hazards in intelligent transportation systems. This scale can be further applied to improve the design of warnings of ITS in order to improve transportation safety. The applications of the scale in nonverbal warning situations and limitations of the current scale are also discussed.

  3. Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helian Nunes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence interval were estimated. Statistical level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime physical violence against mental patients was similar for women (57.6% and men (57.8%. Physical violence against women was independently associated with: previous psychiatric hospitalizations (aOR = 2.09, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.75, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.59, age of sexual debut (< 16 y.o. (aOR = 1.40, lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use (aOR = 2.08, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.73 and lifetime incarceration (aOR = 1.69. Among men, associated factors were: age (18-40 y.o. (aOR = 1.90, history of homelessness (aOR = 1.71, previous psychiatric hospitalization (aOR = 1.39, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.52, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.41, lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine (aOR = 1.54, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.47, lifetime history of incarceration (aOR = 2.07. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of physical violence in this population was high for both sexes. Although there were similar factors independently associated with physical violence among men and women, there are important differences, such as age of sexual debut and lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use for women, but not for men, while younger age, history of homelessness, and lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine were associated factors for men only. Screening for history of violence upon admission and early

  4. Transport choice when travelling to a sports facility: the role of perceived route features - Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hollander, Ellen L; Scheepers, Eline; van Wijnen, Harm J; van Wesemael, Pieter Jv; Schuit, Albertine J; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; van Kempen, Elise Emm

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are independently associated with health outcomes, where physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits and sedentary behaviour is associated with health risks. One possible strategy to counteract sedentary behaviour is to stimulate active transport use. As monitoring studies in the Netherlands have shown that among sedentary people the proportion of adults who engage in sports (hereafter: sports practitioners) is 62.3%, sports practitioners seem a feasible target group for this strategy. Previous studies have generally reported associations between neighbourhood characteristics and active transport use. However, the neighbourhood covers only part of the route to a certain destination. Therefore, we examined the association between perceived route features and transport choice when travelling up to 7.5 kilometres to a sports facility among sports practitioners. For 1118 Dutch sports practitioners - who indicated that they practice a sport and travel to a sports facility - age 18 and older, data on transport choice and perceived features of the route to a sports facility were gathered. Participants were classified into one of three transport groups based on their transport choice: car users, cyclists and walkers. Participants were asked whether perceived route features influenced their transport choice. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of cycling versus car use and walking versus car use in the association with perceived route features, adjusted for potential confounders. Perceived traffic safety was associated with lower odds of cycling (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.86). Perceived route duration was associated with lower odds of both cycling (OR: 0.54, 95%CI: 0.39-0.75) and walking (OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.36-1.00). Perceived distance to a sports facility and having to make a detour when using other transport modes than the chosen transport mode were associated with higher odds of both cycling and walking

  5. Which physical and social environmental factors are most important for adolescents' cycling for transport? An experimental study using manipulated photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-08-17

    Ecological models emphasize that cycling for transport is determined by an interplay between individual, physical and social environmental factors. The current study investigated (a) which physical and social environmental factors determine adolescents' preferences towards cycling for transport and (b) which individual, physical and social environmental factors are associated with their intention to actually cycle for transport. An online questionnaire consisting of questions on individual and social environmental variables, and 15 choice-based conjoint tasks with manipulated photographs was completed by 882 adolescents (55.3% male; 13.9 ± 1.6 years). Within the choice tasks, participants were asked to indicate which of two situations they would prefer to cycle to a friend's house. The manipulated photographs were all modified versions of one semi-urban street which differed in the following physical micro-environmental attributes (separation of cycle path, evenness of cycle path, speed limit, speed bump, traffic density, amount of vegetation and maintenance). In addition, each photograph was accompanied by two sentences which described varying cycling distances and co-participation in cycling (i.e. cycling alone or with a friend). After each choice task participants were also asked if they would actually cycle in that situation in real life (i.e. intention). Hierarchical Bayes analyses were performed to calculate relative importances and part-worth utilities of environmental attributes. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate which individual, physical and social environmental factors were associated with adolescents' intention to actually cycle for transport. Adolescents' preference to cycle for transport was predominantly determined by separation of cycle path, followed by shorter cycling distance and co-participation in cycling. Higher preferences were observed for a separation between the cycle path and motorized traffic by means of a

  6. The effect of mineral dust transport on PM10 concentrations and physical properties in Istanbul during 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Kaya, Nefel; Eşer, Övgü; Saltan, Şehnaz

    2017-11-01

    Mineral dust is the most significant source of natural particulate matter. In urban regions, where > 50% of the world population is currently living, local emissions of particulate matter are further aggravated by mineral dust loadings from deserts. The megacity of Istanbul is located in an area sensitive to local pollution due to transportation (i.e., private cars, public transportation, aircrafts, ships, heavy diesel trucks, etc.), industrial emissions, residential heating, and long-range transport from Europe, Asia, and deserts. In this work, the effect of desert dust transport on PM10 concentrations and physical properties was investigated for the period of 2007-2014 in the touristic area of Aksaray, Istanbul. The Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM8b) was used to predict dust loading in Istanbul during dust transport events. Variations on surface PM10 concentrations were investigated according to seasons and during dust transport events. Cluster analysis of air mass backward trajectories was useful to understand frequency analysis and air mass trajectory dependence of PM10 concentrations on dust loadings. The effect of desert dust transport on aerosol optical depths was also investigated. It was observed that PM10 concentrations exceeded the air quality standard of 50 μg m- 3 50% of the time during the study period. The largest number of exceedances in air quality standard occurred during the spring and winter seasons. Approximately 40-60% of the dust loading occurs during the spring. Desert dust and non-desert dust sources contribute to 22-72% and 48-81% of the ground-level PM10 concentrations in Aksaray, Istanbul during the study period. Averaged AOD observed during dust transport events in spring and summer ranged 0.35-0.55. Cluster analysis resolved over 82% the variability of individual air mass backward trajectories into 5 clusters. Overall, air masses arriving to Istanbul at 500 m are equally distributed into northern (52%) and southern (48

  7. Weather is not significantly correlated with destination-specific transport-related physical activity among adults: A large-scale temporally matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Casey P; Zhang, Kai; Salvo, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Weather is an element of the natural environment that could have a significant effect on physical activity. Existing research, however, indicates only modest correlations between measures of weather and physical activity. This prior work has been limited by a failure to use time-matched weather and physical activity data, or has not adequately examined the different domains of physical activity (transport, leisure, occupational, etc.). Our objective was to identify the correlation between weather variables and destination-specific transport-related physical activity in adults. Data were sourced from the California Household Travel Survey, collected in 2012-3. Weather variables included: relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Transport-related physical activity (walking) was sourced from participant-recorded travel diaries. Three-part hurdle models were used to analyze the data. Results indicate statistically or substantively insignificant correlations between the weather variables and transport-related physical activity for all destination types. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that transport-related physical activity may occur relatively independently of weather conditions. The knowledge that weather conditions do not seem to be a significant barrier to this domain of activity may potentially expand the universe of geographic locations that are amenable to environmental and programmatic interventions to increase transport-related walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct and indirect relationships between physical activity and happiness levels among older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine if physical activity (PA) is associated to happiness and to investigate if social functioning and health status mediate this association. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 323 men and women, age 60 or over, who were covered by the medical insurance of the French National Education System, France. They received by mail a self-report questionnaire that asked for information about general health, PA, and happiness. In multinomial logistic regressions, the total volume of PA was associated to higher levels of happiness, but this association disappeared in the presence of social functioning. A structural equation modelling (SEM) showed an indirect association between PA and happiness, which was mediated by participants' health status and social functioning; in this SEM model, social functioning was the only variable directly associated to happiness. Complex associations among PA, health status, and social functioning appear to determine happiness levels in older adults.

