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Sample records for transplacental yu-cheng babies

  1. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  2. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  3. Transplacental transfer of environmental genotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Vestergaard, Astrid Beck; Okkels, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Transplacental transfer of genotoxic material has been determined by measuring the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-albumin adduct level in serum isolated from the mother and the umbilical cord using a competitive ELISA assay and the antibody (8E11) against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) tetrols. Smoking ...... that local production of incomplete combustion products, like vehicle exhaust or heat generation, is the major contributing factor to genotoxic compounds in the general environment....

  4. Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show that a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from days 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to 2 years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans

  5. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-10-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equalled the maternal concentration in three cases. In the remaining three cases treatment with digitalis was effective in converting tachyarrhythmias to sinus rhythm after delivery. With maintenance digoxin therapy, the prognosis of fetal tachyarrhythmias seems to be good, once conversion to sinus rhythm has been accomplished.

  6. Transplacental pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in perfused human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Kyohei; Hori, Satoko; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Nagata, Hideaki; Satoh, Shoji; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Nakano, Hitoo; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Taketani, Yuji; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the transplacental transfer properties of diclofenac and to determine the effect of L-lactic acid on the transplacental transfer of diclofenac. The maternal and fetal vessels of human placenta were perfused in a single-pass mode with a solution containing diclofenac and antipyrine. The transplacental pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the time profiles of the drug concentrations in the effluent and placenta to obtain transplacental pharmacokinetic parameters. In addition, chloride ion in the perfusate was partially replaced with L-lactic acid to see the change in the transplacental transfer properties of diclofenac. The TPT(ss) value (ratio of the rate of amount transferred across the placenta to that infused in the steady state) of diclofenac was 2.22%, which was approximately one-third that of antipyrine and was significantly reduced in the presence of L-lactic acid. The transplacental pharmacokinetic model could adequately explain the transplacental transfer of diclofenac with influx clearances from maternal and fetal perfusates to placental tissue of 0.276 and 0.0345 ml/min/g cotyledon and efflux rate constants from placental tissue to maternal and fetal perfusates of 0.406 and 0.0337 min(-1), respectively. By taking into account protein binding, the placental tissue/plasma concentration ratio in humans for diclofenac was estimated to be 0.108 ml/g of cotyledon and was smaller than that of antipyrine. In conclusion, human placental perfusion and transplacental pharmacokinetic modeling allowed us to determine the transplacental transfer properties of diclofenac quantitatively. Diclofenac may share transplacental transfer system(s) with L-lactic acid.

  7. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  8. Collodion baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaded S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare congenital disorder characterized by parchment like taught membrane covering the whole body. Other findings in our case include ectropion, eversion of lips, and flattening of nose and ears. Skin biopsy showed features consistant with the diagnosis of collodion baby. The child was treated with supportive measures like antibiotics, intravenous fluids, humidification, and application of emollients.

  9. Mermaid baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia.

  10. Baby Factory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... mass media have the power to easily propagate ideas on social change ... issue of 'baby factory' is becoming everyday news affecting the right of ... according to recent mass media reports, teenage girls and young women are.

  11. Transplacental transfer of nitrosodimethylamine in perfused human placenta.

    OpenAIRE

    Annola, K.; Heikkinen, A.T.; Partanen, H.; Woodhouse, H.; Segerback, D.; Vahakangas, K.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a carcinogenic compound present in tobacco smoke and food such as cured meat, smoked fish and beer. The O(6)-methylguanine formed in human cord blood in mothers highly exposed to such products implicates NDMA exposure of the fetus. Dual recirculating human placental perfusion was used to get direct evidence of the transplacental transfer of NDMA and DNA adduct formation in perfused human placenta. Eleven placentas from normal full-term pregnancies were collected...

  12. Baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the subject of baby universes and their effects on spacetime coupling constants is in its infancy and rapidly developing. The subject is based on the non-existent (even by physicists' standards) Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity, and it is therefore necessary to make a number of assumptions in order to proceed. Nevertheless, the picture which has emerged is quite appealing: all spacetime coupling constants become dynamical variables when the effects of baby universes are taken into account. This fact might even solve the puzzle of the cosmological constant. The subject therefore seems worth further investigation

  13. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4% contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum. Out of the 369 (28.2% women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2% had placental malaria and 14 (3.8% had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.24, ≪0.001, placental parasitemia (OR=10.74, ≪0.001, high-density peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.62, ≪0.001, and high-density placental parasitemia (OR=4.91, =0.03. In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low.

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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  15. Feeding Your Baby

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  16. Feeding Your Baby

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  17. Bringing Your Baby Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Bringing Your Baby Home KidsHealth / For Parents / Bringing Your Baby Home What's ... recall your baby's seemingly endless crying episodes. The Home Front Introducing your baby to others at home ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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  1. Baby supplies you need

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    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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  4. Breastfeed Your Baby

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    ... your baby breast milk only (no formula, juice, cow's milk, solid foods, or water). Give your baby ... vitamin D. Babies need vitamin D for healthy bone growth. Even if you take extra vitamin D, ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  7. Transplacental clastogenic and epigenetic effects of gold nanoparticles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balansky, Roumen [National Center of Oncology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Longobardi, Mariagrazia [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta [National Center of Oncology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, Nikolay; Atanasov, Petar [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Toshkova, Reneta [Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); De Flora, Silvio [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Izzotti, Alberto, E-mail: izzotti@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated transplacental genotoxicity of 40 nm- and 100 nm-gold nanoparticles. • AuNP-100 nm significantly enhanced MN PCE in fetal liver and blood. • In fetal lung, out of 1281 miRNA analyzed, 28 were significantly altered in their expression. • In fetal liver, 5 miRNA were significantly altered in their expression. • Altered miRNAs are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, transcription, stress response. - Abstract: The broad application of nanotechnology in medicine, biology, and pharmacology is leading to a dramatic increase of the risk of direct contact of nanoproducts, among which gold nanoparticles (AuNP), with the human organism. The present study aimed at evaluating in vivo the genotoxicity of AuNPs with average size of 40 nm and 100 nm. A single intraperitoneal treatment of adult male and female Swiss mice (strain H) with AuNPs, at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg body weight, had no effect on the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN PCEs) in bone marrow. Conversely, the transplacental treatment with AuNP-100 nm, but not with AuNP-40 nm, applied intraperitoneally at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg to pregnant mice on days 10, 12, 14, and 17 of gestation, resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of MN PCEs in both liver and peripheral blood of mouse fetuses. In parallel, the same treatment with AuNP-100 nm, but not with AuNP-40 nm, produced significant changes in microRNA expression. In particular, out of 1281 mouse microRNAs analyzed, 28 were dys-regulated more than two-fold and to a statistically significant extent in fetus lung, and 5 were up-regulated in fetal liver. Let-7a and miR-183 were significantly up-regulated in both organs. The data presented herein demonstrate for the first time the transplacental size-dependent clastogenic and epigenetic effects of AuNPs in mouse fetus, thus highlighting new aspects concerning the putative genotoxicity of AuNPs during a vulnerable period of life.

  8. Transplacental clastogenic and epigenetic effects of gold nanoparticles in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balansky, Roumen; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Nedyalkov, Nikolay; Atanasov, Petar; Toshkova, Reneta; De Flora, Silvio; Izzotti, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated transplacental genotoxicity of 40 nm- and 100 nm-gold nanoparticles. • AuNP-100 nm significantly enhanced MN PCE in fetal liver and blood. • In fetal lung, out of 1281 miRNA analyzed, 28 were significantly altered in their expression. • In fetal liver, 5 miRNA were significantly altered in their expression. • Altered miRNAs are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, transcription, stress response. - Abstract: The broad application of nanotechnology in medicine, biology, and pharmacology is leading to a dramatic increase of the risk of direct contact of nanoproducts, among which gold nanoparticles (AuNP), with the human organism. The present study aimed at evaluating in vivo the genotoxicity of AuNPs with average size of 40 nm and 100 nm. A single intraperitoneal treatment of adult male and female Swiss mice (strain H) with AuNPs, at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg body weight, had no effect on the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN PCEs) in bone marrow. Conversely, the transplacental treatment with AuNP-100 nm, but not with AuNP-40 nm, applied intraperitoneally at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg to pregnant mice on days 10, 12, 14, and 17 of gestation, resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of MN PCEs in both liver and peripheral blood of mouse fetuses. In parallel, the same treatment with AuNP-100 nm, but not with AuNP-40 nm, produced significant changes in microRNA expression. In particular, out of 1281 mouse microRNAs analyzed, 28 were dys-regulated more than two-fold and to a statistically significant extent in fetus lung, and 5 were up-regulated in fetal liver. Let-7a and miR-183 were significantly up-regulated in both organs. The data presented herein demonstrate for the first time the transplacental size-dependent clastogenic and epigenetic effects of AuNPs in mouse fetus, thus highlighting new aspects concerning the putative genotoxicity of AuNPs during a vulnerable period of life

  9. Neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection: role of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, D T; Ogra, P L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies on respiratory syncytial virus infection was studied in neonatal and 2-month-old cotton rats. Adult female rats infected intranasally with live virus regularly produced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, colostrum, and breast milk. By using foster feeding techniques, we showed that both transplacentally and breast milk-acquired antibodies were effective in reducing the replication of respiratory syncytial virus in the lun...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  11. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  12. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  13. Dynamics of baby Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, B.M.A.G.; Schroers, B.J.; Zakrzewski, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Baby Skyrmions are topological solitons in a (2+1)-dimensional field theory which resembles the Skyrme model in important respects. We apply some of the techniques and approximations commonly used in discussions of the Skyrme model to the dynamics of baby Skyrmions and directly test them against numerical simulations. Specifically we study the effect of spin on the shape of a single baby Skyrmion, the dependence of the forces between two baby Skyrmions on the baby Skyrmions' relative orientation and the forces between two baby Skyrmions when one of them is spinning. ((orig.))

  14. Transplacental diffusion and blood flow of gravid bovine uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.P.; Ferrell, C.L.; Ford, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic blood flow transducers and uterine arterial, uterine venous, umbilical venous, fetal femoral arterial, and fetal femoral venous catheters were implanted in 11 cows on day 161 +/- 4 of gestation. Antipyrine (0.66 M) plus NaCl (0.16 M) dissolved in deuterium oxide (D 2 O), or H 2 O, was infused at a constant rate into the fetal femoral vein catheter. Concentrations of antipyrine and D 2 O in uterine arterial and venous blood and antipyrine in fetal arterial and umbilical venous blood, as well as middle uterine arterial blood flow (electromagnetic transducer), were determined. Antipyrine and D 2 O gave similar estimates (steady-state diffusion method) of gravid uterine blood flow. In addition, the slope of the regression of D 2 O on antipyrine estimates was not different from one. Electromagnetic transducers gave estimates of uterine blood flow that were 32-42% of those obtained with steady-state diffusion but were correlated with estimates obtained by use of both antipyrine and D 2 O. The transplacental clearance rate of antipyrine was similar (per kg placenta) to that observed in ewes. It was suggested that the maternal and fetal microvasculatures of the bovine placenta could have a concurrent arrangement with vascular shunts or maldistribution of flows, as has been suggested for the ewe

  15. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos': Transplacental transmission in dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto-Soares, Aline; Soares, João Fabio; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; de Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa; Sandeski, Lígia Mara; Garcia, João Luis; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-11-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of 'C. M. haemobos' in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of 'C. M. haemobos' DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained 'C. M. haemobos' DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to 'C. M. haemobos'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe Sleep for Babies

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    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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  18. Baby Brain Map

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  19. Feeding Your Baby

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  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal message: Thank you! Your e- ... good for babies. You and your baby may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but ...

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  3. Shaken baby symptoms (image)

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    ... is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can easily lead ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

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  5. Laundering Your Baby's Clothes

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  6. Feeding Your Baby

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  7. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

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  8. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

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  9. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

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    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

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  11. The New Baby.

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    Brain, Helen

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of a South African priest and his wife who are ashamed when their daughter tells them she is going to have a baby. They refuse to have anything to do with her when she is pregnant. However, when the baby comes, everything changes and they come to accept and love the baby. Large black and white…

  12. Feeding Your Baby

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  13. Feeding Your Baby

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  14. Organic Baby Food: Better for Baby?

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    ... al. Organic foods: Health and environmental advantages and disadvantages. Pediatrics. 2012;130:e1406. Morin K. Organic baby ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  15. Transplacental Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and Serotype 8 in Sheep: Virological and Pathological Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der M.T.W.; Schroer-Joosten, D.P.H.; Fid-Fourkour, A.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Moulin, V.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Smit, de A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never

  16. Transplacental exposure to environmental carcinogens: Association with childhood cancer risks and the role of modulating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucic, A; Guszak, V; Mantovani, A

    2017-09-01

    Biological responses to carcinogens from environmental exposure during adulthood are modulated over years or decades. Conversely, during transplacental exposure, the effects on the human foetus change within weeks, intertwining with developmental mechanisms: even short periods of transplacental exposure may be imprinted in the organism for a lifetime. The pathways leading to childhood and juvenile cancers, such as leukaemias, neuroblastoma/brain tumours, hepatoblastoma, and Willm's tumour involve prenatally-induced genomic, epigenomic and/or non-genomic effects caused by xenobiotics. Pregnant women most often live in complex environmental settings that cause transplacental exposure of the foetus to xenobiotic mixtures. Mother-child biomonitoring should integrate the analysis of chemicals/radiation present in the living and workplace environment with relevant risk modulators related to life style. The interdisciplinary approach for transplacental cancer risk assessment in high-pressure areas should be based on an integrated model for mother-child exposure estimation via profiling the exposure level by water quality analysis, usage of emission grids, and land use maps. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle chronically infected in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Eduardo Gonzalez Grau

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the incidence of transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in chronically infected cows with no history of acute anaplasmosis during gestation. In addition, we evaluated various techniques for detection of transplacental transmission ofA. marginale. Blood samples were collected from 30 cows at three different periods: at the time of artificial insemination, at gestational diagnosis, and after calving. Also, blood was collected from the newborn calves, including one sample before colostrum intake, and another three days after birth. A. marginale-specific antibodies were detected in 100% of the cows with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and in 97% of them, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Also, we observed that all of the three-day-old newborn calves were seropositive by IFAT. According to polymerase chain reaction, 63.3% of the cows were carriers of A. marginale, as well as 6.7% of the newborn calves. This represented a transplacental transmission rate of 10.5%. Furthermore, a correlation of 93.3% was observed between the two serodiagnostic techniques, demonstrating that both ELISA and IFAT can be used in epidemiological surveys of A. marginale. These results confirm the occurrence of transplacental transmission of A. marginale in chronically infected cows and suggest the importance of this transmission route in areas of enzootic instability.

  18. Transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in minipigs infected with strains of different virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Jensen, Lene Bai

    2001-01-01

    Infections with the Zoonotic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can result in severe fetal infections. To investigate the use of pigs as animal models for congenital toxoplasmosis, tachyzoites of 5 T. gondii strains, with low to intermediate virulence in mice, were intravenously...... animal models fur studies of transplacental transmission and pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis....

  19. Baby Skyrmion chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, David

    2010-01-01

    The Baby Skyrmion model is a two-dimensional analogue of the full three-dimensional Skyrme model. It is not just useful for guiding investigations in the Skyrme model, it also has applications in condensed matter physics. Previous results on multi-charged Baby Skyrmion solutions have pointed to a modular structure, comprised of charge two rings and single charge one Skyrmions, which combine to form higher charged structures. In this paper we present alternative numerical solutions that correspond to new finite Baby Skyrmion chains, which have lower energy than those found previously, and are also good candidates for the global minimum energy solutions. We then proceed from the infinite plane, to Baby Skyrmions on a cylinder and then a torus, to obtain the solutions of periodic Baby Skyrmions, of which periodic segments will correspond to sections of large charge Baby Skyrmions in the plane

  20. Noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    We subject the baby Skyrme model to a Moyal deformation, for unitary or Grassmannian target spaces and without a potential term. In the Abelian case, the radial BPS configurations of the ordinary noncommutative sigma model also solve the baby Skyrme equation of motion. This gives a class of exact analytic noncommutative baby Skyrmions, which have a singular commutative limit but are stable against scaling due to the noncommutativity. We compute their energies, investigate their stability and determine the asymptotic two-Skyrmion interaction.

  1. Baby M: babies (and justice) for sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1987-06-01

    A professor of health law criticizes the decisions of New Jersey Superior Court Judge Harvey R. Sorkow which culminated in his awarding permanent custody of Baby M to her biological father, William Stern. Annas quotes from the In re Baby M decision and from the contract between Stern and his wife and surrogate mother Mary Beth Whitehead to support his contention that Sorkow "rendered a sermon filled with contradictions, double-standards, inapt analogies, and unsupported conclusions." He argues that legally Mrs. Whitehead could not have prospectively waived her right to rear a child she bore, that Sorkow was biased in favor of the "upper-middle-class Sterns," and that consideration should be given to returning Baby M to Mrs. Whitehead. He urges state legislatures to outlaw the sale of children, to affirm the legal status of the gestational mother, and to forbid a surrogate's relinquishment of parental rights until after her child's birth.

  2. Smokefree After Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many women quit smoking when they become pregnant. However, about 40 percent start smoking again 6 months after they have their baby. Quitting smoking has benefits for you and your baby that last longer than the 9 months of your pregnancy.

  3. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  4. T P Nafeesa Baby

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. T P Nafeesa Baby. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 80 Issue 2 February 2013 pp 289-294 Research Articles. Plasma excitations in a single-walled carbon nanotube with an external transverse magnetic field · K A Vijayalakshmi T P Nafeesa Baby.

  5. (AGA) Pre Term Babies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological Indices in Healthy Appropriate For-Gestational-Age (AGA) Pre Term Babies. ... International Journal of Medicine and Health Development. Journal Home ... Patient and Methods: All consecutive healthy pre-term new born babies delivered at UNTH and admitted into the hospital NBSCU were included.

