Sample records for transport aircraft wing

  1. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies (United States)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.


    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gueraiche


    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of improving the aerodynamic properties of a supercritical-airfoil wing, typical for a modern passenger aircraft, using delta planform passive devices of large relative areas, installed along the leading edge at the wing tip. Delta extensions of various configurations were considered to be used as wingtip devices, potentially improving or completely replacing classical R. Whitcomb winglets. As a result of two- and three-dimensional CFD simulations performed on DLR-F4 wing-body prototype, the potential advantage of these devices was confirmed, particularly when they are installed in a combination with an elliptical planform, largely swept, raked winglet in terms of reducing the induced drag and increasing the aerodynamic lift-to-drag ratio at flight angles of attack. The growth in lift-to-drag ratio applying these devices owes it solely to the drop in drag, without increasing the lift force acting on the wing. In comparison to the classical winglets that lead to a general increase in lifting and lateral forces acting on the wing structure, resulting in a weight penalty, the Wingtip Ledge Edge Triangular Extension (WLETE yields the same L/D ratio increase, but with a much smaller increase in the wing loading. A study has been made of the characteristics of the local (modified airfoil in the WLETE zone in a two-dimensional flow context, and a quantitative analysis has been conducted of the influence of WLETE on both the profile and induced drag components, as well as its influence on the overall lift coefficient of the wing. The resulted synthesis of the WLETE influence on the wing L/D ratio will consist of its influence on each of these components. A comparison of the efficiency of using delta extensions against classical winglets was carried out in a multidisciplinary way, where in addition to the changes in aerodynamic coefficients of lift and drag, the increments of magnitude and distribution of the loads

  3. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh


    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  4. Simulator Investigations of the Problems of Flying a Swept-Wing Transport Aircraft in Heavy Turbulence (United States)

    Bray, Richard S.; Larsen, William E.


    An investigation of several factors which may contribute to the problem of piloting jet transport aircraft in heavy turbulence was conducted by using a piloted simulator that included the most significant airplane response and cockpit vibrations induced by rough air. Results indicated that the primary fuselage structural frequency contributed significantly to a distracting cockpit environment, and there was obtained evidence of severely reduced instrument flight proficiency during simulated maneuvering flight in heavy turbulence. It is concluded that the addition of similar rough-air response capabilities to training simulators would be of value in pilot indoctrination in turbulent-flight procedures.

  5. Topology Optimization of an Aircraft Wing (United States)


    which selected as the most prevalent independent structure in the wing. The tank location and shape was interpreted from the high material volume...Engineering Inc., 1820 E. Big Beaver Rd, Troy, MI 48083, Optistruct 12.0 User’s Guide, 2013. 126 10. T. Megson and H. Gordon, Aircraft structures enhances the design of transportation,” Forbes Online, 2013. 13. Altair Engineering Inc., 1820 E. Big Beaver Rd, Troy, MI 48083, Hypermesh

  6. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft (United States)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)


    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  7. Small transport aircraft technology (United States)

    Williams, L. J.


    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  8. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft (United States)

    Williams, L. J.


    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  9. Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Acoustic Test Preparations and Facility Upgrades (United States)

    Heath, Stephanie L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Burley, Casey L.; Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M.; hide


    NASA is investigating the potential of acoustic shielding as a means to reduce the noise footprint at airport communities. A subsonic transport aircraft and Langley's 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel were chosen to test the proposed "low noise" technology. The present experiment studies the basic components of propulsion-airframe shielding in a representative flow regime. To this end, a 5.8-percent scale hybrid wing body model was built with dual state-of-the-art engine noise simulators. The results will provide benchmark shielding data and key hybrid wing body aircraft noise data. The test matrix for the experiment contains both aerodynamic and acoustic test configurations, broadband turbomachinery and hot jet engine noise simulators, and various airframe configurations which include landing gear, cruise and drooped wing leading edges, trailing edge elevons and vertical tail options. To aid in this study, two major facility upgrades have occurred. First, a propane delivery system has been installed to provide the acoustic characteristics with realistic temperature conditions for a hot gas engine; and second, a traversing microphone array and side towers have been added to gain full spectral and directivity noise characteristics.

  10. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So


    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  11. Adaptive wing : Investigations of passive wing technologies for loads reduction in the cleansky smart fixed wing aircraft (SFWA) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, W.R.; Dillinger, J; De Breuker, R.; Reyes, M.; Haydn, K.


    In the work package “Adaptive Wing” in the Clean-Sky “Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft” (SFWA) project, design processes and solutions for aircraft wings have been created, giving optimal response with respect to loads, comfort and performance by the introduction of passive and active concepts. Central

  12. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings (United States)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  13. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.


    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of

  14. Application of slender wing benefits to military aircraft (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.


    A review is provided of aerodynamic research conducted at the Langley Research Center with respect to the application of slender wing benefits in the design of high-speed military aircraft, taking into account the supersonic performance and leading-edge vortex flow associated with very highly sweptback wings. The beginning of the development of modern classical swept wing jet aircraft is related to the German Me 262 project during World War II. In the U.S., a theoretical study conducted by Jones (1945) pointed out the advantages of the sweptback wing concept. Developments with respect to variable sweep wings are discussed, taking into account early research in 1946, a joint program of the U.S. with the United Kingdom, the tactical aircraft concept, and the important part which the Langley variable-sweep research program played in the development of the F-111, F-14, and B-1. Attention is also given to hybrid wings, vortex flow theory development, and examples of flow design technology.

  15. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses (United States)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)


    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  16. Multidisciplinary Shape Optimization of a Composite Blended Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Boozer, Charles Maxwell

    A multidisciplinary shape optimization tool coupling aerodynamics, structure, and performance was developed for battery powered aircraft. Utilizing high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics analysis tools and a structural wing weight tool, coupled based on the multidisciplinary feasible optimization architecture; aircraft geometry is modified in the optimization of the aircraft's range or endurance. The developed tool is applied to three geometries: a hybrid blended wing body, delta wing UAS, the ONERA M6 wing, and a modified ONERA M6 wing. First, the optimization problem is presented with the objective function, constraints, and design vector. Next, the tool's architecture and the analysis tools that are utilized are described. Finally, various optimizations are described and their results analyzed for all test subjects. Results show that less computationally expensive inviscid optimizations yield positive performance improvements using planform, airfoil, and three-dimensional degrees of freedom. From the results obtained through a series of optimizations, it is concluded that the newly developed tool is both effective at improving performance and serves as a platform ready to receive additional performance modules, further improving its computational design support potential.

  17. Static Aeroelastic and Longitudinal Trim Model of Flexible Wing Aircraft Using Finite-Element Vortex-Lattice Coupled Solution (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh


    This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.

  18. Flight mechanics of a tailless articulated wing aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, Aditya A; Chung, Soon-Jo; Selig, Michael S


    This paper investigates the flight mechanics of a micro aerial vehicle without a vertical tail in an effort to reverse-engineer the agility of avian flight. The key to stability and control of such a tailless aircraft lies in the ability to control the incidence angles and dihedral angles of both wings independently. The dihedral angles can be varied symmetrically on both wings to control aircraft speed independently of the angle of attack and flight path angle, while asymmetric dihedral can be used to control yaw in the absence of a vertical stabilizer. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis are used to compute trim states and assess their stability. This paper lays the foundation for design and stability analysis of a flapping wing aircraft that can switch rapidly from flapping to gliding flight for agile manoeuvring in a constrained environment.

  19. Flight mechanics of a tailless articulated wing aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranjape, Aditya A; Chung, Soon-Jo; Selig, Michael S, E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    This paper investigates the flight mechanics of a micro aerial vehicle without a vertical tail in an effort to reverse-engineer the agility of avian flight. The key to stability and control of such a tailless aircraft lies in the ability to control the incidence angles and dihedral angles of both wings independently. The dihedral angles can be varied symmetrically on both wings to control aircraft speed independently of the angle of attack and flight path angle, while asymmetric dihedral can be used to control yaw in the absence of a vertical stabilizer. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis are used to compute trim states and assess their stability. This paper lays the foundation for design and stability analysis of a flapping wing aircraft that can switch rapidly from flapping to gliding flight for agile manoeuvring in a constrained environment.

  20. Aeroelastic tailoring of composite aircraft wings (United States)

    Mihaila-Andres, Mihai; Larco, Ciprian; Rosu, Paul-Virgil; Rotaru, Constantin


    The need of a continuously increasing size and performance of aerospace structures has settled the composite materials as the preferred materials in aircraft structures. Apart from the clear capacity to reduce the structural weight and with it the manufacture cost and the fuel consumption while preserving proper airworthiness, the prospect of tailoring a structure using the unique directional stiffness properties of composite materials allows an aerospace engineer to optimize aircraft structures to achieve particular design objectives. This paper presents a brief review of what is known as the aeroelastic tailoring of airframes with the intent of understanding the evolution of this research topic and at the same time providing useful references for further studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Schoř


    Full Text Available In this article, a method for calculation of air loads of an aircraft with an elastic wing is presented. The method can predict a redistribution of air loads when the elastic wing deforms. Unlike the traditional Euler or Navier-Stokes CFD to FEM coupling, the method uses 3D panel method as a source of aerodynamic data. This makes the calculation feasible on a typical recent workstation. Due to a short computational time and low hardware demands this method is suitable for both the preliminary design stage and the load evaluation stage. A case study is presented. The study compares a glider wing performing a pull maneuver at both rigid and and elastic state. The study indicates a significant redistribution of air load at the elastic case.

  2. Aeroelastic Flutter of Subsonic Aircraft Wing Section with Control Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeroelastic Flutter of Subsonic Aircraft Wing Section with Control Surface


    Full Text Available Aeroelastic flutter in aircraft mechanisms is unavoidable, essentially in the wing and control surface. In this work a three degree-of-freedom aeroelastic wing section with trailing edge flap is modeled numerically and theoretically. FLUENT code based on the steady finite volume is used for the prediction of the steady aerodynamic characteristics (lift, drag, pitching moment, velocity, and pressure distribution as well as the Duhamel formulation is used to model the aerodynamic loads theoretically. The system response (pitch, flap pitch and plunge was determined by integration the governing equations using MATLAB with a standard Runge–Kutta algorithm in conjunction with Henon’s method. The results are compared with previous experimental data. The results show that the aerodynamic loads and wing-flap system response are increased when increasing the flow speed. On the other hand the aeroelastic response led up to limit cycle oscillation when the flow equals or more than flutter speed.

  3. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 6: Preliminary design of a composite wing for tilt rotor research aircraft (United States)

    Soule, V. A.; Badri-Nath, Y.


    The results of a study of the use of composite materials in the wing of a tilt rotor aircraft are presented. An all-metal tilt rotor aircraft was first defined to provide a basis for comparing composite with metal structure. A configuration study was then done in which the wing of the metal aircraft was replaced with composite wings of varying chord and thickness ratio. The results of this study defined the design and performance benefits obtainable with composite materials. Based on these results the aircraft was resized with a composite wing to extend the weight savings to other parts of the aircraft. A wing design was then selected for detailed structural analysis. A development plan including costs and schedules to develop this wing and incorporate it into a proposed flight research tilt rotor vehicle has been devised.

  4. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.


    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  5. Aeroelastic Modeling of Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept via Wing Shaping Control for Drag Reduction (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; James Urnes, Sr.


    Lightweight aircraft design has received a considerable attention in recent years as a means for improving cruise efficiency. Reducing aircraft weight results in lower lift requirements which directly translate into lower drag, hence reduced engine thrust requirements during cruise. The use of lightweight materials such as advanced composite materials has been adopted by airframe manufacturers in current and future aircraft. Modern lightweight materials can provide less structural rigidity while maintaining load-carrying capacity. As structural flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. Abstract This paper describes a recent aeroelastic modeling effort for an elastically shaped aircraft concept (ESAC). The aircraft model is based on the rigid-body generic transport model (GTM) originally developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The ESAC distinguishes itself from the GTM in that it is equipped with highly flexible wing structures as a weight reduction design feature. More significantly, the wings are outfitted with a novel control effector concept called variable camber continuous trailing edge (VCCTE) flap system for active control of wing aeroelastic deflections to optimize the local angle of attack of wing sections for improved aerodynamic efficiency through cruise drag reduction and lift enhancement during take-off and landing. The VCCTE flap is a multi-functional and aerodynamically efficient device capable of achieving high lift-to-drag ratios. The flap system is comprised of three chordwise segments that form the variable camber feature of the flap and multiple spanwise segments that form a piecewise continuous trailing edge. By configuring the flap camber and trailing edge shape, drag reduction could be

  6. Evaluation of Aircraft Wing-Tip Vortex Using PIV (United States)

    Alsayed, Omer A.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.


    The formation and development of a wing-tip vortex in a near and extended near filed were studied experimentally. Particle image velocimetry was used in a wind tunnel to measure the tip vortex velocity field and hence investigate the flow structure in a wake of aircraft half-wing model. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the main features of the lift generated vortices in order to find ways to alleviate hazardous wake vortex encounters for follower airplanes during start and approach such that the increase in airport capacity can be achieved. First the wake structure at successive downstream planes crosswise to the axis of the wake vortices was investigated by measuring parameters such as core radius, maximum tangential velocities, vorticities and circulation distributions. The effect of different angles of attack setting on vortex parameters was examined at one downstream location. In very early stages the vortex sheet evolution makes the tip vortex to move inward and to the suction side of the wing. While the core radius and circulation distributions hardly vary with the downstream distance, noticeable differences for the same vortex parameters at different angles of attack settings were observed. The center of the wing tip vortices scatter in a circle of radius nearly equal to 1% of the mean wing chord and wandering amplitudes shows no direct dependence on the vortex strength but linearly increase with the downstream distance.

  7. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Brown, Gerald V.; DaeKim, Hyun; Chu, Julio


    The performance of the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP), has been analyzed to see if it can meet the 70% fuel burn reduction goal of the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project for N+3 generation aircraft. The TeDP system utilizes superconducting electric generators, motors and transmission lines to allow the power producing and thrust producing portions of the system to be widely separated. It also allows a small number of large turboshaft engines to drive any number of propulsors. On the N3-X these new degrees of freedom were used to (1) place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to maximize thermal efficiency and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 15 motor driven propulsors on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge. That location maximizes the amount of the boundary layer ingested and thus maximizes propulsive efficiency. The Boeing B777-200LR flying 7500 nm (13890 km) with a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 and an 118100 lb payload was selected as the reference aircraft and mission for this study. In order to distinguish between improvements due to technology and aircraft configuration changes from those due to the propulsion configuration changes, an intermediate configuration was included in this study. In this configuration a pylon mounted, ultra high bypass (UHB) geared turbofan engine with identical propulsion technology was integrated into the same hybrid wing body airframe. That aircraft achieved a 52% reduction in mission fuel burn relative to the reference aircraft. The N3-X was able to achieve a reduction of 70% and 72% (depending on the cooling system) relative to the reference aircraft. The additional 18% - 20% reduction in the mission fuel burn can therefore be attributed to the additional degrees of freedom in the propulsion system configuration afforded by the TeDP system that eliminates nacelle and pylon drag, maximizes boundary

  8. Aircraft Wing for Over-The-Wing Mounting of Engine Nacelle (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S. (Inventor); Kinney, David J. (Inventor)


    An aircraft wing has an inboard section and an outboard section. The inboard section is attached (i) on one side thereof to the aircraft's fuselage, and (ii) on an opposing side thereof to an inboard side of a turbofan engine nacelle in an over-the-wing mounting position. The outboard section's leading edge has a sweep of at least 20 degrees. The inboard section's leading edge has a sweep between -15 and +15 degrees, and extends from the fuselage to an attachment position on the nacelle that is forward of an index position defined as an imaginary intersection between the sweep of the outboard section's leading edge and the inboard side of the nacelle. In an alternate embodiment, the turbofan engine nacelle is replaced with an open rotor engine nacelle.

  9. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri


    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  10. Comments on prospects of fully adaptive aircraft wings (United States)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Gern, Frank H.; Robertshaw, Harry H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Pettit, Greg; Natarajan, Anand; Sulaeman, Erwin


    New generations of highly maneuverable aircraft, such as Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles (UCAV) or Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) are likely to feature very flexible lifting surfaces. To enhance stealth properties and performance, the replacement of hinged control surfaces by smart wings and morphing airfoils is investigated. This requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction between aerodynamics, structures, and control systems. The goal is to build a model consistent with distributed control and to exercise this model to determine the progress possible in terms of flight control (lift, drag and maneuver performance) with an adaptive wing. Different modeling levels are examined and combined with a variety of distributed control approaches to determine what types of maneuvers and flight regimes may be possible. This paper describes the current progress of the project and highlights some recent findings.

  11. Autonomous search and surveillance with small fixed wing aircraft (United States)

    McGee, Timothy Garland

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to act as low cost tools in a variety of both civilian and military applications including traffic monitoring, border patrol, and search and rescue. While most current operational UAV systems require human operators, advances in autonomy will allow these systems to reach their full potential as sensor platforms. This dissertation specifically focuses on developing advanced control, path planning, search, and image processing techniques that allow small fixed wing aircraft to autonomously collect data. The problems explored were motivated by experience with the development and experimental flight testing of a fleet of small autonomous fixed wing aircraft. These issues, which have not been fully addressed in past work done on ground vehicles or autonomous helicopters, include the influence of wind and turning rate constraints, the non-negligible velocity of ground targets relative to the aircraft velocity, and limitations on sensor size and processing power on small vehicles. Several contributions for the autonomous operation of small fixed wing aircraft are presented. Several sliding surface controllers are designed which extend previous techniques to include variable sliding surface coefficients and the use of spatial vehicle dynamics. These advances eliminate potential singularities in the control laws to follow spatially defined paths and allow smooth transition between controllers. The optimal solution for the problem of path planning through an ordered set of points for an aircraft with a bounded turning rate in the presence of a constant wind is then discussed. Path planning strategies are also explored to guarantee that a searcher will travel within sensing distance of a mobile ground target. This work assumes only a maximum velocity of the target and is designed to succeed for any possible path of the target. Closed-loop approximations of both the path planning and search techniques, using the sliding

  12. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio


    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  13. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winblade, R L


    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  14. Airframe Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Plassman, Gerald E.


    A high fidelity aeroacoustic test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a detailed database of component noise for a 5.8% scale HWB aircraft configuration. The model has a modular design, which includes a drooped and a stowed wing leading edge, deflectable elevons, twin verticals, and a landing gear system with geometrically scaled wheel-wells. The model is mounted inverted in the test section and noise measurements are acquired at different streamwise stations from an overhead microphone phased array and from overhead and sideline microphones. Noise source distribution maps and component noise spectra are presented for airframe configurations representing two different approach flight conditions. Array measurements performed along the aircraft flyover line show the main landing gear to be the dominant contributor to the total airframe noise, followed by the nose gear, the inboard side-edges of the LE droop, the wing tip/LE droop outboard side-edges, and the side-edges of deployed elevons. Velocity dependence and flyover directivity are presented for the main noise components. Decorrelation effects from turbulence scattering on spectral levels measured with the microphone phased array are discussed. Finally, noise directivity maps obtained from the overhead and sideline microphone measurements for the landing gear system are provided for a broad range of observer locations.

  15. Math modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary-wing aircraft (United States)

    Howe, R. M.


    Mathematical modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary wing aircraft is discussed. Error analysis in the digital simulation of dynamic systems, such as rotary wing aircraft is described. The method for digital simulation of nonlinearities with discontinuities, such as exist in typical flight control systems and rotor blade hinges, is discussed.

  16. Conceptual design for a laminar-flying-wing aircraft (United States)

    Saeed, T. I.

    The laminar-flying-wing aircraft appears to be an attractive long-term prospect for reducing the environmental impact of commercial aviation. In assessing its potential, a relatively straightforward initial step is the conceptual design of a version with restricted sweep angle. Such a design is the topic of this thesis. Subject to constraints, this research aims to; provide insight into the parameters affecting practical laminar-flow-control suction power requirements; identify a viable basic design specification; and, on the basis of this, an assessment of the fuel efficiency through a detailed conceptual design study. It is shown that there is a minimum power requirement independent of the suction system design, associated with the stagnation pressure loss in the boundary layer. This requirement increases with aerofoil section thickness, but depends only weakly on Mach number and (for a thick, lightly-loaded laminar flying wing) lift coefficient. Deviation from the optimal suction distribution, due to a practical chamber-based architecture, is found to have very little effect on the overall suction coefficient. In the spanwise direction, through suitable choice of chamber depth, the pressure drop due to frictional and inertial effects may be rendered negligible. Finally, it is found that the pressure drop from the aerofoil surface to the pump collector ducts determines the power penalty. To identify the viable basic design specification, a high-level exploration of the laminar flying wing design space is performed. The characteristics of the design are assessed as a function of three parameters: thickness-to-chord ratio, wingspan, and unit Reynolds number. A feasible specification, with 20% thickness-to-chord, 80 m span and a unit Reynolds number of 8 x 106 m-1, is identified; it corresponds to a 187 tonne aircraft which cruises at Mach 0.67 and altitude 22,500 ft, with lift coefficient 0.14. On the basis of this specification, a detailed conceptual design is

  17. Dynamic Model and Analysis of Asymmetric Telescopic Wing for Morphing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lili


    Full Text Available Morphing aircraft has been the research hot topics of new concept aircrafts in aerospace engineering. Telescopic wing is an important morphing technology for morphing aircraft. This paper describes the dynamic equations and kinematic equations based on theorem of momentum and theorem of moment of momentum, which are available for all morphing aircrafts. Meanwhile,as simplified , dynamic equations for rectangular telescopic wing are presented. In order to avoid the complexity using aileron to generate rolling moment , an new idea that asymmetry of wings can generate roll moment is introduced. Finally, roll performance comparison of asymmetric wing and aileron deflection shows that asymmetric telescopic wing can provide the required roll control moment as aileron, and in some cases, telescopic wing has the superior roll performance.

  18. A Fixed-Wing Aircraft Simulation Tool for Improving the efficiency of DoD Acquisition (United States)


    simulation tool , CREATETM-AV Helios [12-14], a high fidelity rotary wing vehicle simulation tool , and CREATETM-AV DaVinci [15-16], a conceptual through...05/2015 Oct 2008-Sep 2015 A Fixed-Wing Aircraft Simulation Tool for Improving the Efficiency of DoD Acquisition Scott A. Morton and David R...multi-disciplinary fixed-wing virtual aircraft simulation tool incorporating aerodynamics, structural dynamics, kinematics, and kinetics. Kestrel allows

  19. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.


    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  20. Constructal Theory and Aeroelastic Design of Flexible Flying Wing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mardanpour


    Full Text Available The aeroelastic behavior of high-aspect-ratio very flexible flying wing is highly affected by the geometric nonlinearities of the aircraft structure. This paper reviews the findings on how these nonlinearities influence the structural and flight dynamics, and it shows that the aeroelastic flight envelope could significantly be extended with proper choices of design parameters such as engine placement. Moreover, in order to investigate the physics behind the effects of design parameters, constructal theory of design is reviewed. The constructal theory advances the philosophy of design as science, it states that the better structural design emerges when stress flow strangulation is avoided. Furthermore, it shows that airplanes, through their evolution, have obeyed theoretical allometric rules that unite their designs.

  1. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.


    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  2. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove (United States)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher


    Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.

  3. Optimum Wing Shape of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.


    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  4. Drag Analysis of an Aircraft Wing Model withand without Bird Feather like Winglet


    Altab Hossain; Ataur Rahman; A.K.M. P. Iqbal; M. Ariffin; M. Mazian


    This work describes the aerodynamic characteristic for aircraft wing model with and without bird feather like winglet. The aerofoil used to construct the whole structure is NACA 653-218 Rectangular wing and this aerofoil has been used to compare the result with previous research using winglet. The model of the rectangular wing with bird feather like winglet has been fabricated using polystyrene before design using CATIA P3 V5R13 software and finally fabricated in wood. Th...

  5. 78 FR 73997 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped with Wing Lift Struts (United States)


    ...-0023; Directorate Identifier 96-CE-072-AD; Amendment 39-17688; AD 99-01-05 R1] RIN 2120-AA64... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are revising Airworthiness Directive (AD) 99-01-05 for certain aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. AD 99-01-05 required repetitively inspecting the wing...

  6. The Application of Unmanned Rotary-Wing Aircraft in Tactical Logistics in Support of Joint Operations (United States)


    Reconnaissance Squadrons with a fixed-wing unmanned aircraft troop or company, and is in the market for an autonomous cargo unmanned rotary-wing...Warwick, Graham. “Sky Patrol.” Aviation Week & Space Technology 174, no. 32 (September 3, 2012): 55. Military & Government Collection, EBSCOhost

  7. Assessment of engine noise shielding by the wings of current turbofan aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Vieira, A.E.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.; Gibbs, B.


    The shielding of engine noise by the aircraft wings and fuselage can lead to a significant reduction on perceived noise on ground. Most research on noise shielding is focused on BlendedWing Body (BWB) configurations because of the large dimension of the fuselage. However, noise shielding is also


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA


    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  9. Application of robust control to a rotary-wing aircraft (United States)

    Turkoglu, Ercument

    The thesis is concerned with the application of robust controller synthesis and analysis tools to a rotary-wing aircraft: the Bell 205 teetering-rotor helicopter. The Tioo loop-shaping approach is central to the work and two main issues concerned with its application will be considered. Firstly, the construction of diagonal (structured) and non- diagonal (unstructured) weighting functions will be considered. Secondly, the analysis of the implications of different weighting function structures in the controller implementation. A two stage cross-comparative analysis of a series of 1 Dof (Degree of Freedom) and 2 Dof controllers synthesized with both diagonal and non-diagonal weights using the Hqo loop- shaping technique will be presented for square and non-square multi input multi output, unstable, non-minimum phase and ill-conditioned models of the helicopter. Handling qualities of each control law augmented system will be assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. A quantitative analysis, in view of the specifications in ADS-33E, will be given based on a combination of flight data from in-flight tested controllers and, desk-top simula tions run on a fully augmented 12 Dof nonlinear helicopter model provided by QinetiQ, UK. A qualitative analysis will be given based on the pilot comments compiled (in view of the Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating scale) from the evaluated in-flight control laws.

  10. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.


    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  11. Toward the bi-modal camber morphing of large aircraft wing flaps: the CleanSky experience (United States)

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Magnifico, M.


    The Green Regional Aircraft (GRA), one of the six CleanSky platforms, represents the largest European effort toward the greening of next generation air transportation through the implementation of advanced aircraft technologies. In this framework researches were carried out to develop an innovative wing flap enabling airfoil morphing according to two different modes depending on aircraft flight condition and flap setting: - Camber morphing mode. Morphing of the flap camber to enhance high-lift performances during take-off and landing (flap deployed); - Tab-like morphing mode. Upwards and downwards deflection of the flap tip during cruise (flap stowed) for load control at high speed and consequent optimization of aerodynamic efficiency. A true-scale flap segment of a reference aircraft (EASA CS25 category) was selected as investigation domain for the new architecture in order to duly face the challenges posed by real wing installation issues especially with reference to the tapered geometrical layout and 3D aerodynamic loads distributions. The investigation domain covered the flap region spanning 3.6 m from the wing kink and resulted characterized by a taper ratio equal to 0.75 with a root chord of 1.2 m. High TRL solutions for the adaptive structure, actuation and control system were duly analyzed and integrated while assuring overall device compliance with industrial standards and applicable airworthiness requirements.

  12. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study (United States)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.


    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  13. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.


    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  14. Adaptive Kalman Filter of Transfer Alignment with Un-modeled Wing Flexure of Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The alignment accuracy of the strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) of airborne weapon is greatly degraded by the dynamic wing flexure of the aircraft. An adaptive Kalman filter uses innovation sequences based on the maximum likelihood estimated criterion to adapt the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix on line, which is used to estimate the misalignment if the model of wing flexure of the aircraft is unknown. From a number of simulations, it is shown that the accuracy of the adaptive Kalman filter is better than the conventional Kalman filter, and the erroneous misalignment models of the wing flexure of aircraft will cause bad estimation results of Kalman filter using attitude match method.

  15. Aerodynamic study, design and construction of a Blended Wing Body (BWB) Unmanned Aircraft (UA)


    De Toro Diaz, Aleix


    During this project a Blended Wing Body (BWB) UA (Unmanned Aircraft) model is built. BWBs are a combination of a common airplane with tail control surfaces and a flying wing. BWBs lack tail control surfaces, which makes its design to be very different and more complex regarding stability. To first start the BWB design, some research has been done about the basic parameters of the BWB designs. Moreover, different airfoils are considered to improve the stability of the UA. Two designs are creat...

  16. Application of computational aerodynamics methods to the design and analysis of transport aircraft (United States)

    Da Costa, A. L.


    The application and validation of several computational aerodynamic methods in the design and analysis of transport aircraft is established. An assessment is made concerning more recently developed methods that solve three-dimensional transonic flow and boundary layers on wings. Capabilities of subsonic aerodynamic methods are demonstrated by several design and analysis efforts. Among the examples cited are the B747 Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft analysis, nacelle integration for transport aircraft, and winglet optimization. The accuracy and applicability of a new three-dimensional viscous transonic method is demonstrated by comparison of computed results to experimental data

  17. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams (United States)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.


    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  18. Exploiting Formation Flying for Fuel Saving Supersonic Oblique Wing Aircraft (United States)


    used and developed during recent wing / winglet / morphing design programmes (Refs.13-14). By exploiting this method, we have assessed the aerodynamics ...parameters, Propulsion Issues, Size Issues, Aero-elastic effects 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Control System, Aerodynamics 16...

  19. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.


    Ericsson, Max


    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  20. Active vibration control of a full scale aircraft wing using a reconfigurable controller (United States)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Renjith Kumar, T. G.; Raja, S.; Dwarakanathan, D.; Subramani, H.; Karthikeyan, C.


    This work highlights the design of a Reconfigurable Active Vibration Control (AVC) System for aircraft structures using adaptive techniques. The AVC system with a multichannel capability is realized using Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm (FxLMS) on Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language, (VHDL). The HDL design is made based on Finite State Machine (FSM) model with Floating point Intellectual Property (IP) cores for arithmetic operations. The use of FPGA facilitates to modify the system parameters even during runtime depending on the changes in user's requirements. The locations of the control actuators are optimized based on dynamic modal strain approach using genetic algorithm (GA). The developed system has been successfully deployed for the AVC testing of the full-scale wing of an all composite two seater transport aircraft. Several closed loop configurations like single channel and multi-channel control have been tested. The experimental results from the studies presented here are very encouraging. They demonstrate the usefulness of the system's reconfigurability for real time applications.

  1. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey


    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  2. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.


    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The increasing use of composite structures in aircraft constructions has made it necessary to develop repair methods that will restore the component’s original design strength without compromising its structural integrity. In this paper, the complex repair technology of the composite wing of a light plane, which was damaged during an aircraft crash, is described. The applied repair scheme should meet all the original design requirements for the plane structure.

  4. A Conceptual Design and Optimization Method for Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Van Dommelen, J.


    This paper details a new software tool to aid in the conceptual design of blended-wingbody aircraft. The tool consists of four main modules. In the preliminary sizing model a class I estimate of the maximum take-off weight, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio is calculated. This information is

  5. Diagnosis of Wing Icing Through Lift and Drag Coefficient Change Detection for Small Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim Lynge; Blanke, Mogens; Johansen, Tor Arne


    This paper address the issue of structural change, caused by ice accretion, on UAVs by utilising a Neyman Pearson (NP) based statistical change detection approach, for the identification of structural changes of fixed wing UAV airfoils. A structural analysis is performed on the nonlinear aircraft...

  6. Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators : Modeling, simulations, experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnell, K.O.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla, M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.


    This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as

  7. Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.


    An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  8. Features wear nodes mechanization wing aircraft operating under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М. Хімко


    Full Text Available  The conducted researches of titanic alloy ВТ-22 at dynamic loading with cycled sliding and dynamic loading in conditions of rolling with slipping. It is established that roller jamming in the carriage increases wear of rod of mechanization of a wing to twenty times. The optimum covering for strengthening wearied sites and restoration of working surfaces of wing’s mechanization rod is defined.

  9. Flight Loads Prediction of High Aspect Ratio Wing Aircraft Using Multibody Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Castellani


    Full Text Available A framework based on multibody dynamics has been developed for the static and dynamic aeroelastic analyses of flexible high aspect ratio wing aircraft subject to structural geometric nonlinearities. Multibody dynamics allows kinematic nonlinearities and nonlinear relationships in the forces definition and is an efficient and promising methodology to model high aspect ratio wings, which are known to be prone to structural nonlinear effects because of the high deflections in flight. The multibody dynamics framework developed employs quasi-steady aerodynamics strip theory and discretizes the wing as a series of rigid bodies interconnected by beam elements, representative of the stiffness distribution, which can undergo arbitrarily large displacements and rotations. The method is applied to a flexible high aspect ratio wing commercial aircraft and both trim and gust response analyses are performed in order to calculate flight loads. These results are then compared to those obtained with the standard linear aeroelastic approach provided by the Finite Element Solver Nastran. Nonlinear effects come into play mainly because of the need of taking into account the large deflections of the wing for flight loads computation and of considering the aerodynamic forces as follower forces.

  10. A novel hovering type of fixed wing aircraft with stealth capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRĂGAN


    Full Text Available The tactical need for fixed wing aircraft with hovering capably has long been recognized bythe military for two reasons: increased safety when landing on aircraft carriers and higher velocitiesthat the ones obtainable with rotary wing aircraft.Thus far, the only concept governing the field of vertical flight was to use thrust either from a liftfan-F35, puffer ducts –Harrier or smaller jet engines-D0 31 or Yak-141, i.e. direct lift thrust.In this paper we will look at the prospect of using a combination of the Coanda effect with theVenturi effect to generate lift by so- called “supercirculation”. This novel approach can yield manyadvantages to conventional vertical lifting by providing a more stable platform and requiring lowerpower settings – and thus lower fuel consumption.The aircraft has a fixed, negatively sweped wing that uses circulation control to achieve lift atzero air speed. The fluid used for supercirculation will come from the fan thrust reversers – which, ifcorrectly managed, can give a sufficient flow for lifting the craft and also a negative thrust componentto compensate for the positive thrust of the primary flow (not diverted.

  11. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14 (United States)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.


    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  12. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21 (United States)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.


    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  13. Overview of NASA Electrified Aircraft Propulsion Research for Large Subsonic Transports (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Bowman, Cheryl; Jankovsky, Amy; Dyson, Rodger; Felder, James L.


    NASA is investing in Electrified Aircraft Propulsion (EAP) research as part of the portfolio to improve the fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise levels in commercial transport aircraft. Turboelectric, partially turboelectric, and hybrid electric propulsion systems are the primary EAP configurations being evaluated for regional jet and larger aircraft. The goal is to show that one or more viable EAP concepts exist for narrow body aircraft and mature tall-pole technologies related to those concepts. A summary of the aircraft system studies, technology development, and facility development is provided. The leading concept for mid-term (2035) introduction of EAP for a single aisle aircraft is a tube and wing, partially turbo electric configuration (STARC-ABL), however other viable configurations exist. Investments are being made to raise the TRL level of light weight, high efficiency motors, generators, and electrical power distribution systems as well as to define the optimal turbine and boundary layer ingestion systems for a mid-term tube and wing configuration. An electric aircraft power system test facility (NEAT) is under construction at NASA Glenn and an electric aircraft control system test facility (HEIST) is under construction at NASA Armstrong. The correct building blocks are in place to have a viable, large plane EAP configuration tested by 2025 leading to entry into service in 2035 if the community chooses to pursue that goal.

  14. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.