  9. Interaction of Physical and Chemical Processes Controlling the Environmental Fate and Transport of Lampricides Through Stream-Hyporheic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; Schmadel, N.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2016-12-01

    The transport and fate of contaminants of emerging concern through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of natural systems and the unique reaction pathways of individual compounds. Our current evaluation of risk is often simplified to controls assumed to be homogeneous in space and time. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reaction rates complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and therefore risk. These complications are the result of the interactions between the physical and chemical systems and the time-variable equilibrium that exists between the two. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  10. Poleward energy transport: is the standard definition physically relevant at all time scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minyi; Czaja, Arnaud; Graversen, Rune; Tailleux, Remi

    2018-03-01

    Poleward energy transport in the atmosphere and oceans constitutes an important branch of the global energy budget, and its role in the climate system has been the subject of many studies. In the atmosphere, the transport is affected by "eddies" and large scale meridional cells, both with zero net mass transport across latitude circles, but also partly by processes associated with a net transport of mass across latitude circles. The latter must cease to operate in steady state, but they may be significant when time variability of the heat budget is considered. Indeed, examination of reanalysis data on short (daily to monthly) timescales shows that mass variations on these timescales result in surprisingly large fluctuations (in excess of 10^{15} W = 1 PW) in the poleward heat transport. These fluctuations are referred to as "extensive", for they primarily alter the mass integrated energy of the region considered, but not its averaged value. It is suggested that extensive fluctuations mask more meaningful climate signals present in the heat transport variability on monthly and interannual timescales, and a new formulation is proposed to isolate the latter. This new formulation is applied successfully to reanalysis data and climate model simulations.

  11. A cross-sectional study of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in a Caribbean population: combining objective and questionnaire data to guide future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Christina; Brage, Soren; Hambleton, Ian R; Westgate, Kate; Samuels, T Alafia; Rose, Angela Mc; Unwin, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Current understanding of population physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour in developing countries is limited, and based primarily on self-report. We described PA levels using objective and self-report methods in a developing country population. PA was assessed in a cross-sectional, representative sample of the population of Barbados (25-54 years), using a validated questionnaire (RPAQ) and individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing monitors. The RPAQ collects information on recalled activity in 4 domains: home, work, transport, and leisure. Physical inactivity was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines; sedentary lifestyle was defined as being sedentary for 8 h or more daily; PA overestimation was defined as perceiving activity to be sufficient, when classified as 'inactive' by objective measurement. According to objective estimates, 90.5 % (95 % CI: 83.3,94.7) of women and 58.9 % (48.4,68.7) of men did not accumulate sufficient activity to meet WHO minimum recommendations. Overall, 50.7 % (43.3,58.1) of the population was sedentary for 8 h or more each day, and 60.1 % (52.8,66.9) overestimated their activity levels. The prevalence of inactivity was underestimated by self-report in both genders by 28 percentage points (95 % CI: 18,38), but the accuracy of reporting differed by age group, education level, occupational grade, and overweight/obesity status. Low PA was greater in more socially privileged groups: higher educational level and higher occupational grade were both associated with less objectively measured PA and more sedentary time. Variation in domain-specific self-reported physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) by educational attainment was observed: higher education level was associated with more leisure activity and less occupational activity. Occupational PA was the main driver of PAEE for women and men according to self-report, contributing 57 % (95 % CI: 52,61). The most

  12. A cross-sectional study of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in a Caribbean population: combining objective and questionnaire data to guide future interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Howitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of population physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour in developing countries is limited, and based primarily on self-report. We described PA levels using objective and self-report methods in a developing country population. Methods PA was assessed in a cross-sectional, representative sample of the population of Barbados (25–54 years, using a validated questionnaire (RPAQ and individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing monitors. The RPAQ collects information on recalled activity in 4 domains: home, work, transport, and leisure. Physical inactivity was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines; sedentary lifestyle was defined as being sedentary for 8 h or more daily; PA overestimation was defined as perceiving activity to be sufficient, when classified as ‘inactive’ by objective measurement. Results According to objective estimates, 90.5 % (95 % CI: 83.3,94.7 of women and 58.9 % (48.4,68.7 of men did not accumulate sufficient activity to meet WHO minimum recommendations. Overall, 50.7 % (43.3,58.1 of the population was sedentary for 8 h or more each day, and 60.1 % (52.8,66.9 overestimated their activity levels. The prevalence of inactivity was underestimated by self-report in both genders by 28 percentage points (95 % CI: 18,38, but the accuracy of reporting differed by age group, education level, occupational grade, and overweight/obesity status. Low PA was greater in more socially privileged groups: higher educational level and higher occupational grade were both associated with less objectively measured PA and more sedentary time. Variation in domain-specific self-reported physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE by educational attainment was observed: higher education level was associated with more leisure activity and less occupational activity. Occupational PA was the main driver of PAEE for women and men according to self

  13. Cross-sectional and prospective impact of reallocating sedentary time to physical activity on children's body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Luís B; Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Cláudia; Ekelund, Ulf

    2017-10-01

    The amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviours may have adverse health effects. To examine the substitution effects of displacing a fixed duration of sedentary time with physical activity (PA) on children's body composition. We included 386 children (197 boys). Outcomes were body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat mass and trunk fat mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sedentary time and PA were measured with accelerometers. Data were analysed by isotemporal analyses estimating the effect of reallocating 15 and 30 min d -1 of sedentary time into light (light physical activity), and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) PA on body composition. Reallocating 15 and 30 min d -1 of sedentary time into MVPA was negatively associated with body fatness in cross-sectional analyses. Prospectively, reallocating 30 min of sedentary time into 30 min of MVPA was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = -1.11, p body fat mass (β = -0.48, p  0.05) with body fatness outcomes. Substituting sedentary time with MVPA using isotemporal analysis is associated with positive effects on body composition. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Anthropometry, physical performance, and ultrasound patellar tendon abnormality in elite junior basketball players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J L; Kiss, Z S; Khan, K M; Purdam, C R; Webster, K E