  6. CASE REPORT Mermaid baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2010. Abstract. We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia. Case report. A 40-year-old woman delivered a baby at 36 ...

  7. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse × What research is being done? The National ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse See More About Research The National Institute ...

  8. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  9. Serological investigation of transplacental infection with Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona in broodmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mackie, Sarah; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the likelihood of transplacental transmission of Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona in foals, born from seropositive mares. Three broodmares with persistent N. hughesi infection gave birth to eight healthy foals over a period of 7 years. These foals were seropositive to N. hughesi prior to colostrum ingestion, with titers ranging between 640 and 20,480, measured by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Of 174 foals born at another farm to mares with a high seroprevalence to S. neurona, only one (with a pre-colostrum antibody titer of 80) tested seropositive. Transplacental transmission of N. hughesi seems to occur from latently infected mares to their foals, while this route of transmission does not seem to occur commonly for S. neurona. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to brucella abortus biotype 1 in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Baek, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the investigation on the transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to Brucella abortus biotype 1 in Sprague- Dawley rats, neither any stillbirth, abortion or premature birth nor any abnormality of fetus was observed in the infected group or in the control group. B. abortus biotype was isolated from the fetus of infected rats only. Only one band of 498 base pair DNA was obtained in polymerase chain reaction products from DNA of the fetuses of infected SD rats. (author)

  11. Healthy Smile for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby is 1 year old before feeding him cow’s milk. m Hold your baby while feeding him breast milk or formula in a bottle. m ... your baby is 1 year old before giving him juice. m When your baby is around 4 ...

  12. Lipid peroxidation, detoxification capacity, and genome damage in mice after transplacental exposure to pharmaceutical drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Markovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on genome damage, lipid peroxidation, and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX in newborns after transplacental exposure to xenobiotics are rare and insufficient for risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to analyze, in an animal model, transplacental genotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and detoxification disturbances caused by the following drugs commonly prescribed to pregnant women: paracetamol, fluconazole, 5-nitrofurantoin, and sodium valproate. Genome damage in dams and their newborn pups transplacentally exposed to these drugs was investigated using the in vivo micronucleus (MN assay. The drugs were administered to dams intraperitoneally in three consecutive daily doses between days 12 and 14 of pregnancy. The results were correlated, with detoxification capacity of the newborn pups measured by the levels of GPX in blood and lipid peroxidation in liver measured by malondialdehyde (HPLC-MDA levels. Sodium valproate and 5-nitrofurantoin significantly increased MN frequency in pregnant dams. A significant increase in the MN frequency of newborn pups was detected for all drugs tested. This paper also provides reference levels of MDA in newborn pups, according to which all drugs tested significantly lowered MDA levels of newborn pups, while blood GPX activity dropped significantly only after exposure to paracetamol. The GPX reduction reflected systemic oxidative stress, which is known to occur with paracetamol treatment. The reduction of MDA in the liver is suggested to be an unspecific metabolic reaction to the drugs that express cytotoxic, in particular hepatotoxic, effects associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  15. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milk is easier to digest than formula. • Breast milk contains antibodies that protect infants from certain illnesses, such as ear infections, diarrhea, respiratory illnesses, and allergies. The longer your baby breastfeeds, ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your ... milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  18. Babies Need Tummy Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ... of your baby’s normal growth. What Is Tummy Time? Tummy Time describes the times when you place ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content] March For Babies | Nacersano | Share Your Story Register | Sign In Hi | Your dashboard | sign out Donate ... DONATE sign up sign in sign out account center my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers Events in your area Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for ... Careers Events in your area Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity research Birth defects research Infant ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  6. Baby brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Chang, Linda; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-03

    The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain. Recent advancements in scanners, sequences, and motion control methodologies enable the creation of various types of high-resolution baby brain atlases. What is becoming clear is that one atlas is not sufficient to characterize the existing knowledge about the anatomical variations, disease-related anatomical alterations, and the variations in time-dependent changes. In this review, the types and roles of the human baby brain MRI atlases that are currently available are described and discussed, and future directions in the field of developmental neuroscience and its clinical applications are proposed. The potential use of disease-based atlases to characterize clinically relevant information, such as clinical labels, in addition to conventional anatomical labels, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  8. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby's provider if ...

  9. Transplacental transfer of monomethyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a human placenta perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hedegaard, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The transplacental passage of monomethylphtalate (mMP) and mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (mEHP) was studied using an ex vivo placental perfusion model with simultaneous perfusion of fetal and maternal circulation in a single cotyledon. Umbilical cord blood and placental tissue collected both before...... plasma samples. mMP and possibly other short-chained phthalate monoesters in maternal blood can cross the placenta by slow transfer, whereas the results indicate no placental transfer of mEHP. Further studies are recommended....

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  11. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  12. Spitting Up in Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done. If your baby’s reflux is causing health problems, your doctor may prescribe medicine. This medicine is the same ... Is my baby at risk for any health problems? Last Updated: February 8, 2018 ... of Family Physicians This information provides a general overview and may ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Product Catalog Volunteer Volunteer leaders Team Youth National service partners ... strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  15. How Babies Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Amelia R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2018-01-01

    Babies think differently than adults, and understanding how they think can help us see their explosive brain growth in everyday behavior. Infants learn language faster than adults do, use statistics to understand how the world works, and even reason about the minds of others. But these achievements can be hidden by their poor self-regulatory…

  16. Choosing Safe Baby Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wipes within your reach, but out of your baby’s reach. Car seat: The law requires drivers to place a child in a car seat designed for the child’s age, weight, and height. These requirements can vary by state and include: Rear-facing car seats for babies up to age 2. Forward-facing car seats ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief ... health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  18. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  19. Baby Naps: Daytime Sleep Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... won't harm your baby. It's common for babies to cry when put down for sleep, but most will quiet themselves if left alone for a few minutes. If the crying lasts longer than a few minutes, check on your baby and offer comforting words. Then give him or ...

  20. Risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in California horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Conrad, Patricia A; Barr, Bradd C; Wilson, W David; Ferraro, Gregory L; Packham, Andrea E; Carpenter, Tim E; Gardner, Ian A

    2004-12-01

    The study objective was to assess the risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in foals from 4 California farms during 3 foaling seasons. Serum of presuckle foals and serum and colostrum of periparturient mares were tested using indirect fluorescent antibody tests for S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serum antibody titers were neurona and N. hughesi in mares increased with age. Mares neurona and N. hughesi, respectively, than mares from California. The strength of association between positivity to either parasite and state of birth decreased as age increased. Mares positive for S. neurona and N. hughesi were 2.2 and 1.7 times more likely, respectively, to have a previous abortion than negative mares, adjusted for age and state of birth. The annual mortality rate for mares was 4%. The annual incidence rate of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis was 0.2%. In conclusion, there was no detectable risk of transplacental transmission of S. neurona and N. hughesi. Prevalence of antibodies against both parasites in mares increased with age.

  1. Shaken baby syndrome; Shaken-baby-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Ahlhelm, F.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect. (orig.) [German] Das Shaken-baby-Syndrom (SBS) oder Schuetteltrauma des Saeuglings beschreibt die Koinzidenz subduraler Haematome, retinaler Blutungen und prognostisch unguenstiger, diffuser Hirnschaeden durch heftiges Schuetteln eines Saeuglings. Die klinischen Symptome umfassen Irritabilitaet, Trinkschwierigkeiten, Somnolenz, Apathie, zerebrale Krampfanfaelle, Apnoe, Temperaturregulationsstoerungen und Erbrechen durch Hirndruck. Leichtere Symptome des SBS werden haeufig nicht diagnostiziert, die Dunkelziffer ist wahrscheinlich viel hoeher. Die Diagnose des SBS wird durch die typische Symptomkonstellation gestellt

  2. Baby universe theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    1989-12-01

    We give an elementary review of the so called 'the theory of baby universes' which is a series of ideas or speculations about some effects in quantum gravity, viz. the effect of a certain type of wormholes, representing the exchange of small 3-space universes called baby universes. We consider this 'theory' as being physically and scientifically a very promising candidate for a theory of everything. It is, however, mathematically lacking any strong foundation at all. It solves several fine-tuning problems: First of all the cosmological constant problem, and also the strong CP-problem and the hierarchy problem. We also speculate that it might predict the possibility of influencing the probability distributions of the outcome of quantum mechanical measurements at one time by acts at a later time. (orig.)

  3. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  4. Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita V Vora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS, is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by generalized folding of excess skin and may be associated with various phenotypic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. Various congenital anomalies can be associated with it. It may be a clinical finding associated with various syndromes. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, and skin folds gradually diminish and disappear with age without any intervention. Here, we report a case of MTBS associated with convergent squint and hydrocephaly.

  5. LAMELLAR ICHTHYOSIS (COLLODION BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramarta IGE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyosis are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorder of keratinization which affected the epidermis characterized by presence of visible scales on the skin surface in the absence of inflammation. It can occur as a disease limited to the skin or in association with abnormalities of other organ systems. Lamelar ihthyosis (LI is one of two mayor autosomal recessive ichthyosis with an incidence of approximately one in 300,000. The diagnosis is based on clinical and pathologic finding. Infection is the most common complication, while prognosis of LI is depends on severity and complication of the disease. A case of lamellar ichthyosis in 0 day Balinese female baby was reported. The skin of the body was thick, plate-like appearance, scaling on the entire body, some of the thick skin was ruptured on chest and extremities. There were eclabium on the mouth and ectropion on the eyes. Histopathology examination showed hyperkeratosis without perivascular infiltration lymphocyte. The baby was given breast feeding, antibiotic, hydrocortisone cream and olium olivarum. The prognosis of the baby is good.

  6. Transplacental and oral transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, A.; Heutink, C.G.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential vertical transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle was explored in this experiment. We demonstrated transplacental transmission of wild-type BTV-8 in one calf and oral infection with BTV-8 in another calf. Following the experimental BTV-8 infection of seven

  7. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby's emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy expressed in the baby's cries. A 32-dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We perform principal component analysis (PCA for the feature vectors of the training data. The emotion of the baby is recognized by the nearest neighbor criterion applied to the feature vector obtained from the test data of sound form clips after projecting the feature vector on the PCA space from the training data. Then, the emotion with the highest frequency among the recognition results for a sound form clip is judged as the emotion expressed by the baby's cry. We successfully applied the proposed method to pattern recognition of baby's emotions. The present investigation concerns the first stage of the development of a robotics baby caregiver that has the ability to detect baby's emotions. In this first stage, we have developed a method for detecting baby's emotions. We expect that the proposed method could be used in robots that can help take care of babies.

  8. A baby with congenital hypothyroidism born to a hypothyroid mother who expressed undiagnosed thyroid stimulation blocking antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mock Ryeon Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adults, hypothyroidism caused by thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSB Ab is rare, and confirmed cases are even fewer, as TSB Ab levels are rarely assayed. However, this may create problems in babies, as the transplacental passage of maternal TSB Ab can cause a rare type of hypothyroidism in the infant. Prompt levothyroxine replacement for the baby starting immediately after birth is important. We describe a congenital hypothyroid baby born to a hypothyroid mother who was not aware of the cause of her hypothyroid condition, which turned out to be associated with the expression of TSB Ab. This cause was confirmed in both the infant and mother using a series of thyroid function tests and measurements of autoantibody levels, including TSB Ab. During periodic follow-up, the TSB Ab and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers became negative in the baby at 8 months of age, but remained positive in the mother. Evaluation of hypothyroidism and its cause in mothers during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health.

  9. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  10. Twin study on transplacental-acquired antibodies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilenberg, Niels; Hougaard, David; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that maternal transplacentally acquired antibodies may cause Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms years after birth, and tested the hypothesis in twins discordant for ADHD symptoms. METHOD: In a pre-screened sample of 7793 same sex twin pair's (4......-18years) questionnaire data on hyperactivity and inattention was collected. Blood samples taken 5days after birth from 190 ADHD-score discordant pairs (15% MZ) were analyzed for antibodies. RESULTS: Pneumococcus Polysaccaride 14 (PnPs14) was present in the ADHD high scoring twin more often than...... in the lower scoring twin (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Although the study provides no strong support for the hypothesis, infection or immunological factors may be one among several causes of ADHD. The genetic control obtained in a twin design may reduce the exposure contrast and a larger sample is needed to further...

  11. Transplacental Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Congenital Infection Caused by Maternal Chromosomally Integrated Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Caroline Breese; Caserta, Mary T.; Schnabel, Kenneth C.; Shelley, Lynne M.; Carnahan, Jennifer A.; Marino, Andrea S.; Yoo, Christina; Lofthus, Geraldine K.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital HHV-6 infection results from germline passage of chromosomally-integrated HHV-6 (CI-HHV-6) and from transplacental passage of maternal HHV-6 infection (TP-HHV-6). We aimed to determine if CI-HHV-6 could replicate and cause TP-HHV-6 infection. HHV-6 DNA, variant type, and viral loads were determined on samples (cord blood, peripheral blood, saliva, urine, hair) from 6 infants with TP-HHV-6 and on their parents’ hair. No fathers, but all mothers of TP-HHV-6 infants had CI-HHV-6, and the mother's CI-HHV-6 variant was the same variant causing the TP-HHV-6 congenital infection. This suggests the possibility that CI-HHV-6 replicates, and may cause most, possibly all, congenital HHV-6 infections. PMID:20088693

  12. Transplacental Nutrient Transport Mechanisms of Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Rodent Models and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Winterhager

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR have been intensively investigated, important information is still lacking about the role of the placenta as a link from adverse maternal environment to adverse pregnancy outcomes of IUGR and preterm birth. IUGR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases later in life. Determination of the most important pathways that regulate transplacental transport systems is necessary for identifying marker genes as diagnostic tools and for developing drugs that target the molecular pathways. Besides oxygen, the main nutrients required for appropriate fetal development and growth are glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids. Dysfunction in transplacental transport is caused by impairments in both placental morphology and blood flow, as well as by factors such as alterations in the expression of insulin-like growth factors and changes in the mTOR signaling pathway leading to a change in nutrient transport. Animal models are important tools for systematically studying such complex events. Debate centers on whether the rodent placenta is an appropriate tool for investigating the alterations in the human placenta that result in IUGR. This review provides an overview of the alterations in expression and activity of nutrient transporters and alterations in signaling associated with IUGR and compares these findings in rodents and humans. In general, the data obtained by studies of the various types of rodent and human nutrient transporters are similar. However, direct comparison is complicated by the fact that the results of such studies are controversial even within the same species, making the interpretation of the results challenging. This difficulty could be due to the absence of guidelines of the experimental design and, especially in humans, the use of trophoblast cell culture studies instead of clinical trials. Nonetheless, developing new therapy

  13. Transplacental Nutrient Transport Mechanisms of Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Rodent Models and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhager, Elke; Gellhaus, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Although the causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been intensively investigated, important information is still lacking about the role of the placenta as a link from adverse maternal environment to adverse pregnancy outcomes of IUGR and preterm birth. IUGR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases later in life. Determination of the most important pathways that regulate transplacental transport systems is necessary for identifying marker genes as diagnostic tools and for developing drugs that target the molecular pathways. Besides oxygen, the main nutrients required for appropriate fetal development and growth are glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids. Dysfunction in transplacental transport is caused by impairments in both placental morphology and blood flow, as well as by factors such as alterations in the expression of insulin-like growth factors and changes in the mTOR signaling pathway leading to a change in nutrient transport. Animal models are important tools for systematically studying such complex events. Debate centers on whether the rodent placenta is an appropriate tool for investigating the alterations in the human placenta that result in IUGR. This review provides an overview of the alterations in expression and activity of nutrient transporters and alterations in signaling associated with IUGR and compares these findings in rodents and humans. In general, the data obtained by studies of the various types of rodent and human nutrient transporters are similar. However, direct comparison is complicated by the fact that the results of such studies are controversial even within the same species, making the interpretation of the results challenging. This difficulty could be due to the absence of guidelines of the experimental design and, especially in humans, the use of trophoblast cell culture studies instead of clinical trials. Nonetheless, developing new therapy concepts for IUGR will

  14. Transplacental clearance and blood flows of bovine gravid uterus at several stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.P.; Ferrell, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of uterine and umbilical blood flows and transplacental clearance of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) were determined for cows on 137 +/- 1.0 (SE, n = 9), 180 +/- 0.5 (n = 8), 226 +/- 0.4 (n = 9), and 250 +/- 1.8 (n = 5) days of gestation. From days 137 to 250, rates increased 4.5-fold for uterine blood flow, 21-fold for umbilical blood flow, and 14-fold for clearance of D 2 O. Changes in rates of umbilical blood flow and D 2 O clearance paralleled increased rates of fetal growth and metabolism, which have previously been reported to occur during the last half of gestation. The regressions of D 2 O clearance on uterine and umbilical blood flows were significant (P less than 0.01) and explained 94-99% of the variation in placental clearance of D 2 O. Because the rate of D 2 O clearance was always less than that of uterine and umbilical blood flows, and because a relatively simple statistical model explained most of the variation in clearance, it was suggested that a concurrent or countercurrent arrangement of maternal and fetal placental microvasculatures is not adequate to explain clearance of highly diffusable substances across the bovine placenta. In addition, a placental exchange diagram of the data showed the existence of severe uneven distribution of maternal and fetal placental blood flows and/or significant shunting of maternal and fetal placental flows away from areas of exchange. Taken together, these data indicate that the placenta of the cow, like those of the sheep and goat, represents a relatively inefficient system of transplacental exchange

  15. JSW's baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Y.; Kaneda, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Suzukawa, I.; Yamada, T.