    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  15. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun


    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Aircraft Wing Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Rahim Wasmi


    Full Text Available This study deals with the aircraft wing analysis (numerical and experimental which subjected to fatigue loading in order to analyze the aircraft wing numerically by using ANSYS 15.0 software and experimentally by using loading programs which effect on fatigue test specimens at laboratory to estimate life of used metal (aluminum alloy 7075-T651 the wing metal and compare between numerical and experimental work, as well as to formulate an experimental mathematical model which may find safe estimate for metals and most common alloys that are used to build aircraft wing at certain conditions. In experimental work, a (34 specimen of (aluminum alloy 7075-T651 were tested using alternating bending fatigue machine rig. The test results are ; (18 Specimen to establish the (S-N curve and endurance limit and the other specimens used for variable amplitude tests were represented by loading programs which represents actual flight conditions. Also it has been obtained the safe fatigue curves which are described by mathematical formulas. ANSYS results show convergence with experimental results about cumulative fatigue damage (D, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the life; this model gives good results in case of actual loading programs. Also, Miner and Marsh rules are applied to the specimens and compared with the proposal mathematical model in order to estimate the life of the wing material under actual flight loading conditions, comparing results show that it is possible to depend on present mathematical model than Miner and Marsh theories because the proposal mathematical model shows safe and good results compared with experimental work results.

  17. Wing Shaping and Gust Load Controls of Flexible Aircraft: An LPV Approach (United States)

    Hammerton, Jared R.; Su, Weihua; Zhu, Guoming; Swei, Sean Shan-Min


    In the proposed paper, the optimum wing shape of a highly flexible aircraft under varying flight conditions will be controlled by a linear parameter-varying approach. The optimum shape determined under multiple objectives, including flight performance, ride quality, and control effort, will be determined as well. This work is an extension of work done previously by the authors, and updates the existing optimization and utilizes the results to generate a robust flight controller.

  18. Engineering of Fast and Robust Adaptive Control for Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aircraft (United States)


    evaluate the use of adaptive control on fixed-wing unmanned aircraft . The growing demand for unmanned systems will inherit the costs associated with...aerospace environment . 2.2 Classical Feedback vs Adaptive Control Control of a system can be categorized into two required elements; the requirement to...stabilize the system in the presence of: 1. disturbances that affect the controlled states and outputs (pitch rate perturbation caused by environmental

  19. Structural Analysis Approach to Fault Diagnosis with Application to Fixed-wing Aircraft Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    The paper presents a structural analysis based method for fault diagnosis purposes. The method uses the structural model of the system and utilizes the matching idea to extract system's inherent redundant information. The structural model is represented by a bipartite directed graph. FDI...... Possibilities are examined by further analysis of the obtained information. The method is illustrated by applying on the LTI model of motion of a fixed-wing aircraft....

  20. Structural Analysis Approach to Fault Diagnosis with Application to Fixed-wing Aircraft Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    The paper presents a structural analysis based method for fault diagnosis purposes. The method uses the structural model of the system and utilizes the matching idea to extract system's inherent redundant information. The structural model is represented by a bipartite directed graph. FDI...... Possibilities are examined by further analysis of the obtained information. The method is illustrated by applying on the LTI model of motion of a fixed-wing aircraft....

  1. The multidisciplinary design optimization of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body aircraft (United States)

    Ko, Yan-Yee Andy

    The purpose of this study is to examine the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The BWB is a hybrid shape resembling a flying wing, placing the payload in the inboard sections of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept involves replacing a small number of large engines with many smaller engines. The distributed propulsion concept considered here ducts part of the engine exhaust to exit out along the trailing edge of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept affects almost every aspect of the BWB design. Methods to model these effects and integrate them into an MDO framework were developed. The most important effect modeled is the impact on the propulsive efficiency. There has been conjecture that there will be an increase in propulsive efficiency when there is blowing out of the trailing edge of a wing. A mathematical formulation was derived to explain this. The formulation showed that the jet 'fills in' the wake behind the body, improving the overall aerodynamic/propulsion system, resulting in an increased propulsive efficiency. The distributed propulsion concept also replaces the conventional elevons with a vectored thrust system for longitudinal control. An extension of Spence's Jet Flap theory was developed to estimate the effects of this vectored thrust system on the aircraft longitudinal control. It was found to provide a reasonable estimate of the control capability of the aircraft. An MDO framework was developed, integrating all the distributed propulsion effects modeled. Using a gradient based optimization algorithm, the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft was optimized and compared with a similarly optimized conventional BWB design. Both designs are for an 800 passenger, 0.85 cruise Mach number and 7000 nmi mission. The MDO results found that the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft has a 4% takeoff gross weight and a 2% fuel weight. Both designs have similar planform shapes

  2. Jet Noise Shielding Provided by a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Pope, Dennis S.


    One approach toward achieving NASA's aggressive N+2 noise goal of 42 EPNdB cumulative margin below Stage 4 is through the use of novel vehicle configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB). Jet noise measurements from an HWB acoustic test in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are described. Two dual-stream, heated Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units are mounted underneath the inverted HWB model on a traversable support to permit measurement of varying levels of shielding provided by the fuselage. Both an axisymmetric and low noise chevron nozzle set are investigated in the context of shielding. The unshielded chevron nozzle set shows 1 to 2 dB of source noise reduction (relative to the unshielded axisymmetric nozzle set) with some penalties at higher frequencies. Shielding of the axisymmetric nozzles shows up to 6.5 dB of reduction at high frequency. The combination of shielding and low noise chevrons shows benefits beyond the expected additive benefits of the two, up to 10 dB, due to the effective migration of the jet source peak noise location upstream for increased shielding effectiveness. Jet noise source maps from phased array results processed with the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm reinforce these observations.

  3. NASA Hybrid Wing Aircraft Aeroacoustic Test Documentation Report (United States)

    Heath, Stephanie L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Hoad, Danny; Becker, Lawrence; Humphreys, William M.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Dan; hide


    This report summarizes results of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) N2A-EXTE model aeroacoustic test. The N2A-EXTE model was tested in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel (14x22 Tunnel) from September 12, 2012 until January 28, 2013 and was designated as test T598. This document contains the following main sections: Section 1 - Introduction, Section 2 - Main Personnel, Section 3 - Test Equipment, Section 4 - Data Acquisition Systems, Section 5 - Instrumentation and Calibration, Section 6 - Test Matrix, Section 7 - Data Processing, and Section 8 - Summary. Due to the amount of material to be documented, this HWB test documentation report does not cover analysis of acquired data, which is to be presented separately by the principal investigators. Also, no attempt was made to include preliminary risk reduction tests (such as Broadband Engine Noise Simulator and Compact Jet Engine Simulator characterization tests, shielding measurement technique studies, and speaker calibration method studies), which were performed in support of this HWB test. Separate reports containing these preliminary tests are referenced where applicable.

  4. Effects of maneuver dynamics on drag polars of the X-29A forward-swept-wing aircraft with automatic wing camber control (United States)

    Hicks, John W.; Moulton, Bryan J.


    The camber control loop of the X-29A FSW aircraft was designed to furnish the optimum L/D for trimmed, stabilized flight. A marked difference was noted between automatic wing camber control loop behavior in dynamic maneuvers and in stabilized flight conditions, which in turn affected subsonic aerodynamic performance. The degree of drag level increase was a direct function of maneuver rate. Attention is given to the aircraft flight drag polar effects of maneuver dynamics in light of wing camber control loop schedule. The effect of changing camber scheduling to better track the optimum automatic camber control L/D schedule is discussed.

  5. Wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale VTOL aircraft model with wing root and wing thrust augmentors. [Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel (United States)

    Aoyagi, K.; Aiken, T. N.


    Tests were conducted in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale V/STOL aircraft model with thrust augmentors. The model had a double-delta wing of aspect ratio 1.65 with augmentors located in the wing root and the wing trailing edge. The supply air for the augmentor primary nozzles was provided by the YJ-97 turbojet engine. The airflow was apportioned approximately 74 percent to the wing root augmentor and 24 percent to wing augmentor. Results were obtained at several trailing-edge flap deflections with the nozzle jet-momentum coefficients ranging from 0 to 7.9. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with the agumentor operating with and without the horizontal tail. A limited amount of six component data are also presented.

  6. Study on flow over finite wing with respect to F-22 raptor, Supermarine Spitfire, F-7 BG aircraft wing and analyze its stability performance and experimental values (United States)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul


    , and the induced drag increases, reducing overall efficiency. To complement the high aspect ratio wing case, a slender wing model is formulated so that the lift and drag can be estimated for this limiting case as well. We analyze the stability performance of F-22 raptor, Supermarine Spitfire, F-7 BG Aircraft wing by using experimental method and simulation software. The experimental method includes fabrication of F-22 raptor, Supermarine Spitfire, F-7 BG Aircraft wing which making material is Gamahr wood. Testing this model wing in wind tunnel test and after getting expected data we also compared this value with analyzing software data for furthermore experiment.

  7. An assessment of tailoring of lightning protection design requirements for a composite wing structure on a metallic aircraft (United States)

    Harwood, T. L.


    The Navy A-6E aircraft is presently being modified with a new wing which uses graphite/epoxy structures and substructures around a titanium load-bearing structure. The ability of composites to conduct electricity is less than that of aluminum. This is cause for concern when the wing may be required to conduct large lightning currents. The manufacturer attempted to solve lightning protection issues by performing a risk assessment based on a statistical approach which allows relaxation of the wing lightning protection design levels over certain locations of the composite wing. A sensitivity study is presented designed to define the total risk of relaxation of the design levels.

  8. Multi-Objective Flight Control for Drag Minimization and Load Alleviation of High-Aspect Ratio Flexible Wing Aircraft (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean


    As aircraft wings become much more flexible due to the use of light-weight composites material, adverse aerodynamics at off-design performance can result from changes in wing shapes due to aeroelastic deflections. Increased drag, hence increased fuel burn, is a potential consequence. Without means for aeroelastic compensation, the benefit of weight reduction from the use of light-weight material could be offset by less optimal aerodynamic performance at off-design flight conditions. Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing (PAAW) technology can potentially address these technical challenges for future flexible wing transports. PAAW technology leverages multi-disciplinary solutions to maximize the aerodynamic performance payoff of future adaptive wing design, while addressing simultaneously operational constraints that can prevent the optimal aerodynamic performance from being realized. These operational constraints include reduced flutter margins, increased airframe responses to gust and maneuver loads, pilot handling qualities, and ride qualities. All of these constraints while seeking the optimal aerodynamic performance present themselves as a multi-objective flight control problem. The paper presents a multi-objective flight control approach based on a drag-cognizant optimal control method. A concept of virtual control, which was previously introduced, is implemented to address the pair-wise flap motion constraints imposed by the elastomer material. This method is shown to be able to satisfy the constraints. Real-time drag minimization control is considered to be an important consideration for PAAW technology. Drag minimization control has many technical challenges such as sensing and control. An initial outline of a real-time drag minimization control has already been developed and will be further investigated in the future. A simulation study of a multi-objective flight control for a flight path angle command with aeroelastic mode suppression and drag

  9. On Wings of the Minimum Induced Drag: Spanload Implications for Aircraft and Birds (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Murillo, Oscar J.; Jensen, Robert (Red); Eslinger, Brian; Gelzer, Christian


    For nearly a century Ludwig Prandtl's lifting-line theory remains a standard tool for understanding and analyzing aircraft wings. The tool, said Prandtl, initially points to the elliptical spanload as the most efficient wing choice, and it, too, has become the standard in aviation. Having no other model, avian researchers have used the elliptical spanload virtually since its introduction. Yet over the last half-century, research in bird flight has generated increasing data incongruous with the elliptical spanload. In 1933 Prandtl published a little-known paper presenting a superior spanload: any other solution produces greater drag. We argue that this second spanload is the correct model for bird flight data. Based on research we present a unifying theory for superior efficiency and coordinated control in a single solution. Specifically, Prandtl's second spanload offers the only solution to three aspects of bird flight: how birds are able to turn and maneuver without a vertical tail; why birds fly in formation with their wingtips overlapped; and why narrow wingtips do not result in wingtip stall. We performed research using two experimental aircraft designed in accordance with the fundamentals of Prandtl's second paper, but applying recent developments, to validate the various potentials of the new spanload, to wit: as an alternative for avian researchers, to demonstrate the concept of proverse yaw, and to offer a new method of aircraft control and efficiency.

  10. Integral Transportation Systems in Military Transport Aircraft Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević


    Full Text Available Supply of goods, equipment and soldiers by militwy transportaircraft can serve as a support to airborne landing operation,support to encircled forces, and support to forces leadinga gue1rilla war. Transport aircraft are designed in such a wayas to be able to cany containers, pallets, most of land vehiclesand helicopters. Militwy transport aircraft can be grouped intothose that were originally designed for military transp01t andthose that are modified civilian aircraft and helicopters. Supplypallets can be wooden, metal, can be airdropped in "taxiing","low-flight", and can also be fitted with a parachute or"retrorocket" for reducing the ground impact. Pallets canamong other things carry liquids, heavy combat and ca1rier vehicles,artillery and rocket weapons and valious containers.Pallets are usually pe1manently deformed at ground impact.Nowadays, high precision of airdrop has been achieved. Containersare used to carry various equipment, food, fue~ weapons,ammunition etc. It is to be expected that the containers,wmoured combat and other vehicles will be redesigned so asto provide more efficient transport and fast a!Tangement ofhigh-mobility units, whereas the form of the future militarytransport aircraft will not undergo substantial changes. By adjustingand standardising the transporlation vehicles, integraltransportation means and cwgo, the overall combat efficiencywill be increased, the a~rangement time especially shortenedand the air supply safety increased.

  11. Structural Design Optimization of a Tiltrotor Aircraft Composite Wing to Enhance Whirl Flutter Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Kim, Jaehoon; Shin, Sang Joon


    In order to enhance the aeroelastic stability of a tiltrotor aircraft, a structural optimization framework is developed by applying a multi-level optimization approach. Each optimization level is designed to achieve a different purpose; therefore, relevant optimization schemes are selected for each...... level. Enhancement of the aeroelastic stability is selected as an objective in the upper-level optimization. This is achieved by seeking the optimal structural properties of a composite wing, including its mass, vertical, chordwise, and torsional stiffness. In the upper-level optimization, the response...... surface method (RSM), is selected. On the other hand, lower-level optimization seeks to determine the local detailed cross-sectional parameters, such as the ply orientation angles and ply thickness, which are relevant to the wing structural properties obtained at the upper-level. To avoid manufacturing...

  12. Wing configuration on Wind Tunnel Testing of an Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (United States)

    Daryanto, Yanto; Purwono, Joko; Subagyo


    Control surface of an Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) consists of flap, aileron, spoiler, rudder, and elevator. Every control surface has its own special functionality. Some particular configurations in the flight mission often depend on the wing configuration. Configuration wing within flap deflection for takeoff setting deflection of flap 20° but during landing deflection of flap set on the value 40°. The aim of this research is to get the ultimate CLmax for take-off flap deflection setting. It is shown from Wind Tunnel Testing result that the 20° flap deflection gives optimum CLmax with moderate drag coefficient. The results of Wind Tunnel Testing representing by graphic plots show good performance as well as the stability of UAV.

  13. An adaptive wing for a small-aircraft application with a configuration of fibre Bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieloszyk, M; Krawczuk, M; Zak, A; Ostachowicz, W


    In this paper a concept of an adaptive wing for small-aircraft applications with an array of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors has been presented and discussed. In this concept the shape of the wing can be controlled and altered thanks to the wing design and the use of integrated shape memory alloy actuators. The concept has been tested numerically by the use of the finite element method. For numerical calculations the commercial finite element package ABAQUS ® has been employed. A finite element model of the wing has been prepared in order to estimate the values of the wing twisting angles and distributions of the twist for various activation scenarios. Based on the results of numerical analysis the locations and numbers of the FBG sensors have also been determined. The results of numerical calculations obtained by the authors confirmed the usefulness of the assumed wing control strategy. Based on them and the concept developed of the adaptive wing, a wing demonstration stand has been designed and built. The stand has been used to verify experimentally the performance of the adaptive wing and the usefulness of the FBG sensors for evaluation of the wing condition

  14. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.


    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics approach of modeling the bifurcation for aircraft wing flutter in transonic speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Miyata, T.; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo


    The procedure of obtaining the two-degrees-of-freedom, finite dimensional. nonlinear mathematical model. which models the nonlinear features of aircraft flutter in transonic speed is reported. The model enables to explain every feature of the transonic flutter data of the wind tunnel tests...... conducted at National Aerospace Laboratory in Japan for a high aspect ratio wing. It explains the nonlinear features of the transonic flutter such as the subcritical Hopf bifurcation of a limit cycle oscillation (LCO), a saddle-node bifurcation, and an unstable limit cycle as well as a normal (linear...

  16. Computer program for prediction of the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft (United States)

    Teske, M. E.


    This is a user manual for the computer code ""AGDISP'' (AGricultural DISPersal) which has been developed to predict the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft in a single-pass, computationally efficient manner. The formulation of the code is novel in that the mean particle trajectory and the variance about the mean resulting from turbulent fluid fluctuations are simultaneously predicted. The code presently includes the capability of assessing the influence of neutral atmospheric conditions, inviscid wake vortices, particle evaporation, plant canopy and terrain on the deposition pattern.

  17. Optimized aerodynamic design process for subsonic transport wing fitted with winglets. [wind tunnel model (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.


    The aerodynamic design of a wind-tunnel model of a wing representative of that of a subsonic jet transport aircraft, fitted with winglets, was performed using two recently developed optimal wing-design computer programs. Both potential flow codes use a vortex lattice representation of the near-field of the aerodynamic surfaces for determination of the required mean camber surfaces for minimum induced drag, and both codes use far-field induced drag minimization procedures to obtain the required spanloads. One code uses a discrete vortex wake model for this far-field drag computation, while the second uses a 2-D advanced panel wake model. Wing camber shapes for the two codes are very similar, but the resulting winglet camber shapes differ widely. Design techniques and considerations for these two wind-tunnel models are detailed, including a description of the necessary modifications of the design geometry to format it for use by a numerically controlled machine for the actual model construction.

  18. Optimality study of a gust alleviation system for light wing-loading STOL aircraft (United States)

    Komoda, M.


    An analytical study was made of an optimal gust alleviation system that employs a vertical gust sensor mounted forward of an aircraft's center of gravity. Frequency domain optimization techniques were employed to synthesize the optimal filters that process the corrective signals to the flaps and elevator actuators. Special attention was given to evaluating the effectiveness of lead time, that is, the time by which relative wind sensor information should lead the actual encounter of the gust. The resulting filter is expressed as an implicit function of the prescribed control cost. A numerical example for a light wing loading STOL aircraft is included in which the optimal trade-off between performance and control cost is systematically studied.

  19. Modeling and control for a blended wing body aircraft a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Schirrer, Alexander


    This book demonstrates the potential of the blended wing body (BWB) concept for significant improvement in both fuel efficiency and noise reduction and addresses the considerable challenges raised for control engineers because of characteristics like open-loop instability, large flexible structure, and slow control surfaces. This text describes state-of-the-art and novel modeling and control design approaches for the BWB aircraft under consideration. The expert contributors demonstrate how exceptional robust control performance can be achieved despite such stringent design constraints as guaranteed handling qualities, reduced vibration, and the minimization of the aircraft’s structural loads during maneuvers and caused by turbulence. As a result, this innovative approach allows the building of even lighter aircraft structures, and thus results in considerable efficiency improvements per passenger kilometer. The treatment of this large, complex, parameter-dependent industrial control problem highlights relev...

  20. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun


    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  1. Noise Scaling and Community Noise Metrics for the Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Nickol, Craig L.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Pope, D. Stuart


    An aircraft system noise assessment was performed for the hybrid wing body aircraft concept, known as the N2A-EXTE. This assessment is a result of an effort by NASA to explore a realistic HWB design that has the potential to substantially reduce noise and fuel burn. Under contract to NASA, Boeing designed the aircraft using practical aircraft design princip0les with incorporation of noise technologies projected to be available in the 2020 timeframe. NASA tested 5.8% scale-mode of the design in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to provide source noise directivity and installation effects for aircraft engine and airframe configurations. Analysis permitted direct scaling of the model-scale jet, airframe, and engine shielding effect measurements to full-scale. Use of these in combination with ANOPP predictions enabled computations of the cumulative (CUM) noise margins relative to FAA Stage 4 limits. The CUM margins were computed for a baseline N2A-EXTE configuration and for configurations with added noise reduction strategies. The strategies include reduced approach speed, over-the-rotor line and soft-vane fan technologies, vertical tail placement and orientation, and modified landing gear designs with fairings. Combining the inherent HWB engine shielding by the airframe with added noise technologies, the cumulative noise was assessed at 38.7 dB below FAA Stage 4 certification level, just 3.3 dB short of the NASA N+2 goal of 42 dB. This new result shows that the NASA N+2 goal is approachable and that significant reduction in overall aircraft noise is possible through configurations with noise reduction technologies and operational changes.

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.


    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  3. Interactions of Aircraft Design and Control: Actuators Sizing and Optimization for an Unstable Blended Wing-Body


    Denieul , Yann; Alazard , Daniel; Bordeneuve-Guibé , Joël; Toussaint , Clément; Taquin , Gilles


    International audience; In this paper the problem of integrated design and control for a civil blended wing-body aircraft is addressed. Indeed this configuration faces remarkable challenges relatedto handling qualities: namely the aircraft configuration in this study features a strong longitudinal instability for some specific flight points. Moreover it may lack control efficiency despite large and redundant movables. Stabilizing such a configuration may then lead to high control surfaces rat...

  4. Design & fabrication of two seated aircraft with an advanced rotating leading edge wing (United States)

    Al Ahmari, Saeed Abdullah Saeed

    The title of this thesis is "Design & Fabrication of two Seated Aircraft with an Advanced Rotating Leading Edge Wing", this gives almost a good description of the work has been done. In this research, the moving surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) concept was investigated and implemented. An experimental model was constructed and tested in wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics using the leading edge moving surface of modified semi-symmetric airfoil NACA1214. The moving surface is provided by a high speed rotating cylinder, which replaces the leading edge of the airfoil. The angle of attack, the cylinder surfaces velocity ratio Uc/U, and the flap deflection angle effects on the lift and drag coefficients and the stall angle of attack were investigated. This new technology was applied to a 2-seat light-sport aircraft that is designed and built in the Aerospace Engineering Department at KFUPM. The project team is led by the aerospace department chairman Dr. Ahmed Z. AL-Garni and Dr. Wael G. Abdelrahman and includes graduate and under graduate student. The wing was modified to include a rotating cylinder along the leading edge of the flap portion. This produced very promising results such as the increase of the maximum lift coefficient at Uc/U=3 by 82% when flaps up and 111% when flaps down at 40° and stall was delayed by 8degrees in both cases. The laboratory results also showed that the effective range of the leading-edge rotating cylinder is at low angles of attack which reduce the need for higher angles of attack for STOL aircraft.

  5. Albatross-Like Utilization of Wind Gradient for Unpowered Flight of Fixed-Wing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangqiu Shan


    Full Text Available The endurance of an aircraft can be considerably extended by its exploitation of the hidden energy of a wind gradient, as an albatross does. The process is referred to as dynamic soaring and there are two methods for its implementation, namely, sustainable climbing and the Rayleigh cycle. In this study, the criterion for sustainable climbing was determined, and a bio-inspired method for implementing the Rayleigh cycle in a shear wind was developed. The determined sustainable climbing criterion promises to facilitate the development of an unpowered aircraft and the choice of a more appropriate soaring environment, as was demonstrated in this study. The criterion consists of three factors, namely, the environment, aerodynamics, and wing loading. We develop an intuitive explanation of the Raleigh cycle and analyze the energy mechanics of utilizing a wind gradient in unpowered flight. The energy harvest boundary and extreme power point were determined and used to design a simple bio-inspired guidance strategy for implementing the Rayleigh cycle. The proposed strategy, which involves the tuning of a single parameter, can be easily implemented in real-time applications. In the results and discussions, the effects of each factor on climbing performance are examined and the sensitivity of the aircraft factor is discussed using five examples. Experimental MATLAB simulations of the proposed strategy and the comparison of the results with those of Gauss Pseudospectral Optimization Software confirm the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  6. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.


    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  7. Aircraft impact risk assessment data base for assessment of fixed wing air carrier impact risk in the vicinity of airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, F.; Read, J.


    The FIXED WING AIRCRAFT accidents occurring to US air carriers during the years 1956 through 1977 are listed, with those resulting in impact within five miles of airports in the contiguous US being considered in detail as to location of impact relative to the airport runways

  8. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft (United States)

    Vincent, James H.


    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  9. Numerical Modelling and Damage Assessment of Rotary Wing Aircraft Cabin Door Using Continuum Damage Mechanics Model (United States)

    Boyina, Gangadhara Rao T.; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; V. V., Subba Rao


    The prediction of ultimate strength remains the main challenge in the simulation of the mechanical response of composite structures. This paper examines continuum damage model to predict the strength and size effects for deformation and failure response of polymer composite laminates when subjected to complex state of stress. The paper also considers how the overall results of the exercise can be applied in design applications. The continuum damage model is described and the resulting prediction of size effects are compared against the standard benchmark solutions. The stress analysis for strength prediction of rotary wing aircraft cabin door is carried out. The goal of this study is to extend the proposed continuum damage model such that it can be accurately predict the failure around stress concentration regions. The finite element-based continuum damage mechanics model can be applied to the structures and components of arbitrary configurations where analytical solutions could not be developed.

  10. Phased Acoustic Array Measurements of a 5.75 Percent Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Burnside, Nathan J.; Horne, William C.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Cheng, Rui; Brusniak, Leon


    Detailed acoustic measurements of the noise from the leading-edge Krueger flap of a 5.75 percent Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft model were recently acquired with a traversing phased microphone array in the AEDC NFAC (Arnold Engineering Development Complex, National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The spatial resolution of the array was sufficient to distinguish between individual support brackets over the full-scale frequency range of 100 to 2875 Hertz. For conditions representative of landing and take-off configuration, the noise from the brackets dominated other sources near the leading edge. Inclusion of flight-like brackets for select conditions highlights the importance of including the correct number of leading-edge high-lift device brackets with sufficient scale and fidelity. These measurements will support the development of new predictive models.

  11. A Linear Analysis of a Blended Wing Body (BWB Aircraft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alice STATE


    Full Text Available In this article a linear analysis of a Blended Wing Body (BWB aircraft model is performed. The BWB concept is in the attention of both military and civil sectors for the fact that has reduced radar signature (in the absence of a conventional tail and the possibility to carry more people. The trim values are computed, also the eigenvalues and the Jacobian matrix evaluated into the trim point are analyzed. A linear simulation in the MatLab environment is presented in order to express numerically the symbolic computations presented. The initial system is corrected in the way of increasing the consistency and coherence of the modeled type of motion and, also, suggestions are made for future work.

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation (CFD and Experimental Study on Wing-external Store Aerodynamic Interference of a Subsonic Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholudin Mat Lazim


    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to study the effect of an external store on a subsonic fighter aircraft. Generally most modern fighter aircrafts are designed with an external store installation. In this study, a subsonic fighter aircraft model has been manufactured using a computer numerical control machine for the purpose of studying the effect of the aerodynamic interference of the external store on the flow around the aircraft wing. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation was also carried out on the same configuration. Both the CFD and the wind tunnel testing were carried out at a Reynolds number 1.86×105 to ensure that the aerodynamic characteristic can certify that the aircraft will not be face any difficulties in its stability and controllability. Both the experiments and the simulation were carried out at the same Reynolds number in order to verify each other. In the CFD simulation, a commercial CFD code was used to simulate the interference and aerodynamic characteristics of the model. Subsequently, the model together with an external store was tested in a low speed wind tunnel with a test section sized 0.45 m×0.45 m. Measured and computed results for the two-dimensional pressure distribution were satisfactorily comparable. There is only a 19% deviation between pressure distribution measured in wind tunnel testing and the result predicted by the CFD. The result shows that the effect of the external storage is only significant on the lower surface of the wing and almost negligible on the upper surface of the wing. Aerodynamic interference due to the external store was most evident on the lower surface of the wing and almost negligible on the upper surface at a low angle of attack. In addition, the area of influence on the wing surface by the store interference increased as the airspeed increased.

  13. Experimental investigation of lift enhancement for flying wing aircraft using nanosecond DBD plasma actuators (United States)

    Yao, Junkai; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; He, Chengjun; Shi, Zhiwei; Du, Hai


    The effects of the arrangement position and control parameters of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuators on lift enhancement for flying wing aircraft were investigated through wind tunnel experiments at a flow speed of 25 m s-1. The aerodynamic forces and moments were obtained by a six-component balance at angles of attack ranging from -4° to 28°. The lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients were compared for the cases with and without plasma control. The results revealed that the maximum control effect was achieved by placing the actuator at the leading edge of the inner and middle wing, for which the maximum lift coefficient increased by 37.8% and the stall angle of attack was postponed by 8° compared with the plasma-off case. The effects of modulation frequency and discharge voltage were also investigated. The results revealed that the lift enhancement effect of the NS-DBD plasma actuators was strongly influenced by the modulation frequency. Significant control effects were obtained at f = 70 Hz, corresponding to F + ≈ 1. The result for the pitching moment coefficient demonstrated that the plasma actuator can induce the reattachment of the separation flows when it is actuated. However, the results indicated that the discharge voltage had a negligible influence on the lift enhancement effect.

  14. Morphing Wing Weight Predictors and Their Application in a Template-Based Morphing Aircraft Sizing Environment II. Part 2; Morphing Aircraft Sizing via Multi-level Optimization (United States)

    Skillen, Michael D.; Crossley, William A.


    This report presents an approach for sizing of a morphing aircraft based upon a multi-level design optimization approach. For this effort, a morphing wing is one whose planform can make significant shape changes in flight - increasing wing area by 50% or more from the lowest possible area, changing sweep 30 or more, and/or increasing aspect ratio by as much as 200% from the lowest possible value. The top-level optimization problem seeks to minimize the gross weight of the aircraft by determining a set of "baseline" variables - these are common aircraft sizing variables, along with a set of "morphing limit" variables - these describe the maximum shape change for a particular morphing strategy. The sub-level optimization problems represent each segment in the morphing aircraft's design mission; here, each sub-level optimizer minimizes fuel consumed during each mission segment by changing the wing planform within the bounds set by the baseline and morphing limit variables from the top-level problem.

  15. Thrust reverser design studies for an over-the-wing STOL transport (United States)

    Ammer, R. C.; Sowers, H. D.


    Aerodynamic and acoustics analytical studies were conducted to evaluate three thrust reverser designs for potential use on commercial over-the-wing STOL transports. The concepts were: (1) integral D nozzle/target reverser, (2) integral D nozzle/top arc cascade reverser, and (3) post exit target reverser integral with wing. Aerodynamic flowpaths and kinematic arrangements for each concept were established to provide a 50% thrust reversal capability. Analytical aircraft stopping distance/noise trade studies conducted concurrently with flow path design showed that these high efficiency reverser concepts are employed at substantially reduced power settings to meet noise goals of 100 PNdB on a 152.4 m sideline and still meet 609.6 m landing runway length requirements. From an overall installation standpoint, only the integral D nozzle/target reverser concept was found to penalize nacelle cruise performance; for this concept a larger nacelle diameter was required to match engine cycle effective area demand in reverse thrust.

  16. Acoustic Characterization and Prediction of Representative, Small-Scale Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aircraft System Components (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.


    In this study, hover performance and acoustic measurements are taken on two different isolated rotors representative of small-scale rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a range of rotation rates. Each rotor system consists of two fixed-pitch blades powered by a brushless motor. For nearly the same thrust condition, significant differences in overall sound pressure level (OASPL), up to 8 dB, and directivity were observed between the two rotor systems. Differences are shown to be in part attributed to different rotor tip speeds, along with increased broadband and motor noise levels. In addition to acoustic measurements, aeroacoustic predictions were implemented in order to better understand the noise content of the rotor systems. Numerical aerodynamic predictions were computed using the unsteady Reynoldsaveraged Navier Stokes code OVERFLOW2 on one of the isolated rotors, while analytical predictions were computed using the Propeller Analysis System of the Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP-PAS) on the two rotor configurations. Preliminary semi-empirical frequency domain broadband noise predictions were also carried out based on airfoil self-noise theory in a rotational reference frame. The prediction techniques further supported trends identified in the experimental data analysis. The brushless motors were observed to be important noise contributors and warrant further investigation. It is believed that UAS acoustic prediction capabilities must consider both rotor and motor components as part of a combined noise-generating system.

  17. Transect width and missed observations in counting muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus from fixed-wing aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aastrup


    Full Text Available While conductioning muskox-censuses (Ovibos moschatus in winter in Jameson Land, NE Greenland, from a fixed-wing aircraft, we examined the width of transects covered. We used a laser range-finder binocular for measuring the distance to observed groups. We found that 1000 m was a reasonable limit for observing a high proportion of the muskoxen present even though it was possible to observe muskoxen from 4000 m or even more. Using two observers on the right side of the aircraft each speaking into a tape recorder with an automatic time signal, we recorded observations and performed a double-observer experiment. By matching the group sizes and perpendicular distances with times of observation we could compare observations of the two observers. We found that both observers missed up to 25% of muskoxen within a 2000 m transect width. The main reasons for missing animals is difficulty in obtaining reference points in snow covered landscape and fatigue of the observers. Calibration of estimated distances using read-outs from the laser-range finder is an adequate method of obtaining distance data for line transect calculations. Our double-observer experiment demonstrated that even groups close to the transect are easily missed.

  18. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.


    In-flight loss of control remains the leading contributor to aviation accident fatalities, with stall upsets being the leading causal factor. The February 12, 2009. Colgan Air, Inc., Continental Express flight 3407 accident outside Buffalo, New York, brought this issue to the forefront of public consciousness and resulted in recommendations from the National Transportation Safety Board to conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and develop simulator standards to support such training. In 2010, Congress responded to this accident with Public Law 11-216 (Section 208), which mandates full stall training for Part 121 flight operations. Efforts are currently in progress to develop recommendations on implementation of stall training for airline pilots. The International Committee on Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) is currently defining simulator fidelity standards that will be necessary for effective stall training. These recommendations will apply to all civil transport aircraft including straight-wing turboprop aircraft. Government-funded research over the previous decade provides a strong foundation for stall/post-stall simulation for swept-wing, conventional tail jets to respond to this mandate, but turboprops present additional and unique modeling challenges. First among these challenges is the effect of power, which can provide enhanced flow attachment behind the propellers. Furthermore, turboprops tend to operate for longer periods in an environment more susceptible to ice. As a result, there have been a significant number of turboprop accidents as a result of the early (lower angle of attack) stalls in icing. The vulnerability of turboprop configurations to icing has led to studies on ice accumulation and the resulting effects on flight behavior. Piloted simulations of these effects have highlighted the important training needs for recognition and mitigation of icing effects, including the reduction of stall margins

  19. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.


    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  20. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.


    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  1. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation (United States)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.


    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  2. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio


    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  3. NASA Langley Distributed Propulsion VTOL Tilt-Wing Aircraft Testing, Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Flight Test Development (United States)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.


    Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.

  4. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio


    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  5. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric


    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  6. Creep-age forming of AA7475 aluminum panels for aircraft lower wing skin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego José Inforzato


    Full Text Available Creep-age forming (CAF is an interesting process for the airframe industry, as it is able to form or shape panels into smooth, but complex, curvatures. In the CAF process, the ageing cycle of the alloy is used to relax external loads imposed to the part, through creep mechanisms. Those relaxed stresses impose a new curvature to the part. At the end of the process, significant spring back (sometimes about 70% is observed and the success in achieving the desired form depends on how the spring back can be predicted in order to compensate it by tooling changes. Most of the applications relate to simple (non stiffened panels. The present work deals with the CAF of aluminum panels for aircraft wing skin application. CAF was performed using vacuum-bagging autoclave technique in small scale complex shape stiffened panels, machined from an AA7475 alloy plate. An analytical reference model from the literature was employed estimate the spring back effect in such panel geometry. This model that deals with simple plates was adapted to stiffened panels using a geometric simplification, resulting in a semi-empirical model. The results demonstrate that CAF is a promising process to form stiffened panels, and the spring back can be roughly estimated through a simple model and few experiments.