    2004-04-01

    Patellar tendinopathy has been reported to be associated with many intrinsic risk factors. Few have been fully investigated. This cross-sectional study examined the anthropometric and physical performance results of elite junior basketball players with normal or abnormal patellar tendons to see if any measures were associated with changes in tendon morphology. Agility, leg strength, endurance, and flexibility were measured in 71 male and 64 female players. A blinded radiologist ultrasonographically examined their patellar tendons and athletes were grouped as having normal or abnormal tendons. One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in anthropometric and physical performance data for athletes whose tendons were normal or abnormal (unilateral or bilateral tendinopathy) on ultrasound. Results show that females with abnormalities in their tendons had a significantly better vertical jump (50.9+/-6.8 cm) than those with normal tendons (46.1+/-5.4 cm) (p = 0.02). This was not found in males. In males, the mean sit and reach in those with normal tendons (13.2+/-6.7 cm) was greater (ptendinopathy (10.3+/-6.2 cm) or in bilateral tendinopathy (7.8+/-8.3 cm). In females, those with normal tendons (13.3+/-4.8 cm) and bilateral tendinopathy (15.8+/-6.2 cm) were distinctly different from those with unilateral tendinopathy (7.9+/-6.6 cm). Flexibility and vertical jump ability are associated with patellar tendinopathy and the findings warrant consideration when managing young, jumping athletes.

  15. Computer-based assistive technology device for use by children with physical disabilities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidström, Helene; Almqvist, Lena; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of children with physical disabilities who used a computer-based ATD, and to examine characteristics differences in children and youths who do or do not use computer-based ATDs, as well as, investigate differences that might influence the satisfaction of those two groups of children and youths when computers are being used for in-school and outside school activities. A cross-sectional survey about computer-based activities in and outside school (n = 287) and group comparisons. The prevalence of using computer-based ATDs was about 44 % (n = 127) of the children in this sample. These children were less satisfied with their computer use in education and outside school activities than the children who did not use an ATD. Improved coordination of the usage of computer-based ATDs in school and in the home, including service and support, could increase the opportunities for children with physical disabilities who use computer-based ATDs to perform the computer activities they want, need and are expected to do in school and outside school.

  16. Parenting stress: a cross-sectional analysis of associations with childhood obesity, physical activity, and TV viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kathryn; Simpson, Janis Randall; Darlington, Gerarda; Haines, Jess

    2014-10-01

    Parents influence their children's obesity risk through feeding behaviours and modeling of weight-related behaviours. Little is known about how the general home environment, including parental stress, may influence children's weight. The objective of this study was to explore the association between parenting stress and child body mass index (BMI) as well as obesity risk factors, physical activity and television (TV) viewing. We used cross-sectional data from 110 parent-child dyads participating in a community-based parenting intervention. Child heights and weights were measured by trained research assistants. Parents (93% mothers) reported level of parenting stress via the Parenting Stress Index- Short Form (PSI-3-SF) as well as children's activity behaviours and TV viewing. This was an ethnically diverse (55% Hispanic/Latino, 22% Black), low-income (64% earning < $45,000/year) sample. Level of parenting stress was not associated with children's risk of being overweight/obese. Children with highly stressed parents were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines on weekdays than children with normally stressed parents (OR = 0.33, 95% CI, 0.12-0.95). Parents experiencing high stress were less likely to set limits on the amount of TV their children watched (OR = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.11, 0.93). Results suggest stress specific to parenting may not be associated with increased obesity risk among children. However, future interventions may need to address stress as a possible underlying factor associated with unhealthful behaviours among preschoolers.

  17. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Karen E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in neighbourhoods of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of obesity and a lower likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations than their more affluent counterparts. This study examines the sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland and whether such access differs by the mode of transport available and by Urban Rural Classification. Methods A database of all fixed physical activity facilities was obtained from the national agency for sport in Scotland. Facilities were categorised into light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity groupings before being mapped. Transport networks were created to assess the number of each type of facility accessible from the population weighted centroid of each small area in Scotland on foot, by bicycle, by car and by bus. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities by small area deprivation within urban, small town and rural areas separately, adjusting for population size and local authority. Results Prior to adjustment for Urban Rural Classification and local authority, the median number of accessible facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity activity increased with increasing deprivation from the most affluent or second most affluent quintile to the most deprived for all modes of transport. However, after adjustment, the modelling results suggest that those in more affluent areas have significantly higher access to moderate and vigorous intensity facilities by car than those living in more deprived areas. Conclusions The sociospatial distributions of access to facilities for both moderate intensity and vigorous intensity physical activity were similar. However, the results suggest that those living in the most affluent neighbourhoods have poorer access to facilities of either type that can be reached on foot

  18. Prevalence and Association of Physical Activity with Obesity: An Urban, Community-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study levels of physical activity and various measures of obesity and their association in an urban population. Study Design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: One thousand and forty-seven individuals between the ages 25-64 years systematically sampled from a community-based population database were contacted through a house-to-house survey. We adopted the WHO STEPS guidelines for conducting this study. Anthropological measures collected were height, weight, and waist and hip circumference. Results: Physical Activity (PA levels declined with age and the decline was greater among females. The Pearson′s correlation coefficient for age against PA among males was found to be negative and weak (r = -0.104 and that among females was found to be similar (r = -0.206. The prevalence of obesity was higher among females (28.8 % than among males (13.3 % and the difference was statistically significant. There was a progressive increase in abdominal obesity with age in both genders. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among individuals with low levels of PA as compared to those with high levels of PA. Conclusion: Sedentary behavior is prevalent in more than half of the current study sample. This was more so with increasing age, female gender and increasing obesity. PA is an important component on long-term weight control, and therefore adequate levels of activity should be prescribed to combat the obesity epidemic. Habitual moderate physical activity may be beneficial in preventing excess accumulation of fat.

  19. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  20. Visual impairment is associated with physical and mental comorbidities in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Helen; McLean, Gary; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-10-17

    Visual impairment is common in older people and the presence of additional health conditions can compromise health and rehabilitation outcomes. A small number of studies have suggested that comorbities are common in visual impairment; however, those studies have relied on self-report and have assessed a relatively limited number of comorbid conditions. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a dataset of 291,169 registered patients (65-years-old and over) within 314 primary care practices in Scotland, UK. Visual impairment was identified using Read Code ever recorded for blindness and/or low vision (within electronic medical records). Prevalence, odds ratios (from prevalence rates standardised by stratifying individuals by age groups (65 to 69 years; 70 to 74; 75 to 79; 80 to 84; and 85 and over), gender and deprivation quintiles) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 37 individual chronic physical/mental health conditions and total number of conditions were calculated and compared for those with visual impairment to those without. Twenty seven of the 29 physical health conditions and all eight mental health conditions were significantly more likely to be recorded for individuals with visual impairment compared to individuals without visual impairment, after standardising for age, gender and social deprivation. Individuals with visual impairment were also significantly more likely to have more comorbidities (for example, five or more conditions (odds ratio (OR) 2.05 95% CI 1.94 to 2.18)). Patients aged 65 years and older with visual impairment have a broad range of physical and mental health comorbidities compared to those of the same age without visual impairment, and are more likely to have multiple comorbidities. This has important implications for clinical practice and for the future design of integrated services to meet the complex needs of patients with visual impairment, for example, embedding depression and hearing screening within eye care services.