    1983-01-01

    Designed by The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., specially for installation in a hospital's medical department and nuclear research laboratory, '' JSW BABY CYCLOTRON '' has been developed to produce short-lived radioisotopes such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F. JSW's Baby Cyclotron has some design features. 1) Fixed energy and four sector azimuthally varying field. 2) Compact figure desired for hospital's nuclear medical department 3) A bitter type magnet yoke shielding activity 4) Simple control and operation 5) Easy maintenance without skilled personnel. Type BC105 (P:10MeV, d:5MeV), BC107 (P:10MeV, d:7MeV), BC168 (P:16MeV, d:8MeV) and BC1710 (P:17MeV, d:10MeV) are available according to required amount of radioisotopes. In our radioisotope production test, yield and purity of 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F are usable to clinical diagnosis

  16. How Active Is Your Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... range). As your baby develops, take advantage of every opportunity to help stimulate her mind and body. From the earliest weeks of life, walk around the house while holding and interacting with your baby and say aloud the names of the objects that the ...

  17. Baby-MIND neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.

  18. Baby universes with induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yihong; Gao Hongbo

    1989-01-01

    In this paper some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. It is proved that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential

  19. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > ...

  20. The Baby Boomers' intergenerational relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L; Pillemer, Karl A; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J Jill

    2012-04-01

    As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65-75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42-60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3-5 years from 1985 to 2005. These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers' personal values, family members' needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future.

  1. Sirenomelia (Mermaid baby).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Jamshed; Shaikh, Muhammad Ali; Saleem, Nasir; Taqvi, Syed Raees; Jehan, Yaqoot; Batool, Tayyaba; Zameer, Naima; Mirza, Farhat

    2005-11-01

    Sirenomelia is a rare anomaly that rarely occurs as an isolated lesion. Several theories have been proposed regarding the etiopathogenesis. In this communication, we report a case of sirenomelia. Our patient was referred to hospital at the age of four hours. On examination, fusion of both lower limbs with hook shaped appendage, attached distally, absent genitalia and absent anal orifice was found. Spine was deficient in sacral region. Upper torso looked normal. Baby also had frothing from mouth. Abdomen was non-distended. Feeding tube no.10 was tried to pass through mouth, which got obstructed at the level of upper esophagus that suggested oesophageal atresia. The skeletogram revealed absence of pelvic bones, sacral agenesis, absent fibulae and fracture of both femora. The patient died at the age of 12 hours.

  2. Transplacental rotavirus IgG interferes with immune response to live oral rotavirus vaccine ORV-116E in Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaiahgari, Mohan Babu; Glass, Roger; Singh, Shakti; Taneja, Sunita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bhandari, Nita; Mishra, Sukhdev; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2014-02-03

    The lower immune response and efficacy of live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines tested in developing countries may be due in part to high levels of pre-existing RV antibodies transferred to the infant from mother via the placenta. The candidate RV vaccine strain 116E was isolated from a newborn indicating that it might grow well even in the presence of this transplacental rotavirus antibody. Since the immune response to this vaccine among infants in the Indian subcontinent has been greater than that of the commercially licensed vaccines, we questioned whether this might be due to the ability of RV 116E to grow well in infants despite the presence of maternal RV antibody. To this end, we tested pre-immunization sera from Indian infants enrolled in a phase Ia/IIb trial of candidate RV vaccine ORV-116E for transplacental RV IgG to see whether it affected the immune responses and seroconversion to the vaccine. We found that the high titers of transplacental RV IgG diminished the immune responses of infants to ORV-116E vaccine. However, the vaccine was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of this RV IgG in a dose-dependent manner. This report clearly demonstrates the interference of maternal antibody on RV vaccine immunogenicity in infants in a field study as well as the ability of ORV-116E to overcome this interference when used at a higher dose. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Baby universes, fine tuning problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Ninomiya, Masao.

    1988-12-01

    We review the recently popular 'theory of baby universes' put forward by Banks, Coleman and Hawking. We then derive the strong CP breaking coefficient θ-bar to be very small, in a similar manner to the derivation of the cosmological constant being zero. A solution for an old controversy concerning the entropy creation in black holes is also discussed. We finally confront the baby universe theory with random dynamics. We conclude that the theory of baby universes is so successful that the essential features are likely true and might have to go into a right theory even if with some troubles at first. (author)

  4. Transplacental transmission of Leishmania infantum as a means for continued disease incidence in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiatto, Paola Mercedes; Gibson-Corley, Katherine Nicole; Metz, Kyle; Gallup, Jack Michael; Hostetter, Jesse Michael; Mullin, Kathleen; Petersen, Christine Anne

    2011-04-12

    Dogs are the predominant domestic reservoir for human L. infantum infection. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is an emerging problem in some U.S. dog breeds, with an annual quantitative PCR prevalence of greater than 20% within an at-risk Foxhound population. Although classically Leishmania is transmitted by infected sand flies and phlebotomine sand flies exist in the United States, means of ongoing L. infantum transmission in U.S. dogs is currently unknown. Possibilities include vertical (transplacental/transmammary) and horizontal/venereal transmission. Several reports have indicated that endemic ZVL may be transmitted vertically. Our aims for this present study were to establish whether vertical/transplacental transmission was occurring in this population of Leishmania-infected US dogs and determine the effect that this means of transmission has on immune recognition of Leishmania. A pregnant L. infantum-infected dam donated to Iowa State University gave birth in-house to 12 pups. Eight pups humanely euthanized at the time of birth and four pups and the dam humanely euthanized three months post-partum were studied via L. infantum-kinetoplast specific quantitative PCR (kqPCR), gross and histopathological assessment and CD4+ T cell proliferation assay. This novel report describes disseminated L. infantum parasites as identified by kqPCR in 8 day old pups born to a naturally-infected, seropositive U.S. dog with no travel history. This is the first report of vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally-infected dogs in North America, emphasizing that this novel means of transmission could possibly sustain infection within populations. Evidence that vertical transmission of ZVL may be a driving force for ongoing disease in an otherwise non-endemic region has significant implications on current control strategies for ZVL, as at present parasite elimination efforts in endemic areas are largely focused on vector-borne transmission between canines and people

  5. Transplacental transmission of Leishmania infantum as a means for continued disease incidence in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mercedes Boggiatto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the predominant domestic reservoir for human L. infantum infection. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL is an emerging problem in some U.S. dog breeds, with an annual quantitative PCR prevalence of greater than 20% within an at-risk Foxhound population. Although classically Leishmania is transmitted by infected sand flies and phlebotomine sand flies exist in the United States, means of ongoing L. infantum transmission in U.S. dogs is currently unknown. Possibilities include vertical (transplacental/transmammary and horizontal/venereal transmission. Several reports have indicated that endemic ZVL may be transmitted vertically.Our aims for this present study were to establish whether vertical/transplacental transmission was occurring in this population of Leishmania-infected US dogs and determine the effect that this means of transmission has on immune recognition of Leishmania.A pregnant L. infantum-infected dam donated to Iowa State University gave birth in-house to 12 pups. Eight pups humanely euthanized at the time of birth and four pups and the dam humanely euthanized three months post-partum were studied via L. infantum-kinetoplast specific quantitative PCR (kqPCR, gross and histopathological assessment and CD4+ T cell proliferation assay.This novel report describes disseminated L. infantum parasites as identified by kqPCR in 8 day old pups born to a naturally-infected, seropositive U.S. dog with no travel history. This is the first report of vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally-infected dogs in North America, emphasizing that this novel means of transmission could possibly sustain infection within populations.Evidence that vertical transmission of ZVL may be a driving force for ongoing disease in an otherwise non-endemic region has significant implications on current control strategies for ZVL, as at present parasite elimination efforts in endemic areas are largely focused on vector-borne transmission between canines

  6. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry Towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shota; Yoshitomi, Yasunari; Tabuse, Masayoshi; Kushida, Kou; Asada, Taro

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby's emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy) expressed in the baby's cries. A 32-dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We per...

  7. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  8. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...

  9. Collodion Baby - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidon baby describes a highly characteristic clinical entity in newborns encased in a yellowish translucent membrane resembling collodion. In most cases the condition either precedes the development of one of a variety of ichthyoses, the commonest of which are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma, or occasionally represents an initial phase of other ichthyoses such as ichthyosis vulgaris. In at least 10% of all cases of collodion baby, the condition is followed by a mild ichthyosis of lamellar type, so mild as to be considered more or less normal, so-called self-healing collodion baby or ‘lamellar ichthyosis of the newborn’. In this report we present a rare case of collodion baby in whom, after collodion membrane peeled-off, the skin retained normal appearance.

  10. Easy plane baby Skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin

    2010-12-01

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  11. The LHC babies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    With the machine restart and first collisions at 3.5 TeV, 2009 and 2010 were two action-packed years at the LHC. The events were a real media success, but one important result that remained well hidden was the ten births in the LHC team over the same period. The mothers – engineers, cryogenics experts and administrative assistants working for the LHC – confirm that it is possible to maintain a reasonable work-life balance. Two of them tell us more…   Verena Kain (left) and Reyes Alemany (right) in the CERN Control Centre. With the LHC running around the clock, LHC operations engineers have high-pressure jobs with unsociable working hours. These past two years, which will undoubtedly go down in the annals of CERN history, the LHC team had their work cut out, but despite their high-octane professional lives, several female members of the team took up no less of a challenge in their private lives, creating a mini-baby-boom by which the LHC start-up will also be remembe...

  12. The Baby Boomers’ Intergenerational Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130

  13. Transplacental differences in Ca, Na, K, and electropotential in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, B.J.; Twardock, A.R.

    1983-07-01

    The fetal side of hemochorial placentas from guinea pigs between 58 and 62 days gestation were perfused in situ. Concurrent measurements were made of the clearances of radiocalcium and tritiated water from maternal to fetal circulation of the placenta, transplacental potential difference (TPD), maternal plasma and perfusate Ca, Na, and K concentrations, maternal blood pressure, gross permeability of albumin in the placenta, and net water movements. Movement of Ca from dam to fetus appeared to occur against an electrochemical gradient and was not associated with the movements of Na and K across the placenta. A negative correlation between perfusate Na and K concentrations, not dependent on maternal plasma Na and K concentrations and abolished by high concentrations of Ca in the fetal circulation of the placenta, strongly supports the concept of a Na-K exchange mechanism in the placenta directed so that K is moved against a concentration gradient towards the dam. There was no evidence that the TPD existed at the site of maternal-fetal exchange for Ca, Na, or K

  14. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of the transplacental pharmacokinetics of cortisol and triamcinolone acetonide in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Althaus, Z.R.; Rowland, J.M.; Hill, D.E.; Hendrickx, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The late gestational age rhesus monkey was used to study the transplacental pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cortisol. Tritiated-TAC and [ 14 C]cortisol were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein and blood samples were serially drawn from catheters implanted in both the maternal femoral artery and fetal umbilical vein and artery. High-performance liquid chromatography of the processed blood samples revealed that from 93 to 100% of the 3 H in the fetal circulation was parent TAC, whereas only 14 to 49% of the 14 C was cortisol during the 40-min period after dose administration. Fetal tissue samples taken at 3 hr after dose administration showed that 75 to 96% of the 3 H present was TAC, whereas no cortisol was observed. TAC demonstrated dose-independent kinetics. Samples collected from the umbilical vein of the in situ placenta after fetectomy revealed that cortisol was extensively converted to cortisone by the placenta, whereas TAC was refractory to placental metabolism. This placental conversion of cortisol to cortisone and the further metabolism and conjugation of cortisol by the fetoplacental unit resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma cortisol ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the lack of placental or fetoplacental metabolism of TAC resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma TAC ratio of 0.6

  16. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2007-01-01

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight

  17. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-01-01

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight

  18. Baby Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  19. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Pereira, Clifford B. [Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  20. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P.; Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily; Löhr, Christiane V.; Pereira, Clifford B.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  1. Designer babies--why not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  2. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-28

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  4. 29 BABY DUMPING AND EVOLVING BABY FACTORIES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    room for a conducive environment for child rights and social protection. ... new dimensions to include the worst of all forms of human trafficking issues ... of strict penalties for offenders in the bid to give every child born the benefit of ..... vein, the study conducted by Onuoha (2014) listed the causes of baby factory incidences to.

  5. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Echocardiography / Your Unborn Baby's Heart Updated:Oct 6,2016 ... Your Risk • Symptoms & Diagnosis Introduction Common Tests Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart - Fetal Echocardiogram Test - Detection ...

  6. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child's state of development Can help prevent childhood obesity Recommendations During the first 6 months of life, your baby needs only breast milk or formula for proper nutrition. Your baby will ...

  7. Crying Baby? How to Keep Your Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatal. If you're having trouble managing your emotions or dealing with parenthood, seek help. Your baby's ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/crying-baby/art-20046995 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  8. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  9. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  10. Best-feeding the baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  11. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive…

  12. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Decisions to Make Delivery and Beyond Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen ... preschooler in planning for the baby . This will make him less jealous. ... you get them ready for the new baby. Buy your child (boy or girl) a doll so ...

  13. Transplacental transfer and neonatal influences of sonophoretically administered sufentanil versus epidural sufentanil in labor peridural analgesia: A randomized prospective double-blind contemplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Hussein Saleh

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Sufentanil transplacental transport and fetal exposure appeared greater in epidural than in sonophoretic sufentanil. The former group women were facing more difficulty at starting breast-feeding on postpartum day 1 and were more apt to have stopped breast-feeding 6 weeks postpartum than the latter group women.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby squash (Curcurbita maxima Duchesne) and baby courgettes (C. pepo. L.) measuring 10 to 25...

  15. The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N

    1989-05-01

    This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.

  16. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  17. Present situation of 'baby cyclotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Teruo

    1981-01-01

    A ''baby cyclotron'' has been developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. Its No. 1 model (proton 9.4 MeV) was delivered to the Nakano Hospital of National Sanatorium in March, 1979. It is being used successfully for the production of 11 C, 13 N and 15 O and labeled compounds. The proton or deuteron particles accelerated in the cyclotron collide on target materials. The target box, which is automatically changeable, is directly installed to the accelerating box, thereby taking the safety measures for any leaking radiation. The following matters are described: the production of short-lived radioisotopes (RI yields and treatment); the processes of production in the Nakano Hospital, with No. 1 baby cyclotron, including the photosynthesis of labeled compounds such as 11 C-labeled glucose; the research on the automation in the synthesis of organic labeled compounds like 11 C-palmitic acid. (J.P.N.)

  18. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  19. Advanced Portable Preterm Baby Incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Shaib , M.; Rashid , M.; Hamawy , L.; Arnout , M.; Majzoub , I. ,; Zaylaa , A. ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Nearly 20 million premature and Low Birth Weight infants are born each year in developing countries, 4 million die within their first month. These deaths occur due to the unavailability or unreliability of traditional incubators. Moreover, although Telemedicine is helpful in rural areas, the shortage of healthcare providers have made it inaccessible in both basic healthcare. Thereby, traditional preterm baby and low-birth weight incubators and therapeutic techniques la...

  20. Baby universes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS 2 xS 2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e -N ) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments

  1. Co-ordinate expression of Th1/Th2 phenotypes in maternal and fetal blood: evidence for a transplacental nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Doris B; Young, Bruce K

    2012-01-06

    If maternal atopy and environmental exposure affect prenatal Th cell development, the maternal and fetal immune systems should display common Th1/Th2 phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we studied maternal and neonatal blood samples from mothers with total serum IgE ordinate IFN-γ production from paired maternal and fetal mononuclear cells, accompanied by co-ordinate increases in activated CD4+CD69+ cells that display the CCR4+Th2 and CXCR3+ Th1 phenotypes. Maternal and fetal CD4+CXCR3+ T cells were subsequently identified as the major producers of IFN-γ. The data established that a transplacental nexus exists during normal pregnancy and that fetal Th cell responses may be biased by the maternal immune system.

  2. Transplacental carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in the drinking water: induction of hepatic, ovarian, pulmonary, and adrenal tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Liu Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen, but development of rodent models of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis has been problematic. Since gestation is often a period of high sensitivity to chemical carcinogenesis, we performed a transplacental carcinogenicity study in mice using inorganic arsenic. Groups (n=10) of pregnant C3H mice were given drinking water containing sodium arsenite (NaAsO 2 ) at 0 (control), 42.5, and 85 ppm arsenite ad libitum from day 8 to 18 of gestation. These doses were well tolerated and body weights of the dams during gestation and of the offspring subsequent to birth were not reduced. Dams were allowed to give birth, and offspring were weaned at 4 weeks and then put into separate gender-based groups (n=25) according to maternal exposure level. The offspring received no additional arsenic treatment. The study lasted 74 weeks in males and 90 weeks in females. A complete necropsy was performed on all mice and tissues were examined by light microscopy in a blind fashion. In male offspring, there was a marked increase in hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in a dose- related fashion (control, 12%; 42.5 ppm, 38%; 85 ppm, 61%) and in liver tumor multiplicity (tumors per liver; 5.6-fold over control at 85 ppm). In males, there was also a dose-related increase in adrenal tumor incidence and multiplicity. In female offspring, dose-related increases occurred in ovarian tumor incidence (control, 8%; 42.5 ppm, 26%; 85 ppm, 38%) and lung carcinoma incidence (control, 0%; 42.5 ppm, 4%; 85 ppm, 21%). Arsenic exposure also increased the incidence of proliferative lesions of the uterus and oviduct. These results demonstrate that oral inorganic arsenic exposure, as a single agent, can induce tumor formation in rodents and establishes inorganic arsenic as a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. The development of this rodent model of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis has important implications in defining the mechanism of action for this common environmental

  3. Atrazine-induced reproductive tract alterations after transplacental and/or lactational exposure in male Long-Evans rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Jennifer L.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time

  4. Investigation of restricted baby Skyrme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.

    2010-01-01

    A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby Skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Further, we find a coincidence between the compact or noncompact nature of solitons in the restricted model, on the one hand, and the existence or nonexistence of multi-Skyrmions in the full baby Skyrme model, on the other hand.