  7. Ventilation and internal structure effects on naturally induced flows in a static aircraft wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Daithi; Newport, David; Egan, Vanessa; Lacarac, Vesna


    The ventilation performance within an aircraft wing leading edge is investigated for a number of enclosure and ventilation configurations. The natural convection regime present is found to be highly sensitive to enclosure conditions, particularly the introduction of a partition. The presence of a partition reduced the overall heat exhausted from the cavity by up to 60%. The optimum ventilation strategy is also changed from a forward biased vent orientation (found for the unpartitioned case), to one where both the rear and front vents within the enclosure had the same open area. Cylinder plume effects dominate within the enclosure and were the main driver of the convective regime, with steady-state enclosure conditions highly dependent upon cylinder placement and plume orientation. An externally heated enclosure with internal heat source, combined with ventilation and an internal structure produced a complex natural convection regime which is sensitive to enclosure conditions. Hence an adequate knowledge of such conditions is necessary in order to fully appreciate the convective regime. - Highlights: → Optimum ventilation strategy changed between unpartitioned and partitioned cases. → Flow path and plume orientation are important to consider when analysing ventilation. → Bleed duct placement significantly alters flow path and temperature distribution. → Enclosure partitioning reduced heat exhaustion by 60%.

  8. Improved Reliability-Based Optimization with Support Vector Machines and Its Application in Aircraft Wing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang


    Full Text Available A new reliability-based design optimization (RBDO method based on support vector machines (SVM and the Most Probable Point (MPP is proposed in this work. SVM is used to create a surrogate model of the limit-state function at the MPP with the gradient information in the reliability analysis. This guarantees that the surrogate model not only passes through the MPP but also is tangent to the limit-state function at the MPP. Then, importance sampling (IS is used to calculate the probability of failure based on the surrogate model. This treatment significantly improves the accuracy of reliability analysis. For RBDO, the Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA is employed as well, which decouples deterministic optimization from the reliability analysis. The improved SVM-based reliability analysis is used to amend the error from linear approximation for limit-state function in SORA. A mathematical example and a simplified aircraft wing design demonstrate that the improved SVM-based reliability analysis is more accurate than FORM and needs less training points than the Monte Carlo simulation and that the proposed optimization strategy is efficient.

  9. On fluttering modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic air flow. (United States)

    Shubov, Marianna A


    The paper deals with unstable aeroelastic modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic, incompressible, inviscid air flow. In recent author's papers asymptotic, spectral and stability analysis of the model has been carried out. The model is governed by a system of two coupled integrodifferential equations and a two-parameter family of boundary conditions modelling action of self-straining actuators. The Laplace transform of the solution is given in terms of the 'generalized resolvent operator', which is a meromorphic operator-valued function of the spectral parameter λ, whose poles are called the aeroelastic modes. The residues at these poles are constructed from the corresponding mode shapes. The spectral characteristics of the model are asymptotically close to the ones of a simpler system, which is called the reduced model. For the reduced model, the following result is shown: for each value of subsonic speed, there exists a radius such that all aeroelastic modes located outside the circle of this radius centred at zero are stable. Unstable modes, whose number is always finite, can occur only inside this 'circle of instability'. Explicit estimate of the 'instability radius' in terms of model parameters is given.

  10. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher


    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  11. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning (United States)

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent


    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  12. Using Fly-By-Wire Technology in Future Models of the UH-60 and Other Rotary Wing Aircraft (United States)

    Solem, Courtney K.


    Several fixed-winged airplanes have successfully used fly-by-wire (FBW) technology for the last 40 years. This technology is now beginning to be incorporated into rotary wing aircraft. By using FBW technology, manufacturers are expecting to improve upon the weight, maintenance time and costs, handling and reliability of the aircraft. Before mass production of this new system begins in new models such as the UH-60MU, testing must be conducted to insure the safety of this technology as well as to reassure others it will be worth the time and money to make such a dramatic change to a perfectly functional machine. The RASCAL JUH-60A has been modified for these purposes. This Black Hawk helicopter has already been equipped with the FBW technology and can be configured as a near perfect representation of the UH-60MU. Because both machines have very similar qualities, the data collected from the RASCAL can be used to make future decisions about the UH-60MU. The U.S. Army AFDD Flight Project Office oversees all the design modifications for every hardware system used in the RASCAL aircraft. This project deals with specific designs and analyses of unique RASCAL aircraft subsystems and their modifications to conduct flight mechanics research.

  13. A Model Stitching Architecture for Continuous Full Flight-Envelope Simulation of Fixed-Wing Aircraft and Rotorcraft from Discrete Point Linear Models (United States)


    AND ROTORCRAFT FROM DISCRETE -POINT LINEAR MODELS Eric L. Tobias and Mark B. Tischler Aviation Development Directorate Aviation and Missile...Stitching Architecture for Continuous Full Flight-Envelope Simulation of Fixed-Wing Aircraft and Rotorcraft from Discrete -Point Linear Models 5...of discrete -point linear models and trim data. The model stitching simulation architecture is applicable to any aircraft configuration readily

  14. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.


    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  15. Asymmetric ratchet effect for directional transport of fog drops on static and dynamic butterfly wings. (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei


    Inspired by novel creatures, researchers have developed varieties of fog drop transport systems and made significant contributions to the fields of heat transferring, water collecting, antifogging, and so on. Up to now, most of the efforts in directional fog drop transport have been focused on static surfaces. Considering it is not practical to keep surfaces still all the time in reality, conducting investigations on surfaces that can transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states has become more and more important. Here we report the wings of Morpho deidamia butterflies can directionally transport fog drops in both static and dynamic states. This directional drop transport ability results from the micro/nano ratchet-like structure of butterfly wings: the surface of butterfly wings is composed of overlapped scales, and the scales are covered with porous asymmetric ridges. Influenced by this special structure, fog drops on static wings are transported directionally as a result of the fog drops' asymmetric growth and coalescence. Fog drops on vibrating wings are propelled directionally due to the fog drops' asymmetric dewetting from the wings.

  16. Landing Gear Noise Prediction and Analysis for Tube-and-Wing and Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russell H.


    Improvements and extensions to landing gear noise prediction methods are developed. New features include installation effects such as reflection from the aircraft, gear truck angle effect, local flow calculation at the landing gear locations, gear size effect, and directivity for various gear designs. These new features have not only significantly improved the accuracy and robustness of the prediction tools, but also have enabled applications to unconventional aircraft designs and installations. Systematic validations of the improved prediction capability are then presented, including parametric validations in functional trends as well as validations in absolute amplitudes, covering a wide variety of landing gear designs, sizes, and testing conditions. The new method is then applied to selected concept aircraft configurations in the portfolio of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project envisioned for the timeframe of 2025. The landing gear noise levels are on the order of 2 to 4 dB higher than previously reported predictions due to increased fidelity in accounting for installation effects and gear design details. With the new method, it is now possible to reveal and assess the unique noise characteristics of landing gear systems for each type of aircraft. To address the inevitable uncertainties in predictions of landing gear noise models for future aircraft, an uncertainty analysis is given, using the method of Monte Carlo simulation. The standard deviation of the uncertainty in predicting the absolute level of landing gear noise is quantified and determined to be 1.4 EPNL dB.



  18. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.


    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  19. Examination of pulsed eddy current for inspection of second layer aircraft wing lap-joint structures using outlier detection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.M., E-mail: [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Underhill, P.R.; Krause, T.W., E-mail: [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Physics, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)


    Ageing aircraft are susceptible to fatigue cracks at bolt hole locations in multi-layer aluminum wing lap-joints due to cyclic loading conditions experienced during typical aircraft operation, Current inspection techniques require removal of fasteners to permit inspection of the second layer from within the bolt hole. Inspection from the top layer without fastener removal is desirable in order to minimize aircraft downtime while reducing the risk of collateral damage. The ability to detect second layer cracks without fastener removal has been demonstrated using a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique. The technique utilizes a breakdown of the measured signal response into its principal components, each of which is multiplied by a representative factor known as a score. The reduced data set of scores, which represent the measured signal, are examined for outliers using cluster analysis methods in order to detect the presence of defects. However, the cluster analysis methodology is limited by the fact that a number of representative signals, obtained from fasteners where defects are not present, are required in order to perform classification of the data. Alternatively, blind outlier detection can be achieved without having to obtain representative defect-free signals, by using a modified smallest half-volume (MSHV) approach. Results obtained using this approach suggest that self-calibrating blind detection of cyclic fatigue cracks in second layer wing structures in the presence of ferrous fasteners is possible without prior knowledge of the sample under test and without the use of costly calibration standards. (author)

  20. Examination of pulsed eddy current for inspection of second layer aircraft wing lap-joint structures using outlier detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, D.M.; Underhill, P.R.; Krause, T.W.


    Ageing aircraft are susceptible to fatigue cracks at bolt hole locations in multi-layer aluminum wing lap-joints due to cyclic loading conditions experienced during typical aircraft operation, Current inspection techniques require removal of fasteners to permit inspection of the second layer from within the bolt hole. Inspection from the top layer without fastener removal is desirable in order to minimize aircraft downtime while reducing the risk of collateral damage. The ability to detect second layer cracks without fastener removal has been demonstrated using a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique. The technique utilizes a breakdown of the measured signal response into its principal components, each of which is multiplied by a representative factor known as a score. The reduced data set of scores, which represent the measured signal, are examined for outliers using cluster analysis methods in order to detect the presence of defects. However, the cluster analysis methodology is limited by the fact that a number of representative signals, obtained from fasteners where defects are not present, are required in order to perform classification of the data. Alternatively, blind outlier detection can be achieved without having to obtain representative defect-free signals, by using a modified smallest half-volume (MSHV) approach. Results obtained using this approach suggest that self-calibrating blind detection of cyclic fatigue cracks in second layer wing structures in the presence of ferrous fasteners is possible without prior knowledge of the sample under test and without the use of costly calibration standards. (author)

  1. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.


    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  2. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.


    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.

  3. Integrated aerodynamic-structural design of a forward-swept transport wing (United States)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Grossman, Bernard; Kao, Pi-Jen; Polen, David M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw


    The introduction of composite materials is having a profound effect on aircraft design. Since these materials permit the designer to tailor material properties to improve structural, aerodynamic and acoustic performance, they require an integrated multidisciplinary design process. Futhermore, because of the complexity of the design process, numerical optimization methods are required. The utilization of integrated multidisciplinary design procedures for improving aircraft design is not currently feasible because of software coordination problems and the enormous computational burden. Even with the expected rapid growth of supercomputers and parallel architectures, these tasks will not be practical without the development of efficient methods for cross-disciplinary sensitivities and efficient optimization procedures. The present research is part of an on-going effort which is focused on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration. A sequence of integrated wing design procedures has been developed in order to investigate various aspects of the design process.

  4. Optimization of geometrical parameters aerodynamic design aircraft articulated tandem with wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.В. Кузьменко


    Full Text Available  The features of a task of optimization of the plane with unmanned completely wing are considered the existing approaches the block diagram of mathematical model of the plane with unmanned completely wing is given in the decision of similar tasks.

  5. 78 FR 3356 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts (United States)


    ...) of this AD, inspect the wing lift strut forks for cracks using magnetic particle procedures, such as... for Non-destructive Testing, or MIL-STD-410. (i) If no external corrosion is found on any wing lift..., the surface should be sanded or polished smooth before testing to assure a consistent and smooth...

  6. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation (United States)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.


    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  7. Structural Health Monitoring of Transport Aircraft with Fuzzy Logic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray C. Chang


    Full Text Available A structural health monitoring method based on the concept of static aeroelasticity is presented in this paper. This paper focuses on the estimation of these aeroelastic effects on older transport aircraft, in particular the structural components that are most affected, in severe atmospheric turbulence. Because the structural flexibility properties are mostly unknown to aircraft operators, only the trend, not the magnitude, of these effects is estimated. For this purpose, one useful concept in static aeroelastic effects for conventional aircraft structures is that under aeroelastic deformation the aerodynamic center should move aft. This concept is applied in the present paper by using the fuzzy-logic aerodynamic models. A twin-jet transport aircraft in severe atmospheric turbulence involving plunging motion is examined. It is found that the pitching moment derivatives in cruise with moderate to severe turbulence in transonic flight indicate some degree of abnormality in the stabilizer (i.e., the horizontal tail. Therefore, the horizontal tail is the most severely affected structural component of the aircraft probably caused by vibration under the dynamic loads induced by turbulence.

  8. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Cassandra M.


    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad-1. Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  9. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Ronald M; Barrett, Cassandra M


    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad −1 . Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  10. Computational Analysis of a Wing Designed for the X-57 Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Viken, Sally A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Wiese, Michael R.; Farr, Norma L.


    A computational study of the wing for the distributed electric propulsion X-57 Maxwell airplane configuration at cruise and takeoff/landing conditions was completed. Two unstructured-mesh, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods, FUN3D and USM3D, were used to predict the wing performance. The goal of the X-57 wing and distributed electric propulsion system design was to meet or exceed the required lift coefficient 3.95 for a stall speed of 58 knots, with a cruise speed of 150 knots at an altitude of 8,000 ft. The X-57 Maxwell airplane was designed with a small, high aspect ratio cruise wing that was designed for a high cruise lift coefficient (0.75) at angle of attack of 0deg. The cruise propulsors at the wingtip rotate counter to the wingtip vortex and reduce induced drag by 7.5 percent at an angle of attack of 0.6deg. The unblown maximum lift coefficient of the high-lift wing (with the 30deg flap setting) is 2.439. The stall speed goal performance metric was confirmed with a blown wing computed effective lift coefficient of 4.202. The lift augmentation from the high-lift, distributed electric propulsion system is 1.7. The predicted cruise wing drag coefficient of 0.02191 is 0.00076 above the drag allotted for the wing in the original estimate. However, the predicted drag overage for the wing would only use 10.1 percent of the original estimated drag margin, which is 0.00749.

  11. Design and analysis pertaining to the aerodynamic and stability characteristics of a hybrid wing-body cargo aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan PRAKASH


    Full Text Available Recent trends in aircraft design research have resulted in development of many unconventional configurations mostly aimed at improving aerodynamic efficiency. The blended wing body (BWB is one such configuration that holds potential in this regard. In its current form the BWB although promises a better lift to drag (L/D ratio it is still not able to function to its maximum capability due to design modifications such as twist and reflexed airfoils to overcome stability problems in the absence of a tail. This work aims to maximize the impact of a BWB. A design approach of morphing the BWB with a conventional aft fuselage is proposed. Such a configuration intends to impart full freedom to the main wing and the blended forward fuselage to contribute in lift production while the conventional tail makes up for stability. The aft fuselage, meanwhile, also ensures that the aircraft is compatible with current loading and airdrop operations. This paper is the culmination of obtained models results and inferences from the first phase of the project wherein development of aerodynamic design and analysis methodologies and mission specific optimization have been undertaken.

  12. Vibration monitoring for aircraft wing model using fiber Bragg grating array packaged by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Xiaolong; He, Wei; Dong, Mingli; Zhu, Lianqing


    For the improvement of monitoring accuracy, a vibration monitoring for aircraft wing model using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array packaged by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is proposed. The working principle of the vibration monitoring using FBG array has been explained, which can theoretically support the idea of this paper. VARTM has been explained in detail, which is suitable for not only the single FBG sensor but also the FBG array within a relatively large area. The calibration experiment has been performed using the FBG sensor packaged by VARTM. The strain sensitivity of the VARTM package is 1.35 pm/μɛ and the linearity is 0.9999. The vibration monitoring experiment has been carried out using FBG array packaged by VARTM. The measured rate of strain changes across the aluminum test board used to simulate the aircraft wing is 0.69 μɛ/mm and the linearity is 0.9931. The damping ratio is 0.16, which could be further used for system performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that the vibration monitoring using FBG sensors packaged by VARTM can be efficiently used for the structural health monitoring. Given the validation and great performance, this method is quite promising for in-flight monitoring and holds great reference value in other similar engineering structures.

  13. Acoustical design economic trade off for transport aircraft (United States)

    Benito, A.

    The effects of ICAO fixed certification limits and local ordinances on acoustic emissions from jets on commercial transport aircraft and costs of operations are explored. The regulations effectively ban some aircraft from operation over populated areas, impose curfews on airports and, in conjunction with local civil aviation rules, levy extra taxes and quotas on noisier equipment. Jet engine manufacturers have attempted to increase the flow laminarity, decrease the exhaust speed and develop acoustic liners for selected duct areas. Retrofits are, however, not usually cost effective due to increased operational costs, e.g., fuel consumption can increase after engine modification because of increased weight. Finally, an attempt is made to assess, monetarily, the costs of noise pollution, wherein fines are levied for noisy aircraft and the money is spent insulating homes from noise.

  14. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft (United States)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.


    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E; $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  15. Comparison of High-Fidelity Computational Tools for Wing Design of a Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Viken, Sally A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Stoll, Alex M.


    A variety of tools, from fundamental to high order, have been used to better understand applications of distributed electric propulsion to aid the wing and propulsion system design of the Leading Edge Asynchronous Propulsion Technology (LEAPTech) project and the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Three high-fidelity, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes used during the project with results presented here are FUN3D, STAR-CCM+, and OVERFLOW. These codes employ various turbulence models to predict fully turbulent and transitional flow. Results from these codes are compared for two distributed electric propulsion configurations: the wing tested at NASA Armstrong on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck, and the wing designed for the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Results from these computational tools for the high-lift wing tested on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck and the X-57 high-lift wing presented compare reasonably well. The goal of the X-57 wing and distributed electric propulsion system design achieving or exceeding the required ?? (sub L) = 3.95 for stall speed was confirmed with all of the computational codes.

  16. Aircraft transporting container for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakami, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Minoru.


    The present invention concerns an air craft transporting container for nuclear fuels. A sealing container that seals a nuclear fuel container and constitutes a sealed boundary for the transporting container is incorporated in an inner container. Shock absorbers are filled for absorbing impact shock energy in the gap between the inner container and the sealing container. The inner container is incorporated with wooden impact shock absorbers being filled so that it is situated in a substantially central portion of an external container. Partitioning cylinders are disposed coaxially in the cylindrical layer filled with wooden impact shock absorbers at an intermediate portion between the outer and the inner containers. Further, a plurality of longitudinally intersecting partitioning disks are disposed each at a predetermined distance in right and left cylindrical wooden impact shock absorbing layers which are in contact with the end face of the inner container. Accordingly, the impact shock energy can be absorbed by the wooden impact shock absorbers efficiently by a plurality of the partitioning disks and the partitioning cylinders. (I.N.)

  17. Wing pressure distributions from subsonic tests of a high-wing transport model. [in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.


    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted on a generic, high-wing transport model in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This report contains pressure data that document effects of various model configurations and free-stream conditions on wing pressure distributions. The untwisted wing incorporated a full-span, leading-edge Krueger flap and a part-span, double-slotted trailing-edge flap system. The trailing-edge flap was tested at four different deflection angles (20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, and 60 deg). Four wing configurations were tested: cruise, flaps only, Krueger flap only, and high lift (Krueger flap and flaps deployed). Tests were conducted at free-stream dynamic pressures of 20 psf to 60 psf with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.22 x 10(exp 6) to 2.11 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20. The angles of attack presented range from 0 deg to 20 deg and were determined by wing configuration. The angle of sideslip ranged from minus 20 deg to 20 deg. In general, pressure distributions were relatively insensitive to free-stream speed with exceptions primarily at high angles of attack or high flap deflections. Increasing trailing-edge Krueger flap significantly reduced peak suction pressures and steep gradients on the wing at high angles of attack. Installation of the empennage had no effect on wing pressure distributions. Unpowered engine nacelles reduced suction pressures on the wing and the flaps.

  18. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III


    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  19. Flow structure and vorticity transport on a plunging wing (United States)

    Eslam Panah, Azar

    circulation, in magnitude, as the leading-edge shear layer flux. A small but non-negligible vorticity source was also attributed to spanwise flow toward the end of the downstroke. Preliminary measurements of the structure and dynamics of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) are also investigated for plunging finite-aspect-ratio wings at a chord Reynolds number of 10,000 while varying aspect ratio and root boundary condition. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements are used to characterize LEV dynamics and interactions with the plate in multiple chordwise planes. The relationship between the vorticity field and the spanwise flow field over the wing, and the influence of root boundary conditions on these quantities has been investigated. The viscous symmetry plane is found to influence this flow field, in comparison to other studies YiRo:2010,Vi:2011b,CaWaGuVi:2012, by influencing tilting of the LEV near the symmetry wall, and introducing a corewise root-to-tip flow near the symmetry plane. Modifications in the root boundary conditions are found to significantly affect this. LEV circulations for the different aspect ratio plates are also compared. At the bottom of the downstroke, the maximum circulation is found at the middle of the semi-span in each case. The circulation of the sAR=2 wing is found to significantly exceed that of the sAR=1 wing and, surprisingly, the maximum circulation value is found to be independent of root boundary conditions for thesAR=2 case and also closely matched that of the quasi-2D case. Furthermore, the 3-D flow field of a finite wing ofsAR=2 was characterized using three-dimensional reconstructions of planar PIV data after minimizing the gap between the plunging plate and the top stationary wall. The LEV on the finite wing rapidly evolved into an arch structure centered at approximately the 50% spanwise position, similar to previous observations by Calderon et al., and Yilmaz and Rockwell. At that location, the circulation contribution

  20. Parameterized Flight Mission for Secondary Power Requirement Estimations of Commercial Transport Aircraft


    Lampl, Thomas; Muschkorgel, Sandra; Hornung, Mirko;


    The trend towards More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) and the introduction of new system technologies lead to considerable changes at the system level of commercial transport aircraft. Because the number of systems and power requirements are increasing, the consideration and integration of aircraft systems in early aircraft design phases is important. The objective of this contribution is to develop a characteristic flight mission with modelled aircraft systems to estimate the secondary power requir...

  1. Analysis of Small Aircraft as a Transportation System (United States)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)


    An analysis was conducted to examine the market viability of small aircraft as a transportation mode in competition with automobile and scheduled commercial air travel by estimating the pool of users that would potentially switch to on-demand air travel due to cost/time savings. The basis for the analysis model was the Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool (IATSET) which was developed under contract to NASA by the Logistics Management Institute. IATSET is a macroeconomic model that predicts at a National level the mode choice between automobile, scheduled air, and on-demand air travel based on the value of a travelers time and monetary cost of the trip. A number of modifications are detailed to the original IATSET to better model the changing small aircraft environment. The potential trip market was modeled for the Eclipse 500 operated as a corporate jet and as an air taxi for the business travel market. The Cirrus 20R and a $80K single engine piston aircraft (based on automobile manufacturing technology) are evaluated in the pleasure and personal business travel market.

  2. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Stone, R. H.


    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after three years' service, and found to be performing satisfactorily. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft, including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 150 C service aft engine fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  3. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 2: Sections 7 through 11 (United States)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.


    The materials and advanced producibility methods that offer potential structural mass savings in the design of the primary structure for a supersonic cruise aircraft are identified and reported. A summary of the materials and fabrication techniques selected for this analytical effort is presented. Both metallic and composite material systems were selected for application to a near-term start-of-design technology aircraft. Selective reinforcement of the basic metallic structure was considered as the appropriate level of composite application for the near-term design.

  4. Next Generation Civil Transport Aircraft Design Considerations for Improving Vehicle and System-Level Efficiency (United States)

    Acosta, Diana M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Wahls, Richard A.; DelRosario, Ruben,


    The future of aviation will benefit from research in aircraft design and air transportation management aimed at improving efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. This paper presents civil transport aircraft design trends and opportunities for improving vehicle and system-level efficiency. Aircraft design concepts and the emerging technologies critical to reducing thrust specific fuel consumption, reducing weight, and increasing lift to drag ratio currently being developed by NASA are discussed. Advancements in the air transportation system aimed towards system-level efficiency are discussed as well. Finally, the paper describes the relationship between the air transportation system, aircraft, and efficiency. This relationship is characterized by operational constraints imposed by the air transportation system that influence aircraft design, and operational capabilities inherent to an aircraft design that impact the air transportation system.

  5. Emergency transport by aeromedical blimp.


    Cottrell, J. J.; Garrard, C.


    Recently there has been an explosive growth in the use of helicopters and fixed wing aircraft for the transportation of patients who are ill and injured. Although using such methods of transport may result in faster access to health care centres, their ultimate role for the civilian population is unclear. Unfortunately, there are many problems associated with aeromedical transport, particularly with rotary wing aircraft, which have shown an alarming tendency to crash. The use of lighter than ...

  6. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws (United States)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.


    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  7. Real-Time Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Low-Altitude Fixed-Wing Aircraft (United States)

    Owlia, Shahboddin

    The GeoSurv II is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) being developed by Carleton University and Sander Geophysics. This thesis is in support of the GeoSurv II project. The objective of the GeoSurv II project is to create a fully autonomous UAV capable of performing geophysical surveys. In order to achieve this level of autonomy, the UAV, which due to the nature of its surveys flies at low altitude, must be able to avoid potential obstacles such as trees, powerlines, telecommunication towers, etc. Developing a method to avoid these obstacles is the objective of this thesis. The literature is rich in methods for trajectory planning and mid-air collision avoidance with other aircraft. In contrast, in this thesis, a method for avoiding static obstacles that are not known a priori is developed. The potential flow theory and panel method are borrowed from fluid mechanics and are employed to generate evasive maneuvers when obstacles are encountered. By means of appropriate modelling of obstacles, the aircraft's constraints are taken into account such that the evasive maneuvers are feasible for the UAV. Moreover, the method is developed with consideration of the limitations of obstacle detection in GeoSurv II. Due to the unavailability of the GeoSurv II aircraft, and the lack of a complete model for GeoSurv II, the method developed is implemented on the non-linear model of the Aerosonde UAV. The Aerosonde model is then subjected to various obstacle scenarios and it is seen that the UAV successfully avoids the obstacles.

  8. Choice of coverage for restoration thermal mono rails mechanization aircraft wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.О. Краля


    Full Text Available  The main tribotechnical characteristics of plasm gasthermal retraction – coatings for restoration of monorail of alloy BT-22 for extension of flaps and slats of modern aircraft are analysed. The parameters of fretting-resistance and adheasive strength of coatings are determined. It is estaflished that the optimal coating is a coating of molibdenum. The results are especially actual for modern aviation industry, as for nowadays there is no common opinion about the given assembly restoration. The monorail recovery of high lift devices by means of plasm covering gives signiticant economic effect and economy of material.

  9. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 2; Applications (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.


    In this paper, preliminary studies on two turbine engine applications relevant to the tilt-rotor rotary wing aircraft are performed. The first case-study is the application of variable pitch turbine for the turbine performance improvement when operating at a substantially lower shaft speed. The calculations are made on the 75 percent speed and the 50 percent speed of operations. Our results indicate that with the use of the variable pitch turbines, a nominal (3 percent (probable) to 5 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 75 percent speed, and a notable (6 percent (probable) to 12 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 50 percent speed, without sacrificing the turbine power productions, are achievable if the technical difficulty of turning the turbine vanes and blades can be circumvented. The second casestudy is the contingency turbine power generation for the tilt-rotor aircraft in the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) scenario. For this study, calculations are performed on two promising methods: throttle push and steam injection. By isolating the power turbine and limiting its air mass flow rate to be no more than the air flow intake of the take-off operation, while increasing the turbine inlet total temperature (simulating the throttle push) or increasing the air-steam mixture flow rate (simulating the steam injection condition), our results show that an amount of 30 to 45 percent extra power, to the nominal take-off power, can be generated by either of the two methods. The methods of approach, the results, and discussions of these studies are presented in this paper.

  10. Subscale Winged Rocket Development and Application to Future Reusable Space Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi YONEMOTO


    Full Text Available Kyushu Institute of Technology has been studying unmanned suborbital winged rocket called WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket and its research subjects concerning aerodynamics, NGC (Navigation, Guidance and Control, cryogenic composite tanks etc., and conducting flight demonstration of small winged rocket since 2005. WIRES employs the original aerodynamic shape of HIMES (HIghly Maneuverable Experimental Sounding rocket studied by ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 1980s. This paper presents the preliminary design of subscale non-winged and winged rockets called WIRES#013 and WIRES#015, respectively, that are developed in collaboration with JAXA, USC (University of Southern California, UTEP (University of Texas at El Paso and Japanese industries. WIRES#013 is a conventional pre-test rocket propelled by two IPA-LOX (Isopropyl Alcohol and Liquid Oxygen engines under development by USC. It has the total length of 4.6m, and the weight of 1000kg to reach the altitude of about 6km. The flight objective is validation of the telemetry and ground communication system, recovery parachute system, and launch operation of liquid engine. WIRES#015, which has the same length of WIRES#013 and the weight of 1000kg, is a NGC technology demonstrator propelled by a fully expander-cycle LOX-Methane engine designed and developed by JAXA to reach the altitude more than 6km. The flight tests of both WIRES#013 and WIRES#015 will be conducted at the launch facility of FAR (Friends of Amateur Rocketry, Inc., which is located at Mojave Desert of California in United States of America, in May 2018 and March 2019 respectively. After completion of WIRES#015 flight tests, the suborbital demonstrator called WIRES-X will be developed and its first flight test well be performed in 2020. Its application to future fully reusable space transportation systems, such as suborbital space tour vehicles and two

  11. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements (United States)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.


    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  12. Optimization of composite tiltrotor wings with extensions and winglets (United States)

    Kambampati, Sandilya

    Tiltrotors suffer from an aeroelastic instability during forward flight called whirl flutter. Whirl flutter is caused by the whirling motion of the rotor, characterized by highly coupled wing-rotor-pylon modes of vibration. Whirl flutter is a major obstacle for tiltrotors in achieving high-speed flight. The conventional approach to assure adequate whirl flutter stability margins for tiltrotors is to design the wings with high torsional stiffness, typically using 23% thickness-to-chord ratio wings. However, the large aerodynamic drag associated with these high thickness-to-chord ratio wings decreases aerodynamic efficiency and increases fuel consumption. Wingtip devices such as wing extensions and winglets have the potential to increase the whirl flutter characteristics and the aerodynamic efficiency of a tiltrotor. However, wing-tip devices can add more weight to the aircraft. In this study, multi-objective parametric and optimization methodologies for tiltrotor aircraft with wing extensions and winglets are investigated. The objectives are to maximize aircraft aerodynamic efficiency while minimizing weight penalty due to extensions and winglets, subject to whirl flutter constraints. An aeroelastic model that predicts the whirl flutter speed and a wing structural model that computes strength and weight of a composite wing are developed. An existing aerodynamic model (that predicts the aerodynamic efficiency) is merged with the developed structural and aeroelastic models for the purpose of conducting parametric and optimization studies. The variables of interest are the wing thickness and structural properties, and extension and winglet planform variables. The Bell XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft the chosen as the parent aircraft for this study. Parametric studies reveal that a wing extension of span 25% of the inboard wing increases the whirl flutter speed by 10% and also increases the aircraft aerodynamic efficiency by 8%. Structurally tapering the wing of a tiltrotor

  13. Applicability of a panel method, which includes nonlinear effects, to a forward-swept-wing aircraft (United States)

    Ross, J. C.


    The ability of a lower order panel method VSAERO, to accurately predict the lift and pitching moment of a complete forward-swept-wing/canard configuration was investigated. The program can simulate nonlinear effects including boundary-layer displacement thickness, wake roll up, and to a limited extent, separated wakes. The predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using a small-scale model in the 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. For the particular configuration under investigation, wake roll up had only a small effect on the force and moment predictions. The effect of the displacement thickness modeling was to reduce the lift curve slope slightly, thus bringing the predicted lift into good agreement with the measured value. Pitching moment predictions were also improved by the boundary-layer simulation. The separation modeling was found to be sensitive to user inputs, but appears to give a reasonable representation of a separated wake. In general, the nonlinear capabilities of the code were found to improve the agreement with experimental data. The usefullness of the code would be enhanced by improving the reliability of the separated wake modeling and by the addition of a leading edge separation model.

  14. Flight Flutter Testing of Rotary Wing Aircraft Using a Control System Oscillation Technique (United States)

    Yen, J. G.; Viswanathan, S.; Matthys, C. G.


    A flight flutter testing technique is described in which the rotor controls are oscillated by series actuators to excite the rotor and airframe modes of interest, which are then allowed to decay. The moving block technique is then used to determine the damped frequency and damping variation with rotor speed. The method proved useful for tracking the stability of relatively well damped modes. The results of recently completed flight tests of an experimental soft-in-plane rotor are used to illustrate the technique. Included is a discussion of the application of this technique to investigation of the propeller whirl flutter stability characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 VTOL tilt rotor research aircraft.

  15. Probability of detection for bolt hole eddy current in extracted from service aircraft wing structures (United States)

    Underhill, P. R.; Uemura, C.; Krause, T. W.


    Fatigue cracks are prone to develop around fasteners found in multi-layer aluminum structures on aging aircraft. Bolt hole eddy current (BHEC) is used for detection of cracks from within bolt holes after fastener removal. In support of qualification towards a target a90/95 (detect 90% of cracks of depth a, 95% of the time) of 0.76 mm (0.030"), a preliminary probability of detection (POD) study was performed to identify those parameters whose variation may keep a bolt hole inspection from attaining its goal. Parameters that were examined included variability in lift-off due to probe type, out-of-round holes, holes with diameters too large to permit surface-contact of the probe and mechanical damage to the holes, including burrs. The study examined the POD for BHEC of corner cracks in unfinished fastener holes extracted from service material. 68 EDM notches were introduced into two specimens of a horizontal stabilizer from a CC-130 Hercules aircraft. The fastener holes were inspected in the unfinished state, simulating potential inspection conditions, by 7 certified inspectors using a manual BHEC setup with an impedance plane display and also with one inspection conducted utilizing a BHEC automated C-Scan apparatus. While the standard detection limit of 1.27 mm (0.050") was achieved, given the a90/95 of 0.97 mm (0.039"), the target 0.76 mm (0.030") was not achieved. The work highlighted a number of areas where there was insufficient information to complete the qualification. Consequently, a number of recommendations were made. These included; development of a specification for minimum probe requirements; criteria for condition of the hole to be inspected, including out-of-roundness and presence of corrosion pits; statement of range of hole sizes; inspection frequency and data display for analysis.

  16. Hybrid Axial and Cross-Flow Fan Propulsion for Transonic Blended Wing Body Aircraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of the next century of aviation will require innovative and revolutionary concepts to meet air transportation demands. One NASA vision for future...