  1. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the U.S. Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [ed.] [comp.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. It`s main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the Us and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  2. Fluid Dynamics Applied to Streams. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Christina E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module deals specifically with concepts that are basic to fluid flow and…

  3. Transpiration and Leaf Temperature. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, David M.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report introduces two models of the thermal energy budget of a leaf. Typical values for…

  4. Pressure and Buoyancy in Aquatic Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Christina E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module explores some of the characteristics of aquatic organisms which can be…

  5. Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael; Gallucci, V. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes the application of irreversible thermodynamics to biology. It begins with…

  6. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults' Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin

    2016-03-04

    Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45-65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants' (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA.

  7. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults’ Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Jansen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities. Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45–65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA, and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants’ (N = 308 PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning to develop strategies to stimulate PA.

  8. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults’ Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45–65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants’ (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA. PMID:26959041

  9. Dynamical transition of heat transport in a physical gel near the sol-gel transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya U.; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally study heat transport in a gelatin solution near a reversible sol-gel transition point where viscosity strongly depends on temperature. We visualize the temperature field and velocity field using thermochromic liquid crystals and polystyrene latex particles, respectively. During the initial stages of heating, we find that heat transport undergoes a dynamical transition from conductive to convective. Subsequently, during later stages, we observe that the transport dynamics are much more complex than conventional thermal convections. At the sample’s surface we observe the formation of stagnant domains, which lack fluid flow. Their formation is not due to the effects of local cooling. We determine that it is the dynamics of these stagnant domains that induce convective-conductive-convective transitions.

  10. Abdominal obesity and low physical activity are associated with insulin resistance in overweight adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Rodríguez, Claudia-María; Velásquez-Villa, Marcela; Gómez-Ocampo, Leidy; Bermúdez-Cardona, Juliana

    2014-10-10

    Previous studies have assessed the metabolic changes and lifestyles associated with overweight adolescents. However, these associations are unclear amongst overweight adolescents who have already developed insulin resistance. This study assessed the associations between insulin resistance and anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory, food consumption, and physical activity variables amongst overweight adolescents. This cross-sectional study divided adolescents (n = 120) between 10 and 18 years old into 3 groups: an overweight group with insulin resistance (O + IR), an overweight group without insulin resistance (O-IR), and a normal-weight control group (NW). Adolescents were matched across groups based on age, sex, pubertal maturation, and socioeconomic strata. Anthropometric, biochemical, physical activity, and food consumption variables were assessed. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA Calculator Version 2.2.2 from ©Diabetes Trials Unit, University of Oxford), and overweight status was assessed using body mass index according to World Health Organization (2007) references. A chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. ANOVAs or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for continuous variables. Multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the probability of the occurrence of insulin resistance based on the independent variables. The risk of insulin resistance amongst overweight adolescents increases significantly when they reach a waist circumference > p95 (OR = 1.9, CIs = 1.3-2.7, p = 0.013) and watch 3 or more hours/day of television (OR = 1.7, CIs = 0.98-2.8, p = 0.033). Overweight status and insulin resistance were associated with higher levels of inflammation (hsCRP ≥1 mg/L) and cardiovascular risk according to arterial indices. With each cm increase in waist circumference, the HOMA index increased by 0.082; with each metabolic equivalent (MET) unit increase in physical activity, the HOMA index

  11. SELECTED DESIGNING ISSUES OF INNOVATIVE MEANS OF TRANSPORT ADAPTED TO PEOPLE WITH LIMITED PHYSICAL ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona GRABAREK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the challenge for transport designers is to ensure more mobility and participation in social life of elderly and disabled people, because of the systematic increase of this group. The selected issues regarding designing of the two new public means of transport construction, completely adjusted to the elderly and disabled people have been presented in this paper. The research work has been carried out within the Eco Mobility Project that is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund/Operational Programme for Innovative Economy. The innovative solution of eco-car and PRT vehicle have been presented.

  12. A Hitch-hiker's Guide to Stochastic Differential Equations. Solution Methods for Energetic Particle Transport in Space Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R. Du Toit; Effenberger, Frederic

    2017-10-01

    In this review, an overview of the recent history of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in application to particle transport problems in space physics and astrophysics is given. The aim is to present a helpful working guide to the literature and at the same time introduce key principles of the SDE approach via "toy models". Using these examples, we hope to provide an easy way for newcomers to the field to use such methods in their own research. Aspects covered are the solar modulation of cosmic rays, diffusive shock acceleration, galactic cosmic ray propagation and solar energetic particle transport. We believe that the SDE method, due to its simplicity and computational efficiency on modern computer architectures, will be of significant relevance in energetic particle studies in the years to come.

  13. Meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and other parameters collected at fixed locations in the open ocean from the OceanSITES network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection comprises data covering meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and parameters relevant to the carbon cycle, ocean...

  14. Analysis of physical mechanisms underlying density-dependent transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the interaction between (large) density gradients and flow and transport in porous media is studied. Large gradients in the density of groundwater exist for example near deep salt rock formations, which are considered as possible long-term storage sites for radioactive waste.

  15. On the physics of upgradient momentum transport in unstable eastward jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.A.; Vaart, P.C.F. van der

    1998-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear finite amplitude evolution of mixed baro-clinic / barotropic instabilities of an eastward zonal jet is considered in a two-layer QG-model on a midlatitude beta-plane. Linear friction is included and is essential to the momentum transport. The focus is two parameter regimes,

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  17. Influence of Physical Properties of Liquids on Transport Velocity through Wood and Its Dimensional Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kojima, Kazuo; Ohta, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    An apparent diffusion coefficient was defined as an index of transport rate of liquids through wood by analogy to Fick's diffusion coefficient, even though the entire processes of penetration into wood would be different from those of actual diffusion. All measurements were carried out on Western

  18. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  19. Three-Dimensional Flow Modeling of a Self-wiping Corotating Twin-Screw Extruder. Part I : The Transporting Section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goffart, D.; Wal, D.J. van der; Klomp, E.M.; Hoogstraten, H.W.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Breysse, L.; Trolez, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional modeling of the transporting elements in a self-wiping corotating twin-screw extruder has been carried out by using the finite element package Sepran. This simulation uses the 3D geometry of the channel rolled over the twin-screw, which consists of the intermeshing and normal

  20. Feasibility online survey to estimate physical activity level among the students studying professional courses: a cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Bhumika; Samuel, Asir John; Narkeesh, Kanimozhi