  5. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  6. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  7. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  8. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.

  9. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  10. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…

  11. Three-parent baby: Is it ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neha; Garg, Suneela

    2018-01-01

    The UK was the first country to legalise mitochondrial donation in October 2015 (1). In 2016, the first three-parent baby was born in Mexico (2) and the US Food and Drug Administration declared that further research on mitochondrial donation is ethically permissible (3). It has now become an important issue, raising as it does, the spectre of "genetically modified designer babies".

  12. Tracking Your Baby's Weight and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > ...

  13. MONITORING BABY INCUBATOR SENTRAL DENGAN KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Sulistyo Utomo

    2018-04-01

    180m. Pengujian suhu ruang baby incubator menggunakan termometer sebagai perbandingan dengan nilai suhu yang dibaca pada alat. Dari pengukuran diperoleh tingkat perbedaan 0% pada suhu 30oC dan 2,8% pada suhu 37oC.   Kata kunci: baby incubator, sistem monitoring sentral, microsoft visual studio, arduino.

  14. How to Keep Your Sleeping Baby Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first hour. After that, or when the mother needs to sleep or cannot do skin-to-skin, babies should ... Back is Best New Crib Standards: What Parents Need to Know Safe Sleep for Babies (Video) The Healthy Children Show: Sleep ( ...

  15. Development of Baby-EBM Interface System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhlis Mokhtar; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Muhammad Zahidee Taat

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains the works being done to develop an interface system for Baby-Electron Beam Machine (EBM). The function of the system is for the safety, controlling and monitoring the Baby-EBM. The integration for the system is using data acquisition (DAQ) hardware and LabVIEW to develop the software. (author)

  16. Development of Baby-EBM Interface System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtar, Mukhlis; Ghazali, Abu Bakar; Taat, Muhammad Zahidee [Accelerator Development Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia), Technical Support Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper explains the works being done to develop an interface system for Baby-Electron Beam Machine (EBM). The function of the system is for the safety, controlling and monitoring the Baby-EBM. The integration for the system is using data acquisition (DAQ) hardware and LabVIEW to develop the software. (author)

  17. Teen Moms and Babies Benefit from Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…

  18. Deteksi Antibodi terhadap Cysticercus Cellulosae pada Babi Lokal yang Dipotong di Tempat Pemotongan Babi Panjer, Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistiserkosis merupakan penyakit yang bersifat zoonosis yang disebabkan oleh larva cacing pita Taenia solium yang disebut Cysticercus cellulosae. Di Indonesia terdapat tiga provinsi yang berstatus endemik penyakit sistiserkosis, salah satunya adalah provinsi Bali. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi antibodi terhadap C. cellulosae pada babi lokal yang dipotong di tempat pemotongan babi Panjer, Denpasar. Sampel penelitian adalah 270 sampel serum babi lokal yang dipotong di tempat pemotongan babi Panjer, Denpasar Selatan. Babi lokal ini berasal dari Nusa Penida, Karangasem dan Negara. Sampel serum diuji dengan metode ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay indirect. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa antibodi C. cellulosae terdeteksi pada 33 sampel. Disimpulkan bahwa terdeteksi antibodi C. cellulosae pada 33 sampel dari 270 sampel serum babi lokal yang dipotong di tempat pemotongan babi Panjer, Denpasar.

  19. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Menticoglou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1 the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2 the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner.

  20. PREBIOTICS, INULIN AND BABY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics play significant role in life support of microorganisms of human gastrointestinal tract, and normal functional state of intestinal biocenosis is sufficient condition for human health. Intestinal microbiocenosis is a component of regulation of proteins and lipids metabolism, vitamins synthesis, detoxication process in intestine, etc. prebiotics include a number of disaccharides (lactulose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (inulin, cellulose, etc.. Fructose polymer — inulin — provides growth of bifido- and lactobacteria, improves metabolism and has immunomodulating activity. Formation of intestinal micro biocenosis in infant is provided by prebiotics of breast milk. Further state of micro biocenosis, which is necessary for growth and development of child, is determined by adequate intake of prebiotics from fruits, vegetables and cereals. It is reasonable to use special baby foods fortified with prebiotics (for example, inulin.Key words: prebiotics, intestinal microflora, inulin.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:121-125

  1. Peripheral retinopathy in offspring of carriers of Norrie disease gene mutations. Possible transplacental effect of abnormal Norrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz-Hittner, H A; Ferrell, R E; Sims, K B; Fernandez, K M; Gemmell, B S; Satriano, D R; Caster, J; Kretzer, F L

    1996-12-01

    The Norrie disease (ND) gene (Xp11.3) (McKusick 310600) consists of one untranslated exon and two exons partially translated as the Norrie disease protein (Norrin). Norrin has sequence homology and computer-predicted tertiary structure of a growth factor containing a cystine knot motif, which affects endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Norrie disease (congenital retinal detachment), X-linked primary retinal dysplasia (congenital retinal fold), and X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy (congenital macular ectopia) are allelic disorders. Blood was drawn for genetic studies from members of two families to test for ND gene mutations. Sixteen unaffected family members were examined ophthalmologically. If any retinal abnormality were identified, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography was performed. Family A had ND (R109stp), and family B had X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy (R121L). The retinas of 11 offspring of carrier females were examined: three of seven carrier females, three of three otherwise healthy females, and one of one otherwise healthy male had peripheral inner retinal vascular abnormalities. The retinas of five offspring of affected males were examined: none of three carrier females and none of two otherwise healthy males had this peripheral retinal finding. Peripheral inner retinal vascular abnormalities similar to regressed retinopathy of prematurity were identified in seven offspring of carriers of ND gene mutations in two families. These ophthalmologic findings, especially in four genetically healthy offspring, strongly support the hypothesis that abnormal Norrin may have an adverse transplacental (environmental) effect on normal inner retinal vasculogenesis.

  2. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English (US) ... Emails Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, ...

  3. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy. Caffeine—Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, and soft drinks. It is a ... only for a few weeks or months has health benefits for the baby. When you go back to ...

  4. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clear at first but might thicken and turn yellow or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing Coughing Decreased appetite Irritability Difficulty sleeping Trouble ...

  5. Surrogate Motherhood II: Reflections after "Baby M."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)

  6. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  7. A report from America: Baby M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachels, James

    1987-10-01

    Rachels reviews the social and legal facts of the celebrated "Baby M" case, in which surrogate Mary Beth Whitehead attempted to keep the daughter she had borne under contract to William Stern. The first phase of the legal battle between the parents ended in March 1988, when New Jersey Superior Court Judge Harvey R. Sorkow upheld the validity of the surrogacy contract, terminated Whitehead's parental rights, and awarded custody of the child to Stern. Rachels comments on public reaction to "Baby M," on Sorkow's decision, and on the impact the case may have on legislative attempts to regulate surrogacy. He also uses the example of "Baby M," as well as that of California heart transplant patient "Baby Jesse," to discuss how the media sensationalize controversial issues.

  8. Why lions roar like babies cry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    When an angry lion roars, the sounds it emits can terrify anyone within earshot. But, as Ingo Titze explains, the properties of a lion's roar have some surprising similarities with those of a crying baby.

  9. Quantum cosmology and baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    The contributed papers presented to the workshop on ''Quantum Cosmology and Baby Universes'' have demonstrated the great interest in, and rapid development of, the field of quantum cosmology. In my view, there are at least three areas of active research at present. The first area can be defined as that of practical calculations. Here researchers are dealing with the basic quantum cosmological equation, which is the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. They try to classify all possible solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation or seek a specific integration contour in order to select one particular wave function or generalize the simple minisuperspace models to more complicated cases, including various inhomogeneities, anisotropies, etc. The second area of research deals with the interpretational issues of quantum cosmology. There are still many questions about how to extract the observational consequences from a given cosmological wave function, the role of time in quantum cosmology, and how to reformulate the rules of quantum mechanics in such a way that they could be applicable to the single system which is our Universe. The third area of research is concerned with the so-called ''third quantization'' of gravity. In this approach a wave function satisfying the Wheeler-DeWitt equation becomes an operator acting on a Wave Function of the many-universes system. Within this approach one operates with Euclidean worm-holes joining different Lorentzian universes. (author)

  10. PIXE analysis by baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hyogo; Tanaka, Teruaki; Ito, Takashi; Toda, Yohjiro; Wakasa, Hideichiro

    1988-01-01

    The Japan Steel Works, Ltd. has been supplying a very small sized cyclotron (Baby Cyclotron) to hospitals and research facilities. The cyclotron is designed to produce short-lived radioisotopes for medical use. In the present study, this cyclotron is modified so that it can serve for PIXE analysis. The PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique has the following features: (1) Down to 1 ng of trace material in a sample (mg - μg) can be detected, (2) An analysis run is completed in one to ten minutes, permitting economical analysis for a large number of samples, (3) Several elements can be analyzed simultaneously, with an almost constant sensitivity for a variety of elements ranging from aluminum to heavy metals, (4) Analysis can be performed nondestructively without a chemical process, and (5) The use of microbeam can provide data on the distribution of elements with a resolution of several μm. Software for analysis is developed to allow the modified equipment to perform peak search, background fitting, and identification and determination of peaks. A study is now being conducted to examine the performance of the equipment for PIXE analysis of thin samples. Satisfactory results have been obtained. The analysis time, excluding the background correction, is 5-10 min. (Nogami, K.)

  11. The ART of marketing babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2010-01-01

    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  12. Safe Sleep for Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-09

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  13. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory

  14. Baby boomers nearing retirement: the healthiest generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David

    2010-02-01

    The baby-boom generation is entering retirement. Having experienced unprecedented prosperity and improved medical technology, they should be the healthiest generation ever. We compared prevalence of disease and risk factors at ages 50-61 years in baby boomers with the preceding generation and attributed differences to period or cohort effects. Data were from the Health Survey for England (HSE) from 1994 to 2007 (n = 48,563). Logistic regression models compared health status between birth cohorts. Age-period-cohort models identified cohort and period effects separately. Compared to the wartime generation, the baby-boomer group was heavier (3.02 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-3.63; p Baby boomers reported fewer heart attacks (OR = 0.61; CI, 0.47-0.79; p baby boomers are moving toward retirement with improved cardiovascular health. However, the baby-boomer cohort has a higher prevalence of mental illness diagnoses and shows no improvement in self-rated health compared to the wartime birth cohort. There remains substantial scope to reduce health risks and future disability.

  15. 75 FR 81788 - Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ...-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full- Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final... Safety Specification for Full-Size Baby Cribs,'' and ASTM F 406-10a, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards.'' The crib standards that the CPSC is publishing...

  16. 75 FR 43107 - Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...] Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full- Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product... standards, and include ASTM F 1169-10, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Full-Size Baby Cribs,'' and ASTM F 406-10, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards...

  17. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  18. Transplacental Distribution of Lidocaine and Its Metabolite in Peridural Anesthesia Administered to Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, Elaine Christine Dantas; Duarte, Luciana de Barros; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Carvalho, Daniela Miarelli; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Marques, Maria Paula; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Duarte, Geraldo

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal effects of drugs administered to mothers before delivery depend on the quantity that crosses the placental barrier, which is determined by the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the mother, fetus, and placenta. Diabetes mellitus can alter the kinetic disposition and the metabolism of drugs. This study investigated the placental transfer of lidocaine and its metabolite monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) submitted to peridural anesthesia. A total of 10 normal pregnant women (group 1) and 6 pregnant women with GDM (group 2) were studied, all at term. The patients received 200 mg 2% lidocaine hydrochloride by the peridural locoregional route. Maternal blood samples were collected at the time of delivery and, after placental expulsion, blood samples were collected from the intervillous space, umbilical artery, and vein for determination of lidocaine and MEGX concentrations and analysis of the placental transfer of the drug. The following respective lidocaine ratios between the maternal and the fetal compartments were obtained for groups 1 and 2: umbilical vein/maternal peripheral blood, 0.60 and 0.46; intervillous space/maternal blood, 1.01 and 0.88; umbilical artery/umbilical vein, 0.77 and 0.91; and umbilical vein/intervillous space, 0.53 and 0.51. The following MEGX ratios for groups 1 and 2 were, respectively, fetal/maternal, 0.43 and 0.97; intervillous space/maternal blood, 0.64 and 0.90; umbilical artery/umbilical vein, 1.09 and 0.99; and umbilical vein/intervillous space, 0.55 and 0.78. Gestational diabetes mellitus did not affect the transplacental transfer of lidocaine but interfered with the transfer of MEGX, acting as a mechanism facilitating the transport of the metabolite. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Transplacental transport and fetal localization of bispehnol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Cantillana, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate in the production of epoxy resins, while its brominated derivative tetrabromobishenol A (TBBPA) and its photolysis degradation product 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) are widely used flame retardants. These brominated compounds have been identified in human blood. TBBPA, TBP and a number of 4-hydroxy-PCBs (e.g. 4-OH-CB107) are high affinity ligands for the thyroxin (T4) transporter transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and other species. Displacement of T4 from the TTR binding site has been proposed as an important mechanism of endocrine disruption by certain halogenated phenolic environmental pollutants. BPA is a fairly potent environmental estrogen receptor agonist that can induce an array of estrogenic effects in several species including mammals, birds and fish. Although the estrogenic activity of TBBPA is less obvious, this brominated BPA analog has been reported to interact with the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic effects in some in vitro test systems. While the reproductive and developmental toxicity of BPA is well documented, there is evidence that also halogenated phenolic compounds can pass the placental barrier and induce such toxicity. Within the objectives of the COMPARE EU project we study the fetal and maternal kinetics and transplacental transport of phenolic environmental pollutants in pregnant mice. To explore the role of TTR in the placental and blood-brain barrier transport, we employ TTR-deficient mice. For comparative reasons, we also explore the transfer to bird embryos following injection into the yolk or administration to the egg-laying bird. In the present communication, we report on the disposition of BPA, TBBPA and TBP in the fetoplacental unit in pregnant wild-type mice.

  20. Distribution and speciation of arsenic by transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Sun, Guifan

    2010-04-01

    The amount of arsenic compounds was determined in the liver and brain of pups and in breast milk in the pup's stomach in relation to the route of exposure: transplacental, breast milk, or drinking water. Forty-eight pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups, each group was given free access to drinking water that contained 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/L NaAsO(2) from gestation day 6 (GD 6) until postnatal day 42 (PND 42). Once pups were weaned, they started to drink the same arsenic-containing water as the dams. Contents of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and trimethylarsenic acid (TMA) in livers and brains of the pups on PND 0, 15, 28, and 42 and breast milk taken from the pup's stomach on PND 0 and 15 were detected using the hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy method. Concentrations of iAs, MMA, and DMA in the breast milk, the brain, and the liver of the pups increased with the concentration of arsenic in drinking water on PND 0, 15, 28, and 42. Compared to the liver or brain, breast milk had the lowest arsenic concentrations. There was a significant decrease in the levels of arsenic species on PND 15 compared to PND 0, 28, or 42. It was confirmed that arsenic species can pass through the placental barrier from dams to offspring and across the blood-brain barrier in the pups, and breast milk from dams exposed to arsenic in drinking water contains less arsenic than the liver and brain of pups.

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10 to...

  2. What is my Baby Like? Representations Concerning the Baby in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pedreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AimTo investigate if during the third trimester of pregnancy fantasies emerge in the baby representations based on the information that pregnant women have on their real babies through ultrasound techniques.MethodA qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research based on a sample of 30 pregnant Portuguese women, whose average age is 32 years old, was developed. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-directive interview entitled "Interview of Maternal Representations During Pregnancy – Revised Version" (IRMAG-R, Ammaniti & Tambelli, 2010 were employed.ResultsBaby representations are immersed in a fantasy dimension, which means that the imaginary baby is quite present in this phase of pregnancy. Pregnant women mainly attribute psychological characteristics to the babies, rather than physical characteristics. Regardless of the type of characteristics analysed, the preference for these characteristics emerges based on their wishes. Secondly, characteristics of the parents may also emerge. Fetal movements and information from ultrasound have no significant influence on the characterization of the baby.ConclusionDespite the development of ultrasound techniques, the imaginary baby defines parents representations about the baby on the third trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, a new understanding of how pregnant women experience the transition to the postnatal phase has to be considered.

  3. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Yojiro

    1995-01-01

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  4. Phthalates in baby skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Heather P; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    The systemic toxicity of phthalates has been extensively reported. Although rarely sensitizing, phthalates have been implicated in promoting the development of both atopy and contact dermatitis in animal models. Dermal absorption of phthalates may contribute to overall chemical burden. Infants may be particularly susceptible to chemical exposures. Baby skin care products may be a significant source of phthalate exposure. We measured the phthalate content of 30 skin care products intended for babies and children. Nineteen leave-on and 11 wash-off baby skin care products were analyzed for 17 unique phthalates by an independent laboratory using standard gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. Of 30 products tested, four had phthalate levels above the reporting limit (0.1-0.5 ppm); of these, only one had levels above 1 ppm (44 ppm). There was no statistical significance of phthalate detection in leave-on versus wash-off products (p = .578). The majority (26 of 30) of the baby skin care products analyzed did not have detectable phthalate levels. Four products had detectable phthalate levels. In baby skin care products, levels of the 17 phthalates tested are low overall, but occasional products may contain higher phthalate levels. Monitoring products to ensure safety standards are met may be warranted.

  5. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing the risk of baby falls in maternity units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Helen

    During a 12-month period there were 17 baby falls on the maternity wards at Nottingham University Hospitals Trust; two of the babies who fell were injured. By collecting information about the baby falls and how they happened, we were able to compile a guideline for both preventing and managing baby falls. This formed part of the trust's patient safety programme. We then piloted and implemented risk-prevention strategies for baby falls. These involved a risk assessment to identify women needing closer observation and the installation of bedside cots. These strategies brought about a marked reduction of baby falls and are now being established across all the maternity units across the trust.