  17. Sensitivity of Mission Energy Consumption to Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Design Assumptions on the N3-X Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael T.; Chu, Julio


    In a previous study by the authors it was shown that the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system, was able to meet the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project goal for N+3 generation aircraft of at least a 60% reduction in total energy consumption as compared to the best in class current generation aircraft. This previous study combined technology assumptions that represented the highest anticipated values that could be matured to technology readiness level (TRL) 4-6 by 2030. This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of the total mission energy consumption to reductions in each key technology assumption. Of the parameters examined, the mission total energy consumption was most sensitive to changes to total pressure loss in the propulsor inlet. The baseline inlet internal pressure loss is assumed to be an optimistic 0.5%. An inlet pressure loss of 3% increases the total energy consumption 9%. However changes to reduce inlet pressure loss can result in additional distortion to the fan which can reduce fan efficiency or vice versa. It is very important that the inlet and fan be analyzed and optimized as a single unit. The turboshaft hot section is assumed to be made of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) with a 3000 F maximum material temperature. Reducing the maximum material temperature to 2700 F increases the mission energy consumption by only 1.5%. Thus achieving a 3000 F temperature in CMCs is important but not central to achieving the energy consumption objective of the N3-X/TeDP. A key parameter in the efficiency of superconducting motors and generators is the size of the superconducting filaments in the stator. The size of the superconducting filaments in the baseline model is assumed to be 10 microns. A 40 micron filament, which represents current technology, results in a 200% increase in AC losses in the motor and generator stators. This analysis shows that for a system with 40

  18. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: flight service and inspection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizer, J.A.


    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force

  19. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodies commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Stone, R. H.


    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 9 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The fairings have accumulated a total of 70,000 hours, with one ship set having over 24,000 hours service. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  20. High accuracy mapping with cartographic assessment for a fixed-wing remotely piloted aircraft system (United States)

    Alves Júnior, Leomar Rufino; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Côrtes, João Batista Ramos; de Castro Jorge, Lúcio André


    The lack of updated maps on large scale representations has encouraged the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to generate maps for a wide range of professionals. However, some questions arise: do the orthomosaics generated by these systems have the cartographic precision required to use them? Which problems can be identified in stitching orthophotos to generate orthomosaics? To answer these questions, an aerophotogrammetric survey was conducted in an environmental conservation unit in the city of Goiânia. The flight plan was set up using the E-motion software, provided by Sensefly-a Swiss manufacturer of the RPAS Swinglet CAM used in this work. The camera installed in the RPAS was the Canon IXUS 220 HS, with the number of pixels in the sensor array of 12.1 megapixel, complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1 ∶ 2.3 ? (4000 × 3000 pixel), horizontal and vertical pixel sizes of 1.54 μm. Using the orthophotos, four orthomosaics were generated in the Pix4D mapper software. The first orthomosaic was generated without using the control points. The other three mosaics were generated using 4, 8, and 16 premarked ground control points. To check the precision and accuracy of the orthomosaics, 46 premarked targets were uniformly distributed in the block. The three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of the premarked targets were read on the orthomosaic and compared with the coordinates obtained by the geodetic survey real-time kinematic positioning method using the global navigation satellite system receiver signals. The cartographic accuracy standard was evaluated by discrepancies between these coordinates. The bias was analyzed by the Student's t test and the accuracy by the chi-square probability considering the orthomosaic on a scale of 1 ∶ 250, in which 90% of the points tested must have a planimetric error of control points the scale was 10-fold smaller (1 ∶ 3000).

  1. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang


    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  2. Pressure distribution data from tests of 2.29 M (7.5 feet) span EET high-lift transport aircraft model in the Ames 12-foot pressure tunnel (United States)

    Kjelgaard, S. O.; Morgan, H. L., Jr.


    A high-lift transport aircraft model equipped with full-span leading-edge slat and part-span double-slotted trailing-edge flap was tested in the Ames 12-ft pressure tunnel to determine the low-speed performance characteristics of a representative high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing. These tests were performed in support of the Energy Efficient Transport (EET) program which is one element of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) project. Static longitudinal forces and moments and chordwise pressure distributions at three spanwise stations were measured for cruise, climb, two take-off flap, and two landing flap wing configurations. The tabulated and plotted pressure distribution data is presented without analysis or discussion.

  3. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes based ice accretion for aircraft wings (United States)

    Lashkajani, Kazem Hasanzadeh

    This thesis addresses one of the current issues in flight safety towards increasing icing simulation capabilities for prediction of complex 2D and 3D glaze ice shapes over aircraft surfaces. During the 1980's and 1990's, the field of aero-icing was established to support design and certification of aircraft flying in icing conditions. The multidisciplinary technologies used in such codes were: aerodynamics (panel method), droplet trajectory calculations (Lagrangian framework), thermodynamic module (Messinger model) and geometry module (ice accretion). These are embedded in a quasi-steady module to simulate the time-dependent ice accretion process (multi-step procedure). The objectives of the present research are to upgrade the aerodynamic module from Laplace to Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes equations solver. The advantages are many. First, the physical model allows accounting for viscous effects in the aerodynamic module. Second, the solution of the aero-icing module directly provides the means for characterizing the aerodynamic effects of icing, such as loss of lift and increased drag. Third, the use of a finite volume approach to solving the Partial Differential Equations allows rigorous mesh and time convergence analysis. Finally, the approaches developed in 2D can be easily transposed to 3D problems. The research was performed in three major steps, each providing insights into the overall numerical approaches. The most important realization comes from the need to develop specific mesh generation algorithms to ensure feasible solutions in very complex multi-step aero-icing calculations. The contributions are presented in chronological order of their realization. First, a new framework for RANS based two-dimensional ice accretion code, CANICE2D-NS, is developed. A multi-block RANS code from U. of Liverpool (named PMB) is providing the aerodynamic field using the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The ICEM-CFD commercial tool is used for the iced airfoil

  4. Development of selected advanced aerodynamics and active control concepts for commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Taylor, A. B.


    Work done under the Energy Efficient Transport project in the field of advanced aerodynamics and active controls is summarized. The project task selections focused on the following: the investigation of long-duct nacelle shape variation on interference drag; the investigation of the adequacy of a simple control law for the elastic modes of a wing; the development of the aerodynamic technology at cruise and low speed of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings of high performance; and the development of winglets for a second-generation jet transport. All the tasks involved analysis and substantial wind tunnel testing. The winglet program also included flight evaluation. It is considered that the technology base has been built for the application of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings and for the use of winglets on second-generation transports.

  5. Transport of expiratory droplets in an aircraft cabin. (United States)

    Gupta, Jitendra K; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Chen, Qingyan


    The droplets exhaled by an index patient with infectious disease such as influenza or tuberculosis may be the carriers of contagious agents. Indoor environments such as the airliner cabins may be susceptible to infection from such airborne contagious agents. The present investigation computed the transport of the droplets exhaled by the index patient seated in the middle of a seven-row, twin-aisle, fully occupied cabin using the CFD simulations. The droplets exhaled were from a single cough, a single breath, and a 15-s talk of the index patient. The expiratory droplets were tracked by using Lagrangian method, and their evaporation was modeled. It was found that the bulk airflow pattern in the cabin played the most important role on the droplet transport. The droplets were contained in the row before, at, and after the index patient within 30 s and dispersed uniformly to all the seven rows in 4 minutes. The total airborne droplet fraction reduced to 48, 32, 20, and 12% after they entered the cabin for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, because of the ventilation from the environmental control system. It is critical to predict the risk of airborne infection to take appropriate measures to control and mitigate the risk. Most of the studies in past either assume a homogenous distribution of contaminants or use steady-state conditions. The present study instead provides information on the transient movement of the droplets exhaled by an index passenger in an aircraft cabin. These droplets may contain active contagious agents and can be potent enough to cause infection. The findings can be used by medical professionals to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of risk of infection to various passengers in the cabin. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. A study to define the research and technology requirements for advanced turbo/propfan transport aircraft (United States)

    Goldsmith, I. M.


    The feasibility of the propfan relative to the turbofan is summarized, using the Douglas DC-9 Super 80 (DS-8000) as the actual operational base aircraft. The 155 passenger economy class aircraft (31,775 lb 14,413 kg payload), cruise Mach at 0.80 at 31,000 ft (8,450 m) initial altitude, and an operational capability in 1985 was considered. Three propfan arrangements, wing mounted, conventional horizontal tail aft mounted, and aft fuselage pylon mounted are selected for comparison with the DC-9 Super 80 P&WA JT8D-209 turbofan powered aircraft. The configuration feasibility, aerodynamics, propulsion, structural loads, structural dynamics, sonic fatigue, acoustics, weight maintainability, performance, rough order of magnitude economics, and airline coordination are examined. The effects of alternate cruise Mach number, mission stage lengths, and propfan design characteristics are considered. Recommendations for further study, ground testing, and flight testing are included.

  7. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design (United States)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.


    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  8. Laser illumination of helicopters : a comparative analysis with fixed-wing aircraft for the period 1980 - 2011. (United States)


    INTRODUCTION. Laser illuminations of aircraft have resulted in pilots reporting distraction, disruption, disorientation, adverse visual effects, and operational problems that put at risk the safety of the aircraft and those onboard. FAA Order 7400.2 ...

  9. The development of a closed-loop flight controller with panel method integration for gust alleviation using biomimetic feathers on aircraft wings (United States)

    Blower, Christopher J.; Lee, Woody; Wickenheiser, Adam M.


    This paper presents the development of a biomimetic closed-loop flight controller that integrates gust alleviation and flight control into a single distributed system. Modern flight controllers predominantly rely on and respond to perturbations in the global states, resulting in rotation or displacement of the entire aircraft prior to the response. This bio-inspired gust alleviation system (GAS) employs active deflection of electromechanical feathers that react to changes in the airflow, i.e. the local states. The GAS design is a skeletal wing structure with a network of featherlike panels installed on the wing's surfaces, creating the airfoil profile and replacing the trailing-edge flaps. In this study, a dynamic model of the GAS-integrated wing is simulated to compute gust-induced disturbances. The system implements continuous adjustment to flap orientation to perform corrective responses to inbound gusts. MATLAB simulations, using a closed-loop LQR integrated with a 2D adaptive panel method, allow analysis of the morphing structure's aerodynamic data. Non-linear and linear dynamic models of the GAS are compared to a traditional single control surface baseline wing. The feedback loops synthesized rely on inertial changes in the global states; however, variations in number and location of feather actuation are compared. The bio-inspired system's distributed control effort allows the flight controller to interchange between the single and dual trailing edge flap profiles, thereby offering an improved efficiency to gust response in comparison to the traditional wing configuration. The introduction of aero-braking during continuous gusting flows offers a 25% reduction in x-velocity deviation; other flight parameters can be reduced in magnitude and deviation through control weighting optimization. Consequently, the GAS demonstrates enhancements to maneuverability and stability in turbulent intensive environments.

  10. Why Has the Cost of Fixed-Wing Aircraft Risen? A Macroscopic Examination of the Trends in U.S. Military Aircraft Costs over the Past Several Decades (United States)


    simple,” is the share of airframe structure that is neither tita - nium nor composite material. Unfortunately, only 49 of the 93 aircraft with...of airframe materials (or as simpler materials decrease), aircraft unit cost increases. Increasing the proportion of tita - nium and composite

  11. Wind data collected by a fixed-wing aircraft in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone over the south China coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, P.W.; Hon, K.K. [Hong Kong Observatory, Kowloon, HK (China); Foster, S. [Aventech Research Inc., Ontario (Canada)


    The fixed-wing aircraft of Government Flying Service of the Hong Kong Government has recently equipped with an upgraded meteorological measuring system. This system provides horizontal wind velocity components up to 90 m/s at an accuracy of 0.5 m/s for straight and level flight. Besides search and rescue (SAR) missions, this aircraft is also used for windshear and turbulence investigation flights at the Hong Kong International Airport. In a SAR operation in July 2009, the aircraft flew close to the eye of tropical cyclone Molave, when it was located at about 200 km to the east of Hong Kong over the south China coastal waters. The aircraft provided valuable information about the winds in association with Molave because aircraft reconnaissance for tropical cyclones is not carried out for South China Sea. Based on the aircraft measurements, the 1-second mean wind reached the maximum value of 88 knots at a height of 200 m above mean sea level. Assuming a power law with altitude with an exponent of 0.11 over open waters, the corresponding 1-second mean wind at a height of 10 m would be about 63 knots. The maximum 10-minute mean wind reached 69 knots with an average height of 260 m above mean sea level. The corresponding mean at 10 m would be about 48 knots. As such, based on the aircraft measurements (in which the aircraft might not fly into the areas of maximum winds associated with the tropical cyclone), Molave had at least a strength of tropical storm to severe tropical storm at the times of the measurements. Nowadays, the determination of the intensity of tropical cyclones over the South China Sea is normally based on remote sensing data only (e.g. radar and satellite observations). To the knowledge of the authors, the results presented in the paper are the first time that direct measurements of the winds near the centre of a tropical cyclone over the northern part of the South China Sea are made with an aircraft. Apart from the mean wind and gust, other properties

  12. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Using Distributed Propulsion (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Reynolds, Kevin Wayne (Inventor); Ting, Eric B. (Inventor)


    An aircraft has wings configured to twist during flight. Inboard and outboard propulsion devices, such as turbofans or other propulsors, are connected to each wing, and are spaced along the wing span. A flight controller independently controls thrust of the inboard and outboard propulsion devices to significantly change flight dynamics, including changing thrust of outboard propulsion devices to twist the wing, and to differentially apply thrust on each wing to change yaw and other aspects of the aircraft during various stages of a flight mission. One or more generators can be positioned upon the wing to provide power for propulsion devices on the same wing, and on an opposite wing.

  13. Propulsion Study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) (United States)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Staton, D. V.; Stolp, P. C.; Huelster, D. S.; Zolezzi, B. A.


    Propulsion requirements were determined for 0.5 and 0.7 Mach aircraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted on both these aircraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size and direct operating cost (DOC). Candidate technology elements and design features were identified and parametric studies conducted to select the STAT advanced engine cycle. Trade off studies were conducted to determine those advanced technologies and design features that would offer a reduction in DOC for operation of the STAT engines. These features were incorporated in the two STAT engines. A benefit assessment was conducted comparing the STAT engines to current technology engines of the same power and to 1985 derivatives of the current technology engines. Research and development programs were recommended as part of an overall technology development plan to ensure that full commercial development of the STAT engines could be initiated in 1988.

  14. Aircraft Emission Scenarios Projected in Year 2015 for the NASA Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) High Speed Civil Transport (United States)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.


    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCTs) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The HSCT scenarios are calculated using the NASA technology concept airplane (TCA) and update an earlier report. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer pressure altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  15. Fuel containment and damage tolerance for large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 1: Testing (United States)

    Sandifer, J. P.


    Technical problems associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite material wings for transport aircraft were identified. The major tasks are the following: (1) the preliminary design of damage tolerant wing surface using composite materials; (2) the evaluation of fuel sealing and lightning protection methods for a composite material wing; and (3) an experimental investigation of the damage tolerant characteristics of toughened resin graphite/epoxy materials. The test results, the test techniques, and the test data are presented.

  16. Emergency transport by aeromedical blimp. (United States)

    Cottrell, J J; Garrard, C


    Recently there has been an explosive growth in the use of helicopters and fixed wing aircraft for the transportation of patients who are ill and injured. Although using such methods of transport may result in faster access to health care centres, their ultimate role for the civilian population is unclear. Unfortunately, there are many problems associated with aeromedical transport, particularly with rotary wing aircraft, which have shown an alarming tendency to crash. The use of lighter than air vehicles (blimps, hot air balloons) might offer most of the advantages of conventional aieromedical transport, with an appreciable improvement in safety.

  17. Personal Aircraft Point to the Future of Transportation (United States)


    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs, as well as a number of Agency innovations, have helped Duluth, Minnesota-based Cirrus Design Corporation become one of the world's leading manufacturers of general aviation aircraft. SBIRs with Langley Research Center provided the company with cost-effective composite airframe manufacturing methods, while crashworthiness testing at the Center increased the safety of its airplanes. Other NASA-derived technologies on Cirrus SR20 and SR22 aircraft include synthetic vision systems that help pilots navigate and full-plane parachutes that have saved the lives of more than 30 Cirrus pilots and passengers to date. Today, the SR22 is the world's top-selling Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-certified single-engine airplane.

  18. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Stone, R. H.


    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 10 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left-hand and right-hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 79,568 hours, with one ship set having nearly 28,000 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history obtained in this program indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  19. Study of fuel systems for LH2-fueled subsonic transport aircraft, volume 1 (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Davis, G. W.; Versaw, E. F.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.; Riple, J. C.; Baerst, C. F.; Garmong, G.


    Several engine concepts examined to determine a preferred design which most effectively exploits the characteristics of hydrogen fuel in aircraft tanks received major emphasis. Many candidate designs of tank structure and cryogenic insulation systems were evaluated. Designs of all major elements of the aircraft fuel system including pumps, lines, valves, regulators, and heat exchangers received attention. Selected designs of boost pumps to be mounted in the LH2 tanks, and of a high pressure pump to be mounted on the engine were defined. A final design of LH2-fueled transport aircraft was established which incorporates a preferred design of fuel system. That aircraft was then compared with a conventionally fueled counterpart designed to equivalent technology standards.

  20. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.


    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  1. Development of the Transport Class Model (TCM) Aircraft Simulation From a Sub-Scale Generic Transport Model (GTM) Simulation (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.


    A six degree-of-freedom, flat-earth dynamics, non-linear, and non-proprietary aircraft simulation was developed that is representative of a generic mid-sized twin-jet transport aircraft. The simulation was developed from a non-proprietary, publicly available, subscale twin-jet transport aircraft simulation using scaling relationships and a modified aerodynamic database. The simulation has an extended aerodynamics database with aero data outside the normal transport-operating envelope (large angle-of-attack and sideslip values). The simulation has representative transport aircraft surface actuator models with variable rate-limits and generally fixed position limits. The simulation contains a generic 40,000 lb sea level thrust engine model. The engine model is a first order dynamic model with a variable time constant that changes according to simulation conditions. The simulation provides a means for interfacing a flight control system to use the simulation sensor variables and to command the surface actuators and throttle position of the engine model.

  2. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.


    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  3. Advanced Techniques in Crash Impact Protection and Emergency Egress from Air Transport Aircraft (United States)


    Lift Technology program for generating commercial transport innovation . However, the YC-15 military version with a high wing and Mach 0.75 cruise...survival technology is constantly changing as new materials, techniques, innovations , and requirements are developed. Nevertheless, the most valid data Propriete Industrielle , No. 331 926, May 11, 1903. 784. Robbins, D.H., V.L Roberts, A.W. Henke, B.F. Raney, R.O. Bennett, and J.H. McElhaney


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The controllability of military transport aircraft deteriorates at heavy single piece landing. To solve this problem and a specific methodology for pilotage of the pre-emption, and automation tools are being developed. Preliminary study ofpilotage technique and authomatic control algorythm demand a reliable mathematical model of aircraft dynamics at cargo item drop. Such model should take into account significant change in the position of the aircraft center of mass and aircraft inertia tensor. Simplified models were based on modeling the movement of the center of mass and rotation around the cen- ter of mass of the aircraft. Such models do not take into account the inertial forces and moments of moving a cargo item. This circumstance does not allow to obtain reliable results in the simulation. The article presents the description of the complete mathematical model of the movement of military transport aircraft in landing of a cargo item. Examines the com- plex material system of solids and a detailed description of the properties of its components. The equations of motion of the aircraft as a system carrier (aircraft without a cargo item and wear (of moving a cargo item bodies to reflect the changes in the inertia tensor. The functioning of the power plant, steering actuators, flight control system, an exhaust chute, the sen- sors of the primary information are taken into account. The equations of motion for systems of bodies projected on the air- craft reference plane are being recorded. This approach takes into account changes of the inertia tensor and the position of the main central axes of inertia in the process of landing of a cargo item. It allows us to simulate the condition of the air- craft at all speeds of the pitch, normal overload, and masses of single piece and placement, as evidenced by the high con- vergence of modeling results with data from flight tests.

  5. An Experimental Study into Pylon, Wing, and Flap Installation Effects on Jet Noise Generated by Commercial Aircraft (United States)

    Perrino, Michael

    A pylon bottom bifurcation and a wing with variable flaps were designed and built to attach to a scaled model of a coaxial exhaust nozzle system. The presence of the pylon bifurcation, wing, and flaps modify the characteristics of the exhaust flow forc- ing asymmetric flow and acoustics. A parametric study was carried out for assessing and relating the flow field characteristics to the near-field pressure and far-field acous- tic spectra. The flow field was investigated experimentally using both stream-wise and cross-stream PIV techniques where the near-field pressure and far-field acoustic spectra were measured using microphone arrays. Contour mapping of the flow field characteristics (e.g. mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy levels) and near-field acoustics with and without installation effects were used to explain the changes in the far-field acoustics.

  6. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles, summary. [aircraft design of aircraft fuel systems (United States)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Baker, A. H.; Stone, J. E.


    A detailed analytical study was made to investigate the effects of fuselage cross section (circular and elliptical) and the structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on aircraft performance. The vehicle was a 200 passenger, liquid hydrogen fueled Mach 6 transport designed to meet a range goal of 9.26 Mn (5000 NM). A variety of trade studies were conducted in the area of configuration arrangement, structural design, and active cooling design in order to maximize the performance of each of three point design aircraft: (1) circular wing-body with nonintegral tanks, (2) circular wing-body with integral tanks and (3) elliptical blended wing-body with integral tanks. Aircraft range and weight were used as the basis for comparison. The resulting design and performance characteristics show that the blended body integral tank aircraft weights the least and has the greatest range capability, however, producibility and maintainability factors favor nonintegral tank concepts.

  7. Large Scale Applications Using FBG Sensors: Determination of In-Flight Loads and Shape of a Composite Aircraft Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Nicolas


    Full Text Available Technological advances have enabled the development of a number of optical fiber sensing methods over the last few years. The most prevalent optical technique involves the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. These small, lightweight sensors have many attributes that enable their use for a number of measurement applications. Although much literature is available regarding the use of FBGs for laboratory level testing, few publications in the public domain exist of their use at the operational level. Therefore, this paper gives an overview of the implementation of FBG sensors for large scale structures and applications. For demonstration, a case study is presented in which FBGs were used to determine the deflected wing shape and the out-of-plane loads of a 5.5-m carbon-composite wing of an ultralight aerial vehicle. The in-plane strains from the 780 FBG sensors were used to obtain the out-of-plane loads as well as the wing shape at various load levels. The calculated out-of-plane displacements and loads were within 4.2% of the measured data. This study demonstrates a practical method in which direct measurements are used to obtain critical parameters from the high distribution of FBG sensors. This procedure can be used to obtain information for structural health monitoring applications to quantify healthy vs. unhealthy structures.

  8. Multidisciplinary Optimization of a Transport Aircraft Wing using Particle Swarm Optimization (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Venter, Gerhard


    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of particle swarm optimization to a realistic multidisciplinary optimization test problem. The paper's new contributions to multidisciplinary optimization is the application of a new algorithm for dealing with the unique challenges associated with multidisciplinary optimization problems, and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm in future multidisciplinary optimization applications. The selected example is a bi-level optimization problem that demonstrates severe numerical noise and has a combination of continuous and truly discrete design variables. The use of traditional gradient-based optimization algorithms is thus not practical. The numerical results presented indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm is able to reliably find the optimum design for the problem presented here. The algorithm is capable of dealing with the unique challenges posed by multidisciplinary optimization as well as the numerical noise and truly discrete variables present in the current example problem.

  9. Flight Dynamics of Flexible Aircraft with Aeroelastic and Inertial Force Interactions (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Tuzcu, Ilhan


    This paper presents an integrated flight dynamic modeling method for flexible aircraft that captures coupled physics effects due to inertial forces, aeroelasticity, and propulsive forces that are normally present in flight. The present approach formulates the coupled flight dynamics using a structural dynamic modeling method that describes the elasticity of a flexible, twisted, swept wing using an equivalent beam-rod model. The structural dynamic model allows for three types of wing elastic motion: flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion. Inertial force coupling with the wing elasticity is formulated to account for aircraft acceleration. The structural deflections create an effective aeroelastic angle of attack that affects the rigid-body motion of flexible aircraft. The aeroelastic effect contributes to aerodynamic damping forces that can influence aerodynamic stability. For wing-mounted engines, wing flexibility can cause the propulsive forces and moments to couple with the wing elastic motion. The integrated flight dynamics for a flexible aircraft are formulated by including generalized coordinate variables associated with the aeroelastic-propulsive forces and moments in the standard state-space form for six degree-of-freedom flight dynamics. A computational structural model for a generic transport aircraft has been created. The eigenvalue analysis is performed to compute aeroelastic frequencies and aerodynamic damping. The results will be used to construct an integrated flight dynamic model of a flexible generic transport aircraft.

  10. Transport Mechanisms Governing initial Leading-Edge Vortex Development on a Pitching Wing (United States)

    Wabick, Kevin; Berdon, Randall; Buchholz, James; Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian


    The formation and evolution of Leading Edge Vortices (LEVs) are ubiquitous in natural fliers and maneuvering wings, and have a profound impact on aerodynamic loads. The formation of an LEV is experimentally investigated on a pitching flat-plate wing of aspect-ratio 2, and dimensionless pitch rates of k = Ωc / 2 U of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5, at a Reynolds number of 104. The sources and sinks of vorticity that contribute to the growth and evolution of the LEV are investigated at spanwise regions of interest, and their relative balance is compared to other wing kinematics, and the case of a two-dimensional pitching wing. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant Number FA9550-16-1-0107, Dr. Douglas Smith, program manager).

  11. Assembly and Initial Analysis of a Database of the Characteristics of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    directly (e.g. on their websites or in brochures ) or, in its absence, by Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft: Unmanned [15], as the data it provides is...Proposer Information Pamphlet (PIP) for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) Nano Air Vehicle (NAV

  12. Identification of Thrust, Lift, and Drag for Deep-stall Flight Data of a Fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunis, Torbjørn; Leth, Tobias; Totu, Luminita Cristiana


    In this paper, we consider a small unmanned aircraft and data collected during regular and deep-stall flight. We present an identification method for the thrust force generated by the propulsion system based on the in-flight measurements where we make use of the well-known linear and quadratic...... force estimation in the full flight envelope....

  13. Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology Advanced Rotary Wing Aircraft. System/Segment Specification. Volume 1. Simulation System Module (United States)


    overhead water sprinklers in enclosed personnel areas not already protected by existing facility fire suppression systems. Sprinkler systems shall not...facilitate future changes and updates to remain current with the application aircraft. 3.4.4 Availabilit . The ARWA SS shall be designed and constructed to

  14. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These provisions are established on the basis of the Enforcement Regulation for the Law on Aviation. Terms are explained, such as exclusive loading and containers. Spontaneously ignitable liquid radioactive materials and the radioactive substances required to be contained in special vessels and others particularly operated during the transport, are excluded from the radioactive materials permissible for transport. The radioactive substances required to be transported as radioactive loadings don't include empty vessels used to contain radioactive materials and other things contaminated by such materials, when they conform to the prescriptions. The technical standards on radioactive loadings are defined, such as maximum radiation dose rate of 0.5 millirem per hour on the surface of L type loadings, 200 millirem per hour for A, and 1000 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 m for BM and BU types, respectively. Confirmation of the safeness of radioactive loadings may be made through the written documents prepared by the competent persons acknowledged by the Minister of Transport. The requisite of fissile loadings is that such loadings shall not reach critical state during the transport in the specified cases. Radioactive loadings or the containers with such loadings shall be loaded so that the safeness of such loadings is not injured by movement, overturn and fall during the transport. The maximum radiation dose rate of the containers with radioactive loadings shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface. The written documents describing the handling method and other matters for attention and the measures to be taken on accidents shall be carried with for the transport of radioactive loadings. (Okada, K.)

  15. Wind Tunnel Model and Test to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Passive Gust Alleviation Device for a Flying Wing Aircraft (United States)


    spars made of HE30 aluminium alloy were divided into 3 parts including two spars (front spar and rear spar) for the inboard wing and one outboard spar...unit. The assembled gust generator is shown in Figure 1-10. The supporting frame was built of 60x60 aluminium extrusion. The power unit was an off-the... aluminium beams and ball bearings were used to construct the mechanism. The blades were made of high density modelling foam, which was shaped as a

  16. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.


    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  17. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions by a three-dimensional global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. M. Velders


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional off-line tracer transport model coupled to the ECMWF analyses has been used to study the transport of trace gases in the atmosphere. The model gives a reasonable description of their general transport in the atmosphere. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions (as NOx has been studied as well as the transport of passive tracers injected at different altitudes in the North Atlantic flight corridor. A large zonal variation in the NOx concentrations as well as large seasonal and yearly variations was found. The altitude of the flight corridor influences the amount of tracers transported into the troposphere and stratosphere to a great extent.

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.


    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  19. HC-130 Wing Life Raft Replacement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scher, Bob


    The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) uses HC-130 aircraft for search and rescue (SAR) and other missions. The aircraft are presently equipped with two to four 20 person inflatable life rafts, stowed in cells in the wings...

  20. Combining control input with flight path data to evaluate pilot performance in transport aircraft. (United States)

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney


    When deriving an objective assessment of piloting performance from flight data records, it is common to employ metrics which purely evaluate errors in flight path parameters. The adequacy of pilot performance is evaluated from the flight path of the aircraft. However, in large jet transport aircraft these measures may be insensitive and require supplementing with frequency-based measures of control input parameters. Flight path and control input data were collected from pilots undertaking a jet transport aircraft conversion course during a series of symmetric and asymmetric approaches in a flight simulator. The flight path data were analyzed for deviations around the optimum flight path while flying an instrument landing approach. Manipulation of the flight controls was subject to analysis using a series of power spectral density measures. The flight path metrics showed no significant differences in performance between the symmetric and asymmetric approaches. However, control input frequency domain measures revealed that the pilots employed highly different control strategies in the pitch and yaw axes. The results demonstrate that to evaluate pilot performance fully in large aircraft, it is necessary to employ performance metrics targeted at both the outer control loop (flight path) and the inner control loop (flight control) parameters in parallel, evaluating both the product and process of a pilot's performance.

  1. Aging Evaluation Programs for Jet Transport Aircraft Structural Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović


    Full Text Available The paper deals with criteria and procedures in evaluationof timely preventive maintenance recommendations that willsupport continued safe operation of aging jet transports untiltheir retirement from service. The active service life of commercialaircraft has increased in recent years as a result of low fuelcost, and increasing costs and delivery times for fleet replacements.Air transport industry consensus is that older jet transportswill continue in service despite anticipated substantial increasesin required maintenance. Design concepts, supportedby testing, have worked well due to the system that is used to ensureflying safety. Continuing structural integrity by inspectionand overhaul recommendation above the level contained inmaintenance and service bulletins is additional requirement, insuch cases. Airplane structural safety depends on the performanceof all participants in the system and the responsibility forsafety cannot be delegated to a single participant. This systemhas three major participants: the manufacturers who design,build and support airplanes in service, the airlines who operate,inspect and mantain airplanes and the airworthiness authoritieswho establish rules and regulations, approve the design andpromote airline maintenance performance.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an...

  3. Durability of aircraft composite materials (United States)

    Dextern, H. B.


    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  4. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.


    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  5. Studies for determining the optimum propulsion system characteristics for use in a long range transport aircraft (United States)

    Brines, G. L.


    A comprehensive evaluation of propulsion systems for the next generation of near-sonic long range transport aircraft indicates that socially responsive noise and emission goals can be achieved within the probable limits of acceptable airplane performance and economics. Technology advances needed in the 1975-1985 time period to support the development of these propulsion systems are identified and discussed. The single most significant result is the low noise, high performance potential of a low tip speed, spaced, two-stage fan.

  6. In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy structures on commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Phelps, M. L.


    In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy composite structures on commercial transport aircraft are determined. Graphite/epoxy structures, service incurred defects, current inspection practices and concerns of the airline and manufacturers, and other related information were determind by survey. Based on this information, applicable inspection nondestructive inspection methods are evaluated and inspection techniques determined. Technology is developed primarily in eddy current inspection.

  7. A head-up display format for transport aircraft approach and landing (United States)

    Bray, R. S.; Scott, B. C.


    An electronic flight-guidance display format was designed for use in evaluations of the collimated head-up display concept applied to transport aircraft landing. In the design process of iterative evaluation and modification, some general principles, or guidelines, applicable to electronic flight displays were suggested. The usefulness of an indication of instantaneous inertial flightpath was clearly demonstrated. Evaluator pilot acceptance of the unfamiliar display concepts was very positive when careful attention was given to indoctrination and training.

  8. Analysis of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.


    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. It is possible that future designs will continue this trend, leading to very-high or ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) engines. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. Regardless of the engine architecture chosen, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  9. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine


    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  10. Effects of winglet on transonic flutter characteristics of a cantilevered twin-engine-transport wing model (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Bhatia, K. G.; Nagaraja, K. S.


    A transonic model and a low-speed model were flutter tested in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers up to 0.90. Transonic flutter boundaries were measured for 10 different model configurations, which included variations in wing fuel, nacelle pylon stiffness, and wingtip configuration. The winglet effects were evaluated by testing the transonic model, having a specific wing fuel and nacelle pylon stiffness, with each of three wingtips, a nonimal tip, a winglet, and a nominal tip ballasted to simulate the winglet mass. The addition of the winglet substantially reduced the flutter speed of the wing at transonic Mach numbers. The winglet effect was configuration-dependent and was primarily due to winglet aerodynamics rather than mass. Flutter analyses using modified strip-theory aerodynamics (experimentally weighted) correlated reasonably well with test results. The four transonic flutter mechanisms predicted by analysis were obtained experimentally. The analysis satisfactorily predicted the mass-density-ratio effects on subsonic flutter obtained using the low-speed model. Additional analyses were made to determine the flutter sensitivity to several parameters at transonic speeds.

  11. Quantification of crew workload imposed by communications-related tasks in commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Acton, W. H.; Crabtree, M. S.; Simons, J. C.; Gomer, F. E.; Eckel, J. S.


    Information theoretic analysis and subjective paired-comparison and task ranking techniques were employed in order to scale the workload of 20 communications-related tasks frequently performed by the captain and first officer of transport category aircraft. Tasks were drawn from taped conversations between aircraft and air traffic controllers (ATC). Twenty crewmembers performed subjective message comparisons and task rankings on the basis of workload. Information theoretic results indicated a broad range of task difficulty levels, and substantial differences between captain and first officer workload levels. Preliminary subjective data tended to corroborate these results. A hybrid scale reflecting the results of both the analytical and the subjective techniques is currently being developed. The findings will be used to select representative sets of communications for use in high fidelity simulation.

  12. X-38 vehicle #131R arrives at NASA Dryden via NASA'S Super Guppy transport aircraft (United States)


    NASA's Super Guppy transport aircraft landed at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on July 11, 2000, to deliver the latest version of the X-38 drop vehicle to Dryden. The X-38s are intended as prototypes for a possible 'crew lifeboat' for the International Space Station. The X-38 vehicle 131R will demonstrate a huge 7,500 square-foot parafoil that will that will enable the potential crew return vehicle to land on the length of a football field after returning from space. The crew return vehicle is intended to serve as a possible emergency transport to carry a crew to safety in the event of problems with the International Space Station. The Super Guppy evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, used for transporting outsized sections of the Apollo moon rocket. The Super Guppy was modified from 1950s-vintage Boeing C-97. NASA acquired its Super Guppy from the European Space Agency in 1997.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems for transportation engineering: Current practice and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil N. Barmpounakis


    Full Text Available Acquiring and processing video streams from static cameras has been proposed as one of the most efficient tools for visualizing and gathering traffic information. With the latest advances in technology and visual media, combined with the increased needs in dealing with congestion more effectively and directly, the use of Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems (UAS has emerged in the field of traffic engineering. In this paper, we review studies and applications that incorporate UAS in transportation research and practice with the aim to set the grounds from the proper understanding and implementation of UAS related surveillance systems in transportation and traffic engineering. The studies reviewed are categorized in different transportation engineering areas. Additional significant applications from other research fields are also referenced to identify other promising applications. Finally, issues and emerging challenges in both a conceptual and methodological level are revealed and discussed.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Road to Effective Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrock, Christopher T; Huizenga, Thomas D


    ...) sharing airspace with manned assets. There have been at least two recent collisions between unmanned and rotary-wing aircraft at lower altitudes in Iraq, as well as numerous near misses with fixed-wing aircraft at higher altitudes...