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the physical activity (PA) level among the professional college students in North India. One hundred three professional college students in the age group of 18-25 years were recruited by simple random sampling for this cross-sectional online survey. The survey was advertised on the social networking sites (Facebook, WhatsApp) through a link www.surveymonkey.com/r/MG-588BY. A Short Form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for this survey study. The questionnaire included total 8 questions on the basis of previous 7 days. The questionnaire consists of 3 main categories which were vigorous, moderate and high PA. Time spent in each activity level was multiplied with the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), which has previously set to 8.0 for vigorous activity, 4.0 for moderate activity, 3.3 for walking, and 1.5 for sitting. By multiplying MET with number of days and minutes performed weekly, amount of each activity level was calculated and measured as MET-min/wk. Further by adding MET minutes for each activity level, total MET-min/wk was calculated. Total number of 100 students participated in this study, and it was shown that all professional course students show different levels in PA. The total PA level among professional college students, which includes, physiotherapy, dental, medical, nursing, lab technician, pharmacy, management, law, engineering, were 434.4 (0-7,866), 170.3 (0-1,129), 87.7 (0-445), 102.8 (0-180), 469 (0-1,164), 0 (0-0), 645 (0-1,836), 337 (0-1,890), 396 (0-968) MET-min/wk respectively. PA levels among professional college students in North India have been established.

  1. Obesity associates with vasomotor symptoms in postmenopause but with physical symptoms in perimenopause: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seul; Ahn, Younjhin; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-12-08

    Middle-aged women experience various menopausal symptoms during the menopause. These symptoms can affect their quality of life and health. Several epidemiological studies reported that obesity associates with menopausal symptoms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between obesity and multiple menopausal symptoms at different stages of menopause in middle-aged Korean women. The study population included women aged 44-56 years who visited a tertiary referral hospital for medical check-ups between November 2012 and March 2013 and were free from serious illness, could comprehend a questionnaire. The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of menopausal symptoms. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) of 23-24.9 and ≥25 kg/m 2 , respectively. Of the 2204 middle-aged women, 929 met the eligibility criteria. Of these, 533 (57.4%) and 396 (42.6%) were in perimenopause and postmenopause, respectively. In perimenopause, obese women were significantly more likely to have moderate/severe physical symptoms (MENQOL domain score ≥ 5) than normal or overweight women. In postmenopause, obese women were significantly more likely to have moderate/severe vasomotor symptoms. Multiple linear regression with adjustment for confounders showed that relative to normal weight, obesity in perimenopause and postmenopause associated independently with physical symptoms (beta coefficient = 0.35; P = 0.023) and vasomotor symptoms (beta coefficient = 0.68; P = 0.003), respectively. Overweight did not associate with menopausal symptoms. BMI did not associate significantly with psychosocial or sexual symptoms at either stage of menopause. Obese women had more frequent menopausal symptoms than normal or overweight women but the associated menopausal symptom differed depending on the menopausal stage. Further studies are required to confirm this result and identify the

  2. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  3. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  4. Measurement and basic physics committee of the U.S. cross-section evaluation working group, annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; McLane, V.

    1998-01-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing

  5. MEASUREMENT AND BASIC PHYSICS COMMITTEE OF THE U.S. CROSS-SECTION EVALUATION WORKING GROUP, ANNUAL REPORT 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,D.L.; MCLANE,V.

    1998-10-20

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  6. Access of children with cerebral palsy to the physical, social and attitudinal environment they need: a cross-sectional European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colver, Allan F; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkinson, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    access on these domains to their impairments and socio-demographic characteristics. Results. Children with more impaired walking ability had less access to the physical environment, transport and social support they needed than other children. They also experienced less favourable attitudes from family......Purpose. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities requires states 'to ensure to persons with disabilities access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, transportation, information and communications.' We explored whether this convention was respected...... sources. Researchers visited these 818 children and administered the European Child Environment Questionnaire, which records parents' perceptions of availability of the physical, social and attitudinal environment needed in home, school and community. Multilevel, multivariable regression related child...

  7. Cross-sectional surveillance study to phenotype lorry drivers' sedentary behaviours, physical activity and cardio-metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; O'Shea, Orlagh; King, James A; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacy A

    2017-06-21

    Elevated risk factors for a number of chronic diseases have been identified in lorry drivers. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as a lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (sitting) likely contribute to this elevated risk. This study behaviourally phenotyped UK lorry drivers' sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours during workdays and non-workdays and examined markers of drivers cardio-metabolic health. A transport company from the East Midlands, UK. A sample of 159 male heavy goods vehicle drivers (91% white European; (median (range)) age: 50 (24, 67) years) completed the health assessments. 87 (age: 50.0 (25.0, 65.0); body mass index (BMI): 27.7 (19.6, 43.4) kg/m 2 ) provided objective information on sedentary and non-sedentary time. Participants self-reported their sociodemographic information. Primary outcomes: sedentary behaviour and PA, assessed over 7 days using an activPAL3 inclinometer. Cardio-metabolic markers included: blood pressure (BP), heart rate, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body composition and fasted capillary blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipopreotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. These cardio-metabolic markers were treated as secondary outcomes. Lorry drivers presented an unhealthy cardio-metabolic health profile (median (IQR) systolic BP: 129 (108.5, 164) mm Hg; diastolic BP: 81 (63, 104) mm Hg; BMI: 29 (20, 47) kg/m 2 ; WC: 102 (77.5, 146.5) cm; LDL-C: 3 (1, 6) mmol/L; TC: 4.9 (3, 7.5) mmol/L). 84% were overweight or obese, 43% had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and 34% had the metabolic syndrome. The subsample of lorry drivers with objective postural data (n=87) accumulated 13 hours/day and 8 hours/day of sedentary behaviour on workdays and non-workdays (pcardio-metabolic profile and are highly sedentary and physically inactive. Interventions to reduce sitting and increase MVPA during breaks and leisure time to

  8. The Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) simulation of turbulent transport in the core plasma: A grand challenge in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The long-range goal of the Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) is the reliable prediction of tokamak performance using physics-based numerical tools describing tokamak physics. The NTP is accomplishing the development of the most advanced particle and extended fluid model's on massively parallel processing (MPP) environments as part of a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary numerical study of tokamak core fluctuations. The NTP is a continuing focus of the Office of Fusion Energy's theory and computation program. Near-term HPCC work concentrates on developing a predictive numerical description of the core plasma transport in tokamaks driven by low-frequency collective fluctuations. This work addresses one of the greatest intellectual challenges to our understanding of the physics of tokamak performance and needs the most advanced computational resources to progress. We are conducting detailed comparisons of kinetic and fluid numerical models of tokamak turbulence. These comparisons are stimulating the improvement of each and the development of hybrid models which embody aspects of both. The combination of emerging massively parallel processing hardware and algorithmic improvements will result in an estimated 10**2--10**6 performance increase. Development of information processing and visualization tools is accelerating our comparison of computational models to one another, to experimental data, and to analytical theory, providing a bootstrap effect in our understanding of the target physics. The measure of success is the degree to which the experimentally observed scaling of fluctuation-driven transport may be predicted numerically. The NTP is advancing the HPCC Initiative through its state-of-the-art computational work. We are pushing the capability of high performance computing through our efforts which are strongly leveraged by OFE support

  9. Development and Implementation of Photonuclear Cross-Section Data for Mutually Coupled Neutron-Photon Transport Calculations in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Radiation Transport Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Morgan C.