  7. Mothers' use of and attitudes to BabyCheck.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Hilary; Ross, Sue; Wilson, Philip; McConnachie, Alex; Watson, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A copy of BabyCheck was sent to 497 mothers shortly after the birth of their baby. Six months later they were sent a questionnaire asking about their use of and attitudes to, BabyCheck. Questionnaires were returned by 323 (65%) mothers; 215 (67%) of them reported reading BabyCheck, the majority found it easy to understand (74%) and agreed with the advice (67%). Eighty-four (26%) of the mothers who returned the questionnaires reported using BabyCheck when their baby was ill; of these, 71% agre...

  8. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Krusch, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as the standard baby Skyrme model must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons while at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  9. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. full text

  10. Baby Skyrme model and fermionic zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiruga, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we investigate some features of the fermionic sector of the supersymmetric version of the baby Skyrme model. We find that, in the background of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield compact baby Skyrmions, fermionic zero modes are confined to the defect core. Further, we show that, while three Supersymmetry (SUSY) generators are broken in the defect core, SUSY is completely restored outside. We study also the effect of a D-term deformation of the model. Such a deformation allows for the existence of fermionic zero modes and broken SUSY outside the compact defect.

  11. Transplacental passage of {sup 26}Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and {sup 26}Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used {sup 26}Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured {sup 26}Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}AlCl{sub 3}) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. {sup 26}Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the {sup 26}Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and {sup 26}Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of {sup 26}Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that {sup 26}Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  12. Redescription of Hepatozoon felis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) based on phylogenetic analysis, tissue and blood form morphology, and possible transplacental transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Sheiner, Alina; Eyal, Osnat; Hahn, Shelley; Beaufils, Jean-Pierre; Anug, Yigal; Talmi-Frank, Dalit

    2013-04-15

    A Hepatozoon parasite was initially reported from a cat in India in 1908 and named Leucocytozoon felis domestici. Although domestic feline hepatozoonosis has since been recorded from Europe, Africa, Asia and America, its description, classification and pathogenesis have remained vague and the distinction between different species of Hepatozoon infecting domestic and wild carnivores has been unclear. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey on domestic feline hepatozoonosis and characterize it morphologically and genetically. Hepatozoon sp. DNA was amplified by PCR from the blood of 55 of 152 (36%) surveyed cats in Israel and from all blood samples of an additional 19 cats detected as parasitemic by microscopy during routine hematologic examinations. Hepatozoon sp. forms were also characterized from tissues of naturally infected cats. DNA sequencing determined that all cats were infected with Hepatozoon felis except for two infected by Hepatozoon canis. A significant association (p = 0.00001) was found between outdoor access and H. felis infection. H. felis meronts containing merozoites were characterized morphologically from skeletal muscles, myocardium and lungs of H. felis PCR-positive cat tissues and development from early to mature meront was described. Distinctly-shaped gamonts were observed and measured from the blood of these H. felis infected cats. Two fetuses from H. felis PCR-positive queens were positive by PCR from fetal tissue including the lung and amniotic fluid, suggesting possible transplacental transmission. Genetic analysis indicated that H. felis DNA sequences from Israeli cats clustered together with the H. felis Spain 1 and Spain 2 sequences. These cat H. felis sequences clustered separately from the feline H. canis sequences, which grouped with Israeli and foreign dog H. canis sequences. H. felis clustered distinctly from Hepatozoon spp. of other mammals. Feline hepatozoonosis caused by H. felis is mostly sub-clinical as a high

  13. Transplacental exposure to AZT induces adverse neurochemical and behavioral effects in a mouse model: protection by L-acetylcarnitine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission can be prevented by administration of AZT, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their newborns. In spite of the benefits deriving from this life-saving prophylactic therapy, there is still considerable uncertainty on the potential long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on exposed children. Clinical and experimental studies have consistently shown the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress following prenatal treatment with antiretroviral drugs, and clinical evidence suggests that the developing brain is one of the targets of the toxic action of these compounds possibly resulting in behavioral problems. We intended to verify the effects on brain and behavior of mice exposed during gestation to AZT, the backbone of antiretroviral therapy during human pregnancy. We hypothesized that glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in excitotoxicity and behavioral plasticity, could be one of the major actors in AZT-induced neurochemical and behavioral alterations. We also assessed the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of L-acetylcarnitine, a compound that improves mitochondrial function and is successfully used to treat antiretroviral-induced polyneuropathy in HIV-1 patients. We found that transplacental exposure to AZT given per os to pregnant mice from day 10 of pregnancy to delivery impaired in the adult offspring spatial learning and memory, enhanced corticosterone release in response to acute stress, increased brain oxidative stress also at birth and markedly reduced expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes and GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus. Notably, administration during the entire pregnancy of L-acetylcarnitine was effective in preventing/ameliorating the neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral adverse effects induced by AZT in the offspring. The present preclinical findings provide a

  14. Disruption of Skin Stem Cell Homeostasis following Transplacental Arsenicosis; Alleviation by Combined Intake of Selenium and Curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Poojan

    Full Text Available Of late, a consirable interest has grown in literature on early development of arsenicosis and untimely death in humans after exposure to iAs in drinking water in utero or during the childhood. The mechanism of this kind of intrauterine arsenic poisoning is not known; however it is often suggested to involve stem cells. We looked into this possibility by investigating in mice the influence of chronic in utero exposure to arsenical drinking water preliminarily on multipotent adult stem cell and progenitor cell counts at the beginning of neonatal age. We found that repeated intake of 42.5 or 85 ppm iAs in drinking water by pregnant BALB/c mice substantially changed the counts of EpASCs, the progenitor cells, and the differentiated cells in epidermis of their zero day old neonates. EpASCs counts decreased considerably and the differentiated/apoptosed cell counts increased extensively whereas the counts of progenitor cell displayed a biphasic effect. The observed trend of response was dose-dependent and statistically significant. These observations signified a disruption in stem cell homeostasis. The disorder was in parallel with changes in expression of biomarkers of stem cell and progenitor (TA cell besides changes in expression of pro-inflammatory and antioxidant molecules namely Nrf2, NFkB, TNF-α, and GSH. The biological monitoring of exposure to iAs and the ensuing transplacental toxicity was verifiable correspondingly by the increase in iAs burden in hair, kidney, skin, liver of nulliparous female mice and the onset of chromosomal aberrations in neonate bone marrow cells. The combined intake of selenite and curcumin in utero was found to prevent the disruption of homeostasis and associated biochemical changes to a great extent. The mechanism of prevention seemed possibly to involve (a curcumin and Keap-1 interaction, (b consequent escalated de novo GSH biosynthesis, and (c the resultant toxicant disposition. These observations are important

  15. Disruption of Skin Stem Cell Homeostasis following Transplacental Arsenicosis; Alleviation by Combined Intake of Selenium and Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojan, Shiv; Kumar, Sushil; Verma, Vikas; Dhasmana, Anupam; Lohani, Mohtashim; Verma, Mukesh K

    2015-01-01

    Of late, a consirable interest has grown in literature on early development of arsenicosis and untimely death in humans after exposure to iAs in drinking water in utero or during the childhood. The mechanism of this kind of intrauterine arsenic poisoning is not known; however it is often suggested to involve stem cells. We looked into this possibility by investigating in mice the influence of chronic in utero exposure to arsenical drinking water preliminarily on multipotent adult stem cell and progenitor cell counts at the beginning of neonatal age. We found that repeated intake of 42.5 or 85 ppm iAs in drinking water by pregnant BALB/c mice substantially changed the counts of EpASCs, the progenitor cells, and the differentiated cells in epidermis of their zero day old neonates. EpASCs counts decreased considerably and the differentiated/apoptosed cell counts increased extensively whereas the counts of progenitor cell displayed a biphasic effect. The observed trend of response was dose-dependent and statistically significant. These observations signified a disruption in stem cell homeostasis. The disorder was in parallel with changes in expression of biomarkers of stem cell and progenitor (TA) cell besides changes in expression of pro-inflammatory and antioxidant molecules namely Nrf2, NFkB, TNF-α, and GSH. The biological monitoring of exposure to iAs and the ensuing transplacental toxicity was verifiable correspondingly by the increase in iAs burden in hair, kidney, skin, liver of nulliparous female mice and the onset of chromosomal aberrations in neonate bone marrow cells. The combined intake of selenite and curcumin in utero was found to prevent the disruption of homeostasis and associated biochemical changes to a great extent. The mechanism of prevention seemed possibly to involve (a) curcumin and Keap-1 interaction, (b) consequent escalated de novo GSH biosynthesis, and (c) the resultant toxicant disposition. These observations are important with respect to

  16. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers (Birth to age 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers What's in this article? Step ...

  17. N=1 supersymmetric extension of the baby Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Queiruga, J. M.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2011-01-01

    We construct a method to supersymmetrize higher kinetic terms and apply it to the baby Skyrme model. We find that there exist N=1 supersymmetric extensions for baby Skyrme models with arbitrary potential.

  18. When Your Baby's in the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby's progress? Is wi-fi access available for smartphones and other devices? Can we use our cellphones ... you also want to allow periods of undisturbed sleep. Let your baby set the pace for your ...

  19. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  20. Baby Cry Detection in Domestic Environment using Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ijzerman, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection of a baby cry in audio signals is an essential step in applications such as remote baby monitoring. It is also important for researchers, who study the relation between baby cry patterns and various health or developmental parameters. In this paper, we propose two machine-learning algorithms for automatic detection of baby cry in audio recordings. The first algorithm is a low-complexity logistic regression classifier, used as a reference. To train this classifier, we extra...

  1. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia, prevalent among African Americans. 8 Great Information Sources About Baby and You 1. medlineplus.gov —"Teenage Pregnancy" and a vast array of other accessible information on pregnancy from the National Library of Medicine. 2. www.kidshealth.org —"Exercising During ...

  2. The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken W.; Klest, Sihu; Sandoy, Tróndur Møller

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child’s mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB) program as a universal intervention...

  3. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight as rapidly as other infants, despite your hard work and persistence, and at times this may be ... the bottle thickens the formula and makes it hard for your baby to suck it out ... and snacks can play a very important role in providing good nutrition. ...

  4. Giant lower oesophageal ulcer Bushman baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-26

    Feb 26, 1983 ... The case of a giant, penetrating lower oesophageal ulcer in a 14-month-old Bushman baby is reported. This would probably be classified as a Barrett's ulcer. Histological examination showed that the ulcer developed in columnar epithelium and that there was normal stratified squamous oesophageal.

  5. The baby has not come: obstructed labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. This article is about how to recognize obstructed labour and deal with it in a way that preserves the life and health of mother and child. It is for midwives and others who work in maternity care and is based on our experiences in Yei, South Sudan. Obstructed labour means that the baby is too big to pass through ...

  6. Mermaid baby | Khan | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We were recently intrigued by a baby born at Kalafong Hospital with fused lower extremities resembling a mermaid, which caused us to search for the background and origin of this entity called sirenomelia. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  7. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's also OK if you miss the way things were before the baby came. If you feel left out or need some attention, tell your mom or dad. Also be sure to tell a parent if you're having trouble getting your homework done or you're not getting enough sleep. Before ...

  8. Expedient Treatment of a Collodion Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only ~270 cases of collodion babies have been reported in the literature since 1892. As the name suggests, the term “collodion baby” refers to a phenotype that can be characterized by a yellow, shiny, tight parchment-like membrane stretched over the skin. Although the collodion membrane is only an evanescent condition of the newborn, neonatal complications can occur in 45% of all collodion babies, leading to a mortality rate of ~11% in the first few weeks of life. Most children born as collodion babies will spontaneously desquamate within 2 weeks, but may be as long as 3 months. Eventually, these children develop signs of one of several types of ichthyosis, which gives the skin the appearance of “fish scales.” We report a unique case of a Caucasian male that was born as a Collodion baby at the University of Kentucky Children's Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. Although the impairment of the skin barrier function put the patient at risk for a number of complications, he improved significantly after being treated with emollients and antibiotics. In contrast to previous findings, we found that skin emollients were beneficial and did not increase the risk of infection.

  9. Babies Bottom Out--A 'Maybe Boom'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Data for the period September 1976 through April 1977 indicate a rise in the United States birth rate; however, the rate is still below the replacement level. It is speculated that the increase is an "echo" effect to the post-World War II baby boom which peaked in 1957. (SL)

  10. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos...

  11. Me? Have a Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  12. Me? Have Another Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  13. Breech Babies: What Can I Do If My Baby Is Breech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth ... Pregnancy: First TrimesterTaking Care of You and Your Baby While You’re PregnantChanges in Your Body During ...

  14. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  15. Implementing the Fussy Baby Network[R] Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…

  16. Crying Baby: What to Do When Your Newborn Cries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a crying baby — and renewing your ability to handle the tears. By Mayo Clinic Staff The dream: Your baby sleeps through the night after just a few weeks, gurgles happily while you run errands and fusses only when hunger strikes. The reality: Your baby's favorite playtime is after ...

  17. Birthing Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Every four and a half minutes a baby is born with a birth defect in the United States. That means nearly 120,000 babies, or about three percent of all babies born each year. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Gilboa discusses ways to prevent birth defects.

  18. Infants & Toddlers: How Babies Use Gestures to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Evolution has provided babies with wonderful ways to get the loving attention and care that they need from adults. When a baby is distressed, his cry is the most primitive and powerful tool for bringing help. By the time a baby is 2 or 3 months old, his dazzling smile and crooked grin evokes tenderness, smiles, and nurturance from adults who are…

  19. Beliefs about the use of baby walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Paula S C; Mancini, Marisa C; Tirado, Marcella G A; Megale, Luiz; Sampaio, Rosana F

    2011-01-01

    To understand the opinion of the parents about the baby walker and compare the age of gait acquisition between infants that used a walker and those that did not. In this quali-quantitative study, an interview involving a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out with 26 parents, 14 of whose infants used the equipment (BWG) and 12 of whose infants did not (NBWG) prior to gait acquisition. After extensive content analysis, categories for interpreting the results emerged. For data triangulation, the age of gait acquisition was documented by weekly telephone contact. Student's t-test was used for comparison between groups with a significance level of α=0.05. The following categories were identified in the parents' reports: a) information about the baby walker; b) doubt/decision to use it vs. certainty about not using it; c) beliefs about the use of a baby-walker; and d) benefits and harm from use. The age of independent gait acquisition did not differ between groups (p=0.837): BWG initiated gait at 376.17 (SD=32.62) days and NBWG did so at 378.75 (SD=27.99) days. The beliefs and feelings that permeate the decision to use a baby walker illustrate the different rationales adopted by parents about the role of this equipment in the child's development of gait and autonomy. The use of a baby walker did not influence the age of gait acquisition. The results broaden the understanding of choices that influence child-rearing practices prior to gait acquisition.

  20. Relation of DNA methylation of 5'-CpG island of ACSL3 to transplacental exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederica Perera

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal cohort of approximately 700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (>25% is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5'-CpG island(s (5'-CGI. Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3 exhibited the highest concordance between the extent of methylation of its 5'-CGI in UCWBCs and the level of gene expression in matched fetal placental tissues in the initial 20 cohort children. ACSL3 was therefore chosen for further investigation in a larger sample of 56 cohort children. Methylation of the ACSL3 5'-CGI was found to be significantly associated with maternal airborne PAH exposure exceeding 2.41 ng/m(3 (OR = 13.8; p<0.001; sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 82% and with a parental report of asthma symptoms in children prior to age 5 (OR = 3.9; p<0.05. Thus, if validated, methylated ACSL3 5'CGI in UCWBC DNA may be a surrogate endpoint for transplacental PAH exposure and/or a potential biomarker for environmentally-related asthma. This exploratory report provides a new blueprint for the discovery of epigenetic biomarkers relevant to other exposure assessments and/or investigations of exposure-disease relationships in birth cohorts. The results support the emerging theory of

  1. Cooling system for baby EBM scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Halim Baijan; Muhammad Zahidee Taat; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Mohd Rizal Md Chulan; Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Leo Kwee Wah; Mohd Rizal Ibrahim; Lojius Lombigit; Azaman Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Heat exchange of the scanning window of baby EBM is a critical factor for maintaining the integrity of the window material structure. As the titanium foil which was used as the scanning window, the maximum temperature accepted for the foil should be 200 degree C. This paper will discuss a simple method of Bernoulli principle to obtain the correct air blower capacity in order to reduce the heat of the scanning window of Baby EBM. It was found that the required air pressure and air speed of the blower are 2613.6 Pascal and 237.6 m3/h respectively for the electron accelerator of 0.14 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current. (Author)

  2. Constipation in babies: Nutritional and behavioral aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tyazheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Constipation in children remains one of the topical problems of pediatrics and pediatric gastroenterology. Functional constipation accounts for about 95% of its cases. The article deals with the main causes of constipation in babies. An algorithm for the management of an infant with functional constipation involves correction of infant feeding in addition to medical treatment. Dietary fiber deficiency in infants may cause constipation. That is why functional foods should be used for infant feeding.

  3. Beliefs about the use of baby walkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas,Paula S. C.; Mancini,Marisa C.; Tirado,Marcella G. A.; Megale,Luiz; Sampaio,Rosana F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the opinion of the parents about the baby walker and compare the age of gait acquisition between infants that used a walker and those that did not. METHODS: In this quali-quantitative study, an interview involving a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out with 26 parents, 14 of whose infants used the equipment (BWG) and 12 of whose infants did not (NBWG) prior to gait acquisition. After extensive content analysis, categories for interpreting the results emerged...