  15. Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft (United States)

    Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George


    As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

  16. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.


    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  17. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakar


    Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.

  18. Redundant actuator development study. [flight control systems for supersonic transport aircraft (United States)

    Ryder, D. R.


    Current and past supersonic transport configurations are reviewed to assess redundancy requirements for future airplane control systems. Secondary actuators used in stability augmentation systems will probably be the most critical actuator application and require the highest level of redundancy. Two methods of actuator redundancy mechanization have been recommended for further study. Math models of the recommended systems have been developed for use in future computer simulations. A long range plan has been formulated for actuator hardware development and testing in conjunction with the NASA Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft.

  19. Optimization and design of an aircraft's morphing wing-tip demonstrator for drag reduction at low speeds, Part II - Experimental validation using Infra-Red transition measurement from Wind Tunnel tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Koreanschi


    Full Text Available In the present paper, an ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was numerically and experimentally validated. The genetic algorithm was applied to an optimization problem for improving the aerodynamic performances of an aircraft wing tip through upper surface morphing. The optimization was performed for 16 flight cases expressed in terms of various combinations of speeds, angles of attack and aileron deflections. The displacements resulted from the optimization were used during the wind tunnel tests of the wing tip demonstrator for the actuators control to change the upper surface shape of the wing. The results of the optimization of the flow behavior for the airfoil morphing upper-surface problem were validated with wind tunnel experimental transition results obtained with infra-red Thermography on the wing-tip demonstrator. The validation proved that the 2D numerical optimization using the ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was an appropriate tool in improving various aspects of a wing’s aerodynamic performances.

  20. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification... (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTOR...

  1. NASA N+3 Subsonic Fixed Wing Silent Efficient Low-Emissions Commercial Transport (SELECT) Vehicle Study. Revision A (United States)

    Bruner, Sam; Baber, Scott; Harris,Chris; Caldwell, Nicholas; Keding, Peter; Rahrig, Kyle; Pho, Luck; Wlezian, Richard


    A conceptual commercial passenger transport study was performed to define a single vehicle for entry into service in the 2030 to 2035 timeframe, meeting customer demands as well as NASA goals for improved fuel economy, NOx emissions, noise, and operability into smaller airports. A study of future market and operational scenarios was used to guide the design of an advanced tube-and-wing configuration that utilized advanced material and structural concepts, an advanced three-shaft high-bypass turbofan engine, natural laminar flow technology, and a suite of other advanced technologies. This configuration was found to meet the goals for NOx emissions, noise, and field length. A 64 percent improvement in fuel economy compared to a current state-of-the-art airliner was achieved, which fell slightly short of the desired 70 percent goal. Technology maturation plans for the technologies used in the design were developed to help guide future research and development activities.

  2. Aircraft Ship Operations (Le Couple Aeronef-Navire dan les Operations) (United States)


    The Netherlands Patuxent Riser Ml) 20670-530)4 United States HOST NATION COORDINATOR Prof. 3.1.. Lopez Ruiz SENER. Ingeniera & Sistemas S.A. C Raimundo...transports. The companion unmanned air vehicle for the LAMPS 2030 The CLO will need an air superiority aircraft that will might be the Tipjet concept...desired, the wing may be swept, as in the oblique wing A possible companion UAV for the ASTOVL fighter/attack concept, allowing operation at much higher

  3. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.


    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of SMA Actuated Smart Wing Model


    Iyyappan Balaguru; Sathiavelu Sendhilkumar


    Due to the advancements in smart actuators, morphing (changing) of aircraft wings has been investigated by increasing number of researchers in recent years. In this research article, the concept of morphing is introduced to the conventional aircraft wing model with the utilization of Shape memory alloys (SMAs). An actuating mechanism is developed and built inside the aircraft wing model along with the SMA actuators which is used to morph its shape. The aircraft wing model with the SMA actuati...

  5. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency (United States)


    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  6. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-winglet model designed at M = 0.8, C sub L = 0.4 using linear aerodynamic theory (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.


    Wind tunnel test results have been presented herein for a subsonic transport type wing fitted with winglets. Wind planform was chosen to be representative of wings used on current jet transport aircraft, while wing and winglet camber surfaces were designed using two different linear aerodynamic design methods. The purpose of the wind tunnel investigation was to determine the effectiveness of these linear aerodynamic design computer codes in designing a non-planar transport configuration which would cruise efficiently. The design lift coefficient was chosen to be 0.4, at a design Mach number of 0.8. Force and limited pressure data were obtained for the basic wing, and for the wing fitted with the two different winglet designs, at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80 over an angle of attack range of -2 to +6 degrees, at zero sideslip. The data have been presented without analysis to expedite publication.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorata ROMAŃSKA


    Full Text Available The evaluation of the effects of transport collision often takes the form of ground reconnaissance. Undoubtedly, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS can support and help the police, firefighters, security agents and paramedics in the event of a transport collision. Although there is a scarce amount of literature concerning the use of RPAS in crisis management, it is important to pay more attention to the benefits of this technology. The article describes the danger of collisions, as well as discusses the possibility of using RPAS, their functionality and potential utility. Sensors installed on RPAS can rapidly identify the place of the accident, the number of casualties, the type of damaged vehicles or the type of contamination.

  8. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.


    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  9. Program for establishing long time flight service performance of composite materials in the central wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 2: Detailed design (United States)

    Harvill, W. E.; Duhig, J. J.; Spencer, B. R.


    The design, fabrication, and evaluation of boron-epoxy reinforced C-130 center wing boxes are discussed. Design drawings, static strength, fatigue endurance, flutter, and weight analyses required for the wing box fabrication are presented. Additional component testing to verify the design for panel buckling and to evaluate specific local design areas are reported.

  10. Active Twist Control for a Compliant Wing Structure, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Blended wing body (BWB) aircraft provide an aerodynamically superior solution over traditional tube-and-wing designs for a number of mission profiles. These...

  11. Flight service evaluation of kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft: Flight service report (United States)

    Stone, R. H.


    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 7 years service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a slid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 52,500 hours, with one ship set having 17.700 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  12. The Small Aircraft Transportation System for America: A Case in Public Infrastructure Change (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, industry stakeholders, and academia, have joined forces to pursue the NASA National General Aviation Roadmap leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). This strategic undertaking has a 25-year goal to bring next-generation technologies and improve travel between remote communities and transportation centers in urban areas by utilizing the nation's 5,400 public-use general aviation airports. To facilitate this initiative, a comprehensive upgrade of public infrastructure must be planned, coordinated, and implemented within the framework of the national air transportation system. The Nebraska NASA EPSCoR Program has proposed to deliver research support in key public infrastructure areas in coordination with the General Aviation Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center. Ultimately, SATS may permit tripling aviation system throughput capacity by tapping the underutilized general aviation facilities to achieve the national goal of doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways for the nation's suburban, rural, and remote communities.

  13. Aircraft measurement over the Gulf of Tonkin capturing aloft transport of biomass burning (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Xu, Jun; Bi, Fang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Chen, Yunbo; He, Youjiang; Han, Feng; Zhi, Guorui; Liu, Shijie; Meng, Fan


    A suite of aircraft measurements was conducted over the Gulf of Tonkin, located downwind to the east of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSE), between March 23rd and April 6th, 2015. To the best of our knowledge, this campaign of 11 flights (totaling 34.4 h) was the first in-flight measurement over the region. Measurements of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, black carbon and the particulate scattering coefficient were recorded at approximately 1 500 m (low level) and 3 000 m (high level). Significantly higher measurements of black carbon, carbon monoxide and ozone in the high level on March 23rd and April 5th and 6th were directly related to biomass burning in the MSE and were comparable to severe pollution events at the surface. Similarly, relatively low pollutant concentrations were observed at both altitudes between March 23rd and April 5th. A combined analysis of the measurements with meteorology and satellite data verified that the plumes captured at 3 000 m were attributed to transport in the high altitude originating from biomass burning in northern MSE. Furthermore, each plume captured by the measurements in the high level corresponded to heavy regional air pollution caused by biomass burning in northern MSE. In addition, relatively low levels of the measured pollutants corresponded to relatively light pollution levels in MSE and its adjacent areas. Taken together, these results indicated that aircraft measurements were accurate in characterizing the variation in transport and pollutant levels. During the most active season of biomass burning in MSE, pollutant emissions and their regional impact could vary on an episodic basis. Nonetheless, such concentrated emissions from biomass burning is likely to lead to particularly high atmospheric-loading of pollutants at a regional level and, depending on weather conditions, has the potential of being transported over considerably longer distances. Further investigation of the short-term impacts of

  14. RF Coupling into the Fuel Tank of a Large Transport Aircraft from Intentionally Transmitting Peds in the Passenger Cabin (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Ely, Jay J.; Richardson, Robert E.; Hatfield, Michael O.


    An investigation was performed to study the potential for radio frequency (RF) power radiated from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) to create an arcing/sparking event within the fuel tank of a large transport aircraft. This paper describes the experimental methods used for measuring RF coupling to the fuel tank and Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) wiring from PED sources located in the passenger cabin. To allow comparison of voltage/current data obtained in a laboratory chamber FQIS installation to an actual aircraft FQIS installation, aircraft fuel tank RF reverberation characteristics were also measured. Results from the measurements, along with a survey of threats from typical intentional transmitting PEDs are presented. The resulting worst-case power coupled onto fuel tank FQIS wiring is derived. The same approach can be applied to measure RF coupling into various other aircraft systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Skolilova


    Full Text Available The article outlines some human factors affecting the operation and safety of passenger air transport given the massive increase in the use of the VLA. Decrease of the impact of the CO2 world emissions is one of the key goals for the new aircraft design. The main wave is going to reduce the burned fuel. Therefore, the eco-efficiency engines combined with reasonable economic operation of the aircraft are very important from an aviation perspective. The prediction for the year 2030 says that about 90% of people, which will use long-haul flights to fly between big cities. So, the A380 was designed exactly for this time period, with a focus on the right capacity, right operating cost and right fuel burn per seat. There is no aircraft today with better fuel burn combined with eco-efficiency per seat, than the A380. The very large aircrafts (VLAs are the future of the commercial passenger aviation. Operating cost versus safety or CO2 emissions versus increasing automation inside the new generation aircraft. Almost 80% of the world aircraft accidents are caused by human error based on wrong action, reaction or final decision of pilots, the catastrophic failures of aircraft systems, or air traffic control errors are not so frequent. So, we are at the beginning of a new age in passenger aviation and the role of the human factor is more important than ever.

  16. Projection-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control of a Transport Aircraft for Heavyweight Airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Liu


    Full Text Available An autopilot inner loop that combines backstepping control with adaptive function approximation is developed for airdrop operations. The complex nonlinear uncertainty of the aircraft-cargo model is factorized into a known matrix and an uncertainty function, and a projection-based adaptive approach is proposed to estimate this function. Using projection in the adaptation law bounds the estimated function and guarantees the robustness of the controller against time-varying external disturbances and uncertainties. The convergence properties and robustness of the control method are proved via Lyapunov theory. Simulations are conducted under the condition that one transport aircraft performs a maximum load airdrop task at a height of 82 ft, using single row single platform mode. The results show good performance and robust operation of the controller, and the airdrop mission performance indexes are satisfied, even in the presence of ±15% uncertainty in the aerodynamic coefficients, ±0.01 rad/s pitch rate disturbance, and 20% actuators faults.

  17. An exact model for airline flight network optimization based on transport momentum and aircraft load factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jorge Caetano


    Full Text Available The problem of airline flight network optimization can be split into subproblems such as Schedule Generation (SG and Fleet Assignment (FA, solved in consecutive steps or in an integrated way, usually based on monetary costs and revenue forecasts. A linear pro­gramming model to solve SG and FA in an integrated way is presented, but with an al­ternative approach based on transport momentum and aircraft load factor. This alterna­tive approach relies on demand forecast and allows obtaining solutions considering min­imum average load factors. Results of the proposed model applications to instances of a regional Brazilian airline are presented. The comparison of the schedules generated by the proposed approach against those obtained by applying a model based on mone­tary costs and revenue forecasts demonstrates the validity of this alternative approach for airlines network planning.

  18. Optimal Topology of Aircraft Rib and Spar Structures under Aeroelastic Loads (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Dunning, Peter D.


    Several topology optimization problems are conducted within the ribs and spars of a wing box. It is desired to locate the best position of lightening holes, truss/cross-bracing, etc. A variety of aeroelastic metrics are isolated for each of these problems: elastic wing compliance under trim loads and taxi loads, stress distribution, and crushing loads. Aileron effectiveness under a constant roll rate is considered, as are dynamic metrics: natural vibration frequency and flutter. This approach helps uncover the relationship between topology and aeroelasticity in subsonic transport wings, and can therefore aid in understanding the complex aircraft design process which must eventually consider all these metrics and load cases simultaneously.

  19. Modeling and Optimization for Morphing Wing Concept Generation (United States)

    Skillen, Michael D.; Crossley, William A.


    This report consists of two major parts: 1) the approach to develop morphing wing weight equations, and 2) the approach to size morphing aircraft. Combined, these techniques allow the morphing aircraft to be sized with estimates of the morphing wing weight that are more credible than estimates currently available; aircraft sizing results prior to this study incorporated morphing wing weight estimates based on general heuristics for fixed-wing flaps (a comparable "morphing" component) but, in general, these results were unsubstantiated. This report will show that the method of morphing wing weight prediction does, in fact, drive the aircraft sizing code to different results and that accurate morphing wing weight estimates are essential to credible aircraft sizing results.

  20. Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Bush, Harold G.


    Analytical and experimental results of the test for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  1. Structural Testing of a Stitched/Resin Film Infused Graphite-Epoxy Wing Box (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.


    The results of a series of tests conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the behavior of an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with non-visible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole.

  2. NASA,FAA,ONERA Swept-Wing Icing and Aerodynamics: Summary of Research and Current Status (United States)

    Broeren, Andy


    NASA, FAA, ONERA, and other partner organizations have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large scale, three-dimensional swept wings. These are extremely complex phenomena important to the design, certification and safe operation of small and large transport aircraft. There is increasing demand to balance trade-offs in aircraft efficiency, cost and noise that tend to compete directly with allowable performance degradations over an increasing range of icing conditions. Computational fluid dynamics codes have reached a level of maturity that they are being proposed by manufacturers for use in certification of aircraft for flight in icing. However, sufficient high-quality data to evaluate their performance on iced swept wings are not currently available in the public domain and significant knowledge gaps remain.

  3. Initial Low-Reynolds Number Iced Aerodynamic Performance for CRM Wing (United States)

    Woodard, Brian; Diebold, Jeff; Broeren, Andy; Potapczuk, Mark; Lee, Sam; Bragg, Michael


    NASA, FAA, ONERA, and other partner organizations have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large scale, three-dimensional swept wings. These are extremely complex phenomena important to the design, certification and safe operation of small and large transport aircraft. There is increasing demand to balance trade-offs in aircraft efficiency, cost and noise that tend to compete directly with allowable performance degradations over an increasing range of icing conditions. Computational fluid dynamics codes have reached a level of maturity that they are being proposed by manufacturers for use in certification of aircraft for flight in icing. However, sufficient high-quality data to evaluate their performance on iced swept wings are not currently available in the public domain and significant knowledge gaps remain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Запорожець


    Full Text Available The aircraft accident dates in civil aviation Ukraine and in republics of participants Agreement werecollected. The aircraft accident rate per 1 million flights was defined for civil aviation Ukraine and republicsof participants Agreement. Dynamics of aircraft accident rate was represented for civil aviation Ukraine.This dynamics was done for civil aviation of republics of participants Agreement and worldwide.

  5. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J. G.; Mairos, J. C.


    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg (Germany)). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Inst., Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made. (authors)

  6. Validation of morphing wing methodologies on an unmanned aerial system and a wind tunnel technology demonstrator (United States)

    Gabor, Oliviu Sugar

    To increase the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, a novel morphing wing concept has been developed. It consists in replacing a part of the wing upper and lower surfaces with a flexible skin whose shape can be modified using an actuation system placed inside the wing structure. Numerical studies in two and three dimensions were performed in order to determine the gains the morphing system achieves for the case of an Unmanned Aerial System and for a morphing technology demonstrator based on the wing tip of a transport aircraft. To obtain the optimal wing skin shapes in function of the flight condition, different global optimization algorithms were implemented, such as the Genetic Algorithm and the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. To reduce calculation times, a hybrid method was created by coupling the population-based algorithm with a fast, gradient-based local search method. Validations were performed with commercial state-of-the-art optimization tools and demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed methods. For accurately determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the morphing wing, two new methods were developed, a nonlinear lifting line method and a nonlinear vortex lattice method. Both use strip analysis of the span-wise wing section to account for the airfoil shape modifications induced by the flexible skin, and can provide accurate results for the wing drag coefficient. The methods do not require the generation of a complex mesh around the wing and are suitable for coupling with optimization algorithms due to the computational time several orders of magnitude smaller than traditional three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional optimizations of the Unmanned Aerial System wing equipped with the morphing skin were performed, with the objective of improving its performances for an extended range of flight conditions. The chordwise positions of the internal actuators

  7. Avian Wings (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.


    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  8. Energy-based Aeroelastic Analysis and Optimisation of Morphing Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Breuker, R.


    Morphing aircraft can change their shape radically when confronted with a variety of conflicting flight conditions throughout their mission. For instance the F-14 Tomcat fighter aircraft, known from the movie Top Gun, was able to sweep its wings from a straight wing configuration to a highly swept

  9. Conceptual study of advanced VTOL transport aircraft engine; Kosoku VTOL kiyo engine no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    This report proposes the concept of an ultra-low noise engine for advanced high subsonic VTOL transport aircraft, and discusses its technological feasibility. As one of the applications of the previously reported `separated core turbofan engine,` the conceptual engine is composed of 3 core engines, 2 cruise fan engines for high subsonic cruising and 6 lift fan engines producing thrust of 98kN (10000kgf)/engine. The core turbojet engine bleeds a large amount of air at the outlet of a compressor to supply driving high-pressure air for fans to other engines. The lift fan engine is composed of a lift fan, driving combustor, turbine and speed reduction gear, and is featured by not only high operation stability and thin fan engine like a separated core engine but also ultra-low noise operation. The cruise fan engine adopts the same configuration as the lift fan engine. Since this engine configuration has no technological problems difficult to be overcome, its high technological feasibility is expected. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Ramjet Nozzle Analysis for Transport Aircraft Configuration for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Baidya


    Full Text Available For the past several decades, research dealing with hypersonic flight regimes has been restricted mainly to military applications. Hypersonic transportation could be a possible and affordable solution to travel in the medium term and there is renewed interest from several private organisations for commercial exploitation in this direction. Various combined cycle propulsion configurations have been proposed and the present paper deals with implications for the nozzle component of a ramjet configuration as part of one such combined cycle propulsion configuration. An investigation was undertaken for a method of turbine-based propulsion which enables the hypersonic vehicle to take off under its own power and propel the aircraft under different mission profiles into ramjet operational Mach regimes. The present study details an optimal method of ramjet exhaust expansion to produce sufficient thrust to propel the vehicle into altitudes and Mach regimes where scramjet operation can be initiated. This aspect includes a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-based geometric study to determine the optimal configuration to provide the best thrust values. The CFD parametric analysis investigated three candidate nozzles and indicated that the dual bell nozzle design produced the highest thrust values when compared to other nozzle geometries. The altitude adaptation study also validated the effectiveness of the nozzle thrust at various altitudes without compromising its thrust-producing capabilities. Computational data were validated against published experimental data, which indicated that the computed values correlated well with the experimental data.

  11. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.


    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  12. Experimental Model of Contaminant Transport by a Moving Wake Inside an Aircraft Cabin (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane; Sojka, Paul; Plesniak, Michael


    The air cabin environment in jetliners is designed to provide comfortable and healthy conditions for passengers. The air ventilation system produces a recirculating pattern designed to minimize secondary flow between seat rows. However, disturbances are frequently introduced by individuals walking along the aisle and may significantly modify air distribution and quality. Spreading of infectious aerosols or biochemical agents presents potential health hazards. A fundamental study has been undertaken to understand the unsteady transport phenomena, to validate numerical simulations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body is modeled experimentally in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body height) of the order of 10,000. Measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields are obtained using PIV and PLIF. Results indicate that the evolution of the typical downwash behind the body is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. Furthermore, the interaction between wake and ventilation flow significantly alters scalar contaminant migration.

  13. Can Wing Tip Vortices Be Accurately Simulated? (United States)


    Aerodynamics , Flow Visualization, Numerical Investigation, Aero Suite 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...additional tail buffeting.2 In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize vortex formation and reduce lift...air. In military applications, wing tip In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize increases with downstream distances.

  14. Evaluation of the Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.


    Analytical and experimental results for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Upbending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  15. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Design of Wing-Body Configuration Using a Hybrid FFD-RBF Parameterization Approach (United States)

    Liu, Yuefeng; Duan, Zhuoyi; Chen, Song


    Aerodynamic shape optimization design aiming at improving the efficiency of an aircraft has always been a challenging task, especially when the configuration is complex. In this paper, a hybrid FFD-RBF surface parameterization approach has been proposed for designing a civil transport wing-body configuration. This approach is simple and efficient, with the FFD technique used for parameterizing the wing shape and the RBF interpolation approach used for handling the wing body junction part updating. Furthermore, combined with Cuckoo Search algorithm and Kriging surrogate model with expected improvement adaptive sampling criterion, an aerodynamic shape optimization design system has been established. Finally, the aerodynamic shape optimization design on DLR F4 wing-body configuration has been carried out as a study case, and the result has shown that the approach proposed in this paper is of good effectiveness.

  16. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  17. A piloted simulation investigation of several command concepts for transport aircraft in the approach and landing


    Field, Edmund


    With the introduction of modern fly-by-wire aircraft, the response of an aircraft to a pilot’s input can be augmented to something other than that for a conventional aircraft, with the resultant benefits and problems. The issue of what commanded response a pilot desires has received considerable attention, however no clear conclusions have yet emerged. The requirements for up and away flight and for the flare and landing seem to be different. Away from the ground rate command systems such...

  18. Quantifying air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport in an aircraft cabin mockup (United States)

    Wang, Aijun

    The health, safety and comfort of passengers during flight inspired this research into cabin air quality, which is closely related to its airflow distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport. The experimental facility is a full-scale aircraft cabin mockup. A volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (VPTV) technique was enhanced by incorporating a self-developed streak recognition algorithm. Two stable recirculation regions, the reverse flows above the seats and the main air jets from the air supply inlets formed the complicated airflow patterns inside the cabin mockup. The primary air flow was parallel to the passenger rows. The small velocity component in the direction of the cabin depth caused less net air exchange between the passenger rows than that parallel to the passenger rows. Different total air supply rate changed the developing behaviors of the main air jets, leading to different local air distribution patterns. Two indices, Local mean age of air and ventilation effectiveness factor (VEF), were measured at five levels of air supply rate and two levels of heating load. Local mean age of air decreased linearly with an increase in the air supply rate, while the VEF remained consistent when the air supply rate varied. The thermal buoyancy force from the thermal plume generated the upside plume flow, opposite to the main jet flow above the boundary seats and thus lowered the local net air exchange. The airborne transport dynamics depends on the distance between the source and the receptors, the relative location of pollutant source, and air supply rate. Exposure risk was significantly reduced with increased distance between source and receptors. Another possible way to decrease the exposure risk was to position the release source close to the exhaust outlets. Increasing the air supply rate could be an effective solution under some emergency situations. The large volume of data regarding the three-dimensional air velocities was

  19. A Versatile Simulation Environment of FTC Architectures for Large Transport Aircraft


    Ossmann, Daniel; Varga, Andreas; Simon, Hecker


    We present a simulation environment with 3-D stereo visualization facilities destined for an easy setup and versatile assessment of fault detection and diagnosis based fault tolerant control systems. This environment has been primarily developed as a technology demonstrator of advanced reconfigurable flight control systems and is based on a realistic six degree of freedom flexible aircraft model. The aircraft control system architecture includes a flexible fault detection and diagnosis syste...

  20. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.


    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  1. Status of Advanced Stitched Unitized Composite Aircraft Structures (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Velicki, Alex


    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise levels. The primary structural concept being developed under the ERA project in the Airframe Technology element is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. This paper describes how researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop fundamental PRSEUS technologies that could someday be implemented on a transport size aircraft with high aspect ratio wings or unconventional shapes such as a hybrid wing body airplane design.

  2. Three-Dimensional Piecewise-Continuous Class-Shape Transformation of Wings (United States)

    Olson, Erik D.


    Class-Shape Transformation (CST) is a popular method for creating analytical representations of the surface coordinates of various components of aerospace vehicles. A wide variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes can be represented analytically using only a modest number of parameters, and the surface representation is smooth and continuous to as fine a degree as desired. This paper expands upon the original two-dimensional representation of airfoils to develop a generalized three-dimensional CST parametrization scheme that is suitable for a wider range of aircraft wings than previous formulations, including wings with significant non-planar shapes such as blended winglets and box wings. The method uses individual functions for the spanwise variation of airfoil shape, chord, thickness, twist, and reference axis coordinates to build up the complete wing shape. An alternative formulation parameterizes the slopes of the reference axis coordinates in order to relate the spanwise variation to the tangents of the sweep and dihedral angles. Also discussed are methods for fitting existing wing surface coordinates, including the use of piecewise equations to handle discontinuities, and mathematical formulations of geometric continuity constraints. A subsonic transport wing model is used as an example problem to illustrate the application of the methodology and to quantify the effects of piecewise representation and curvature constraints.

  3. Overview: Small Aircraft Transportation System Airborne Remote Sensing Fuel Droplet Evaporation (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Holmes, Bruce; Gogos, George; Narayanan, Ram; Smith, Russell; Woods, Sara


    , Codes, and Strategic Enterprises. During the first year of funding, Nebraska established open and frequent lines of communication with university affairs officers and other key personnel at all NASA Centers and Enterprises, and facilitated the development of collaborations between and among junior faculty in the state and NASA researchers. As a result, Nebraska initiated a major research cluster, the Small Aircraft Transportation System Nebraska Implementation Template.

  4. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.


    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  5. Evaluation on the structural soundness of the transport package for low-level radioactive waste for subsurface disposal against aircraft impact by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro


    The structural analysis of aircraft crush on the transport package for low-level radioactive waste was performed using the impact force which was already used for the evaluation of the high-level waste transport package by LSDYNA code. The transport package was deformed, and stresses due to the crush exceeded elastic range. However, plastic strains yieled in the package were far than the elongation of the materials and the body of the package did not contact the disposal packages due to the deformation of the package. Therefore, it was confirmed that the package keeps its integrity against aircraft crush. (author)

  6. A Survey of Serious Aircraft Accidents Involving Fatigue Fracture. Volume 1. Fixed-Wing Aircraft (Etude sur des Accidents Importants d’Avions du aux Effets des Fractures de Fatigue. Volume 1. Effets sur des Avions). (United States)


    17 Jan 68 0 S Dell Rapidis, S.Dak. USA. Bonanza Propeller cylinder attach screws. Propeller in service approx. 170 hr . F85 Beech K35 5 Sep 69 4 D Provo...Ice land Iraq Ireland Jamaica (1966 -1981) Japan (1973 - Feb. 81) Kenya Lethoso Malaysia Ma law i Mal ta Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway...Laboratories, Australia. E. Keller Federal Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau, Switzerland. Quek Seng Kiew Civil Aviation Dept., Malaysia . Tor B

  7. Feasibility study for a microwave-powered ozone sniffer aircraft. B.S. Thesis (United States)

    Botros, David F.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Forden, Noah P.; Helsing, Martin A.; Jutras, Thomas H.; Kim, Dohoon; Labarre, Christopher; Odin, Ethan M.; Sandler, Scott B.


    The preliminary design of a high-altitude, remotely-piloted, atmospheric-sampling aircraft powered by microwave energy beamed from ground-based antenna was completed. The vehicle has a gross weight of 6720 pounds and is sized to carry a 1000 pound payload at an altitude of 100,000 feet. The underside of the wing serves as the surface of a rectenna designed to receive microwave energy at a power density of 700 watts per square meter and the wing has a planform area of 3634 square feet to absorb the required power at an optimum Mach number M = 0.44. The aircraft utilizes a horizontal tail and a canard for longitudinal control and to enhance the structural rigidity of the twin fuselage configuration. The wing structure is designed to withstand a gust-induced load factor n = 3 at cruise altitude but the low-wing loading of the aircraft makes it very sensitive to gusts at low altitudes, which may induce load factors in excess of 20. A structural load alleviation system is therefore proposed to limit actual loads to the designed structural limit. Losses will require transmitted power on the order of megawatts to be radiated to the aircraft from the ground station, presenting environmental problems. Since the transmitting antenna would have a diameter of several hundred feet, it would not be readily transportable, so we propose that a single antenna be constructed at a site from which the aircraft is flown. The aircraft would be towed aloft to an initial altitude at which the microwave power would be utilized. The aircraft would climb to cruise altitude in a spiral flight path and orbit the transmitter in a gentle turn.

  8. The Impact of Rising Temperatures on Aircraft Takeoff Performance (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; Thompson, T. R.


    Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10-30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high tempera- tures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.

  9. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.


    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  10. DAST in Flight just after Structural Failure of Right Wing (United States)


    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. This photo, taken 12 June 1980, shows the DAST-1 (Serial #72-1557) immediately after it lost its right wing after suffering severe wing flutter. The vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. The Firebee II was selected for the DAST program because its standard wing could be removed and replaced by a supercritical wing. The project's digital flutter suppression system was intended to allow lighter wing structures, which would translate into better fuel economy for airliners. Because the DAST vehicles were flown intentionally at speeds and altitudes that would cause flutter, the program anticipated that crashes might occur. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for

  11. Conceptual study of an advanced VTOL transport aircraft; Kosoku VTOL ki no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    The concept of the advanced 100-passenger class VTOL aircraft equipped with new lift fan engines was clarified as domestic passenger aircraft for the 21st century. Under the assumption of a total weight of 40 tons, a seat fuselage diameter of 3.3m as small as possible and a short seat pitch, the airframe shape satisfying a target performance was obtained without any problems about aerodynamic stability, operability and control capability, and noise lower than that of small helicopters was also estimated. In the case of 10 tons in airframe payload and 8 tons in fuel, even if light-weight composite materials were used for most of parts including fuselage structure, a total weight summed to 42.3 tons exceeding a target by 2.3 tons. As this VTOL aircraft was limited to domestic flight use only, the total weight could be reduced without any change in airframe shape and number of passengers by reducing the payload (baggage weight can be probably reduced by 2 tons/100 passengers in the future domestic flight) and fuel (cruising range around 2500km can be secured even if fuel is reduced by 0.3 tons). In conclusion, this concept was thus technologically reasonable. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.


    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  13. Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission: Design, execution, and first results (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Crawford, James H.; Kleb, Mary M.; Connors, Vickie S.; Bendura, Richard J.; Raper, James L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gille, John C.; Emmons, Louisa; Heald, Colette L.


    The NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission was conducted in February-April 2001 over the NW Pacific (1) to characterize the Asian chemical outflow and relate it quantitatively to its sources and (2) to determine its chemical evolution. It used two aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, operating out of Hong Kong and Yokota Air Force Base (near Tokyo), with secondary sites in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, Okinawa, and Midway. The aircraft carried instrumentation for measurements of long-lived greenhouse gases, ozone and its precursors, aerosols and their precursors, related species, and chemical tracers. Five chemical transport models (CTMs) were used for chemical forecasting. Customized bottom-up emission inventories for East Asia were generated prior to the mission to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation with the aircraft data. Validation flights were conducted for the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument and revealed little bias (6 ± 2%) in the MOPITT measurements of CO columns. A major event of transpacific Asian pollution was characterized through combined analysis of TRACE-P and MOPITT data. The TRACE-P observations showed that cold fronts sweeping across East Asia and the associated warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are the dominant pathway for Asian outflow to the Pacific in spring. The WCBs lift both anthropogenic and biomass burning (SE Asia) effluents to the free troposphere, resulting in complex chemical signatures. The TRACE-P data are in general consistent with a priori emission inventories, lending confidence in our ability to quantify Asian emissions from socioeconomic data and emission factors. However, the residential combustion source in rural China was found to be much larger than the a priori, and there were also unexplained chemical enhancements (HCN, CH3Cl, OCS, alkylnitrates) in Chinese urban plumes. The Asian source of CCl4 was found to be much

  14. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Donkelaar


    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  15. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing (United States)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  16. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.


    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT`s) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT`s. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  17. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  18. Transition to Glass: Pilot Training for High-Technology Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Moses, John H.


    This report examines the activities of a major commercial air carrier between 1993 and late 1996 as it acquired an advanced fleet of high-technology aircraft (Boeing 757). Previously, the airline's fleet consisted of traditional (non-glass) aircraft, and this report examines the transition from a traditional fleet to a glass one. A total of 150 pilots who were entering the B-757 transition training volunteered for the study, which consisted of three query phases: (1) first day of transition training, (2) 3 to 4 months after transition training, and (3) 12 to 14 months after initial operating experience. Of these initial 150 pilots, 99 completed all three phases of the study, with each phase consisting of probes on attitudes and experiences associated with their training and eventual transition to flying the line. In addition to the three questionnaires, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted. Although the primary focus of this study was on the flight training program, additional factors such as technical support, documentation, and training aids were investigated as well. The findings generally indicate that the pilot volunteers were highly motivated and very enthusiastic about their training program. In addition, the group had low levels of apprehension toward automation and expressed a high degree of satisfaction toward their training. However, there were some concerns expressed regarding the deficiencies in some of the training aids and lack of a free-play flight management system training device.

  19. Dynamics modeling and control of a transport aircraft for ultra-low altitude airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ri


    Full Text Available The nonlinear aircraft model with heavy cargo moving inside is derived by using the separation body method, which can describe the influence of the moving cargo on the aircraft attitude and altitude accurately. Furthermore, the nonlinear system is decoupled and linearized through the input–output feedback linearization method. On this basis, an iterative quasi-sliding mode (SM flight controller for speed and pitch angle control is proposed. At the first-level SM, a global dynamic switching function is introduced thus eliminating the reaching phase of the sliding motion. At the second-level SM, a nonlinear function with the property of “smaller errors correspond to bigger gains and bigger errors correspond to saturated gains” is designed to form an integral sliding manifold, and the overcompensation of the integral term to big errors is weakened. Lyapunov-based analysis shows that the controller with strong robustness can reject both constant and time-varying model uncertainties. The performance of the proposed control strategy is verified in a maximum load airdrop mission.

  20. Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint) (United States)


    wing aircraft. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to the control of aerodynamic flows using both passive and active control mechanisms...Passive vortex control devices such as vortex generators and winglets attach to the wing and require no energy input. Passive vortex control...leading edges is also effective for changing the aerodynamic characteristics of delta wings [2] [3]. Gutmark and Guillot [5] proposed controlling

  1. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.


    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  2. Closed-type wing for drones: positive and negative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Gretchihin


    Full Text Available The paper presents the aerodynamics of a wing of a closed oval ellipsoidal shape, designed with the use of the molecular-kinetic theory. The positive and negative characteristics of aircraft - drones with an oval wing are described. The theoretical calculations have been experimentally checked.

  3. Low-speed tests of a high-aspect-ratio, supercritical-wing transport model equipped with a high-lift flap system in the Langley 4- by 7-meter and Ames 12-foot pressure tunnels (United States)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Kjelgaard, S. O.