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental motivation for the research presented in this dissertation was the need to development a more accurate prediction method for characterization of mixed radiation fields around medical electron accelerators (MEAs). Specifically, a model is developed for simulation of neutron and other particle production from photonuclear reactions and incorporated in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. This extension of the capability within the MCNP code provides for the more accurate assessment of the mixed radiation fields. The Nuclear Theory and Applications group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has recently provided first-of-a-kind evaluated photonuclear data for a select group of isotopes. These data provide the reaction probabilities as functions of incident photon energy with angular and energy distribution information for all reaction products. The availability of these data is the cornerstone of the new methodology for state-of-the-art mutually coupled photon-neutron transport simulations. The dissertation includes details of the model development and implementation necessary to use the new photonuclear data within MCNP simulations. A new data format has been developed to include tabular photonuclear data. Data are processed from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Format (ENDF) to the new class ''u'' A Compact ENDF (ACE) format using a standalone processing code. MCNP modifications have been completed to enable Monte Carlo sampling of photonuclear reactions. Note that both neutron and gamma production are included in the present model. The new capability has been subjected to extensive verification and validation (V and V) testing. Verification testing has established the expected basic functionality. Two validation projects were undertaken. First, comparisons were made to benchmark data from literature. These calculations demonstrate the accuracy of the new data and transport routines to better than 25 percent. Second, the ability to

  10. Development and Implementation of Photonuclear Cross-Section Data for Mutually Coupled Neutron-Photon Transport Calculations in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Radiation Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The fundamental motivation for the research presented in this dissertation was the need to development a more accurate prediction method for characterization of mixed radiation fields around medical electron accelerators (MEAs). Specifically, a model is developed for simulation of neutron and other particle production from photonuclear reactions and incorporated in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. This extension of the capability within the MCNP code provides for the more accurate assessment of the mixed radiation fields. The Nuclear Theory and Applications group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has recently provided first-of-a-kind evaluated photonuclear data for a select group of isotopes. These data provide the reaction probabilities as functions of incident photon energy with angular and energy distribution information for all reaction products. The availability of these data is the cornerstone of the new methodology for state-of-the-art mutually coupled photon-neutron transport simulations. The dissertation includes details of the model development and implementation necessary to use the new photonuclear data within MCNP simulations. A new data format has been developed to include tabular photonuclear data. Data are processed from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Format (ENDF) to the new class ''u'' A Compact ENDF (ACE) format using a standalone processing code. MCNP modifications have been completed to enable Monte Carlo sampling of photonuclear reactions. Note that both neutron and gamma production are included in the present model. The new capability has been subjected to extensive verification and validation (V&V) testing. Verification testing has established the expected basic functionality. Two validation projects were undertaken. First, comparisons were made to benchmark data from literature. These calculations demonstrate the accuracy of the new data and transport routines to better than 25 percent. Second

  11. The physics of W transport illuminated by recent progress in W density diagnostics at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odstrcil, T.; Pütterich, T.; Angioni, C.; Bilato, R.; Gude, A.; Odstrcil, M.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-01-01

    Due to the high mass and charge of the heavy ions, centrifugal and electrostatic forces cause a significant variation in their poloidal density. The impact of these forces on the poloidal density profile of tungsten was investigated utilizing the detailed two-dimensional SXR emissivity profiles from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The perturbation in the electrostatic potential generated by magnetic trapping of the non-thermal ions from neutral beam injection was found to be responsible for significant changes in the poloidal distribution of tungsten ions. An excellent match with the results from fast particle modeling was obtained, validating the model for the poloidal fast particle distribution. Additionally, an enhancement of the neoclassical transport due to an outboard side impurity localization was measured in the experiment when analyzing the tungsten flux between sawtooth crashes. A qualitative match with neoclassical modeling was found, demonstrating the possibility of minimizing neoclassical transport by an optimization of the poloidal asymmetry profile of the impurity.

  12. Thermal transport in low dimensions from statistical physics to nanoscale heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Understanding non-equilibrium properties of classical and quantum many-particle systems is one of the goals of contemporary statistical mechanics. Besides its own interest for the theoretical foundations of irreversible thermodynamics(e.g. of the Fourier's law of heat conduction), this topic is also relevant to develop innovative ideas for nanoscale thermal management with possible future applications to nanotechnologies and effective energetic resources. The first part of the volume (Chapters 1-6) describes the basic models, the phenomenology and the various theoretical approaches to understand heat transport in low-dimensional lattices (1D e 2D). The methods described will include equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches and the solution of stochastic models. The second part (Chapters 7-10) deals with applications to nano and microscale heat transfer, as for instance phononic transport in carbon-based nanomaterials, including the prominent case of na...

  13. The physics of nanoelectronics transport and fluctuation phenomena at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkila, Tero T

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have allowed physicists and engineers to miniaturize electronic structures to the limit where finite-size related phenomena start to impact their properties. This book discusses such phenomena and models made for their description. The book starts from the semiclassical description of nonequilibrium effects, details the scattering theory used for quantum transport calculations, and explains the main interference effects. It also describes how to treat fluctuations and correlations, how interactions affect transport through small islands, and how superconductivity modifies these effects. The last two chapters describe new emerging fields related with graphene and nanoelectromechanics. The focus of the book is on the phenomena rather than formalism, but the book still explains in detail the main models constructed for these phenomena. It also introduces a number of electronic devices, including the single-electron transistor, the superconducting tunnel junction refrigerator, and the s...

  14. Fat gain with physical detraining is correlated with increased glucose transport and oxidation in periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sertié, R.A.L.; Andreotti, S. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Proença, A.R.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Campaña, A.B.; Lima, F.B. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-26

    As it is a common observation that obesity tends to occur after discontinuation of exercise, we investigated how white adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal fat of animals with interrupted physical training transport and oxidize glucose, and whether these adaptations support the weight regain seen after 4 weeks of physical detraining. Male Wistar rats (45 days old, weighing 200 g) were divided into two groups (n=10): group D (detrained), trained for 8 weeks and detrained for 4 weeks; and group S (sedentary). The physical exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks, at 50-60% of the maximum running capacity. After the training protocol, adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal adipose tissue were submitted to glucose uptake and oxidation tests. Adipocytes from detrained animals increased their glucose uptake capacity by 18.5% compared with those from sedentary animals (P<0.05). The same cells also showed a greater glucose oxidation capacity in response to insulin stimulation (34.55%) compared with those from the S group (P<0.05). We hypothesize that, owing to the more intense glucose entrance into adipose cells from detrained rats, more substrate became available for triacylglycerol synthesis. Furthermore, this increased glucose oxidation rate allowed an increase in energy supply for triacylglycerol synthesis. Thus, physical detraining might play a role as a possible obesogenic factor for increasing glucose uptake and oxidation by adipocytes.