  4. [Extensive scabies in a baby (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleville, J; Derrien, A; Boineau, D; Mollard, S; Marc-Antoine, H; Guillet, G

    The authors are reporting a new case of widespread scabies in a baby. They take this opportunity to emphasize on the atypical erythematous and excoriated papular rash which sometimes may be vesicular and hyper-keratotic. This widespread eruption may mimic generalised dermatitis, pustular psoriasis and even histiocytosis X. They also underline importancy of longlasting ointment with fluorinated steroid being responsible for this widespread eruption.

  5. MODEL SEIR UNTUK EPIDEMI FLU BABI PADA POPULASI BABI DENGAN LAJU KONTAK JENUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model

  6. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-25

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.

  7. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.

  8. The baby killers are still at large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J

    1994-08-12

    This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago.

  9. EKSPLORASI HIJUAN PAKAN BABI DAN CARA PENGGUNAANNYA PADA PETERNAKAN BABI TRADISIONAL DI PROVINSI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budaarsa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis hijauan yang diberikan sebagai pakan ternak babi dan cara penggunaannya di propvinsi Bali. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei di seluruh kabupaten dan kota di Bali. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik stratified random sampling, dengan pengelompokan atas dataran rendah dan dataran tinggi di masing-masing kabupaten dan kota. Pada masing-masing kelompok di ambil 2 orang peternak babi tradisional, sehingga ada 4 peternak yang diwawancarai di masing-masing kabupaten dan kota atau 32 peternak di seluruh Bali. Hasil survei menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan hijauan yang diberikan oleh peternak di dataran rendah dan dataran tinggi. Jenis hijauan yang diberikan di dataran rendah antara lain: batang pisang (Musa paradisiaceae, kangkung (Ipomaea aquatica, biah-biah (Limnocharis flava, dan eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes. Sedamgkan di dataran tinggi antara lain: batang pisang (Musa paradisiaceae, ketela rambat (Ipomaea batatas, daunt alas (Colocasia esculenta daun lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala dan dag-dagse (Pisonia alba. Batang pisang dominan (95 % diberikan di dataran rendah maupun di dataran tinggi. Pemberian hijauan ada dengan cara direbus ada yang diberikan dalam bentuk segar. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat keragaman jenis hijauan pakan babi dan cara pemberiannya antara di dataran rendah dengan dataran tinggi di Bali. Batang pisang merupakan hijauan yang paling banyak digunakan untuk pakan babi pada peternakan babi tradisional, baik pada dataran rendah maupun dataran tinggi.

  10. Turning breech babies after 34 weeks: the if, how, & when of turning breech babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (judyslome@hotmail.com).

  11. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  12. Birthing Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-11

    Every four and a half minutes a baby is born with a birth defect in the United States. That means nearly 120,000 babies, or about three percent of all babies born each year. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Gilboa discusses ways to prevent birth defects.  Created: 1/11/2018 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/11/2018.

  13. Baby-Friendly Practices Minimize Newborn Infants Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha

    2018-04-01

    It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.

  14. Dealing with food allergies in babies and children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joneja, Janice M. Vickerstaff

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 CHAPTER 3 PreventionofFoodAllergy...33 CHAPTER 4 Symptoms of Food Sensitivity in Babies and Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 CHAPTER 5 Diagnosis...

  15. Baby falcon rescued on CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    Harriet Jarlett

    2016-01-01

    This baby falcon was found on Tuesday, 7 June near a car parked in the Building 40 carpark.   Connie Potter, who first saw the bird, contacted CRR (Centre de Réadaptation des Rapaces) at Bardonnex. Following their advice Connie and Chris Thomas managed to pick it up and get it into a box, and waited with the bird at the main gate for the CRR to collect it. The chick will be fed and trained to fly at the Centre in a tunnel, and ultimately released into the wild, probably near CERN. The bird, who has been tagged with ID number 2054, weighed 119 grams.

  16. Recognition and management of Shaken Baby Syndrome

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, Alf

    2016-04-01

    Abusive head trauma (previously referred to as Shaken Baby Syndrome) consists of a triad of findings which included subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy after receiving a shake injury or blunt trauma to the head. Debate rages regarding the exact mechanism. Previously published reports on abusive head trauma (AHT) highlight the young age of the victims (median 4 months of age), the significant preponderance of male infants (3:1 in most series), the high rate of probable male perpetrators (just over 50%), and relatively high rates of mortality and morbidity

  17. Million Dollar Baby (2004 and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The worst misfortune that can befall an old, tormented and fearful boxing trainer is that the pupil he is training and of whom he is very fond should have a lesion as serious as a quadriplegia. This is the crux of the plot in Million Dollar Baby. A person who suffers a quadriplegia sees how most of her physical and sensorial abilities disappear and habitually suffers psychological disturbances requiring palliative medical care. Relatives are subjected to great stress and suffering. All these aspects are reflected, in general accurately, in the film.

  18. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

    Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…

  19. Manual Activity and Onset of First Words in Babies Exposed and Not Exposed to Baby Signing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…

  20. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate…

  1. Do Babies Think? How Do Babies Think? Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    Prior to considering the ability of infants to think, this discussion attempts to dispel prevalent myths about babies' thought processes. The fact that infants do not intentionally manipulate their parents; are not identical; are not simply hedonistic seekers of bodily pleasures; and are not passive, disorganized beings needing training into…

  2. COMMERCIAL BABY PORRIDGES IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of the most important product among additional food for infants — baby porridges. It includes historical data on usage of various cereal crops in human nutrition. A special significance of porridges in culture of food and traditions of Russian population is highlighted. The authors give information about nutritional value and chemical composition of different cereals — buckwheat, rice, pearl-barley, millet, oats etc. A special attention is given to differences in concentrations of nutrients and micronutrients manufactured by different ways from the same kind of cereal. The necessity to feed infants with commercial baby porridges is based in the article. There are also represented characteristics of various commercial porridges for nutrition of infants: hypoallergenic, glutenfree and containing gluten, enriched with pre- and probiotics. The article also contains data on nutritional value of milk and milk-free porridges. The authors raised a discussion on possibility and standards of usage of different additional components, such as sugar, maltodextrin, honey, vanillin, vegetable oils in production of infant porridges. The selection of certain type of porridges as additional food for healthy and infants with different diseases and digestive disorders is based.

  3. Having Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Most babies in the United States are born perfectly healthy. However, a small percentage are born with birth defects, and these conditions account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. In this podcast, Dr. Sarah Tinker discusses ways for women to improve their chances of having a healthy baby.

  4. Neonatal cleft lip repair in babies with breastfeeding difficulties at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many African settings, the birth of a CL and CLP baby is attributed to ... lip repair with subsequent improvement in maternal confidence and interaction with the baby. At follow up, weight gain was above the 50th .... recovery bay in theatre.

  5. The Ububele Baby Mat Service – A primary preventative mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ububele Baby Mat Service is a community-based, parent–infant mental health intervention offered at five primary health care clinics in Alexandra Township, in Johannesburg. The aim of the intervention is to promote healthy caregiver-infant attachments. There has been a steady increase in the number of mother-baby ...

  6. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet

  7. The Effects of Baby Sign Training on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…

  8. Infants' Attention to Synthesised Baby Music and Original Acoustic Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkow, Carla H.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The distinct music genre known as baby music is based on the premise that infants benefit from music "re-orchestrated for their little ears" ("Baby Einstein Takealong Tunes". (2012). Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.babyeinstein.com/en/products/product_explorer/theme/music/62350/Takealong_Tunes.html). We completed a…

  9. Income and Expenditures of Families with a Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Studies real household income after the birth of a baby reporting median child care expenses were zero in first and $6 in fourth quarter; mean expenses in fourth quarter were $210. Fertility rate of women aged 18-44 without high school education who had baby in 1988 was 87, compared to 63 for women with college degree. (LB)

  10. Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 11 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lots of ways. Familiar and loving faces are still your baby's favorite things to look at, but he or she also may enjoy looking at pictures in books , especially familiar images. Your baby may love objects with parts or pieces that move, and ...

  11. Pedagogy with Babies: Perspectives of Eight Nursery Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and…

  12. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  13. [Attachment theory and baby slings/carriers: technological network formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.

  14. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  15. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  16. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  17. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui

    2016-06-01

    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  18. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Are baby hammocks safe for sleeping babies? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Karen; Tonkin, Shirley L; Gunn, Alistair J; McIntosh, Christine C

    2014-07-01

    Two reports of infants found dead after sleeping in baby hammocks have raised international concern about the safety of infant hammocks. We therefore tested whether hammock sleep affected oxygenation in infants, when they were at an age of high risk of sudden, unexpected infant death. Healthy, full-term 4- to 8-week-old infants were randomised to sleep either in a commercially available hammock (n = 14) or a standard bassinet (n = 9), and sleep state, oxygen desaturation (a fall in peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) ≥ 4%, for ≥ 4 sec from baseline to nadir), apnoea and hypopnoea, and mean SpO2 were analysed. There was no significant difference in mean SpO2 (both 98.5%) or rate of oxygen desaturation events between the hammock and the bassinet cot (mean ± SD, 24 ± 20 vs. 28 ± 23 events per hour), but infants slept less in the hammock (59 ± 31 vs. 81 ± 34 min, p baby hammocks, nor to older babies, particularly once the infant can roll. Given that it is not possible to predict when an infant will be able to roll, we strongly recommend that hammocks should not be used for unsupervised sleep. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sick-visit immunizations and delayed well-baby visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-07-01

    Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.

  1. Gauged BPS baby Skyrmions with quantized magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, C.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2017-06-01

    A new type of gauged BPS baby Skyrme model is presented, where the derivative term is just the Schroers current (i.e., gauge invariant and conserved version of the topological current) squared. This class of models has a topological bound saturated for solutions of the pertinent Bogomolnyi equations supplemented by a so-called superpotential equation. In contrast to the gauged BPS baby Skyrme models considered previously, the superpotential equation is linear and, hence, completely solvable. Furthermore, the magnetic flux is quantized in units of 2 π , which allows, in principle, to define this theory on a compact manifold without boundary, unlike all gauged baby Skyrme models considered so far.

  2. Strategies of day care center educators in dealing crying babies

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Ebner Melchiori; Zélia Maria Mendes Biasoli Alves

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the views of day care center educators on how they act when babies cry, if they are able to identify the causes of crying and what are the subjection reasons that make them take action or not. Twenty-one caretakers were interviewed about each of the ninety babies, aged 4 to 24 months, under their care, using a semi-structured guide. The results show that overall the proportion of babies that do not cry significantly increases with age. However, crying f...

  3. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  4. Give Your Baby a Healthy Start to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    All parents want their children to grow up happy and healthy. But, did you know that smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a higher chance of having a baby with certain birth defects and health problems?

  5. Baby Skyrme models for a class of potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, P.; Zakrzewski, W.; Sarbishaei, M.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a class of (2+1)- dimensional baby Skyrme models with potentials that have more than one vacuum. These potentials are generalizations of old and new baby Skyrme models; they involve more complicated dependence on φ 3 . We find that when the potential is invariant under φ 3 → -φ 3 the configurations corresponding to the baby Skyrmions lying 'on top of each other' are the minima of the energy. However, when the potential breaks this symmetry the lowest field configurations correspond to separated baby skyrmions. We compute the energy distributions for skyrmions of degrees between one and eight and discuss their geometrical shapes and binding energies. We also compare the 2-skyrmion states for these potentials. Most of our work has been performed numerically with the model being formulated in terms of three real scalar fields (satisfying one constraint)

  6. Baby Doe and the Search for a Quality Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; Hecimovic, Anton

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews quality of life arguments proposed in Baby Doe cases involving severely handicapped infants and views quality of life in terms of six dimensions: educability, relationships, residence, access, technology, and medical considerations. (CL)

  7. Lamellar ichthyosis (collodian baby with severe bilateral ectropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boparai M

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of lamellar ichthyosis (collodian baby, is being reported. Skin biopsy has confirmed the diagnosis. Severe bilateral ectropion of thee eyelids was the prominent feature. Management of such cases has been briefly discussed.

  8. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  9. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Learn how to protect babies from Zika-related health conditions.

  10. Prevalence and outcome of macrosomic babies admitted to special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Objective: Macrosomia has been defined as birth weight of 4.0kilogram and above. It is an important risk ... Key Words: Large-for-gestational age babies, outcome, Sokoto. *Corresponding .... of rapid increase in fetal weight during pregnancy.

  11. Baby Health Checkup: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Baby Health Checkup ... GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Well-child visits Related Health Topics Childhood Immunization Common Infant and Newborn Problems Infant ...

  12. Can Zika Account for the Missing Babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Armstrong, Margaret; Saraceni, Valeria; Lemos, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) spread rapidly in Brazil in 2015 and 2016. Rio de Janeiro was among the Brazilian cities which were hit the hardest, with more that a hundred thousand confirmed cases up to the end of 2016. Given the severity of the neurological damage caused by ZIKV on fetuses, we wondered whether it would also cause an increase in the number of miscarriages, especially very early ones. As early miscarriages are unlikely to be recorded as a health event, this effect-if it occurred-would only show up as a reduction in the number of live births. In this article, we show that there was a 15% drop in live births between September and December 2016 compared with the previous year, and that this sharp drop from epidemiological week 33 onward is strongly correlated with the number of recorded cases of Zika about 40 weeks earlier. We postulate that ZIKV is directly responsible for this drop in the birth rate. Further work is required to ascertain whether other factors such as the fear of having a microcephaly baby or the economic crisis are having a significant effect.

  13. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Collodion Baby with TGM1 gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deepak Sharma,1 Basudev Gupta,2 Sweta Shastri,3 Aakash Pandita,1 Smita Pawar4 1Department of Neonatology, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderguda, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 2Department of Pediatrics, Civil Hospital, Palwal, Haryana, 3Department of Pathology, NKP Salve Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderguda, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Collodion baby (CB is normally diagnosed at the time of birth and refers to a newborn infant that is delivered with a lambskin-like membrane encompassing the total body surface. CB is not a specific disease entity, but is a common phenotype in conditions like harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar ichthyosis, nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, and trichothiodystrophy. We report a CB that was brought to our department and later diagnosed to have TGM1 gene c.984+1G>A mutation. However, it could not be ascertained whether the infant had lamellar ichthyosis or congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (both having the same mutation. The infant was lost to follow-up.Keywords: cellophane membrane, c.984+1G>A mutation, lamellar ichthyosis, nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, parchment membrane, TGM1 gene

  15. Gender discrimination weighs heavily down on babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, L M

    1995-12-30

    During a pediatric conference in New Delhi, India, physicians compared their experiences with various diseases to the body of knowledge contained in Western-oriented medical textbooks. One physician noted that the most important longterm intervention to prevent low birth weight babies and congenital malformations is social and involves reducing discrimination against women in India. Many childhood disorders, such as thalassemia, can be prevented by proper genetic screening. Children with thalassemia depend upon blood transfusions to survive, yet they can contract serious and life-threatening illness from an unsafe blood supply. Another physician implicated improper handling by parents in habit disorders such as thumb sucking. A report on childhood epilepsy noted that 20% of the cases are resistant to therapy. A session on nephrotic syndrome relayed the practical experiences of the pediatricians. The fact that this syndrome recurs until puberty and, thus, requires longterm management makes it an important pediatric topic. Asthma was described as a condition which is increasing and which parents are afraid to acknowledge. Another physician suggested adding childbirth to the list of medical emergencies in India, since 75% of them are attended by untrained personnel who may contribute to the incidence of death from neonatal tetanus.

  16. Having Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-19

    Most babies in the United States are born perfectly healthy. However, a small percentage are born with birth defects, and these conditions account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. In this podcast, Dr. Sarah Tinker discusses ways for women to improve their chances of having a healthy baby.  Created: 1/19/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/19/2017.

  17. Sex stereotypes influence adults' perception of babies' cries

    OpenAIRE

    Reby, David; Levréro, Florence; Gustafsson, Erik; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite widespread evidence that gender stereotypes influence human parental behavior, their potential effects on adults? perception of babies? cries have been overlooked. In particular, whether adult listeners overgeneralize the sex dimorphism that characterizes the voice of adult speakers (men are lower-pitched than women) to their perception of babies? cries has not been investigated. Methods We used playback experiments combining natural and re-synthesised cries of 3?month-old ...

  18. Baby Boomers and Generation X: strategies to bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholf, L; Loveless, S

    2001-09-01

    Health care staffing challenges for the next few years necessitate the need to develop strategies to integrate the Generation Xer into a predominantly Baby Boomer work force. Strategies to assist Baby Boomers and Generation Xers to engage one another in constructive relationships are discussed. Misunderstanding and stereotyping create barriers that focus on differences and perceived limitations rather than identification of common thinking and focusing on strengths of each generation.

  19. An early contact with the baby: Benefit for the mother

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Gordana; Jovanović Božidar; Đorđević Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous studies on the early contact between mother and the baby and the time they spend together-common stay stress the fact that these are invaluable for the mothers, infants, family and society in general. The objective of the research. The objective of the research was to establish whether mother benefits from the early contact with her baby and the importance of the time period they spend and share together. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 216 mothers tha...

  20. 32P-postlabeling assay in mice of transplacental DNA damage induced by the environmental carcinogens safrole, 4-aminobiphenyl, and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.J.; Disher, R.M.; Reddy, M.V.; Randerath, K.