    The Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel was used to determine the effects of Reynolds number on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced, high-aspect-ratio, supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span, leading edge slat and part span, double slotted, trailing edge flaps. The model had a wing span of 7.5 ft and was tested through a free stream Reynolds number range from 1.3 to 6.0 x 10 to 6th power per foot at a Mach number of 0.20. Prior to the Ames tests, an investigation was also conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.3 x 10 to 6th power per foot with the model mounted on an Ames strut support system and on the Langley sting support system to determine strut interference corrections. The data obtained from the Langley tests were also used to compare the aerodynamic charactertistics of the rather stiff, 7.5-ft-span steel wing model tested during this investigation and the larger, and rather flexible, 12-ft-span aluminum-wing model tested during a previous investigation. During the tests in both the Langley and Ames tunnels, the model was tested with six basic wing configurations: (1) cruise; (2) climb (slats only extended); (3) 15 deg take-off flaps; (4) 30 deg take-off flaps; (5) 45 deg landing flaps; and (6) 60 deg landing flaps.

  4. Assessment of the environmental impact of the FAA proposed rule making affecting the conditions of transport of radioactive materials on aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Hendrickson, P.L.; King, J.C.; McSweeney, T.I.; Shipler, D.B.; Brown, C.L.; Davis, D.K.; Watson, E.C.


    Amendments to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations relating to the transporting of radioactive materials on commercial aircraft are presented. Potential effects of the proposed changes are examined in the environmental impact statement, which is presented in the 10 sections and 5 appendices of this document. (JGB)

  5. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.


    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  6. Development and Testing of an Unconventional Morphing Wing Concept with Variable Chord and Camber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keidel, D.H.K.; Sodja, J.; Werter, N.P.M.; De Breuker, R.; Ermanni, P.; Monajjemi, M.; Liang, W.


    Driven by the need to improve the performance and energy-efficiency of aircraft, current research in the field of morphing wings is growing in significance. The most recently developed concepts typically adjust only one characteristic of the wing. Within this paper a new concept for morphing wings

  7. The leading-edge vortex of swift wing-shaped delta wings. (United States)

    Muir, Rowan Eveline; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria


    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. A well-documented example of an LEV is that generated by aircraft with highly swept, delta-shaped wings. While the wing aerodynamics of a manoeuvring aircraft, a bird gliding and a bird in flapping flight vary significantly, it is believed that this existing knowledge can serve to add understanding to the complex aerodynamics of natural fliers. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta-shaped wing with a sharp leading edge is tested at low Reynolds number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus . The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the unmodified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift wing-shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta-shaped wing.

  8. Critical joints in large composite aircraft structure (United States)

    Nelson, W. D.; Bunin, B. L.; Hart-Smith, L. J.


    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical structural joints of composite wing structure that meets design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Ancillary testing of 180 specimens generated data on strength and load-deflection characteristics which provided input to the joint analysis. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted joints was computed by the nonlinear analysis program A4EJ. This program was used to predict strengths of 20 additional large subcomponents representing strips from a wing root chordwise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. In some cases, the observed mode of failure was different than anticipated. The highlight of the subcomponent testing was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains close to 0.005. That represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art.

  9. Short revolving wings enable hovering animals to avoid stall and reduce drag (United States)

    Lentink, David; Kruyt, Jan W.; Heijst, Gertjan F.; Altshuler, Douglas L.


    Long and slender wings reduce the drag of airplanes, helicopters, and gliding animals, which operate at low angle of attack (incidence). Remarkably, there is no evidence for such influence of wing aspect ratio on the energetics of hovering animals that operate their wings at much higher incidence. High incidence causes aircraft wings to stall, hovering animals avoid stall by generating an attached vortex along the leading edge of their wings that elevates lift. Hypotheses that explain this capability include the necessity for a short radial distance between the shoulder joint and wing tip, measured in chord lengths, instead of the long tip-to-tip distance that elevates aircraft performance. This stems from how hovering animals revolve their wings around a joint, a condition for which the precise effect of aspect ratio on stall performance is unknown. Here we show that the attachment of the leading edge vortex is determined by wing aspect ratio with respect to the center of rotation-for a suite of aspect ratios that represent both animal and aircraft wings. The vortex remains attached when the local radius is shorter than 4 chord lengths, and separates outboard on more slender wings. Like most other hovering animals, hummingbirds have wing aspect ratios between 3 and 4, much stubbier than helicopters. Our results show this makes their wings robust against flow separation, which reduces drag below values obtained with more slender wings. This revises our understanding of how aspect ratio improves performance at low Reynolds numbers.

  10. Analysis of events resulting from an accident involving a transport aircraft carrying plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Hubert, P.; Pages, P.


    This study assesses the impact on health of an aircraft accident resulting in the release into the atmosphere of the reprocessing product PuO 2 . The consequences associated with the inhalation of the initial cloud, the passage into suspension of the powder deposited on the ground and the contamination of the food chain were therefore evaluated as a function of the quantity released. It was deduced that the risk of inhalation is by far the greatest. The countermeasures likely to be implemented during emergency action were subjected to analysis. In particular, it appeared that the impact of the first cloud could not really be mitigated but that it was possible to take effective action against the other consequences. Research was undertaken to establish tolerable release quantities which could if necessary be used as acceptance criteria for packaging tests. This indicated that a release in the range 10-100 g would give rise to controllable consequences, at least in a rural environment. The calculations relating to the estimation of the acute toxicity associated with the inhalation of Plutonium and details of the emergency action plan are given in appendix

  11. 49 CFR 173.27 - General requirements for transportation by aircraft. (United States)


    ... liquids. (d) Closures. Stoppers, corks or other such friction-type closures must be held securely, tightly..., 4, or 8, or Division 5.1, 5.2 or 6.1 that are packaged and offered for transport in glass... of the § 172.101 table Maximum authorized net capacity of each inner packaging Glass, earthenware or...

  12. 77 FR 22504 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft (United States)


    ... Convention on International Civil Aviation--also known as the Chicago Convention. Future inconsistencies with... known as the Chicago Convention. Future inconsistencies with international transport standards may... material release. Releases of hazardous materials can result in explosions or fires, while radioactive...

  13. In-situ testing of aircraft and satellites using a transportable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    A transportable reverberation chamber with vibrating walls to create high field strength has been developed, called Vibrating Intrinsic Reverberation Chamber (VIRC). It creates a statistically uniform electromagnetic field without the use of a rotating mode stirrer, resulting in a better homogeneity

  14. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.


    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  15. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test report (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.


    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of four large composite multirow bolted joint tests are presented. The tests were conducted to demonstrate the technology for critical joints in highly loaded composite structure and to verify the analytical methods that were developed throughout the program. The test consisted of a wing skin-stringer transition specimen representing a stringer runout and skin splice on the wing lower surface at the side of the fuselage attachment. All tests were static tension tests. The composite material was Toray T-300 fiber with Ciba-Geigy 914 resin in 10 mil tape form. The splice members were metallic, using combinations of aluminum and titanium. Discussions are given of the test article, instrumentation, test setup, test procedures, and test results for each of the four specimens. Some of the analytical predictions are also included.

  16. Aeroelastic Modelling and Design of Aeroelastically Tailored and Morphing Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werter, N.P.M.


    In order to accommodate the growth in air traffic whilst reducing the impact on the environment, operational efficiency is becoming more and more important in the design of the aircraft of the future. A possible approach to increase the operational efficiency of aircraft wings is the use of

  17. Design and fabrication of composite wing panels containing a production splice (United States)

    Reed, D. L.


    Bolted specimens representative of both upper and lower wing surface splices of a transport aircraft were designed and manufactured for static and random load tension and compression fatigue testing including ground-air-ground load reversals. The specimens were fabricated with graphite-epoxy composite material. Multiple tests were conducted at various load levels and the results were used as input to a statistical wearout model. The statically designed specimens performed very well under highly magnified fatigue loadings. Two large panels, one tension and compression, were fabricated for testing by NASA-LRC.

  18. Spatial perturbation of a wing-tip vortex using pulsed span-wise jets (United States)

    Heyes, A. L.; Smith, D. A. R.

    The separation distance required between transport aircraft to avoid wake vortices remains a limiting factor on airport capacity. The dissipation of the wake can be accelerated by perturbing co-operative instabilities between multiple pairs of vortices. This paper presents the results of a preliminary experimental investigation into the use of pulsed span-wise air jets in the wing tip to perturb a single tip vortex in the very near field. Velocity measurements were made using PIV and hot-wire anemometry. The results demonstrate that the vortex position can be modulated at frequencies up to 50 Hz and, as such, the method shows promise for forcing instability in multiple vortex wakes.

  19. Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures (United States)

    Dexter, H. Benson


    NASA has been a leader in development of composite materials for aircraft applications during the past 25 years. In the early 1980's NASA and others conducted research to improve damage tolerance of composite structures through the use of toughened resins but these resins were not cost-effective. The aircraft industry wanted affordable, robust structures that could withstand the rigors of flight service with minimal damage. The cost and damage tolerance barriers of conventional laminated composites led NASA to focus on new concepts in composites which would incorporate the automated manufacturing methods of the textiles industry and which would incorporate through-the-thickness reinforcements. The NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program provided the resources to extensively investigate the application of textile processes to next generation aircraft wing and fuselage structures. This paper discusses advanced textile material forms that have been developed, innovative machine concepts and key technology advancements required for future application of textile reinforced composites in commercial transport aircraft. Multiaxial warp knitting, triaxial braiding and through-the-thickness stitching are the three textile processes that have surfaced as the most promising for further development. Textile reinforced composite structural elements that have been developed in the NASA ACT Program are discussed. Included are braided fuselage frames and window-belt reinforcements, woven/stitched lower fuselage side panels, stitched multiaxial warp knit wing skins, and braided wing stiffeners. In addition, low-cost processing concepts such as resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI), and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are discussed. Process modeling concepts to predict resin flow and cure in textile preforms are also discussed.

  20. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.


    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  1. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.


    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  2. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Business Jets Wing Using STAR-CCM+ (United States)

    Bui, Trong


    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted: to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircrafts swept wing modified with (1) a laminar-flow wing glove, or (2) a seamless flap. The stall aerodynamics of these two different wing configurations were analyzed and compared with the unmodified baseline wing for low-speed flight. The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop.

  3. Insect Residue Contamination on Wing Leading Edge Surfaces: A Materials Investigation for Mitigation (United States)

    Lorenzi, Tyler M.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.


    Flight tests have shown that residue from insect strikes on aircraft wing leading edge surfaces may induce localized transition of laminar to turbulent flow. The highest density of insect populations have been observed between ground level and 153 m during light winds (2.6 -- 5.1 m/s), high humidity, and temperatures from 21 -- 29 C. At a critical residue height, dependent on the airfoil and Reynolds number, boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent results in increased drag and fuel consumption. Although this represents a minimal increase in fuel burn for conventional transport aircraft, future aircraft designs will rely on maintaining laminar flow across a larger portion of wing surfaces to reduce fuel burn during cruise. Thus, insect residue adhesion mitigation is most critical during takeoff and initial climb to maintain laminar flow in fuel-efficient aircraft configurations. Several exterior treatments investigated to mitigate insect residue buildup (e.g., paper, scrapers, surfactants, flexible surfaces) have shown potential; however, implementation has proven to be impractical. Current research is focused on evaluation of wing leading edge surface coatings that may reduce insect residue adhesion. Initial work under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program focused on evaluation of several commercially available products (commercial off-the-shelf, COTS), polymers, and substituted alkoxy silanes that were applied to aluminum (Al) substrates. Surface energies of these coatings were determined from contact angle data and were correlated to residual insect excrescence on coated aluminum substrates using a custom-built "bug gun." Quantification of insect excrescence surface coverage was evaluated by a series of digital photographic image processing techniques.

  4. An effective and practical fire-protection system. [for aircraft fuel storage and transport (United States)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Fewell, L. L.


    A high-performance sandwich-type fire protection system comprising a steel outer sheath and insulation combined in various configurations is described. An inherent advantage of the sheath system over coatings is that it eliminates problems of weatherability, materials strength, adhesion, and chemical attack. An experimental comparison between the protection performance of state-of-the-art coatings and the sheath system is presented, with emphasis on the protection of certain types of steel tanks for fuel storage and transport. Sheath systems are thought to be more expensive than coatings in initial implementation, although they are less expensive per year for sufficiently long applications.

  5. Risk of transmitting meningococcal infection by transient contact on aircraft and other transport. (United States)

    Rachael, T; Schubert, K; Hellenbrand, W; Krause, G; Stuart, J M


    Contact tracing of persons with meningococcal disease who have travelled on aeroplane or other multi-passenger transport is not consistent between countries. We searched the literature for clusters of meningococcal disease linked by transient contact on the same plane, train, bus or boat. We found reports of two clusters in children on the same school bus and one in passengers on the same plane. Cases within each of these three clusters were due to strains that were genetically indistinguishable. In the aeroplane cluster the only link between the two cases was through a single travel episode. The onset of illness (2 and 5 days after the flight) is consistent with infection from an unidentified carrier around the time of air travel. In contrast to the established risk of transmission from a case of tuberculosis, it is likely that the risk from a case of meningococcal disease to someone who is not identified as a close contact is exceedingly low. This should be considered in making international recommendations for passenger contact tracing after a case of meningococcal disease on a plane or other multi-passenger transport.

  6. Integration of an Advanced Cryogenic Electric Propulsion System (ACEPS) to Aerodynamically Efficient Subsonic Transport Aircraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal defines innovative aerodynamic concepts and technology goals aimed at vehicle efficiency for future subsonic aircraft in the 2020 -- 2030 timeframe....

  7. Scapular winging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozolova, D.


    We present the case of a boy who, up to the age of 16, was an active football and floorball player. In the recent 2 years, he experienced increasing muscle weakness and knee pain. Examinations revealed osteoid osteoma of the distal femur and proximal tibia bilaterally and a lesion of the right medial meniscus. The neurological exam revealed no pathology and EMG revealed the myopathic picture. At our first examination, small, cranially displaced scapulae looking like wings and exhibiting atypical movements were apparent (see movie). Genetic analysis confirmed facioscapulohumeral muscle dystrophy (FSHMD). Facial and particularly humeroscapular muscles are affected in this condition. Bulbar, extra ocular and respiratory muscles are spared. The genetic defect is a deletion in the subtelomeric region of the 4-th chromosome (4q35) resulting in 1-10 instead of the 11-150 D4Z4 tandem repeats. Inheritance is autosomal dominant and thus carries a 50% risk for the offspring of affected subjects. (author)

  8. Structural Optimization of Box Wing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski Miłosz J.


    Full Text Available Układ zamkniętych skrzydeł to niekonwencjonalne rozwiązanie połączenia powierzchni nośnych, które coraz częściej konstruktorzy starają się stosować w prototypach nowych konstrukcji. Ten artykuł prezentuje przykładowy sposób realizacji optymalizacji strukturalnej struktury nośnej skrzydeł w rozpatrywanym układzie, który może być użyteczny w trakcie projektowania wstępnego samolotu. Na wstępie zaprezentowano metody oraz teorię wykorzystane do stworzenia algorytmu optymalizacji. Struktura analizowana jest przy użyciu belkowego modelu MES. Optymalizacja została przeprowadzona z wykorzystaniem połączenia metod iteracji prostych i gradientowych. Wyniki działania algorytmu przedstawione są na prostym przypadku obliczeniowym.

  9. Aeroelasticity of morphing wings using neural networks (United States)

    Natarajan, Anand

    In this dissertation, neural networks are designed to effectively model static non-linear aeroelastic problems in adaptive structures and linear dynamic aeroelastic systems with time varying stiffness. The use of adaptive materials in aircraft wings allows for the change of the contour or the configuration of a wing (morphing) in flight. The use of smart materials, to accomplish these deformations, can imply that the stiffness of the wing with a morphing contour changes as the contour changes. For a rapidly oscillating body in a fluid field, continuously adapting structural parameters may render the wing to behave as a time variant system. Even the internal spars/ribs of the aircraft wing which define the wing stiffness can be made adaptive, that is, their stiffness can be made to vary with time. The immediate effect on the structural dynamics of the wing, is that, the wing motion is governed by a differential equation with time varying coefficients. The study of this concept of a time varying torsional stiffness, made possible by the use of active materials and adaptive spars, in the dynamic aeroelastic behavior of an adaptable airfoil is performed here. Another type of aeroelastic problem of an adaptive structure that is investigated here, is the shape control of an adaptive bump situated on the leading edge of an airfoil. Such a bump is useful in achieving flow separation control for lateral directional maneuverability of the aircraft. Since actuators are being used to create this bump on the wing surface, the energy required to do so needs to be minimized. The adverse pressure drag as a result of this bump needs to be controlled so that the loss in lift over the wing is made minimal. The design of such a "spoiler bump" on the surface of the airfoil is an optimization problem of maximizing pressure drag due to flow separation while minimizing the loss in lift and energy required to deform the bump. One neural network is trained using the CFD code FLUENT to

  10. A preliminary evaluation of the generalized likelihood ratio for detecting and identifying control element failures in a transport aircraft (United States)

    Bundick, W. T.


    The application of the Generalized Likelihood Ratio technique to the detection and identification of aircraft control element failures has been evaluated in a linear digital simulation of the longitudinal dynamics of a B-737 aircraft. Simulation results show that the technique has potential but that the effects of wind turbulence and Kalman filter model errors are problems which must be overcome.

  11. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristic of semispan commercial transport model with wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller operating in reverse thrust. [conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic wind tunnel (United States)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Gile, Brenda E.; Quinto, P. Frank


    A test was conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the effect of the reverse-thrust flow field of a wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan subsonic high-lift transport model. The advanced ducted propeller (ADP) model was mounted separately in position alongside the wing so that only the aerodynamic interference of the propeller and nacelle affected the aerodynamic performance of the transport model. Mach numbers ranged from 0.14 to 0.26; corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 x 10(exp 6). The reverse-thrust flow field of the ADP shielded a portion of the wing from the free-stream airflow and reduced both lift and drag. The reduction in lift and drag was a function of ADP rotational speed and free-stream velocity. Test results included ground effects data for the transport model and ADP configuration. The ground plane caused a beneficial increase in drag and an undesirable slight increase in lift. The ADP and transport model performance in ground effect was similar to performance trends observed for out of ground effect. The test results form a comprehensive data set that supports the application of the ADP engine and airplane concept on the next generation of advanced subsonic transports. Before this investigation, the engine application was predicted to have detrimental ground effect characteristics. Ground effect test measurements indicated no critical problems and were the first step in proving the viability of this engine and airplane configuration.

  12. On the use of controls for subsonic transport performance improvement: Overview and future directions (United States)

    Gilyard, Glenn; Espana, Martin


    Increasing competition among airline manufacturers and operators has highlighted the issue of aircraft efficiency. Fewer aircraft orders have led to an all-out efficiency improvement effort among the manufacturers to maintain if not increase their share of the shrinking number of aircraft sales. Aircraft efficiency is important in airline profitability and is key if fuel prices increase from their current low. In a continuing effort to improve aircraft efficiency and develop an optimal performance technology base, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed and flight tested an adaptive performance seeking control system to optimize the quasi-steady-state performance of the F-15 aircraft. The demonstrated technology is equally applicable to transport aircraft although with less improvement. NASA Dryden, in transitioning this technology to transport aircraft, is specifically exploring the feasibility of applying adaptive optimal control techniques to performance optimization of redundant control effectors. A simulation evaluation of a preliminary control law optimizes wing-aileron camber for minimum net aircraft drag. Two submodes are evaluated: one to minimize fuel and the other to maximize velocity. This paper covers the status of performance optimization of the current fleet of subsonic transports. Available integrated controls technologies are reviewed to define approaches using active controls. A candidate control law for adaptive performance optimization is presented along with examples of algorithm operation.

  13. Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft (United States)

    Namgoong, Howoong

    Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.

  14. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, H.B.


    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified

  15. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.


    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified.

  16. Airplane wing deformation and flight flutter detection method by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yu, Zhijing; Wang, Tao; Zhuge, Jingchang; Ji, Yue; Xue, Bin


    Airplane wing deformation is an important element of aerodynamic characteristics, structure design, and fatigue analysis for aircraft manufacturing, as well as a main test content of certification regarding flutter for airplanes. This paper presents a novel real-time detection method for wing deformation and flight flutter detection by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. Speckle patterns whose positions are determined through the vibration characteristic of the aircraft are coated on the wing; then the speckle patterns are imaged by CCD cameras which are mounted inside the aircraft cabin. In order to reduce the computation, a matching technique based on Geodetic Systems Incorporated coded points combined with the classical epipolar constraint is proposed, and a displacement vector map for the aircraft wing can be obtained through comparing the coordinates of speckle points before and after deformation. Finally, verification experiments containing static and dynamic tests by using an aircraft wing model demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Studies on aerodynamic interferences between the components of transport airplane using unstructured Navier-Stokes simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Ye, Z.


    It is well known that the aerodynamic interference flows widely exist between the components of conventional transport airplane, for example, the wing-fuselage juncture flow, wing-pylon-nacelle flow and tail-fuselage juncture flow. The main characteristic of these aerodynamic interferences is flow separation, which will increase the drag, reduce the lift and cause adverse influence on the stability and controllability of the airplane. Therefore, the modern civil transport designers should do their best to eliminate negative effects of aerodynamic interferences, which demands that the aerodynamic interferences between the aircraft components should be predicted and analyzed accurately. Today's CFD techniques provide us powerful and efficient analysis tools to achieve this objective. In this paper, computational investigations of the interferences between transport aircraft components have been carried out by using a viscous flow solver based on mixed element type unstructured meshes. (author)

  18. Analysing the effects of rigid and flexible aircraft dynamics on the ejection of a large store

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin


    Full Text Available duration ? ERU forces + store weight release causes aircraft ?g-jump? ? Period of ERU force is short enough to excite wing vibration modes ? ERU force/time & front/back force balance important for determining store separation rates from aircraft... ? Constrained motion in other DOF ? Used mass, inertias, CG of aircraft without Katleho ? Used trimmed forces of aircraft with Katleho ? Assumes delay in pilot response to g-jump ? CSIR 2011 Slide 14 Aircraft rigid accelerations Aircraft mass...

  19. Durability and damage tolerance of Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structure (LCPAS) (United States)

    Mccarty, John E.; Roeseler, William G.


    Analysis and testing addressing the key technology areas of durability and damage tolerance were completed for wing surface panels. The wing of a fuel-efficient, 200-passenger commercial transport airplane for 1990 delivery was sized using graphite-epoxy materials. Coupons of various layups used in the wing sizing were tested in tension, compression, and spectrum fatigue with typical fastener penetrations. The compression strength after barely visible impact damage was determined from coupon and structural element tests. One current material system and one toughened system were evaluated by coupon testing. The results of the coupon and element tests were used to design three distinctly different compression panels meeting the strength, stiffness, and damage-tolerance requirements of the upper wing panels. These three concepts were tested with various amounts of damage ranging from barely visible impact to through-penetration. The results of this program provide the key technology data required to assess the durability and damage-tolerance capability or advanced composites for use in commercial aircraft wing panel structure.

  20. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation (United States)


    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  1. The Edge supersonic transport (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian


    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  2. CFD Analysis of a T-38 Wing Fence (United States)


    or making major adjustments to the existing airframe. The answer lies in flow control. Flow control devices like vortex generators, winglets , and wing...fences have been used to improve the aerodynamic performance of hundreds of aircraft. Flow control is commonly added after the final phase of design...proposed by the Air Force Test Pilot School. The driving force for considering a wing fence as opposed to vane vortex generators or winglets 3 was a row of

  3. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu


    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  4. Low noise wing slat system with rigid cove-filled slat (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin (Inventor); Yadlin, Yoram (Inventor)


    Concepts and technologies described herein provide for a low noise aircraft wing slat system. According to one aspect of the disclosure provided herein, a cove-filled wing slat is used in conjunction with a moveable panel rotatably attached to the wing slat to provide a high lift system. The moveable panel rotates upward against the rear surface of the slat during deployment of the slat, and rotates downward to bridge a gap width between the stowed slat and the lower wing surface, completing the continuous outer mold line shape of the wing, when the cove-filled slat is retracted to the stowed position.

  5. Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.


    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  6. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.


    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  7. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  8. Flying Wings. A New Paradigm for Civil Aviation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martinez-Val


    Full Text Available Over the last 50 years, commercial aviation has been mainly based what is currently called the conventional layout, characterized by a slender fuselage mated to a high aspect ratio wing, with aft-tail planes and pod-mounted engines under the wing. However, it seems that this primary configuration is approaching an asymptote in its productivity and performance characteristics. One of the most promising configurations for the future is the flying wing in its distinct arrangements: blended-wing-body, C-wing, tail-less aircraft, etc. These layouts might provide significant fuel savings and, hence, a decrease in pollution. This configuration would also reduce noise in take-off and landing. All this explains the great deal of activity carried out by the aircraft industry and by numerous investigators to perform feasibility and conceptual design studies of this aircraft layout to gain better knowledge of its main characteristics: productivity, airport compatibility, passenger acceptance, internal architecture, emergency evacuation, etc. The present paper discusses the main features of flying wings, their advantages over conventional competitors, and some key operational issues, such as evacuation and vortex wake intensity. 

  9. Flapping Wings of an Inclined Stroke Angle: Experiments and Reduced-Order Models in Dual Aerial/Aquatic Flight (United States)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Triantafyllou, Michael


    Flapping wings in nature demonstrate a large force actuation envelope, with capabilities beyond the limits of static airfoil section coefficients. Puffins, guillemots, and other auks particularly showcase this mechanism, as they are able to both generate both enough thrust to swim and lift to fly, using the same wing, by changing the wing motion trajectory. The wing trajectory is therefore an additional design criterion to be optimized along with traditional aircraft parameters, and could possibly enable dual aerial/aquatic flight. We showcase finite aspect-ratio flapping wing experiments, dynamic similarity arguments, and reduced-order models for predicting the performance of flapping wings that carry out complex motion trajectories.

  10. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sodemann


    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2–5 July and 7–10 July 2008 occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications.

    Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are.

    The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO

  11. Electro-Magnetic Flow Control to Enable Natural Laminar Flow Wings (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research team has developed a solid-state electromagnetic device that, when embedded along the leading edge of an aircraft wing, can disrupt laminar air flow on...

  12. Data and Performances of Selected Aircraft and Rotocraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino


    The study reports a comparative view of over 250 aircraft and rotorcraft. We report over 30 geometric characteristics of wings and rotor blades, aerodynamic coefficients and efficiencies, performances and more. Accuracy levels are provided whereever available......The study reports a comparative view of over 250 aircraft and rotorcraft. We report over 30 geometric characteristics of wings and rotor blades, aerodynamic coefficients and efficiencies, performances and more. Accuracy levels are provided whereever available...

  13. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud


    The tiltrotor aircraft is a flight vehicle which combines the efficient low speed (i.e., take-off, landing, and hover) characteristics of a helicopter with the efficient cruise speed of a turboprop airplane. A well-known example of such vehicle is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The high cruise speed and range constraints placed on the civil tiltrotor require a relatively thin wing to increase the drag-divergence Mach number which translates into lower compressibility drag. It is required to reduce the wing maximum thickness-to-chord ratio t/c from 23% (i.e., V-22 wing) to 18%. While a reduction in wing thickness results in improved aerodynamic efficiency, it has an adverse effect on the wing structure and it tends to reduce structural stiffness. If ignored, the reduction in wing stiffness leads to susceptibility to aeroelastic and dynamic instabilities which may consequently cause a catastrophic failure. By taking advantage of the directional stiffness characteristics of composite materials the wing structure may be tailored to have the necessary stiffness, at a lower thickness, while keeping the weight low. The goal of this study is to design a wing structure for minimum weight subject to structural, dynamic and aeroelastic constraints. The structural constraints are in terms of strength and buckling allowables. The dynamic constraints are in terms of wing natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal bending and torsion. The aeroelastic constraints are in terms of frequency placement of the wing structure relative to those of the rotor system. The wing-rotor-pylon aeroelastic and dynamic interactions are limited in this design study by holding the cruise speed, rotor-pylon system, and wing geometric attributes fixed. To assure that the wing-rotor stability margins are maintained a more rigorous analysis based on a detailed model of the rotor system will need to ensue following the design study. The skin-stringer-rib type architecture is used for the wing

  14. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft, (United States)


    flying markets. The wing incorporates the drooped leading edge technology developed by NASA for more stability and spin resistance and its aerodynamic ...composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by

  15. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport. (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S


    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  16. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1 (United States)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; hide


    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  17. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and research on peripheral technologies (Research for aircraft engines); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koku engine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With an objective to utilize hydrogen fuel in aircraft engines, a conceptual design survey was carried out on medium size transport aircraft. Large size long-distance aircraft and SST loaded with a great amount of fuel have the jet fuel (JP) increase take-off weight, affecting largely the selection of wing area and engine thrust. If the hydrogen fuel can be liquefied, large reduction can be achieved and the economic effect can be increased. However, for short-distance transport aircraft, the fuel weight ratio is small, where no large advantage is anticipated even if hydrogen is liquefied. Nevertheless, considering oil depletion in the future, a conceptual design was performed on the YX2688 short-medium distance aircraft being discussed of development. Even the short-medium distance aircraft that can be developed and commercialized as civilian use aircraft has a number of common points with large aircraft development, such as hydrogen fuel using technologies and safety. Although the advantage of using liquefied hydrogen as fuel may of course be smaller in the short-medium distance aircraft than in larger aircraft, the trend of using hydrogen fuel is historical necessity, whose development plans should be moved forward. (NEDO)

  18. Solar thermal aircraft (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.


    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. NASA Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division (United States)

    Bakalyar, John A.


    This presentation provides a high-level overview of JSC aircraft and missions. The capabilities, including previous missions and support team, for the Super Guppy Transport (SGT) aircraft are highlighted.

  20. Utilization of Optimization for Design of Morphing Wing Structures for Enhanced Flight (United States)

    Detrick, Matthew Scott

    Conventional aircraft control surfaces constrain maneuverability. This work is a comprehensive study that looks at both smart material and conventional actuation methods to achieve wing twist to potentially improve flight capability using minimal actuation energy while allowing minimal wing deformation under aerodynamic loading. A continuous wing is used in order to reduce drag while allowing the aircraft to more closely approximate the wing deformation used by birds while loitering. The morphing wing for this work consists of a skin supported by an underlying truss structure whose goal is to achieve a given roll moment using less actuation energy than conventional control surfaces. A structural optimization code has been written in order to achieve minimal wing deformation under aerodynamic loading while allowing wing twist under actuation. The multi-objective cost function for the optimization consists of terms that ensure small deformation under aerodynamic loading, small change in airfoil shape during wing twist, a linear variation of wing twist along the length of the wing, small deviation from the desired wing twist, minimal number of truss members, minimal wing weight, and minimal actuation energy. Hydraulic cylinders and a two member linkage driven by a DC motor are tested separately to provide actuation. Since the goal of the current work is simply to provide a roll moment, only one actuator is implemented along the wing span. Optimization is also used to find the best location within the truss structure for the actuator. The active structure produced by optimization is then compared to simulated and experimental results from other researchers as well as characteristics of conventional aircraft.

  1. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  2. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.


    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  3. Fuel containment, lightning protection and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures (United States)

    Griffin, Charles F.; James, Arthur M.


    The damage-tolerance characteristics of high strain-to-failure graphite fibers and toughened resins were evaluated. Test results show that conventional fuel tank sealing techniques are applicable to composite structures. Techniques were developed to prevent fuel leaks due to low-energy impact damage. For wing panels subjected to swept stroke lightning strikes, a surface protection of graphite/aluminum wire fabric and a fastener treatment proved effective in eliminating internal sparking and reducing structural damage. The technology features developed were incorporated and demonstrated in a test panel designed to meet the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance requirements of a large commercial transport aircraft. The panel test results exceeded design requirements for all test conditions. Wing surfaces constructed with composites offer large weight savings if design allowable strains for compression can be increased from current levels.

  4. Concept of Operations for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Version 3.0 (United States)


    flight rules [ IFR ]), and communication with the ANSP via voice radio. In airspace where HP-TBO is used (Section 2.3), the minimum ability includes the...wing aircraft, and they often perform unique and demanding missions. Transport category IFR -capable rotorcraft are being acquired in larger numbers...could include consent/approval, disapproval, or a recommendation to amend the plan to include easements, noise mitigation, and disclosure requirements

  5. Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxiang XIANG


    Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations

  6. 75 FR 39795 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. (Type Certificate G60EU Previously Held by... (United States)


    ... failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the aircraft and the pilots lost... spar of the right wing failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the... have found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the AD is clear for U.S...

  7. 75 FR 52250 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. (Type Certificate G24EU Previously Held by... (United States)


    ... wing failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the aircraft and the...[Iacute]K sailplane, in which the main spar of the right wing failed near the root due to positive load... substance. But we might have found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the...

  8. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures (United States)

    Jackson, Anthony


    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  9. A Flight Dynamic Model of Aircraft Spinning (United States)


    r Zaw rate about body axes S Aircraft wing area V Flight path velocity 3 a Angle of attack Sideslip angle 6, Aileron deflection, positive when right...Tests, May/June 1983 PartI. Unpublished data report. 6. MARTIN, C.A. and SECOMB, D.A. ; RAAF BPTA Phase II Wind Tun - nel Tests: Rotary Balance Tests

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Logistics Applications (United States)


    supply stock levels at acceptable risk by employing a mix of “ jingle air” (Mi-8 helicopters and small, fixed-wing aircraft flown by contractor air...crews), “ jingle trucks” (locally contracted trucks), and “green air” (U.S. Army aviation, typically CH-47s, though not exclu- sively) to move materiel

  11. Butterfly wing colours : scale beads make white pierid wings brighter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Stowe, S; Siebke, K; Zeil, J; Arikawa, K


    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the

  12. Development of Stitched Composite Structure for Advanced Aircraft (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn; Przekop, Adam; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew; Velicki, Alex; Linton, Kim; Wu, Hsi-Yung; Baraja, Jaime; Thrash, Patrick; Hoffman, Krishna


    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to develop technologies which will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composites. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building blocks were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. These building blocks addressed tension, compression, and pressure loading conditions. The emphasis of the development work has been to assess the loading capability, damage arrestment features, repairability, post-buckling behavior, and response of PRSEUS flat panels to out-of plane pressure loading. The results of this building-block program from coupons through an 80%-scale pressure box have demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. This development program shows that the PRSEUS benefits are also applicable to traditional tube-andwing aircraft, those of advanced configurations, and other

  13. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study


    Seresinhe, R.


    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  14. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development (United States)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.


    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  15. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.


    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  16. Reliability aspects of a composite bolted scarf joint. [in wing skin splice (United States)

    Reed, D. L.; Eisenmann, J. R.


    The design, fabrication, static test, and fatigue test of both tension and compression graphite-epoxy candidates for a wing splice representative of a next-generation transport aircraft was the objective of the reported research program. A single-scarf bolted joint was selected as the design concept. Test specimens were designed and fabricated to represent an upper-surface and a lower-surface panel containing the splice. The load spectrum was a flight-by-flight random-load history including ground-air-ground loads. The results of the fatigue testing indicate that, for this type of joint, the inherent fatigue resistance of the laminate is reflected in the joint behavior and, consequently, the rate of damage accumulation is very slow under realistic fatigue loadings.