  15. Cross-Sectional and longitudinal associations of objectively-measured physical activity on blood pressure: evaluation in 37 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Menai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (step counts and blood pressure (BP among adults spanning 37countries.Methods: Across 37 countries, we used data from a pool of 9238 adult owners of Withings’ Pulse activity trackers, which measures steps taken each day, and Wireless Blood Pressure Monitor, which measures BP. Analyses were adjusted on age, sex, number of days where the tracker was worn, and number of BP measurements. Data was collected from 2009 to 2013.Results: Subjects had a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 51.6 ± 11.3 years and a body mass index (BMI of 28.7±5.5 kg/m2. A 1-month increase of more than 3000 steps per day was associated with a decrease of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP among the obese (1.57mm Hg and 1.29 mm Hg respectively, both P<0.001 and the overweight population (0.79mm Hg and 0.84 mm Hg respectively, both P≤0.001, but not in the normal weight population(P=0.60 and P=0.36 respectively.Conclusion: One-month increases in daily step counts was associated with a decrease of SBP and DBP in a large obese and overweight free living population.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Importance of Park Features for Promoting Regular Physical Activity in Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Costigan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parks in the US and Australia are generally underutilised, and park visitors typically engage in low levels of physical activity (PA. Better understanding park features that may encourage visitors to be active is important. This study examined the perceived importance of park features for encouraging park-based PA and examined differences by sex, age, parental-status and participation in PA. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were completed by local residents (n = 2775 living near two parks (2013/2015. Demographic variables, park visitation and leisure-time PA were self-reported, respondents rated the importance of 20 park features for encouraging park-based PA in the next fortnight. Chi-square tests of independence examined differences in importance of park features for PA among sub-groups of local residents (sex, age, parental-status, PA. Results: Park features ranked most important for park-based PA were: well maintained (96.2%, feel safe (95.4%, relaxing atmosphere (91.2%, easy to get to (91.7%, and shady trees (90.3%. All subgroups ranked ‘well maintained’ as most important. Conclusions: Natural and built environment features of parks are important for promoting adults’ park-based PA, and should be considered in park (redesign.

  17. Self-reported physical health associations of traumatic events in medical and dental outpatients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Sheela; Hannan, Susan M; Boykin, Derrecka; Orcutt, Holly; Hamad, Judy; Hoersch, Michelle; Hasnain, Memoona

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to understand the prevalence and severity of health-related sequelae of traumatic exposure in a nonpsychiatric, outpatient sample.Self-report surveys were completed by patients seeking outpatient medical (n = 123) and dental care (n = 125) at a large, urban academic medical center.Results suggested that trauma exposure was associated with a decrease in perceptions of overall health and an increase in pain interference at work. Contrary to prediction, a history of interpersonal trauma was associated with less physical and emotional interference with social activities. A history of trauma exposure was associated with an increase in time elapsed since last medical visit. Depression and anxiety did not mediate the relationship between trauma history and medical care.Based on these results, clinical and research implications in relation to the health effects of trauma are discussed. The results suggest that routine screening for traumatic events may be important, particularly when providers have long-term relationships with patients.

  18. Knowledge, Perception, and Attitude of Pregnant Women Towards the Role of Physical Therapy in Antenatal Care - A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy plays an essential role in obstetrics, both in the antenatal and postnatal periods. Antenatal exercises are recommended for the health benefits and safe delivery that they secure of pregnant mothers. However, studies on the efficacy of this approach in developing countries like India are limited in literature.The objective of this study was to determine knowledge, perception, and attitude of pregnant women towards the role of physical therapy in antenatal care. Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used for this cross-sectional study. A total of 106 pregnant women attending regular antenatal checkups in tertiary care centers in Mangalore, Karnataka, India were recruited. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, perception, and attitude towards the role of physiotherapy in antenatal care. Results: 46% of subjects knew about antenatal exercises. The majority of them were not aware or not sure about the different type of antenatal exercises avaliable.60% of the respondents had a positive attitude to physiotherapy during antenatal care. However, only 30% of the participants had adequate knowledge of the benefits of antenatal exercise and this was not influenced by maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion: A majority of Indian pregnant women demonstrate inadequate knowledge but have positive attitude towards role of physiotherapy in antenatal care.

  19. How combined trip purposes are associated with transport choice for short distance trips. Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Scheepers

    Full Text Available One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice.An online questionnaire (N = 3,663 was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use.Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car.Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care.

  20. Social cognitive correlates of physical activity: findings from a cross-sectional study of adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yoojin; Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Sandroff, Brian; Motl, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive and sedentary. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable variables derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. Such variables would presumably represent targets for interventions designed to promote change in physical activity behavior among persons with MS. The current study examined social cognitive variables as correlates of physical activity in persons with MS. Persons (N = 218) with relapsing-remitting MS completed a questionnaire battery that assessed physical activity behavior; self-efficacy for physical activity; physical, social, and self-evaluative outcome expectations for exercise, functional limitations as an impediment for physical activity, and exercise goal-setting. The battery was delivered and returned through the US postal service. Data were analyzed using covariance modeling in Mplus 3.0. Self-efficacy had indirect effects on physical activity via impediments (path coefficient = .10, P < .005), self-evaluative outcome expectations (path coefficient = .07, P < .025), and goal-setting (path coefficient = .09, P < .01). The model explained 40% of variance in self-reported physical activity. This cross-sectional study suggests that self-efficacy is indirectly associated with physical activity by way of goals, self-evaluative outcome expectations, and impediments in persons with relapsing-remitting MS.

  1. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  2. Cross sectional analysis of the association between mode of school transportation and physical fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents.......To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents....

  3. Physical parameter estimation in spatial heat transport models with an application to food storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, S.; Vries, Dirk; Ploegaert, Johan P. M.; Zwart, Heiko J.; Keesman, Karel J.