    1986-01-01

    Transplacental exposure of fetuses to carcinogens is known to induce tumors in the offspring, often with a high incidence and short latency. While covalent adduction of DNA appears to be essential for tumor initiation, little is known about the binding of carcinogens to the DNA of fetal tissues. A sensitive 32 P-postlabeling method enabled us to study the binding of the environmental carcinogens safrole (600 mumol/kg p.o.), 4-aminobiphenyl (800 mumol/kg), and benzo(a)pyrene (200 mumol/kg) to the DNA of various maternal and fetal tissues after administration of test carcinogens to pregnant ICR mice on day 18 of gestation. The results show that these carcinogens bound to the DNA of maternal and fetal liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain, intestine, skin, maternal uterus, and placenta, with organ-specific quantitative and qualitative differences. It was possible for the first time to analyze DNA adduct patterns in minute amounts of tissue, for example those available from fetal heart. The covalent binding index 24 h after safrole treatment was estimated for the different organs and ranged from 0.1 to 247 and 0.1 to 5.8 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. Covalent binding index values of 0.2 to 13 and 0.1 to 0.3 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively, were found for 4-aminobiphenyl. Benzo(a)pyrene treatment yielded covalent binding index values of 0.6 to 6.5 and 0.3 to 0.7 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. In both maternal and fetal tissues, safrole exhibited preferential binding to liver DNA. 4-Aminobiphenyl bound preferentially to DNA of maternal liver and kidney but showed no preference among fetal tissues. Benzo(a)pyrene exhibited weak tissue preference in both maternal and fetal organs

  1. Enhanced urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis in male CD1 mice exposed to transplacental inorganic arsenic and postnatal diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu Jie; Ward, Jerrold M.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2006-01-01

    Pregnant CD1 mice received 85 ppm arsenite in the drinking water from gestation day 8 to 18, groups (n = 35) of male offspring were subsequently injected on postpartum days 1 through 5 with diethylstilbestrol (DES; 2 μg/pup/day) or tamoxifen (TAM; 10 μg/pup/day), and tumor formation was assessed over 90 weeks. Arsenic alone increased hepatocellular carcinoma (14%), adenoma (23%) and total tumors (31%) compared to control (0, 2 and 2%, respectively). Arsenic alone also increased lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal cortical adenoma and renal cystic tubular hyperplasia compared to control. Compared to arsenic alone, arsenic plus DES increased liver tumor incidence in mice at risk 2.2-fold and increased liver tumor multiplicity (tumors/liver) 1.8-fold. The treatments alone did not impact urinary bladder carcinogenesis, but arsenic plus TAM significantly increased formation of urinary bladder transitional cell tumors (papilloma and carcinoma; 13%) compared to control (0%). Urinary bladder proliferative lesions (combined tumors and hyperplasia) were also increased by arsenic plus TAM (40%) or arsenic plus DES (43%) compared to control (0%) or the treatments alone. Urinary bladder proliferative lesions occurred in the absence of any evidence of uroepithelial cytotoxic lesions. Urinary bladder lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by arsenic plus TAM and/or DES overexpressed estrogen receptor-α, indicating that aberrant estrogen signaling may have been a factor in the enhanced carcinogenic response. Thus, in male CD1 mice, gestational arsenic exposure alone induced liver adenoma and carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal adenoma and renal cystic hyperplasia. Furthermore, DES enhanced transplacental arsenic-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In utero arsenic also initiated urinary bladder tumor formation when followed by postnatal TAM and uroepithelial proliferative lesions when followed by TAM or DES

  2. No response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants born to HBsAg(+) mothers is associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Yingli; Jin, Dongfang; Liu, Jinfeng; Zheng, Jie; Yuan, Ningxia; Bai, Yun; Yan, Taotao; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Shulin; Zhao, Yingren; Chen, Tianyan

    2017-08-01

    No or low hepatitis B (HB) vaccine response is more frequent in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers than those from HBsAg(-). Our previous study found temporary positivity of HBsAg in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers. In this study, we hypothesized that HBsAg in infant blunt immune response to standard hepatitis B vaccination. A total of 328 consecutive HBsAg(+) mothers and their offspring were enrolled. Blood samples were taken from mothers and their infants and quantified for HBsAg, anti-HBs titer and HBV DNA load concentration; Placenta samples were collected to stain for HBsAg. First, 6.7% infants (22/328) showed anti-HBs titer lower than 10 mIU/mL after HB vaccination (non-response to HB vaccine). HBsAg(+) newborns showed higher risk of non-response than HBsAg(-) infants (13.0% versus 5.0%, p = 0.016). Infants from high HBsAg titer mothers displayed higher risk of HBsAg positivity at birth than those from low titer mothers (45.3% versus 2.8%, p < 0.001). HBsAg titer in mothers of HBsAg(+) newborns was much higher than mothers of HBsAg(-) newborns (p < 0.001). All those data supported HBsAg can be transferred through placenta. Our hypothesis was further reinforced by immunostaining with specific antibody against HBsAg, a substantial higher prevalence (87.5% versus 30.8%, p = 0.024) and stronger immunostaining (p = 0.008) was demonstrated in HBsAg(+) group comparing with placenta of the HBsAg(-) group. No response to HB vaccine in infants of HBsAg(+) mothers was associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

  3. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Sun, Guoxin; Williams, Paul N.; Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  4. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  5. Sex stereotypes influence adults' perception of babies' cries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reby, David; Levréro, Florence; Gustafsson, Erik; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2016-04-14

    Despite widespread evidence that gender stereotypes influence human parental behavior, their potential effects on adults' perception of babies' cries have been overlooked. In particular, whether adult listeners overgeneralize the sex dimorphism that characterizes the voice of adult speakers (men are lower-pitched than women) to their perception of babies' cries has not been investigated. We used playback experiments combining natural and re-synthesised cries of 3 month-old babies to investigate whether the interindividual variation in the fundamental frequency (pitch) of cries affected adult listeners' identification of the baby's sex, their perception the baby's femininity and masculinity, and whether these biases interacted with their perception of the level of discomfort expressed by the cry. We show that low-pitched cries are more likely to be attributed to boys and high-pitched cries to girls, despite the absence of sex differences in pitch. Moreover, low-pitched boys are perceived as more masculine and high-pitched girls are perceived as more feminine. Finally, adult men rate relatively low-pitched cries as expressing more discomfort when presented as belonging to boys than to girls. Such biases in caregivers' responses to babies' cries may have implications on children's immediate welfare and on the development of their gender identity.

  6. Colloidon baby – Rare case with preventable complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhan Bommakanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidon baby is a rare congenital disorder characterized clinical-ly by parchment like taught membrane covering the whole body at the time of birth, which subsequently develops Non bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma or Lamellar ichthyiosis in most cases and in few cases other ichthyosiform disorders. The colloidon membrane spontaneously desquamates within 2 weeks or up to 3 months in few cases. Herein, we present 2 cases of colloidon babies born to consanguineously married couples of which the first baby was born at term by normal vaginal delivery and second baby born prematurely by caesarean section. Both 1st & 2nd baby were delivered in different private hospitals in villages of Nizamabad district, Telangana state and reported to tertiary level children’s hospital in Hyderabad city on 4nd and 6th day of life respectively with complaints of colloidon membrane and macera-tion of skin in diaper area, was admitted in Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in humidified incubator, treated with emollients, intra-venous fluids and prophylactic antibiotics to avoid complications. Nursing care is of prime importance. This presentation was aimed at stressing not only the importance of early recognition by pedia-trician & timely referral to dermatologist and ophthalmologist for saving life of affected baby but also equal importance to proper nursing care.

  7. Gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes for term babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Liam; Prior, Tomas; Greer, Ristan; Kumar, Sailesh

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in term, singleton, appropriately grown babies. De-identified, routinely collected data of all women meeting inclusion criteria between 2001 and 2011 were examined (n=9223). Inclusion criteria were public (non-insured), primiparous women who had delivered singleton, appropriately grown babies at term. In this retrospective cohort study, we estimated 95% confidence intervals. Outcomes measured were maternal demographics, mode of delivery, birthweight, APGAR score, cord blood acidemia, respiratory distress, any resuscitation requirement, nursery admission and stillbirth rates. The sex ratio of male babies was 1.05:1 (4718 males; 4505 females, p=0.85). Male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental (p=0.004) or caesarean (pinfluencing factor on mode of delivery. Even after adjusting for birthweight, male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental delivery (OR 1.24, pgender may play an independent role in influencing pregnancy outcomes, although the underlying contributing physiology is not definitively established. The gender of the baby perhaps should be considered when counselling parents in the antepartum period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It

  9. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  10. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: zulema.abraham@iag.usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, R. Arlindo Bettio 1000, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  11. Mindful with Your Baby : Feasibility, Acceptability, and Effects of a Mindful Parenting Group Training for Mothers and Their Babies in a Mental Health Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Aktar, E.; Rexwinkel, M.; Rigterink, M.; Bögels, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Many mothers experience difficulties after the birth of a baby. Mindful parenting may have benefits for mothers and babies, because it can help mothers regulate stress, and be more attentive towards themselves and their babies, which may have positive effects on their responsivity. This study

  12. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK KUNYIT PADA ANAK BABI YANG MENDERITA COLIBACILLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NENGAH KERTA BESUNG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kolibasilosis adalah salah satu penyakit pada anak babi yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli (E.coli dan umumnya penyakit tersebut diobati dengan antibiotika. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi pengaruh kunyit sebagai obat alternatif untuk mengobati kejadian kolibasilosis pada anak babi. Dua belas ekor anak babi yang menderita kolibasilosis dikelompokkan ke dalam tiga kelompok yakni kelompok pertama adalah anak babi sebagai kontrol yakni tidak diberikan ekstrak kunyit maupun sulfonamida. Kelompok kedua anak babi diberikan ekstrak kunyit, sedangkan kelompok ketiga anak babi diobati dengan sulfonamida. Data berupa kejadian diare dan total bakteri E. coli dianalisis dengan analisis varian. Pengaruh pemberian kunyit dan pengobatan dengan sulfonamida nampak pada hari kelima setelah perlakuan, yakni berupa penurunan kejadian diare dan pengurangan total bakteri E.coli. Hasil penelitian menunjukkkan bahwa ekstrak kunyit sangat potensial dapat dipakai sebagai obat alternatif dalam pengobatan penyakit kolibasilosis pada anak babi. THE EFFECT OF TURMERIC (Curcuma longa ON PIGLETS WITH COLIBACILLOSIS ABSTRACT Colibacillosis is one of diseases in piglets coused by Eschericia coli (E.coli, and commonly antibiotica therapy to used preventively that diseases. The present study was conducted to observe that effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa, as a alternative drugs on therapy of collibacillosis. Twelve of piglets with colibacillosis diseases were devided in to three groups, each group consisted of four piglets. First group was the negative control group without treatment of sulphonamides and turmeric too, the second group was the turmeric extract treatment and the last group was the colibacillosis piglets treated with sulphonamides. Analisis of variance was to analysed of data from diarrhea occurrence and a total of E. coli bacteria. Effect of turmeric and sulphonamides on colibacillosis of all piglets was detected at fifth days, with

  13. Oligosaccharides in feces of breast- and formula-fed babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; van Zoeren, Diny; van Lingen, Richard A; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-10-18

    So far, little is known on the fate of oligosaccharides in the colon of breast- and formula-fed babies. Using capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE-LIF-MS(n)), we studied the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of 27 two-month-old breast-, formula- and mixed-fed preterm babies. The interpretation of the complex oligosaccharide profiles was facilitated by beforehand clustering the CE-LIF data points by agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). In the feces of breast-fed babies, characteristic human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) profiles, showing genetic fingerprints known for human milk of secretors and non-secretors, were recognized. Alternatively, advanced degradation and bioconversion of HMOs, resulting in an accumulation of acidic HMOs or HMO bioconversion products was observed. Independent of the prebiotic supplementation of the formula with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) at the level used, similar oligosaccharide profiles of low peak abundance were obtained for formula-fed babies. Feeding influences the presence of diet-related oligosaccharides in baby feces and gastrointestinal adaptation plays an important role herein. Four fecal oligosaccharides, characterized as HexNAc-Hex-Hex, Hex-[Fuc]-HexNAc-Hex, HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-Hex and HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-HexNAc-Hex-Hex, highlighted an active gastrointestinal metabolization of the feeding-related oligosaccharides. Their presence was linked to the gastrointestinal mucus layer and the blood-group determinant oligosaccharides therein, which are characteristic for the host's genotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of having a baby on weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy J; Hockey, Richard; Dobson, Annette J

    2010-02-01

    Women often blame weight gain in early adulthood on having a baby. The aim was to estimate the weight gain attributable to having a baby, after disentangling the effects of other factors that influence weight change at this life stage. A longitudinal study of a randomly selected cohort of 6458 Australian women, aged 18-23 years in 1996, was conducted. Self-report mailed surveys were completed in 1996, 2000, 2003, and 2006, and data were analyzed in 2008. On average, women gained weight at the rate of 0.93% per year (95% CI=0.89, 0.98) or 605 g/year (95% CI=580, 635) for a 65-kg woman. Over the 10-year study period, partnered women with one baby gained almost 4 kg more, and those with a partner but no baby gained 1.8 kg more, than unpartnered childless women (after adjustment for other significant factors: initial BMI and age; physical activity, sitting time, energy intake (2003); education level, hours in paid work, and smoking). Having a baby has a marked effect on 10-year weight gain, but there is also an effect attributable to getting married or living with a partner. Social and lifestyle as well as energy balance variables should be considered when developing strategies to prevent weight gain in young adult women. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence of risk factors for hearing impairment in premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, the incidence of hearing impairment in newborn population is 1-3 per 1000 (WHO, 2012. Apart from that, many authors have found that the incidence of hearing impairment is twenty times higher, 2-4%, in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Thus, a congenital hearing loss is the most frequent sensory or motor deficit that could be diagnosed immediately upon birth. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of risk factors for hearing impairment in the population of preterm babies. We were especially interested in the impact of gestational age at birth on the incidence of risk factors for hearing loss. A cohort of 150 preterm babies was enrolled in the study. They were hospitalized in the Institute for Neonatology in Belgrade during 2014 and 2015 and the data were obtained from their medical files. The results of this study indicate high incidence of risk factors for hearing impairment in this population of babies. Gestational age at birth had a strong, statistically significant, correlation with risk factor incidence in lower gestational age and vice versa. High incidence of risk factors and their interaction could account for twenty times higher occurrence of congenital and early acquired hearing loss in population of preterm babies compared to term neonates. These results imply the need for systematic audiological surveillance of prematurely born babies at least until 12 months of corrected age.

  16. Is the ABC pain scale reliable for premature babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Cv; Maffei, M; Ancora, G; Cordelli, D; Mastrocola, M; Faldella, G; Ferretti, E; Buonocore, G

    2007-07-01

    We recently developed the ABC scale to assess pain in term newborns. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of the scale in preterm babies. The scale consists of three cry parameters: (a) pitch of the first cry, (b) rhythmicity of the bout of crying and (c) cry constancy. Changes in these parameters were previously found to distinguish medium and high levels of pain as evaluated by spectral analysis of crying. We enrolled 72 babies to perform the steps usually requested to validate a scale, namely the study of the concurrent validity, specificity and sensibility. Moreover, we assessed the interjudge reliability and the clinical utility and ease of the scale. A good correlation (r = 0.68; r(2)= 0.45; p babies who underwent pain and babies who underwent non-painful stimulus.) Interobserver reliability was good: Cohen's kappa = 0.7. The good correlation between the two scales shows that the ABC scale is also reliable for premature babies.

  17. E835 Store Baby Sitting Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkema, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Control of the RF frequency: (1) 'RF Freq Check' on P85 (E835 Baby Sitter) should be turned OFF. (2) The RF frequency should be adjusted so that it is in the notch of the 4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup response. The RF frequency device to be controlled depends on which RF system is on. If ARF2 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS1. If ARF3 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS0. IMPORTANT NOTE: A:RLLFS0 and A:RLLFS1 have very different data base scaling (A:RLLFS0 is 4 bytes and A:RLLFS1 is 2 bytes). A:RLLFS0 can be safely knobbed with a mult factor of 1.0 (i.e. no multiplier is required). A:RLLFS1 requires a mult factor of 0.02 or smaller. The monitoring and adjustment of the RF frequency is accomplished by the following steps: (3) Set up SA1 so that it is connected to CP48-SCH (4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup). Set the SA center frequency to a harmonic of the RF frequency. This is most easily accomplished by doing one of the following: (a) If ARF3 is on, send P41 file 22 to SA1. (b) If ARF2 is on, set A:RLLFS0 to the set value of A:RLLFS1 then send P41 file 22 to SA1. (4) SA1 can be viewed on CATV channel pbar 20. If the notch in the momentum cooling pickup response is not at the center frequecy of SA1 adjust the RF. (On the low energy ramp, 1 division on the SA1 display at 5.5 GHz corresponds to 2.3 Hz in revolution frequency). Once you've made an adjustment to the RF frequency you should reset the SA1 display according to step 3 above.

  18. Analysis of muscle tone distribution in premature babies based on PodoBaby podoscope examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępowska Jolanta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess load surface with regard to muscle tone distribution of premature infants compared to full-term infants. Material and methods: Twenty-four infants aged 3-6 months (adjusted age were examined, including 12 premature infants (born before 37 weeks and 12 full-term infants. The study was carried out at the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw in the period from January to June 2016. The study involved interviews with the infants’ parents and examinations of infants in a supine and prone position performed on PodoBaby digital podoscope. Support surface, i.e. the loading on the left and right side of the body and the length of trunk sides were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Statistica v.12 software and Student’s t-test. Results: No significant differences between premature infants and full-term infants regarding the loading on the right side measured in a supine position were revealed (analogous lack of differences was noted on the left side and in a prone position. In a prone position, the correlation between support surface and the length of trunk sides was noted, i.e. the loaded side of the trunk was lengthened, while the unloaded side was shortened. Conclusions: Considerable asymmetry of the loads of trunk sides was noted in premature infants, while in the case of full-term infants, the values of loads were close to symmetry. An examination with the use of PodoBaby podoscope may be applied in early diagnostics in pediatric rehabilitation.