  17. Discrete-Roughness-Element-Enhanced Swept-Wing Natural Laminar Flow at High Reynolds Numbers (United States)

    Malik, Mujeeb; Liao, Wei; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan


    Nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary-instability analyses are used to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of the discrete-roughness-element technology for extending swept-wing natural laminar flow at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. Computations performed for the boundary layer on a natural-laminar-flow airfoil with a leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6 deg, freestream Mach number of 0.75, and chord Reynolds numbers of 17 × 10(exp 6), 24 × 10(exp 6), and 30 × 10(exp 6) suggest that discrete roughness elements could delay laminar-turbulent transition by about 20% when transition is caused by stationary crossflow disturbances. Computations show that the introduction of small-wavelength stationary crossflow disturbances (i.e., discrete roughness element) also suppresses the growth of most amplified traveling crossflow disturbances.

  18. DRE-Enhanced Swept-Wing Natural Laminar Flow at High Reynolds Numbers (United States)

    Malik, Mujeeb; Liao, Wei; Li, Fe; Choudhari, Meelan


    Nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary instability analyses are used to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of the discrete roughness elements (DRE) technology for extending swept-wing natural laminar flow at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. Computations performed for the boundary layer on a natural laminar flow airfoil with a leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg, free-stream Mach number of 0.75 and chord Reynolds numbers of 17 x 10(exp 6), 24 x 10(exp 6) and 30 x 10(exp 6) suggest that DRE could delay laminar-turbulent transition by about 20% when transition is caused by stationary crossflow disturbances. Computations show that the introduction of small wavelength stationary crossflow disturbances (i.e., DRE) also suppresses the growth of most amplified traveling crossflow disturbances.

  19. Hybrid Wing Body Model Identification Using Forced-Oscillation Water Tunnel Data (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Kramer, Brian; Kerho, Michael


    Static and dynamic testing of the NASA 0.7 percent scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was conducted in the Rolling Hills Research Corporation water tunnel to investigate aerodynamic behavior over a large range of angle-of-attack and to develop models that can predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes. This paper reports primarily on the longitudinal axis results. Flow visualization tests were also performed. These tests provide additional static data and new dynamic data that complement tests conducted at NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. HWB was developed to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project goals of lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This study also supports the NASA Aviation Safety Program efforts to model and control advanced transport configurations in loss-of-control conditions.

  20. Fuel containment and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 2: Testing (United States)

    Sandifer, J. P.; Denny, A.; Wood, M. A.


    Technical issues associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite wing structures for transport aircraft were investigated. Material evaluation tests were conducted on two toughened resin composites: Celion/HX1504 and Celion/5245. These consisted of impact, tension, compression, edge delamination, and double cantilever beam tests. Another test series was conducted on graphite/epoxy box beams simulating a wing cover to spar cap joint configuration of a pressurized fuel tank. These tests evaluated the effectiveness of sealing methods with various fastener types and spacings under fatigue loading and with pressurized fuel. Another test series evaluated the ability of the selected coatings, film, and materials to prevent fuel leakage through 32-ply AS4/2220-1 laminates at various impact energy levels. To verify the structural integrity of the technology demonstration article structural details, tests were conducted on blade stiffened panels and sections. Compression tests were performed on undamaged and impacted stiffened AS4/2220-1 panels and smaller element tests to evaluate stiffener pull-off, side load and failsafe properties. Compression tests were also performed on panels subjected to Zone 2 lightning strikes. All of these data were integrated into a demonstration article representing a moderately loaded area of a transport wing. This test combined lightning strike, pressurized fuel, impact, impact repair, fatigue and residual strength.

  1. Power reduction and the radial limit of stall delay in revolving wings of different aspect ratio. (United States)

    Kruyt, Jan W; van Heijst, GertJan F; Altshuler, Douglas L; Lentink, David


    Airplanes and helicopters use high aspect ratio wings to reduce the power required to fly, but must operate at low angle of attack to prevent flow separation and stall. Animals capable of slow sustained flight, such as hummingbirds, have low aspect ratio wings and flap their wings at high angle of attack without stalling. Instead, they generate an attached vortex along the leading edge of the wing that elevates lift. Previous studies have demonstrated that this vortex and high lift can be reproduced by revolving the animal wing at the same angle of attack. How do flapping and revolving animal wings delay stall and reduce power? It has been hypothesized that stall delay derives from having a short radial distance between the shoulder joint and wing tip, measured in chord lengths. This non-dimensional measure of wing length represents the relative magnitude of inertial forces versus rotational accelerations operating in the boundary layer of revolving and flapping wings. Here we show for a suite of aspect ratios, which represent both animal and aircraft wings, that the attachment of the leading edge vortex on a revolving wing is determined by wing aspect ratio, defined with respect to the centre of revolution. At high angle of attack, the vortex remains attached when the local radius is shorter than four chord lengths and separates outboard on higher aspect ratio wings. This radial stall limit explains why revolving high aspect ratio wings (of helicopters) require less power compared with low aspect ratio wings (of hummingbirds) at low angle of attack and vice versa at high angle of attack. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Composite Aircraft Fuselage Frame (United States)

    Dandekar, Aditya Milind

    Composites have been introduced in aircraft industries, for their stronger, stiffer, and lighter properties than their metal-alloys counterparts. The general purpose of an aircraft is to transport commercial or military payload. Aircraft frames primarily maintains the shape of fuselage and prevent instability of the structure. Fuselage is similar as wing in construction which consist of longitudinal elements (longerons and stringers), transverse elements (frames and bulkheads) and its external skin. The fuselage is subjected to forces such as the wing reactions, landing gear reaction, empennage reaction, inertia forces subjected due to size and weight, internal pressure forces due to high altitude. Frames also ensure fail-safe design against skin crack propagation due to hoops stress. Ideal fuselage frames cross section is often circular ring shape with a frame cap of Z section. They are mainly made up of light alloy commonly used is aluminium alloys such as Al-2024, Al-7010, Al-7050, Al-7175. Aluminium alloys have good strength to density ratios in compression and bending of thin plate. A high strength to weight ratio of composite materials can result in a lighter aircraft structure or better safety factor. This research focuses on analysis of fuselage frame under dynamic load condition with change in material. Composites like carbon fibre reinforced plastics [CFRP] and glass fibre reinforced plastics [GFRP] are compared with traditional aluminium alloy Al-7075. The frame is subjected to impact test by dropping it at a velocity of 30 ft. / secs from a height of 86 inch from its centre of gravity. These parameters are considered in event of failure of landing gear, and an aircraft is subject to belly landing or gear-up landing. The shear flow is calculated due to impact force which acts in radial direction. The frame is analysed under static structural and explicit dynamic load conditions. Geometry is created in ANSYS Design Modeler. Analysis setup is created using

  3. Aerodynamic Modeling of Transonic Aircraft Using Vortex Lattice Coupled with Transonic Small Disturbance for Conceptual Design (United States)

    Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan


    The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).

  4. Impact of the european emission trading scheme for the air transportation industry on the valuation of aircraft purchase rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarradellas-Espuny, J.; Salamero-Salas, A.; Martinez-Costa, C.


    The European Commission issued a legislative proposal in December 2006, suggesting a cap on CO 2 emissions for all planes arriving or departing from EU airports, while allowing airlines to buy and sell pollution credits on the EU carbon market (Emission Trading Scheme, or ETS). In 2008 the new scheme got the final approval. Real options appear to be ab appropriate methodology to capture the extra value brought by the new legislation on new airplane purchase rights: The airline will surely have the purchase right to the new plane if the operation of the plane generates unused pollution credits that the airline can sell at a minimum price in the carbon market. This paper tries to determine if the impact of ETS in the valuation of aircraft purchase rights is significant enough in monetary terms to include the new legislation in a complex real-option model already proposed by the authors recently. The research concludes that even the impact of ETS justifies its inclusion in the model, the quality of the available sets of historical data still raises some questions. Particularly, the assumption of market efficiency for the Carbon Pool over the recent years needs to be treated with caution. (Author) 9 refs

  5. Combat aircraft noise (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.


    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  6. Proportional fuzzy feed-forward architecture control validation by wind tunnel tests of a morphing wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Joël Tchatchueng Kammegne


    Full Text Available In aircraft wing design, engineers aim to provide the best possible aerodynamic performance under cruise flight conditions in terms of lift-to-drag ratio. Conventional control surfaces such as flaps, ailerons, variable wing sweep and spoilers are used to trim the aircraft for other flight conditions. The appearance of the morphing wing concept launched a new challenge in the area of overall wing and aircraft performance improvement during different flight segments by locally altering the flow over the aircraft’s wings. This paper describes the development and application of a control system for an actuation mechanism integrated in a new morphing wing structure. The controlled actuation system includes four similar miniature electromechanical actuators disposed in two parallel actuation lines. The experimental model of the morphing wing is based on a full-scale portion of an aircraft wing, which is equipped with an aileron. The upper surface of the wing is a flexible one, being closed to the wing tip; the flexible skin is made of light composite materials. The four actuators are controlled in unison to change the flexible upper surface to improve the flow quality on the upper surface by delaying or advancing the transition point from laminar to turbulent regime. The actuators transform the torque into vertical forces. Their bases are fixed on the wing ribs and their top link arms are attached to supporting plates fixed onto the flexible skin with screws. The actuators push or pull the flexible skin using the necessary torque until the desired vertical displacement of each actuator is achieved. The four vertical displacements of the actuators, correlated with the new shape of the wing, are provided by a database obtained through a preliminary aerodynamic optimization for specific flight conditions. The control system is designed to control the positions of the actuators in real time in order to obtain and to maintain the desired shape of the

  7. Experimental Investigation of a Wing-in-Ground Effect Craft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mobassher Tofa


    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  8. Experimental investigation of a wing-in-ground effect craft. (United States)

    Tofa, M Mobassher; Maimun, Adi; Ahmed, Yasser M; Jamei, Saeed; Priyanto, Agoes; Rahimuddin


    The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  9. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul


    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  10. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety (United States)


    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  11. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11... AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for recording, a conveyance must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of Transportation, Post Office...

  12. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes (United States)


    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel... Modification Do not incorporate Cessna Aircraft Company Engine Fuel Return System Modification Kit MK 172-28-01...

  13. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner


    Full Text Available A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a very close comparison with observations and fully accounts for the specific meteorological conditions during the measurement flights. This is important considering the often limited availability and representativity of such trace gas measurements. A new extensive database including all major research and commercial aircraft measurements between 1995 and 1998, as well as ozone soundings, was established specifically to support this type of direct comparison. Quantitative methods were applied to judge model performance including the calculation of average concentration biases and the visualization of correlations and RMS errors in the form of so-called Taylor diagrams. We present the general concepts applied, the structure and content of the database, and an overall analysis of model skills over four distinct regions. These regions were selected to represent various atmospheric conditions and to cover large geographical domains such that sufficient observations are available for comparison. The comparison of model results with the observations revealed specific problems for each individual model. This study suggests the further improvements needed and serves as a benchmark for re-evaluations of such improvements. In general all models show deficiencies with respect to both mean concentrations and vertical gradients of important trace gases. These include ozone, CO and NOx at the tropopause. Too strong two-way mixing across the

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing near its tip using panel method. Panel ho ni yoru tandokuyoku yokutan fukin no kuryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Sugiyama, Y [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The study described in this paper is intended to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of a turbo machine wing or an aircraft wing near its tip, using the panel method. The paper describes the case of a rectangular wing with a large aspect ratio. The introduced linear simultaneous equation was solved using a computer, and compared with the experimental result. The result may be summarized as follows: The distribution of pressure on the wing near its tip using the panel method takes the same shape as that for the experimental result; the negative pressure calculated close to the wing's trailing edge near the wing tip is a result of a three-dimensional effect of the flow along the wing width; the calculation and the experiment showed an increase in local lift coefficient and locally induced resistance coefficient in the vicinity of wing tip; the speed component in the y'' direction explains the structure of the wing surface velocity forming wing backwash vortex given by the lift linearity theory; and the result of calculation on the pressure distribution in the wing chord direction near the wing tip is very close to the experimental result except for the wing flank in the close vicinity of the wing tip upstream of the wing chord middle point. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Preliminary development of a wing in ground effect vehicle (United States)

    Abidin, Razali; Ahamat, Mohamad Asmidzam; Ahmad, Tarmizi; Saad, Mohd Rasdan; Hafizi, Ezzat


    Wing in ground vehicle is one of the mode of transportation that allows high speed movement over water by travelling few meters above the water level. Through this manouver strategy, a cushion of compressed air exists between the wing in ground vehicle wings and water. This significantly increase the lift force, thus reducing the necessity in having a long wing span. Our project deals with the development of wing in ground vehicle with the capability of transporting four people. The total weight of this wing in ground vehicle was estimated at 5.4 kN to enable the prediction on required wing area, minimum takeoff velocity, drag force and engine power requirement. The required takeoff velocity is decreases as the lift coefficient increases, and our current mathematical model shows the takeoff velocity at 50 m/s avoid the significant increase in lift coefficient for the wing area of 5 m2. At the velocity of 50 m/s, the drag force created by this wing in ground vehicle is well below 1 kN, which required a 100-120 kW of engine power if the propeller has the efficiency of 0.7. Assessment on the stresses and deflection of the hull structural indicate the capability of plywood to withstand the expected load. However, excessive deflection was expected in the rear section which requires a minor structural modification. In the near future, we expect that the wind tunnel tests of this wing in ground vehicle model would enable more definite prediction on the important parameters related to its performance.

  16. Maneuvering Environment for Tiltwing Aircraft with Distributed Electric Propulsion, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The tiltwing class of aircraft consists of vehicles with the ability to rotate the wing and propulsion system as a unit a full 90 degrees from the standard fixed...

  17. Structure design of an innovative adaptive variable camber wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao An-Min


    Full Text Available In this paper, an innovative double rib sheet structure is proposed, which can replace the traditional rigid hinge joint with the surface contact. On the one hand, the variable camber wing structural design not only can improve the capacity to sustain more load but also will not increase the overall weight of the wing. On the other hand, it is a simple mechanical structure design to achieve the total wing camber change. Then the numerical simulation results show that the maximum stress at the connect of the wing rib is 88.2MPa, and the double ribs sheet engineering design meet the structural strength requirements. In addition, to make a fair comparison, the parameters of variable camber are fully referenced to the Talon Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The results reveal that the total variable camber wing can further enhance aircraft flight efficiency by 29.4%. The design of the whole variable camber wing structure proposed in this paper has high engineering value and feasibility.

  18. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components (United States)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.


    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  19. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M H; Umar, S; Nauman, S


    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft

  20. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.


    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced Aluminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft. (author)

  1. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Deployment of Up to Four F-16C Aircraft to the 133rd Airlift Wing for Air Sovereignty Alert Operations (United States)


    Indians. Wheat became the major crop. Hennepin County was established and the name Minneapolis chosen for its major town, situated near St. Anthony...Snelling but also parts of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers, prairie, timberland, lakes, and streams. Wheat , the main farm crop, was transported...Page 10 Dragonflies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 4 Fungi

  2. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions (United States)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.


    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  3. Application of an optimized winglet configuration to an advanced commercial transport (United States)

    Shollenberger, C. A.


    The design is presented of an aircraft which employs an integrated wing and winglet lift system. Comparison was made with a conventional baseline configuration employing a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing. An optimized wing-winglet combination was selected from four proposed configurations for which aerodynamic, structural, and weight characteristics were evaluated. Each candidate wing-winglet configuration was constrained to the same induced drag coefficient as the baseline aircraft. The selected wing-winglet configuration was resized for a specific medium-range mission requirement, and operating costs were estimated for a typical mission. Study results indicated that the wing-winglet aircraft was lighter and could complete the specified mission at less cost than the conventional wing aircraft. These indications were sensitive to the impact of flutter characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to the performance of the high-lift system. Further study in these areas is recommended to reduce uncertainty in future development.

  4. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum (United States)


    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a... ``Public Aircraft Oversight Forum: Ensuring Safety for Critical Missions'', are to (1) raise awareness of...

  5. Amphibious Aircraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  6. Wind tunnel investigation of a USB-STOL transport semi-span model. 2; CAD sekkei ni yoru USB-STOL ki hansai mokei no fudo shiken. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H; Okuyama, M; Fujieda, H; Fujita, T; Iwasaki, A [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    The Quiet Short Take-Off and Landing (QSTOL) Experimental Aircraft `ASKA` has been researched and developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL). The `ASKA` was based upon the airframe of the home produced C-1 tactical transport which was modified into the Upper Surface Blowing (USB) -powered high- lift STOL aircraft. The wing configuration, however, was not changed. Therefore, this Experimental Aircraft does not always have the optimum configuration of a USB-type aircraft. So the authors tried to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of the STOL Aircraft. This paper describes the investigations which have been conducted to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic jet transport semi-span model with an Upper Surface Blown Flap system which has been newly designed using the NAL STOL-CAD program. The model had an 8.2{degree} swept wing of aspect ratio 10.0 and four turbofan engines with short USB nozzles. The tests were conducted in the NAL 2{times}2m Gust Wind Tunnel with closed section and results were obtained for several flap and slat deflections at jet momentum coefficients from 0 to 1.85. Compared with the aerodynamic characteristics of the `ASKA` model, we determined that the airframe weight can be reduced and the aerodynamic characteristics can be improved significantly. 14 refs., 44 figs.

  7. ASKA STOL research aircraft flight tests and evaluation. STOL jikkenki Asuka'' no hiko shiken kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, M; Inoue, T; Tobinaga, Y; Tsuji, H [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The present report evaluated the powered high-lift device (PHLD) distance of upper surface blowing (USB) system, basing the materialization of short distance take-off and landing (STOL) performance, one of the main flight test purposes by the Aska'', quiet STOL research aircraft, which evaluation was then added with reporting its flight test result to cover several topics. As prototypical, a C-1 tactical transport aircraft produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries was modified to the aska'' together with the following change in design for the STOL flight test: Adoption was made of a PHLD of USB system where the wing surface was mounted with four turbofan jet engines thereon. Application was made of a boundary layer control (BLC) to the main wing leading edge and aileron. Mounting was made of a stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) using a triple system digital computer. Fitting was made of a vortex generator for the prevention from peeling by jet exhaust. As a result of flight test, the recorded distance was confirmed to be 1580ft in landing and 1670ft in take-off. 5 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Aerodynamic analysis for aircraft with nacelles, pylons, and winglets at transonic speeds (United States)

    Boppe, Charles W.


    A computational method has been developed to provide an analysis for complex realistic aircraft configurations at transonic speeds. Wing-fuselage configurations with various combinations of pods, pylons, nacelles, and winglets can be analyzed along with simpler shapes such as airfoils, isolated wings, and isolated bodies. The flexibility required for the treatment of such diverse geometries is obtained by using a multiple nested grid approach in the finite-difference relaxation scheme. Aircraft components (and their grid systems) can be added or removed as required. As a result, the computational method can be used in the same manner as a wind tunnel to study high-speed aerodynamic interference effects. The multiple grid approach also provides high boundary point density/cost ratio. High resolution pressure distributions can be obtained. Computed results are correlated with wind tunnel and flight data using four different transport configurations. Experimental/computational component interference effects are included for cases where data are available. The computer code used for these comparisons is described in the appendices.

  9. Spanwise drag variation on low Re wings -- revisited (United States)

    Yang, Shanling; Spedding, Geoffrey


    Aerodynamic performance measurement and prediction of airfoils and wings at chord Reynolds numbers below 105 is both difficult and increasingly important in application to small-scale aircraft. Not only are the aerodynamics strongly affected by the dynamics of the unstable laminar boundary layer but the flow is decreasingly likely to be two-dimensional as Re decreases. The spanwise variation of the flow along a two-dimensional geometry is often held to be responsible for the large variations in measured profile drag coefficient. Here we measure local two-dimensional drag coefficients along a finite wing using non-intrusive PIV methods. Variations in Cd (y) can be related to local flow variations on the wing itself. Integrated values can be compared with force balance data, and the proper description of drag components at low Re will be discussed.

  10. A Survey of Factors Affecting Blunt Leading-Edge Separation for Swept and Semi-Slender Wings (United States)

    Luckring, James M.


    A survey is presented of factors affecting blunt leading-edge separation for swept and semi-slender wings. This class of separation often results in the onset and progression of separation-induced vortical flow over a slender or semi-slender wing. The term semi-slender is used to distinguish wings with moderate sweeps and aspect ratios from the more traditional highly-swept, low-aspect-ratio slender wing. Emphasis is divided between a selection of results obtained through literature survey a section of results from some recent research projects primarily being coordinated through NATO s Research and Technology Organization (RTO). An aircraft context to these studies is included.

  11. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs (United States)


    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  12. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of Joined Wing Scissor Morphing (United States)


    would use the low sweep for carrier landing and subsonic cruise, and use the high sweep for 12 supersonic flight [13]. According to Raymer [19...Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Institute of Technology, 2005. 12. Katz, Joseph, Shaun Byrne, and Robert Hahl. "Stall Resistance Features of...Lifting-Body Airplane Configurations." Journal of Aircraft 2nd ser. 36 (1999): 471-474. 13. Kress, Robert W. "Variable Sweep Wing Design." AIAA 83


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonova


    Full Text Available We have used Diederich’s theory of wingspan average correlation functions to obtain analytical expressions for the local spectral density of aircraft wing moments induced by horizontal and vertical wind gusts. We have assumed that the correlation functions of atmospheric turbulence belong to the Bullen family which includes both partial cases of known Dryden’s model as well as von Karman’s  model.

  14. An Open-Rotor Distributed Propulsion Aircraft Study


    Gibbs, Jonathan; Bachmann, Arne; Seyfang, George; Peebles, Patrick; May, Chris; Saracoğlu, Bayındır; Paniagua, Guillermo


    The EU-funded SOAR project analyzed the high-lift efficiency of an open-fan wing design by systematic variation of fan blade count and angle. The research project built a cross-flow fan propelled wing section and investigated it by means of fluid dynamic simulation and wind tunnel testing. The experimental data resulting from the wind tunnel model were used to generate non-dimensional parameters which were used to scale data for the full-scale SOAR wing section. Preliminary aircraft ...

  15. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft (United States)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.


    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  16. Aircraft Design Software (United States)


    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  17. Songbird - AN Innovative Uas Combining the Advantages of Fixed Wing and Multi Rotor Uas (United States)

    Thamm, F.-P.; Brieger, N.; Neitzke, K.-P.; Meyer, M.; Jansen, R.; Mönninghof, M.


    This paper describes a family of innovative fixed wing UAS with can vertical take off and land - the SONGBIRD family. With nominal payloads starting from 0.5 kg they can take off and land safely like a multi-rotor UAV, removing the need for an airstrip for the critical phases of operation. A specially designed flight controller allows stable flight at every point of the transition phase between VTOL and fixed wing mode. Because of this smooth process with a all time stable flight, very expensive payload like hyperspectral sensors or advanced optical cameras can be used. Due to their design all airplanes of the SONGBIRD family have excellent horizontal flight properties, a maximum speed of over 110 km/h, good gliding properties and long flight times of up to 1 h. Missions were flown in wind speeds up to 18 m/s. At every time of the flight it is possible to interrupt the mission and hover over a point of interest for detail investigations. The complete flight, including take-off and landing can be performed by autopilot. Designed for daily use in professional environments, SONGBIRDs are built out of glass-fibre and carbon composites for a long service life. For safe operations comprehensive security features are implemented, for example redundant flight controllers and sensors, advanced power management system and mature fail safe procedures. The aircraft can be dismantled into small parts for transportation. SONGBIRDS are available for different pay loads, from 500 g to 2 kg. The SONGBIRD family are interesting tools combining the advantages of multi-copter and fixed wing UAS.

  18. Design of a new VTOL UAV by combining cycloidal blades and FanWing propellers (United States)

    Li, Daizong

    Though the propelling principles of Cycloidal Blades and FanWing propellers are totally different, their structures are similar. Therefore, it is possible to develop an aircraft which combines both types of the propulsion modes of Cyclogyro and FanWing aircrafts. For this kind of aircraft, Cycloidal Blades Mode provides capabilities of Vertical Take-Off and Landing, Instantly Alterable Vector Thrusting, and Low Noise. The FanWing Mode provides capabilities of High Efficiency, Energy-Saving, and Cannot-Stall Low-Speed Cruising. Besides, because both of these propellers are observably better than conventional screw propeller in terms of efficiency, so this type of VTOL UAV could fly with Long Endurance. Furthermore, the usage of flying-wing takes advantage of high structure utilization and high aerodynamic efficiency, eliminates the interference of fuselage and tail, and overcomes flying wing's shortcomings of pitching direction instability and difficulty of control. A new magnetic suspension track-type cycloidal propulsion system is also presented in the paper to solve problems of heavy structure, high mechanical resistance, and low reliability in the traditional cycloidal propellers. The further purpose of this design is to trying to make long-endurance VTOL aircraft and Practical Flying Cars possible in reality, and to bring a new era to the aviation industry.

  19. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion (United States)


    ... entitled, ``State of the Art of Supersonics Aircraft Technology--What has progressed in science since 1973... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation...

  20. NASA Fixed Wing Project Propulsion Research and Technology Development Activities to Reduce Thrust Specific Energy Consumption (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; DelRasario, Ruben; Madavan, Nateri K.


    This paper presents an overview of the propulsion research and technology portfolio of NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Fixed Wing Project. The research is aimed at significantly reducing the thrust specific fuel/energy consumption of notional advanced fixed wing aircraft (by 60 % relative to a baseline Boeing 737-800 aircraft with CFM56-7B engines) in the 2030-2035 time frame. The research investments described herein are aimed at improving propulsive efficiency through higher bypass ratio fans, improving thermal efficiency through compact high overall pressure ratio gas generators, and exploring the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion propulsion and hybrid gas-electric propulsion concepts.

  1. Design and mechanical analysis of a 3D-printed biodegradable biomimetic micro air vehicle wing (United States)

    Salami, E.; Ganesan, P. B.; Ward, T. A.; Viyapuri, R.; Romli, F. I.


    The biomimetic micro air vehicles (BMAV) are unmanned, micro-scaled aircraft that are bio-inspired from flying organisms to achieve the lift and thrust by flapping their wings. There are still many technological challenges involved with designing the BMAV. One of these is designing the ultra-lightweight materials and structures for the wings that have enough mechanical strength to withstand continuous flapping at high frequencies. Insects achieve this by having chitin-based, wing frame structures that encompass a thin, film membrane. The main objectives of this study are to design a biodegradable BMAV wing (inspired from the dragonfly) and analyze its mechanical properties. The dragonfly-like wing frame structure was bio-mimicked and fabricated using a 3D printer. A chitosan nanocomposite film membrane was applied to the BMAV wing frames through casting method. Its mechanical performance was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). This analysis indicates that the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the wing with a membrane is nearly double that of the wing without a membrane, which allow higher wing beat frequencies and deflections that in turn enable a greater lifting performance.

  2. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.


    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics (United States)

    Cox, Jordan A.

    The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

  4. Morphing Wing-Tip Open Loop Controller and its Validation During Wind Tunnel Tests at the IAR-NRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sadok GUEZGUEZ


    Full Text Available In this project, a wing tip of a real aircraft was designed and manufactured. This wing tip was composed of a wing and an aileron. The wing was equipped with a composite skin on its upper surface. This skin changed its shape (morphed by use of 4 electrical in-house developed actuators and 32 pressure sensors. These pressure sensors measure the pressures, and further the loads on the wing upper surface. Thus, the upper surface of the wing was morphed using these actuators with the aim to improve the aerodynamic performances of the wing-tip. Two types of ailerons were designed and manufactured: one aileron is rigid (non-morphed and one morphing aileron. This morphing aileron can change its shape also for the aerodynamic performances improvement. The morphing wing-tip internal structure is designed and manufactured, and is presented firstly in the paper. Then, the modern communication and control hardware are presented for the entire morphing wing tip equipped with actuators and sensors having the aim to morph the wing. The calibration procedure of the wing tip is further presented, followed by the open loop controller results obtained during wind tunnel tests. Various methodologies of open loop control are presented in this paper, and results obtained were obtained and validated experimentally through wind tunnel tests.

  5. Residual life estimation of cracked aircraft structural components


    Maksimović, Mirko S.; Vasović, Ivana V.; Maksimović, Katarina S.; Trišović, Nataša; Maksimović, Stevan M.


    The subject of this investigation is focused on developing computation procedure for strength analysis of damaged aircraft structural components with respect to fatigue and fracture mechanics. For that purpose, here will be defined computation procedures for residual life estimation of aircraft structural components such as wing skin and attachment lugs under cyclic loads of constant amplitude and load spectrum. A special aspect of this investigation is based on using of the Strain Energy Den...

  6. The Exergy of Lift and Aircraft Exergy Flow Diagrams


    Paulus, Jr., David; Gaggioli, Richard


    Aside from incidental, auxiliary loads, in level flight the principal load on the aircraft propulsion engine is the power required to provide the continuous lift. To construct an exergy flow diagram for an aircraft – for example, for the purpose of pinpointing inefficiencies and for costing – an expression is needed for the exergy delivered to and by the wings. That is, an expression is needed for the exergy of lift. The purpose of this paper is to present an expression de...

  7. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.


    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  8. Estimates of the initial vortex separation distance, bo, of commercial aircraft from pulsed lidar data (United States)


    An aircraft in flight generates multiple wake vortices, the largest of which are a result of : the lift on the wings. These vortices rapidly roll up into a counter-rotating vortex pair : behind the aircraft. The initial separation between the centroi...

  9. Maneuvering control and configuration adaptation of a biologically inspired morphing aircraft (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mujahid

    Natural flight as a source of inspiration for aircraft design was prominent with early aircraft but became marginalized as aircraft became larger and faster. With recent interest in small unmanned air vehicles, biological inspiration is a possible technology to enhance mission performance of aircraft that are dimensionally similar to gliding birds. Serial wing joints, loosely modeling the avian skeletal structure, are used in the current study to allow significant reconfiguration of the wing shape. The wings are reconfigured to optimize aerodynamic performance and maneuvering metrics related to specific mission tasks. Wing shapes for each mission are determined and related to the seagulls, falcons, albatrosses, and non-migratory African swallows on which the aircraft are based. Variable wing geometry changes the vehicle dynamics, affording versatility in flight behavior but also requiring appropriate compensation to maintain stability and controllability. Time-varying compensation is in the form of a baseline controller which adapts to both the variable vehicle dynamics and to the changing mission requirements. Wing shape is adapted in flight to minimize a cost function which represents energy, temporal, and spatial efficiency. An optimal control architecture unifies the control and adaptation tasks.

  10. Achieving bioinspired flapping wing hovering flight solutions on Mars via wing scaling. (United States)

    Bluman, James E; Pohly, Jeremy; Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-Kwon; Landrum, David Brian; Fahimi, Farbod; Aono, Hikaru


    Achieving atmospheric flight on Mars is challenging due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere. Aerodynamic forces are proportional to the atmospheric density, which limits the use of conventional aircraft designs on Mars. Here, we show using numerical simulations that a flapping wing robot can fly on Mars via bioinspired dynamic scaling. Trimmed, hovering flight is possible in a simulated Martian environment when dynamic similarity with insects on earth is achieved by preserving the relevant dimensionless parameters while scaling up the wings three to four times its normal size. The analysis is performed using a well-validated two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation solver, coupled to a three-dimensional flight dynamics model to simulate free flight. The majority of power required is due to the inertia of the wing because of the ultra-low density. The inertial flap power can be substantially reduced through the use of a torsional spring. The minimum total power consumption is 188 W/kg when the torsional spring is driven at its natural frequency. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Aircraft cybernetics (United States)


    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  12. Conceptual/preliminary design study of subsonic v/stol and stovl aircraft derivatives of the S-3A (United States)

    Kidwell, G. H., Jr.


    A computerized aircraft synthesis program was used to examine the feasibility and capability of a V/STOL aircraft based on the Navy S-3A aircraft. Two major airframe modifications are considered: replacement of the wing, and substitution of deflected thrust turbofan engines similar to the Pegasus engine. Three planform configurations for the all composite wing were investigated: an unconstrained span design, a design with the span constrained to 64 feet, and an unconstrained span oblique wing design. Each design was optimized using the same design variables, and performance and control analyses were performed. The oblique wing configuration was found to have the greatest potential in this application. The mission performance of these V/STOL aircraft compares favorably with that of the CTOL S-3A.

  13. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.


    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  14. Flexible wings in flapping flight (United States)

    Moret, Lionel; Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun


    We study the effect of passive pitching and flexible deflection of wings on the forward flapping flight. The wings are flapped vertically in water and are allowed to move freely horizontally. The forward speed is chosen by the flapping wing itself by balance of drag and thrust. We show, that by allowing the wing to passively pitch or by adding a flexible extension at its trailing edge, the forward speed is significantly increased. Detailed measurements of wing deflection and passive pitching, together with flow visualization, are used to explain our observations. The advantage of having a wing with finite rigidity/flexibility is discussed as we compare the current results with our biological inspirations such as birds and fish.

  15. Toward New Horizons. Volume 8. Guided Missiles and Pilotless Aircraft (United States)


    wings required for sustentation at high speeds than for normal aircraft in which take-off and landing requirements must be met. Thus aerodynamic data...the Langley Memorial Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 13 (2) Free-flight tests of missiles instrumented to give

  16. Aerodynamics power consumption for mechanical flapping wings undergoing flapping and pitching motion (United States)

    Razak, N. A.; Dimitriadis, G.; Razaami, A. F.


    Lately, due to the growing interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV), interest in flapping flight has been rekindled. The reason lies in the improved performance of flapping wing flight at low Reynolds number regime. Many studies involving flapping wing flight focused on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces such as lift and thrust. There is one aspect of flapping wing flight that received less attention. The aspect is aerodynamic power consumption. Since most mechanical flapping wing aircraft ever designed are battery powered, power consumption is fundamental in improving flight endurance. This paper reports the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings under going active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the power consumption of flapping wings via generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The experiments were repeated for different airspeeds, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections with symmetric and cambered airfoils. A specially designed mechanical flapper modelled on large migrating birds was used. It will be shown that, under pitch leading conditions, less power is required to overcome the unsteady aerodnamics forces. The study finds less power requirement for downstroke compared to upstroke motion. Overall results demonstrate power consumption depends directly on the unsteady lift force.

  17. Passively morphing ornithopter wings constructed using a novel compliant spine: design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissa, A A; Hubbard Jr, J E; Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I


    Ornithopters or flapping wing uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in civil and military sectors. Amongst the UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and also have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work is to improve the steady level flight performance of an ornithopter by implementing a continuous vortex gait using a novel passive compliant spine inserted in the ornithopter’s wings. This paper presents an optimal compliant spine concept for ornithopter applications. A quasi-static design optimization procedure was formulated to design the compliant spine. Finite element analysis was performed on a first generation spine and the spine was fabricated. This prototype was then tested by inserting it into an ornithopter’s wing leading edge spar. The effect of inserting the compliant spine into the wings on the electric power required, the aerodynamic loads and the wing kinematics was studied. The ornithopter with the compliant spines inserted in its wings consumed 45% less power and produced an additional 16% of its weight in mean lift compared to the same ornithopter without the compliant spine. The results indicate that this passive morphing approach is promising for improved steady level flight performance. (paper)

  18. Special Issue: Adaptive/Smart Structures and Multifunctional Materials with Application to Morphing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafic Ajaj


    Full Text Available Recent advances in smart structures and multifunctional materials have facilitated many novel aerospace technologies such as morphing aircraft. A morphing aircraft, bio-inspired by natural fliers, has gained a lot of interest as a potential technology to meet the ambitious goals of the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE Vision 2020 and the FlightPath 2050 documents. A morphing aircraft continuously adjusts its wing geometry to enhance flight performance, control authority, and multi-mission capability.[...