    Parameter estimation plays an important role in physical modelling, but can be problematic due to the complexity of spatiotemporal models that are used for analysis, control and design in industry. In this paper we aim to circumvent these problems by using a methodology that approximates a model, or

  4. Physical parameter estimation in spatial heat transport models with an application to food storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van S.; Vries, D.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Zwart, H.; Keesman, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parameter estimation plays an important role in physical modelling, but can be problematic due to the complexity of spatiotemporal models that are used for analysis, control and design in industry. In this paper we aim to circumvent these problems by using a methodology that approximates a model, or

  5. Quantification of chemical and physical processes influencing ozone during long-range transport using a trajectory ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During long-range transport, many distinct processes – including photochemistry, deposition, emissions and mixing – contribute to the transformation of air mass composition. Partitioning the effects of different processes can be useful when considering the sensitivity of chemical transformation to, for example, a changing environment or anthropogenic influence. However, transformation is not observed directly, since mixing ratios are measured, and models must be used to relate changes to processes. Here, four cases from the ITCT-Lagrangian 2004 experiment are studied. In each case, aircraft intercepted a distinct air mass several times during transport over the North Atlantic, providing a unique dataset and quantifying the net changes in composition from all processes. A new framework is presented to deconstruct the change in O3 mixing ratio (Δ O3 into its component processes, which were not measured directly, taking into account the uncertainty in measurements, initial air mass variability and its time evolution.

    The results show that the net chemical processing (Δ O3chem over the whole simulation is greater than net physical processing (Δ O3phys in all cases. This is in part explained by cancellation effects associated with mixing. In contrast, each case is in a regime of either net photochemical destruction (lower tropospheric transport or production (an upper tropospheric biomass burning case. However, physical processes influence O3 indirectly through addition or removal of precursor gases, so that changes to physical parameters in a model can have a larger effect on Δ O3chem than Δ O3phys. Despite its smaller magnitude, the physical processing distinguishes the lower tropospheric export cases, since the net photochemical O3 change is −5 ppbv per day in all three cases.

    Processing is quantified using a Lagrangian

  6. Dispersal and population connectivity in the deep North Atlantic estimated from physical transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Ron J.; Bower, Amy S.

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about how larvae disperse in deep ocean currents despite how critical estimates of population connectivity are for ecology, evolution and conservation. Estimates of connectivity can provide important insights about the mechanisms that shape patterns of genetic variation. Strong population genetic divergence above and below about 3000 m has been documented for multiple protobranch bivalves in the western North Atlantic. One possible explanation for this congruent divergence is that the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC), which flows southwestward along the slope in this region, entrains larvae and impedes dispersal between the upper/middle slope and the lower slope or abyss. We used Lagrangian particle trajectories based on an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (specifically FLAME - Family of Linked Atlantic Model Experiments) to estimate the nature and scale of dispersal of passive larvae released near the sea floor at 4 depths across the continental slope (1500, 2000, 2500 and 3200 m) in the western North Atlantic and to test the potential role of the DWBC in explaining patterns of genetic variation on the continental margin. Passive particles released into the model DWBC followed highly complex trajectories that led to both onshore and offshore transport. Transport averaged about 1 km d-1 with dispersal kernels skewed strongly right indicating that some larvae dispersed much greater distances. Offshore transport was more likely than onshore and, despite a prevailing southwestward flow, some particles drifted north and east. Dispersal trajectories and estimates of population connectivity suggested that the DWBC is unlikely to prevent dispersal among depths, in part because of strong cross-slope forces induced by interactions between the DWBC and the deeper flows of the Gulf Stream. The strong genetic divergence we find in this region of the Northwest Atlantic is therefore likely driven by larval behaviors and/or mortality that limit

  7. A new nuclide transport model in soil in the GENII-LIN health physics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, F.

    2017-11-01

    The nuclide soil transfer model, originally included in the GENII-LIN software system, was intended for residual contamination from long term activities and from waste form degradation. Short life nuclides were supposed absent or at equilibrium with long life parents. Here we present an enhanced soil transport model, where short life nuclide contributions are correctly accounted. This improvement extends the code capabilities to handle incidental release of contaminant to soil, by evaluating exposure since the very beginning of the contamination event, before the radioactive decay chain equilibrium is reached.

  8. Survey and alignment of high energy physics accelerators and transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This talk summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are revisited and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step by step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations

  9. The contribution of travel-related urban zones, cycling and pedestrian networks and green space to commuting physical activity among adults – a cross-sectional population-based study using geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi E. Mäki-Opas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current political agenda aims to promote active environments and physical activity while commuting to work, but research on it has provided mixed results. This study examines whether the proximity of green space and people’s residence in different travel-related urban zones contributes to commuting physical activity. Methods Population-based cross-sectional health examination survey, Health 2011 study, and geographical information system (GIS data were utilized. The GIS data on green space and travel-related urban zones were linked to the individuals of the Health 2011 study, based on their home geocoordinates. Commuting physical activity was self-reported. Logistic regression models were applied, and age, gender, education, leisure-time and occupational physical activity were adjusted. Analyses were limited to those of working age, living in the core-urban areas of Finland and having completed information on commuting physical activity (n = 2 098. Results Home location in a pedestrian zone of a main centre (odds ratio = 1.63; 95 % confidence interval = 1.06–2.51 or a pedestrian zone of a sub-centre (2.03; 1.09–3.80 and higher proportion of cycling and pedestrian networks (3.28; 1.71–6.31 contributed to higher levels of commuting physical activity. The contribution remained after adjusting for all the environmental attributes and individuals. Based on interaction analyses, women living in a public transport zone were almost two times more likely to be physically active while commuting compared to men. A high proportion of recreational green space contributed negatively to the levels of commuting physical activity (0.73; 0.57–0.94 after adjusting for several background factors. Based on interaction analyses, individuals aged from 44 to 54 years and living in sub-centres, men living in pedestrian zones of sub-centres, and those individuals who are physically inactive during leisure-time were less

  10. The contribution of travel-related urban zones, cycling and pedestrian networks and green space to commuting physical activity among adults - a cross-sectional population-based study using geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Opas, Tomi E; Borodulin, Katja; Valkeinen, Heli; Stenholm, Sari; Kunst, Anton E; Abel, Thomas; Härkänen, Tommi; Kopperoinen, Leena; Itkonen, Pekka; Prättälä, Ritva; Karvonen, Sakari; Koskinen, Seppo

    2016-08-11

    The current political agenda aims to promote active environments and physical activity while commuting to work, but research on it has provided mixed results. This study examines whether the proximity of green space and people's residence in different travel-related urban zones contributes to commuting physical activity. Population-based cross-sectional health examination survey, Health 2011 study, and geographical information system (GIS) data were utilized. The GIS data on green space and travel-related urban zones were linked to the individuals of the Health 2011 study, based on their home geocoordinates. Commuting physical activity was self-reported. Logistic regression models were applied, and age, gender, education, leisure-time and occupational physical activity were adjusted. Analyses were limited to those of working age, living in the core-urban areas of Finland and having completed information on commuting physical activity (n = 2 098). Home location in a pedestrian zone of a main centre (odds ratio = 1.63; 95 % confidence interval = 1.06-2.51) or a pedestrian zone of a sub-centre (2.03; 1.09-3.80) and higher proportion of cycling and pedestrian networks (3.28; 1.71-6.31) contributed to higher levels of commuting physical activity. The contribution remained after adjusting for all the environmental attributes and individuals. Based on interaction analyses,