  19. Virtual Sensor for Failure Detection, Identification and Recovery in the Transition Phase of a Morphing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Heredia


    Full Text Available The Helicopter Adaptive Aircraft (HADA is a morphing aircraft which is able to take-off as a helicopter and, when in forward flight, unfold the wings that are hidden under the fuselage, and transfer the power from the main rotor to a propeller, thus morphing from a helicopter to an airplane. In this process, the reliable folding and unfolding of the wings is critical, since a failure may determine the ability to perform a mission, and may even be catastrophic. This paper proposes a virtual sensor based Fault Detection, Identification and Recovery (FDIR system to increase the reliability of the HADA aircraft. The virtual sensor is able to capture the nonlinear interaction between the folding/unfolding wings aerodynamics and the HADA airframe using the navigation sensor measurements. The proposed FDIR system has been validated using a simulation model of the HADA aircraft, which includes real phenomena as sensor noise and sampling characteristics and turbulence and wind perturbations.

  20. Virtual sensor for failure detection, identification and recovery in the transition phase of a morphing aircraft. (United States)

    Heredia, Guillermo; Ollero, Aníbal


    The Helicopter Adaptive Aircraft (HADA) is a morphing aircraft which is able to take-off as a helicopter and, when in forward flight, unfold the wings that are hidden under the fuselage, and transfer the power from the main rotor to a propeller, thus morphing from a helicopter to an airplane. In this process, the reliable folding and unfolding of the wings is critical, since a failure may determine the ability to perform a mission, and may even be catastrophic. This paper proposes a virtual sensor based Fault Detection, Identification and Recovery (FDIR) system to increase the reliability of the HADA aircraft. The virtual sensor is able to capture the nonlinear interaction between the folding/unfolding wings aerodynamics and the HADA airframe using the navigation sensor measurements. The proposed FDIR system has been validated using a simulation model of the HADA aircraft, which includes real phenomena as sensor noise and sampling characteristics and turbulence and wind perturbations.

  1. 77 FR 43135 - Application of City Wings, Inc. D/B/A Seaflight for Commuter Authority (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION [Docket DOT-OST-2010-0263] Application of City Wings, Inc. D/B/A... cause why it should not issue an order finding City Wings, Inc. d/b/a Seaflight fit, willing, and able... be served upon the parties listed in Attachment A to the order. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  2. A lifting line model to investigate the influence of tip feathers on wing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, M; Crawford, C


    Bird wings have been studied as prototypes for wing design since the beginning of aviation. Although wing tip slots, i.e. wings with distinct gaps between the tip feathers (primaries), are very common in many birds, only a few studies have been conducted on the benefits of tip feathers on the wing's performance, and the aerodynamics behind tip feathers remains to be understood. Consequently most aircraft do not yet copy this feature. To close this knowledge gap an extended lifting line model was created to calculate the lift distribution and drag of wings with tip feathers. With this model, is was easily possible to combine several lifting surfaces into various different birdwing-like configurations. By including viscous drag effects, good agreement with an experimental tip slotted reference case was achieved. Implemented in C++ this model resulted in computation times of less than one minute per wing configuration on a standard notebook computer. Thus it was possible to analyse the performance of over 100 different wing configurations with and without tip feathers. While generally an increase in wing efficiency was obtained by splitting a wing tip into distinct, feather-like winglets, the best performance was generally found when spreading more feathers over a larger dihedral angle out of the wing plane. However, as the results were very sensitive to the precise geometry of the feather fan (especially feather twist) a careless set-up could just as easily degrade performance. Hence a detailed optimization is recommended to realize the full benefits by simultaneously optimizing feather sweep, twist and dihedral angles. (paper)

  3. Study on bird's & insect's wing aerodynamics and comparison of its analytical value with standard airfoil (United States)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul; Hossain, Md. Abed; Ahmed, Md. Imteaz


    Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird & insect species. This article discusses the mechanics of bird flight, with emphasis on the varied forms of bird's & insect's wings. The fundamentals of bird flight are similar to those of aircraft. Flying animals flap their wings to generate lift and thrust as well as to perform remarkable maneuvers with rapid accelerations and decelerations. Insects and birds provide illuminating examples of unsteady aerodynamics. Lift force is produced by the action of air flow on the wing, which is an airfoil. The airfoil is shaped such that the air provides a net upward force on the wing, while the movement of air is directed downward. Additional net lift may come from airflow around the bird's & insect's body in some species, especially during intermittent flight while the wings are folded or semi-folded. Bird's & insect's flight in nature are sub-divided into two stages. They are Unpowered Flight: Gliding and Soaring & Powered Flight: Flapping. When gliding, birds and insects obtain both a vertical and a forward force from their wings. When a bird & insect flaps, as opposed to gliding, its wings continue to develop lift as before, but the lift is rotated forward to provide thrust, which counteracts drag and increases its speed, which has the effect of also increasing lift to counteract its weight, allowing it to maintain height or to climb. Flapping flight is more complicated than flight with fixed wings because of the structural movement and the resulting unsteady fluid dynamics. Flapping involves two stages: the down-stroke, which provides the majority of the thrust, and the up-stroke, which can also (depending on the bird's & insect's wings) provide some thrust. Most kinds of bird & insect wing can be grouped into four types, with some falling between two of these types. These types of wings are elliptical wings, high speed wings, high aspect ratio wings and soaring wings with slots. Hovering is used

  4. Fuel-conservative guidance system for powered-lift aircraft (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.


    A concept for automatic terminal area guidance, comprising two modes of operation, was developed and evaluated in flight tests. In the predictive mode, fuel efficient approach trajectories are synthesized in fast time. In the tracking mode, the synthesized trajectories are reconstructed and tracked automatically. An energy rate performance model derived from the lift, drag, and propulsion system characteristics of the aircraft is used in the synthesis algorithm. The method optimizes the trajectory for the initial aircraft position and wind and temperature profiles encountered during each landing approach. The design theory and the results of simulations and flight tests using the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft are described.

  5. Off-wing fleet maintenance study of a CFM56-3B turbofan engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An off wing fleet maintenance study of the CFM56-3B Turbofan engine that propels the Boeing 737-300 aircraft is presented. The engine performance and deteriorating behavior was modeled with a view to estimate the creep life consumption and operating severity. The predicted severity factor of each degradation was ...

  6. Wings: A New Paradigm in Human-Centered Design (United States)

    Schutte, Paul C.


    Many aircraft accidents/incidents investigations cite crew error as a causal factor (Boeing Commercial Airplane Group 1996). Human factors experts suggest that crew error has many underlying causes and should be the start of an accident investigation and not the end. One of those causes, the flight deck design, is correctable. If a flight deck design does not accommodate the human's unique abilities and deficits, crew error may simply be the manifestation of this mismatch. Pilots repeatedly report that they are "behind the aircraft" , i.e., they do not know what the automated aircraft is doing or how the aircraft is doing it until after the fact. Billings (1991) promotes the concept of "human-centered automation"; calling on designers to allocate appropriate control and information to the human. However, there is much ambiguity regarding what it mean's to be human-centered. What often are labeled as "human-centered designs" are actually designs where a human factors expert has been involved in the design process or designs where tests have shown that humans can operate them. While such designs may be excellent, they do not represent designs that are systematically produced according to some set of prescribed methods and procedures. This paper describes a design concept, called Wings, that offers a clearer definition for human-centered design. This new design concept is radically different from current design processes in that the design begins with the human and uses the human body as a metaphor for designing the aircraft. This is not because the human is the most important part of the aircraft (certainly the aircraft would be useless without lift and thrust), but because he is the least understood, the least programmable, and one of the more critical elements. The Wings design concept has three properties: a reversal in the design process, from aerodynamics-, structures-, and propulsion-centered to truly human-centered; a design metaphor that guides function

  7. Development of Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Kaul, Upender; Lebofsky, Sonia; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel; Urnes, James


    This paper summarizes the recent development of an adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control technology called variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF). As wing flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. The initial VCCTEF concept was developed in 2010 by NASA under a NASA Innovation Fund study entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept," which showed that highly flexible wing aerodynamic surfaces can be elastically shaped in-flight by active control of wing twist and bending deflection in order to optimize the spanwise lift distribution for drag reduction. A collaboration between NASA and Boeing Research & Technology was subsequently funded by NASA from 2012 to 2014 to further develop the VCCTEF concept. This paper summarizes some of the key research areas conducted by NASA during the collaboration with Boeing Research and Technology. These research areas include VCCTEF design concepts, aerodynamic analysis of VCCTEF camber shapes, aerodynamic optimization of lift distribution for drag minimization, wind tunnel test results for cruise and high-lift configurations, flutter analysis and suppression control of flexible wing aircraft, and multi-objective flight control for adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control.

  8. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.


    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  9. 78 FR 9796 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes (United States)


    ... (2) Model 172S, S/N l72S11074 through 172S11193. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  10. 77 FR 72250 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes (United States)


    ... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of chafing of a new... flight, reinstall the fuel return line assembly (Cessna P/N 0516031-1) following Cessna Aircraft Company...

  11. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes (United States)


    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28...-1245; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. The existing AD requires you to...

  12. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes (United States)


    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition... Fuel Return System Modification Do not install Cessna Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB 04- 28-03...

  13. Future V/STOL Aircraft For The Pacific Basin (United States)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John


    Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.

  14. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  15. Analysis and design of lattice materials for large cord and curvature variations in skin panels of morphing wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigliotti, Andrea; Pasini, Damiano


    In the past few decades, several concepts for morphing wings have been proposed with the aim of improving the structural and aerodynamic performance of conventional aircraft wings. One of the most interesting challenges in the design of a morphing wing is represented by the skin, which needs to meet specific deformation requirements. In particular when morphing involves changes of cord or curvature, the skin is required to undergo large recoverable deformation in the actuation direction, while maintaining the desired shape and strength in the others. One promising material concept that can meet these specifications is represented by lattice materials. This paper examines the use of alternative planar lattices in the embodiment of a skin panel for cord and camber morphing of an aircraft wing. We use a structural homogenization scheme capable of capturing large geometric nonlinearity, to examine the structural performance of lattice skin concepts, as well as to tune their mechanical properties in desired directions. (technical note)

  16. Passive Gust Alleviation for a Flying Wing Aircraft (United States)


    Lanchester -Prandtl Theory ......................................................................... 29 A.2.2 The Weissinger Theory...distribution has a smoother shape at the tip and keeps a positive value at the tip. A.2 Aerodynamic methods A.2.1 The Lanchester -Prandtl Theory... Lanchester -Prandtl Theory, named also as the Prandtl’s Lifting Line Theory is a theoretical model of the lift distribution based on the three-dimensional

  17. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview (United States)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.


    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  18. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi


    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  19. Kappa Group: The initial guess. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study (United States)


    Kappa Aerospace presents their Aeroworld Aircraft, the Initial Guess (IG). This aircraft is designed to generate profit in the market which is currently controlled by the train and boat industry. The main priority of the design team was to develop an extremely efficient aircraft that could be sold at a reasonable price. The IG offers a quick and safe alternative to the existing means of transportation at a competitive price. The cruise velocity of 28 ft/sec. allows all flights to be between 20 and 45 minutes, which is a remarkable savings in time compared to travel by boat or train. The IG is propelled by a single Astro-05 engine with a Zinger 10-6 propeller. The Astro-05 is not an extremely powerful engine; however, it provides enough thrust to meet the design and safety requirements. The major advantage of the Astro-05 is that it is the most efficient engine available. The fuel efficiency of the Astro-05 is what puts the aircraft ahead of the competition. The money saved on an efficient engine can be passed on as lower ticket prices or increased revenue. The IG has a payload of 56 passengers and a wingspan of 7 ft. The 7 ft. wingspan allows the aircraft to fit into the gates of all of the cities that are targeted. Future endeavors of Kappa Aerospace will include fitting a stretch version of the IG with a larger propulsion system. This derivative aircraft will be able to carry more passengers and will be placed on the routes which have the greatest demand for travel. The fuselage and empennage are made of a wooden truss configuration, while the wing is made of a rib/spare configuration. The stress carrying elements are made of spruce, the nonstress carrying elements are made of balsa. The wing is removable for easy access into the fuselage. The easy access to the batteries will keep maintenance costs down.

  20. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Mittal, R


    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 μN mm -1 h -1 . For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm -1 . (communication)

  1. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  2. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Low-wing model A. [fluid flow and vortices data for general aviation aircraft to determine aerodynamic characteristics for various designs (United States)

    Hultberg, R. S.; Mulcay, W.


    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance are presented in plotted form for a 1/5 scale, single engine, low-wing, general aviation airplane model. The configuration tested included the basic airplane, various control deflections, tail designs, fuselage shapes, and wing leading edges. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 to 90 deg and clockwise and counterclockwise rotations covering a range from 0 to 0.85.

  3. Beetle wings are inflatable origami (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David


    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  5. Robust Backstepping Control of Wing Rock Using Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wu


    Full Text Available Wing rock is a highly nonlinear phenomenon when the aircraft suffers undesired roll-dominated oscillatory at high angle of attack (AOA. Considering the strong nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics, an uncertain multi-input and multi-output (MIMO nonlinear wing rock model is studied, and system uncertainties, unsteady aerodynamic disturbances and externaldisturbancesareconsideredinthedesignofwingrockcontrollaw. Tohandletheproblemof multipledisturbances,arobustcontrolschemeisproposedbasedontheextendedstateobserver(ESO and the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN technique. Considering that the effectiveness of actuators are greatly decreased at high AOA, the input saturation problem is also handled by constructing a corresponding auxiliary system. Based on the improved ESO and the auxiliary system, a robust backstepping control law is proposed for the wing rock control. In addition, the dynamic surface control (DSC technique is introduced to avoid the tedious computations of time derivatives for the virtual control laws in the backstepping method. The stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed via rigorously Lyapunov analysis. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the ESO and the proposed wing rock control approach.

  6. POD Analysis of Flow Behind a Four-wing Vortex Generator (United States)

    Hosseinali, Mahdi; Wilkins, Stephen; Hall, Joseph


    Wing-tip vortices that persist long after the passage of large aircraft are of major concern to aircraft controllers and are responsible for considerable delays between aircraft take-off times. Understanding these vortices is extremely important, with the ultimate goal to reduce or eliminate delays altogether. Simple theoretical models of vortices can be studied experimentally using a four-wing vortex generator. The cross-stream planes are measured with a two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system, and the resulting vector fields were analyzed with a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) via the method of snapshots. POD analysis will be employed both before and after removing vortex core meandering to investigate the meandering effect on POD modes for a better understanding of it.

  7. Verification of a smart wing design for a micro-air-vehicle through simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, V.; Chen, Y.; Nejad-Ensan, M.; Martinez, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Research; Wong, F. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Valcartier, PQ (Canada); Kraemer, K. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Directorate of Technical Airworthiness and Engineering Support


    Micro-air-vehicles (MAV) are small, light-weight aircraft that perform a variety of missions. This paper described a smart wing structure consisting of a composite spar and ailerons with integrated piezoceramic fibre actuators that was designed for MAV use. This fixed-wing MAV can hover vertically like a rotary-wing vehicle through a flight manoeuvre known as prop-hanging. In order to maintain MAV orientation, the hover manoeuvre requires roll control of the fixed-wing aircraft through differential aileron deflection. Since conventional aileron control systems have components that add weight, it is necessary to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV with less power requirements. This paper proposed a smart wing structure that consists of a composite spar and ailerons that have bimorph active ribs consisting of piezoceramic fiber actuators with interdigitated electrodes. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the piezoceramic fiber actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electro active polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. The EAP skin enhances the actuation by providing a electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer. Analytical modeling and finite element analysis showed that the proposed smart wing concept achieved a target deflection of 30 degrees in both the wind-off and wind-on flight conditions. The smart structure approach with active materials enabled the design of a lightweight, robust wing by reducing the number of components typically associated with conventional aileron control systems. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Nano-mechanical properties and structural of a 3D-printed biodegradable biomimetic micro air vehicle wing (United States)

    Salami, E.; Montazer, E.; Ward, T. A.; Ganesan, P. B.


    The biomimetic micro air vehicles (BMAV) are unmanned, micro-scaled aircraft that are bio-inspired from flying organisms to achieve the lift and thrust by flapping their wings. The main objectives of this study are to design a BMAV wing (inspired from the dragonfly) and analyse its nano-mechanical properties. In order to gain insights into the flight mechanics of dragonfly, reverse engineering methods were used to establish three-dimensional geometrical models of the dragonfly wings, so we can make a comparative analysis. Then mechanical test of the real dragonfly wings was performed to provide experimental parameter values for mechanical models in terms of nano-hardness and elastic modulus. The mechanical properties of wings were measured by nanoindentre. Finally, a simplified model was designed and the dragonfly-like wing frame structure was bio-mimicked and fabricated using a 3D printer. Then mechanical test of the BMAV wings was performed to analyse and compare the wings under a variety of simplified load regimes that are concentrated force, uniform line-load and a torque. This work opened up the possibility towards developing an engineering basis for the biomimetic design of BMAV wings.

  9. Flight Testing of Novel Compliant Spines for Passive Wing Morphing on Ornithopters (United States)

    Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.

  10. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter


    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  11. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Aircraft Configurations (United States)

    Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Burdette, David; Jonsson, Eirikur; Kennedy, Graeme J.


    To evaluate new airframe technologies we need design tools based on high-fidelity models that consider multidisciplinary interactions early in the design process. The overarching goal of this NRA is to develop tools that enable high-fidelity multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft configurations, and to apply these tools to the design of high aspect ratio flexible wings. We develop a geometry engine that is capable of quickly generating conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations including the internal structure. This geometry engine features adjoint derivative computation for efficient gradient-based optimization. We also added overset capability to a computational fluid dynamics solver, complete with an adjoint implementation and semiautomatic mesh generation. We also developed an approach to constraining buffet and started the development of an approach for constraining utter. On the applications side, we developed a new common high-fidelity model for aeroelastic studies of high aspect ratio wings. We performed optimal design trade-o s between fuel burn and aircraft weight for metal, conventional composite, and carbon nanotube composite wings. We also assessed a continuous morphing trailing edge technology applied to high aspect ratio wings. This research resulted in the publication of 26 manuscripts so far, and the developed methodologies were used in two other NRAs. 1

  12. The Low-Noise Potential of Distributed Propulsion on a Catamaran Aircraft (United States)

    Posey, Joe W.; Tinetti, A. F.; Dunn, M. H.


    The noise shielding potential of an inboard-wing catamaran aircraft when coupled with distributed propulsion is examined. Here, only low-frequency jet noise from mid-wing-mounted engines is considered. Because low frequencies are the most difficult to shield, these calculations put a lower bound on the potential shielding benefit. In this proof-of-concept study, simple physical models are used to describe the 3-D scattering of jet noise by conceptualized catamaran aircraft. The Fast Scattering Code is used to predict noise levels on and about the aircraft. Shielding results are presented for several catamaran type geometries and simple noise source configurations representative of distributed propulsion radiation. Computational analyses are presented that demonstrate the shielding benefits of distributed propulsion and of increasing the width of the inboard wing. Also, sample calculations using the FSC are presented that demonstrate additional noise reduction on the aircraft fuselage by the use of acoustic liners on the inboard wing trailing edge. A full conceptual aircraft design would have to be analyzed over a complete mission to more accurately quantify community noise levels and aircraft performance, but the present shielding calculations show that a large acoustic benefit could be achieved by combining distributed propulsion and liner technology with a twin-fuselage planform.

  13. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.


    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned

  14. Mechanisms of Wing Beat Sound in Flapping Wings of Beetles (United States)

    Allen, John


    While the aerodynamic aspects of insect flight have received recent attention, the mechanisms of sound production by flapping wings is not well understood. Though the harmonic structure of wing beat frequency modulation has been reported with respect to biological implications, few studies have rigorously quantified it with respect directionality, phase coupling and vortex tip scattering. Moreover, the acoustic detection and classification of invasive species is both of practical as well scientific interest. In this study, the acoustics of the tethered flight of the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is investigated with four element microphone array in conjunction with complementary optical sensors and high speed video. The different experimental methods for wing beat determination are compared in both the time and frequency domain. Flow visualization is used to examine the vortex and sound generation due to the torsional mode of the wing rotation. Results are compared with related experimental studies of the Oriental Flower Beetle. USDA, State of Hawaii.

  15. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol


    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  16. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  17. Aerodynamics and Ecomorphology of Flexible Feathers and Morphing Bird Wings (United States)

    Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett

    findings lay the foundation for future biomimetic applications of passive morphing-wing aircraft. I aim to submit this chapter for publication at Bioinspiration & Biomimetics in the summer of 2017. The following dissertation represents my systematic discovery of avian aerodynamics and follows my progression as a scientist. Combined, the following chapters provide novel insight into the complex nature of morphing avian wings.

  18. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.


    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  19. Lightning protection design and testing of an all composite wet wing for the Egrett (United States)

    Burrows, B. J. C.; Haigh, S. J.; Chessum, C.; Dunkley, V. P.


    The Egrett aircraft has an all composite wing comprising CFC(carbon fiber composite)/Nomex sandwich skins, full length CFC main spar caps, and GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastics) main and auxiliary spar webs. It also has short inboard CFC auxiliary spar caps. It has fine aluminum wires woven into the surface for protection. It has an integral fuel tank using the CFC/Nomex skins as the upper and lower tank walls, and lies between the forward auxiliary spar and the forward of the two main spar webs. The fuel tank is not bagged, i.e., it is in effect a wet wing tank. It has conventional capacitive type fuel gauging. The aircraft was cleared to IFR standards and so required full lightning protection and demonstration that it would survive the lightning environment. The lightning protection was designed for the wing (and also for the remainder of the aircraft). An inner wing test samples (which included a part of the fuel tank) were tested as part of the proving program. The protection design and the testing process are described. The intrinsic structural features are indicated that improve lightning protection design and which therefore minimize the weight and cost of any added lightning protection components.

  20. Fettered aircraft for using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, H.; Horvath, E.; Ulrich, S.


    The invention concerns an aircraft tethered by cables, whose balloon-shaped central body produces static and aerodynamic upthrust and which carries turbines, which are used to convert wind energy and to drive the aircraft. The purpose of the invention is to provide an aircraft, which will keep wind energy plant at the optimum height. A new type of aircraft is used to solve the problem, which, according to the invention, combines static upthrust, the production of aerodynamic upthrust, wind energy conversion, energy transport and forward drive in a technically integrated aircraft. If the use of windpower is interrupted, then if necessary the drive together with a remote control system provides controlled free flight of the aircraft. One variant of the object of the invention consists of a central, balloon-shaped body for upthrust, in which there are wind turbines driving electrical generators. According to the invention the motors required to start the wind turbines are of such dimensions that they will drive the turbines in free flight of the aircraft and thus provide forward drive of the aircraft. A power generating unit, consisting of an internal combustion engine and the starter motors switched over to generator operation is used to provide house service supplies for control and regulation of the aircraft.

  1. Generation of Fullspan Leading-Edge 3D Ice Shapes for Swept-Wing Aerodynamic Testing (United States)

    Camello, Stephanie C.; Lee, Sam; Lum, Christopher; Bragg, Michael B.


    The deleterious effect of ice accretion on aircraft is often assessed through dry-air flight and wind tunnel testing with artificial ice shapes. This paper describes a method to create fullspan swept-wing artificial ice shapes from partial span ice segments acquired in the NASA Glenn Icing Reserch Tunnel for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Full-scale ice accretion segments were laser scanned from the Inboard, Midspan, and Outboard wing station models of the 65% scale Common Research Model (CRM65) aircraft configuration. These were interpolated and extrapolated using a weighted averaging method to generate fullspan ice shapes from the root to the tip of the CRM65 wing. The results showed that this interpolation method was able to preserve many of the highly three dimensional features typically found on swept-wing ice accretions. The interpolated fullspan ice shapes were then scaled to fit the leading edge of a 8.9% scale version of the CRM65 wing for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Reduced fidelity versions of the fullspan ice shapes were also created where most of the local three-dimensional features were removed. The fullspan artificial ice shapes and the reduced fidelity versions were manufactured using stereolithography.

  2. Aerodynamic Classification of Swept-Wing Ice Accretion (United States)

    Diebold, Jeff M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Bragg, Michael B.


    The continued design, certification and safe operation of swept-wing airplanes in icing conditions rely on the advancement of computational and experimental simulation methods for higher fidelity results over an increasing range of aircraft configurations and performance, and icing conditions. The current stateof- the-art in icing aerodynamics is mainly built upon a comprehensive understanding of two-dimensional geometries that does not currently exist for fundamentally three-dimensional geometries such as swept wings. The purpose of this report is to describe what is known of iced-swept-wing aerodynamics and to identify the type of research that is required to improve the current understanding. Following the method used in a previous review of iced-airfoil aerodynamics, this report proposes a classification of swept-wing ice accretion into four groups based upon unique flowfield attributes. These four groups are: ice roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice and spanwise-ridge ice. In the case of horn ice it is shown that a further subclassification of "nominally 3D" or "highly 3D" horn ice may be necessary. For all of the proposed ice-shape classifications, relatively little is known about the three-dimensional flowfield and even less about the effect of Reynolds number and Mach number on these flowfields. The classifications and supporting data presented in this report can serve as a starting point as new research explores swept-wing aerodynamics with ice shapes. As further results are available, it is expected that these classifications will need to be updated and revised.

  3. Research of Morphing Wing Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komarov, Valery


    This report results from a contract tasking Samara State Aerospace University (SSAU) as follows: The contractor will develop and investigate aerodynamic and structural weight theories associated with morphing wing technology...

  4. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials (United States)

    Dunn, Leigh

    This study looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. As the use of composite materials in aircraft construction increases, the understanding of how macroscopic failure characteristics of composite materials may aid the field investigator is becoming of increasing importance.. The first phase of this research project was to explore how investigation practitioners conduct wreckage examinations. Four accident investigation case studies were examined. The analysis of the case studies provided a framework of the wreckage examination process. Subsequently, a literature survey was conducted to establish the current level of knowledge on the visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite failures. Relevant literature was identified and a compendium of visual and macroscopic characteristics was created. Two full-scale polymer composite wing structures were loaded statically, in an upward bending direction, until each wing structure fractured and separated. The wing structures were subsequently examined for the existence of failure characteristics. The examination revealed that whilst characteristics were present, the fragmentation of the structure destroyed valuable evidence. A hypothetical accident scenario utilising the fractured wing structures was developed, which UK government accident investigators subsequently investigated. This provided refinement to the investigative framework and suggested further guidance on the interpretation of polymer composite failures by accident investigators..

  5. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.


    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  6. Feasibility study for a microwave-powered ozone sniffer aircraft, volume 2 (United States)


    Using 3-D design techniques and the Advanced Surface Design Software on the Computervision Designer V-X Interactive Graphics System, the aircraft configuration was created. The canard, tail, vertical tail, and main wing were created on the system using Wing Generator, a Computervision based program introduced in Appendix A.2. The individual components of the plane were created separately and were later individually imported to the master database. An isometric view of the final configuration is presented.

  7. Effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of a strut-braced wing (United States)

    Sulaeman, Erwin


    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of the SBW using efficient structural finite element and aerodynamic lifting surface methods. A procedure is developed to generate wing stiffness distribution for detailed and simplified wing models and to include the compressive force effect in the SBW aeroelastic analysis. A sensitivity study is performed to generate response surface equations for the wing flutter speed as functions of several design variables. These aeroelastic procedures and response surface equations provide a valuable tool and trend data to study the unconventional nature of SBW. In order to estimate the effect of the compressive force, the inner part of the wing structure is modeled as a beam-column. A structural finite element method is developed based on an analytical stiffness matrix formulation of a non-uniform beam element with arbitrary polynomial variations in the cross section. By using this formulation, the number of elements to model the wing structure can be reduced without degrading the accuracy. The unsteady aerodynamic prediction is based on a discrete element lifting surface method. The present formulation improves the accuracy of existing lifting surface methods by implementing a more rigorous treatment on the aerodynamic kernel integration. The singularity of the kernel function is isolated by implementing an exact expansion series to solve an incomplete cylindrical function problem. A hybrid doublet lattice/doublet point scheme is devised to reduce

  8. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert


    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  9. Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems, volume 1 (United States)

    Solomon, H. L.


    The relative advantages of STOL aircraft concepts were examined by simulating the operations of a short haul high-density intercity STOL system set in two arenas, the California corridor and the Chicago-Detroit-Cleveland triangle, during the 1980 time period. The study was constrained to the use of three aircraft concepts designated as the deflected slipstream turboprop, externally blown flap, and augmentor wing turbofan configurations. The projected demographic, economic, travel demand, and travel characteristics of the representative arenas were identified. The STOL airline operating scenarios were then formulated and through the use of the aerospace modal split simulation program, the traveler modal choices involving alternative STOL concepts were estimated in the context of the total transportation environment for 1980. System combinations that presented the best potential for economic return and traveler acceptance were then identified for each STOL concept.

  10. Modelling and Designing Cryogenic Hydrogen Tanks for Future Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Winnefeld


    Full Text Available In the near future, the challenges to reduce the economic and social dependency on fossil fuels must be faced increasingly. A sustainable and efficient energy supply based on renewable energies enables large-scale applications of electro-fuels for, e.g., the transport sector. The high gravimetric energy density makes liquefied hydrogen a reasonable candidate for energy storage in a light-weight application, such as aviation. Current aircraft structures are designed to accommodate jet fuel and gas turbines allowing a limited retrofitting only. New designs, such as the blended-wing-body, enable a more flexible integration of new storage technologies and energy converters, e.g., cryogenic hydrogen tanks and fuel cells. Against this background, a tank-design model is formulated, which considers geometrical, mechanical and thermal aspects, as well as specific mission profiles while considering a power supply by a fuel cell. This design approach enables the determination of required tank mass and storage density, respectively. A new evaluation value is defined including the vented hydrogen mass throughout the flight enabling more transparent insights on mass shares. Subsequently, a systematic approach in tank partitioning leads to associated compromises regarding the tank weight. The analysis shows that cryogenic hydrogen tanks are highly competitive with kerosene tanks in terms of overall mass, which is further improved by the use of a fuel cell.

  11. Species With Greater Aerial Maneuverability Have Higher Frequency of Collisions With Aircraft: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic


    Full Text Available Antipredator responses may appear unsuccessful when animals are exposed to approaching vehicles, often resulting in mortality. Recent studies have addressed whether certain biological traits are associated with variation in collision risk with cars, but not with higher speed-vehicles like aircraft. Our goal was to establish the association between different species traits (i.e., body mass, eye size, brain size, wing loading, wing aspect ratio and the frequency of bird collisions with aircraft (hereafter, bird strikes using a comparative approach controlling for the effects of shared ancestry. We proposed directional predictions as to how each of the species traits would affect the frequency of bird strikes. Considering 39 bird species with all traits represented, the model containing wing loading had the best fit to account for the variance in bird strikes across species. In another model with 54 species exploring the fit to different polynomial models but considering only wing loading, we found that wing loading was negatively and linearly associated with the frequency of bird strikes. Counterintuitively, species with lower wing loading (hence, greater maneuverability had a higher frequency of bird strikes. We discuss potential non-mutually exclusive explanations (e.g., high wing loading species fly faster, thus gaining some extra time to avoid the aircraft flight path; high wing loading species are hazed more intensively at airports, which could lower collisions, etc.. Ultimately, our findings uncovered that species with low wing loading get struck at a higher rate at airports, which reduces the safety risk for humans because these species tend not to cause damaging strikes, but the ecological consequences of their potentially higher local mortality are unknown.

  12. Final design proposal: Zeta group-Valkyrie. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study (United States)


    The Valkyrie flying wing concept is a remotely piloted technology demonstrator designed to serve as a high volume commuter transport in Aeroworld. The 5.02 lb Valkyrie has a planform area of 1440 sq in and a wingspan of 84 in, which results in an aspect ratio of 4.9. The Valkyrie uses the NACA 2R(2)12 airfoil section. A leading edge wing sweep of 13.2 deg and a 2 deg dihedral were incorporated to provide lateral stability. The Valkyrie is semi-monocoque structure manufactured from spruce and balsa wood covered in plastic Mylar skin. The AstroFlight Cobolt 25 electric engine will power the Valkyrie with a Tornado 10-6 propeller. The Valkyrie is designed to take off in less than 20 ft. To eliminate the difficulties associated with rotating the aircraft at takeoff, the wing is mounted on its landing gear at the take off angle of attack of 8 deg. The Valkyrie provides a greater payload to weight ratio than a conventionally configured aircraft of comparable weight. Considering the requirements, the Valkyrie is the most efficient design for the specified mission.

  13. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.


    . We provide the scientific community with the entire set of wide-field images. Furthermore, the published database contains photometry of 759 024 objects and surface brightness analysis for 42 275 and 41 463 galaxies in the V and B band, respectively. The completeness depends on the image quality......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average higher than 90......Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies...

  14. FY 1998 Report on technical results. Part 2 of 2. Research and development of supersonic transportation aircraft propulsion systems (Development of methane-fueled aircraft engines); 1998 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2/2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The research and development project is conducted for (1) ramjet systems, (2) high-performance turbojet systems, (3) instrumentation/control systems and (4) total systems, in order to develop methane-fueled supersonic transportation aircraft engines, and the intended targets are achieved. This project has ended with preparation of the overall plans of the target engine. Described herein is the R and D of the combined cycle engine, following the results described in Part 1 of 2. This program includes designs and development of (1) the turbojet engine, and (2) combined cycle engine. The item (1) includes studies on cycles, preparation of the overall plans and studies on the systems, and the item (2) includes the designs, ground and altitudes function tests, and ground noise tests. (NEDO)

  15. Design and construction of a remote piloted flying wing. B.S. Thesis (United States)

    Costa, Alfred J.; Koopman, Fritz; Soboleski, Craig; Trieu, Thai-Ba; Duquette, Jaime; Krause, Scott; Susko, David; Trieu, Thuyba


    Currently, there is a need for a high-speed, high-lift civilian transport. Although unconventional, a flying wing could fly at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and still retain the capacity of a 747. The design of the flying wing is inherently unstable since it lacks a fuselage and a horizontal tail. The project goal was to design, construct, fly, and test a remote-piloted scale model flying wing. The project was completed as part of the NASA/USRA Advanced Aeronautics Design Program. These unique restrictions required us to implement several fundamental design changes from last year's Elang configuration including wing sweepback and wingtip endplates. Unique features such as a single ducted fan engine, composite structural materials, and an electrostatic stability system were incorporated. The result is the Banshee '94. Our efforts will aid future projects in design and construction techniques so that a viable flying wing can become an integral part of the aviation industry.

  16. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter


    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  17. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  18. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft (United States)


    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  19. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft


    Daggett, D.


    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  20. Computational Analysis of Powered Lift Augmentation for the LEAPTech Distributed Electric Propulsion Wing (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Viken, Sally A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Wiese, Michael R.; Farr, Norma L.


    A computational study of a distributed electric propulsion wing with a 40deg flap deflection has been completed using FUN3D. Two lift-augmentation power conditions were compared with the power-off configuration on the high-lift wing (40deg flap) at a 73 mph freestream flow and for a range of angles of attack from -5 degrees to 14 degrees. The computational study also included investigating the benefit of corotating versus counter-rotating propeller spin direction to powered-lift performance. The results indicate a large benefit in lift coefficient, over the entire range of angle of attack studied, by using corotating propellers that all spin counter to the wingtip vortex. For the landing condition, 73 mph, the unpowered 40deg flap configuration achieved a maximum lift coefficient of 2.3. With high-lift blowing the maximum lift coefficient increased to 5.61. Therefore, the lift augmentation is a factor of 2.4. Taking advantage of the fullspan lift augmentation at similar performance means that a wing powered with the distributed electric propulsion system requires only 42 percent of the wing area of the unpowered wing. This technology will allow wings to be 'cruise optimized', meaning that they will be able to fly closer to maximum lift over drag conditions at the design cruise speed of the aircraft.