  19. Recruiting pregnant smokers from Text4baby for a randomized controlled trial of Quit4baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Leah; Abroms, Lorien; Johnson, Pamela; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer; Bushar, Jessica; Singh, Indira; Cleary, Sean D; McInvale, Whitney; Turner, Monique

    2017-06-01

    Recruiting pregnant smokers into clinical trials is challenging since this population tends to be disadvantaged, the behavior is stigmatized, and the intervention window is limited. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility and effectiveness of recruiting pregnant smokers into a smoking cessation trial by sending recruitment text messages to an existing subscriber list. Recruitment messages were sent to subscribers flagged as pregnant in Text4baby, a national text messaging program for pregnant women and mothers. Four recruitment messages were rotated to test the effectiveness of different emotional frames and a financial incentive. Study staff called subscribers who expressed interest to screen for eligibility and enroll eligible women. Between October 6, 2015 and February 2, 2016, 10,194 recruitment messages were sent to Text4baby subscribers flagged as pregnant, and 10.18% (1038) responded indicating interest. No significant increase in cancellation was observed compared to subscribers who received other ad hoc messages. Of respondents, 54.05% (561) were reached by phone for follow-up, and 21.97% (228) were found to be eligible. Among the eligible, 87% (199) pregnant smokers enrolled. The recruitment message with a pride emotional appeal had a significantly higher response (p = 0.02) compared to the recruitment message with no emotional appeal, but enrollment did not significantly differ between recruitment messages with different emotional appeals. The recruitment messages with a reference to financial incentive yielded higher response (p < 0.01) and enrollment (p = 0.03) compared to a recruitment message without. This study demonstrates success recruiting pregnant smokers using text message. Future studies should consider building on this approach for recruiting high-risk populations.

  20. Transplacentally acquired maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in infants and its influence on the response to hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passively acquired maternal antibodies in infants may inhibit active immune responses to vaccines. Whether maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs in infants may influence the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Totally 338 pairs of mothers and children were enrolled. All infants were routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B based on 0-, 1- and 6-month schedule. We characterized the transplacental transfer of maternal anti-HBs, and compared anti-HBs response in children of mothers with or without anti-HBs. In a prospective observation, all 63 anti-HBs positive mothers transferred anti-HBs to their infants; 84.1% of the infants had higher anti-HBs concentrations than their mothers. One and half years after vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine, the positive rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC of anti-HBs in 32 infants with maternal anti-HBs were comparable with those in 32 infants without maternal antibody (90.6% vs 87.5%, P = 0.688, and 74.5 vs 73.5 mIU/ml, P = 0.742, respectively. In a retrospective analysis, five and half years after vaccination with three doses vaccine, the positive rates of anti-HBs in 88 children of mothers with anti-HBs ≥1000 mIU/ml, 94 children of mothers with anti-HBs 10-999 mIU/ml, and 61 children of mothers with anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml were 72.7%, 69.2%, and 63.9% (P = 0.521, respectively; anti-HBs GMC in these three groups were 38.9, 43.9, and 31.7 mIU/ml (P = 0.726, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate that maternal anti-HBs in infants, even at high concentrations, does not inhibit the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine. Thus, current hepatitis B vaccination schedule for infants will be still effective in the future when most infants are positive for maternal anti-HBs due to the massive vaccination against hepatitis B.

  1. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhoea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Grant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eradication of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where eradication started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common.Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analysed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, approximately 260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and approximately 130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies.These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been

  2. How do baby boomers' mobility patterns change with retirement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu; Haustein, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Baby boomers will comprise a considerable share of tomorrow's older population. Previous research has indicated higher travel activity and car use amongst baby boomers than amongst older cohorts. However, little evidence exists on the effects of boomers' ageing on the transportation system....... To analyse how retirement affects baby boomers' travel and the related future travel demand, we compared three groups, distinguished by employment status as ‘still working’, ‘early retirees’ and ‘recent retirees’, in a longitudinal setting. Data for 864 individuals were collected via standardised telephone...... working had a high car reliance that did not decline over time. This study suggests that retirement is a transition point associated with decreasing car use. Hence, the ageing of the population is likely to have a decreasing effect on transportation demand. However, informal care-giving, prolonged careers...

  3. Respon Imun Anak Babi Pasca Vaksinasi Hog Cholera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jayanata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh antibodi maternal terhadap titer antibodi anak babi yang di vaksin hog cholera umur 7 hari. Penelitian menggunakan tujuh sampel babi dari induk yang divaksin secara teratur yang diberikan perlakuan vaksinasi pada umur 7 hari. Pengambilan sampel serum dilakukan pravaksinasi (7 hari, dan satu minggu serta dua minggu pasca vaksinasi. Untuk menentukan titer antibodi virus Hog cholera pada sampel anak babi dilakukan uji ELISA. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis mengunakan paired sampel T test antara titer antibodi hog cholera. Hasil paired sample T test menunjukkan terjadinya penurunan titer antibodi maternal yang nyata (p<0,05 pada pra vaksinasi ( umur 7 hari dengan satu minggu pasca vaksinasi dan sangat nyata (p<0,01 dengan hari dua minggu pasca vaksinasi. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa antibodi maternal yang tinggi akan mengakibatkan penurunan pada titer antibodi pasca vaksinasi. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui waktu vaksinasi yang efektif

  4. Inflating baby-Skyrme branes in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Delsate, Terence; Kodama, Yuta; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We consider a six-dimensional brane world model, where the brane is described by a localized solution to the baby-Skyrme model extending in the extra dimensions. The branes have a cosmological constant modeled by inflating four-dimensional slices, and we further consider a bulk cosmological constant. We construct solutions numerically and present evidence that the solutions cease to exist for large values of the brane cosmological constant in some particular case. Then we study the stability of the model by considering perturbation of the gravitational part (resp. baby Skyrmion) with fixed matter fields (resp. gravitational background). Our results indicate that the perturbation equations do not admit localized solutions for certain type of perturbation. The stability analysis can be alternatively seen as leading to a particle spectrum; we give mass estimations for the baby-Skyrme perturbation and for the graviton.

  5. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P,H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V=V(P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the “volume”, i.e., area of the solitons.

  6. THE MONITORING OF MERCURY CONTENT IN BABY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's nutrition is very important for the healthy growth and development of the child, but it affects the health of the individual as well later in adulthood. For the production of baby food, commonly available on the market are used raw materials consistently grown under very strict supervision of specially designated for children's nutrition. It shall also apply to the more stringent standards on fertilizer, soil treatment during growth, harvesting, storage and process for the production of baby food. At work, we have focused on monitoring the content of Hg in the 12 samples of baby food, available in the sales network of the Slovak Republic and comparing it with the Highest permissible quantity (0.05 mg.kg-1. On the basis of the findings shows that the content of Hg in the one sample exceeded the HPQ, the content of Hg was in the range 0.6 - 20.4% of the HPQ.

  7. Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed...... to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down...... syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000-2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4-44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2-15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were...

  8. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C.; Naya, C. [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela andInstituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Romanczukiewicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiecza 11, Kraków, 30-348 (Poland); Sanchez-Guillen, J. [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela andInstituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiecza 11, Kraków, 30-348 (Poland)

    2015-05-29

    We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P,H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V=V(P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the “volume”, i.e., area of the solitons.

  9. Strategies of day care center educators in dealing crying babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Ebner Melchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the views of day care center educators on how they act when babies cry, if they are able to identify the causes of crying and what are the subjection reasons that make them take action or not. Twenty-one caretakers were interviewed about each of the ninety babies, aged 4 to 24 months, under their care, using a semi-structured guide. The results show that overall the proportion of babies that do not cry significantly increases with age. However, crying for primary needs, in the view of the educators, tends to decrease as the average age increases, whilst crying for secondary needs tends to increase. Most of the time, the educators try to eliminate the needs that provoke crying, giving priority to the baby’s welfare. The article discusses the caretakers’ educative practices with data found in literature. Keywords: day care; educative practices; educators.

  10. The design of high vacuum system for baby electron beam machine (baby ebm): a comparison between theoretical and experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rizal Mamat; Rosli Darmawan; Lee Chee Huei; Mohd Rizal Md Chulan; Leo Kwee Wah; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Fadzlie Nordin; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali

    2005-01-01

    Baby ebm which was developed to study the engineering and physics of electrons requires the use of high vacuum system in order to prevent electron loss and ionization of air molecules. In selecting the high vacuum system for baby ebm two main factors were considered: the ultimate pressure and the pump down time. The ultimate pressure required for the operation of the baby ebm is in 10-7 torr range. The pump down time was estimated from calculations, taking into account the vacuum pump and chamber size. The turbomolecular pump system (tmp), which is capable of achieving the required vacuum level was selected as the high vacuum system and installed to baby ebm. The tmp is currently fully operational. It was found that the vacuum pumping performance of the tmp differs considerably from what the calculations indicate. Compared to the calculations, it takes a much longer time to achieve the required operating pressure of baby ebm. This could be due to the fact that the formula used for the calculations was a very simplified formula that takes into account the main factors only which are the vacuum pump and chamber size. This paper attempts to present the comparison of the tmp performance between the theoretical and experimental. (Author)

  11. Job strain and coping among ageing baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanka, Anna; Kolland, Franz; Psihoda, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates that the so-called baby boomer generation (the population born after World War II) exhibits worrying health trends. Taking age-cohort effects into account, it is still unclear how the mechanisms concerning stress and health function and how the distribution of stressors, stress mediators and stress effects on health differ between generations. The article approaches stress from a generational perspective asking: which are the stressors the baby boomer generation is facing? Under which conditions and with which resources is exposure to stressors harmful to health? Is there an accumulation of stress in later working life? In the course of the project "Wellbeing", a quantitative online survey was carried out in selected commercial enterprises and public institutions in four project partner countries. The results for Austrian participants are presented in this article. Employees of the baby boomer generation are exposed to both time-related and social stressors at the workplace and a high percentage of respondents expressed symptoms of physical and psychological stress. Stress mediators, such as agency-based coping strategies and social resources at the workplace could buffer these stressors; however, stressors and stress mediators are significantly correlated creating a "triple whammy" effect (i.e. exposure to stressors, lack of social resources and restricted coping), which particularly affects older male baby boomers. Social support buffers the negative effects of a limited health and lower education for female baby boomers, which supports the buffering hypothesis of social convoy theory, whereas male baby boomers lack the resources to effectively cope with work stress.

  12. Baby MIND Experiment Construction Status arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Antonova, M.; Bayes, R.; Benoit, P.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bross, A.; Cadoux, F.; Cervera, A.; Chikuma, N.; Dudarev, A.; Ekelöf, T.; Favre, Y.; Fedotov, S.; Hallsjö, S-P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotyantsev, A.; Kleymenova, A.; Koga, T.; Kostin, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Likhacheva, V.; Martinez, B.; Matev, R.; Medvedeva, M.; Mefodiev, A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Nessi, M.; Nicola, L.; Noah, E.; Ovsiannikova, T.; Pais Da Silva, H.; Parsa, S.; Rayner, M.; Rolando, G.; Shaykhiev, A.; Simion, P.; Soler, F.J.P.; Suvorov, S.; Tsenov, R.; Ten Kate, H.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Yershov, N.

    Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.

  13. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MRI in shaken baby syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yu-Leung; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Wong, Gary W.K.; Yeung, David K.W.

    2003-01-01

    We present the characteristic CT and MRI findings of a 2-month-old girl with shaken baby syndrome. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging performed 8 days after the insult established the presence of injury to the white matter in the corpus callosum and subcortical white matter in the temporo-occipito-parietal region. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected shaken baby syndrome, as injury to the white matter can be demonstrated days after the injury. (orig.)

  15. 77 FR 46739 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Baby Bouncers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Baby Bouncers and Walker-Jumpers AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION... information collection requirements for manufacturers and importers of children's articles known as baby...

  16. The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training

    OpenAIRE

    Břízová, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    THESIS ANNOTATION Title: The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training Aim: To assess the impact of 'baby swimming' on the successfulness in introductory and partly in elementary swimming training, and to find out whether also other circumstances (for example the length of attendance at 'baby swimming') have some influence on introductory swimming training. Methods: We used a questionnaire method for the parents of children who had attended 'baby swimming' and f...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Noémi Hajdú; Katalin Lipták; Zsuzsa Săplăcan

    2018-01-01

    Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to rev...

  18. Normal anterior fontanelle sizes in newborn Igbo babies in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. Background. Several factors, including gestational age (GA), gender, race and geographical/regional area, contribute to variations in the ... While the impact of GA and gender are clearly established, the influences of region and ethnicity vary ... in the lying-in ward and babies in the Newborn Special Care Unit.

  19. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the…

  20. Nutrient Analysis of Indigenous Fortified Baby Weaning Foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Complementary food blends based on some cereals and legumes that are sold in. Plateau State, Nigeria were formulated for baby weaning foods and were analyzed. The cereals used included Zea mays (white corn), Pennisetum typhoides (millet) and. Digitaria exilis (acha). The legumes included Voandzeia ...

  1. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Learn how to protect babies from Zika-related health conditions.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  2. Having Healthy Babies (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-19

    Birth defects account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. This podcast discusses the chances and ways for women to have healthy babies.  Created: 1/19/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/19/2017.

  3. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Case Report of A Baby with Suspected Vacterl Constellation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A term, normal birth weight, appropriate for gestational age, male infant born in a private hospital in Delta State and referred to University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State on account of his abdominal and limb defects. The baby had multiple birth defects consistent with a diagnosis of VACTERL association.

  5. De moeder mag zeggen waar ze haar baby krijgt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Soms nemen aanstaande moeders beslissingen die niet in het belang van hun aanstaande kind lijken te zijn. Zoals thuis willen bevallen bij een stuitligging of een tweeling. Mag dat? Ja, dat mag. Zelfs als dat betekent dat de aanstaande baby een groot risico loopt om dood te gaan of blijvende schade

  6. Giant lower oesophageal ulcer in a Bushman baby | Heydenrych ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a giant, penetrating lower oesophageal ulcer in a 14-month-old Bushman baby is reported. This would probably be classified as a Barrett's ulcer. Histological examination showed that the ulcer developed in columnar epithelium and that there was normal stratified squamous oesophageal mucosa both ...

  7. Phocomelia in an HIV infected baby: Case report | Udo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phocomelia in an HIV infected baby: Case report. JJ Udo, SO Ochigbo, OE Ikpeme, TE Nlemadim. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njp.v40i4.16 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  8. Sign Language with Babies: What Difference Does It Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Susan Kubic

    2010-01-01

    Teaching sign language--to deaf or other children with special needs or to hearing children with hard-of-hearing family members--is not new. Teaching sign language to typically developing children has become increasingly popular since the publication of "Baby Signs"[R] (Goodwyn & Acredolo, 1996), now in its third edition. Attention to signing with…

  9. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  10. The Birth of a Baby: Obscenity or Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Michael D.

    This paper discusses the issues involved and presents an overall picture of attempts to censor the April 11, 1938 issue of "Life" magazine featuring a four-page spread of 35 pictures from the film "The Birth of a Baby." It examines contemporary news accounts from newspapers published in New York, Boston, Chicago, St. Louis, New…

  11. Oligosaccharides in feces of breast- and formula-fed babies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Zoeren, van D.; Lingen, van R.A.; Groot Jebbink, L.J.M.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    So far, little is known on the fate of oligosaccharides in the colon of breast- and formula-fed babies. Using capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE–LIF–MSn), we studied the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of 27 two-month-old breast-,

  12. Histopathological Study of Placentae in Low Birth Weight Babies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological Study of Placentae in Low Birth Weight Babies in India. JS Nigam, V Misra, P Singh, PA Singh, S Chauhan, B Thakur. Abstract. Background: The antenatal health-care given to pregnant women has great influence on the rates of perinatal death and morbidity. Amongst the different causes of perinatal ...

  13. The Baby, the Bathwater, and the "Language Instinct" Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewing the language instinct debate, this article identifies generativist views with the baby's proverbial bathwater. Suggests that instead of analyzing language into form-based units, it should be treated as an aspect of social life deriving from a capacity to contextualize experience. (Author/VWL)

  14. Risk factors for neonatal jaundice in babies presenting at the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... nin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Case notes of babies admitted from. January 2006 to December 2008 were retrieved and information on biodata, gestational age, anthro- pometric values, potential risk fac- tors, level of serum bilirubin at presentation and discharge, mode of treatment and outcome were ...

  15. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. [Сontamination of baby foods with ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; Sedova, I B; Tutelyan, V A

    Mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread contaminant of raw cereal grains with nephrotoxic activity. Сereal-based baby foods (BF) are an important component of the infant diet. In Russia, the presence of OTA in grainbased BF is not allowed (monitoring of the quality of the products from the manufacturers and regulatory authorities.

  17. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  18. Protect Your Baby for Life: When a Pregnant Woman Has Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis B. Can doctors prevent a baby from getting Hepatitis B? Yes. Babies born to women with Hepatitis B get two shots soon after birth. One is the first dose of the Hepatitis ... prevent the baby from getting Hepatitis B. The shots work best when they ...

  19. Bringing New Families to the Museum One Baby at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    "Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is…

  20. Orchestrating Professional Development for Baby Room Practitioners: Raising the Stakes in New Dialogic Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goouch, Kathleen; Powell, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    This article has emerged from a research and development project, The Baby Room, which was designed to examine how babies are cared for in daycare settings. Within the project, a form of professional development was created which designated a central space for dialogic encounter, primarily to enable the baby room practitioners who participated in…

  1. A World of Babies: Imagined Childcare Guides for Eight Societies. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alma; DeLoache, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Should babies sleep alone in cribs, or in bed with parents? Is talking to babies useful, or a waste of time? "A World of Babies" provides different answers to these and countless other child-rearing questions, precisely because diverse communities around the world hold drastically different beliefs about parenting. While celebrating that…

  2. The Baby Boomer Generation--Impact on Public Libraries: Theoretical and Practical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Maureen V.

    This paper discusses the impact of the Baby Boomer generation on public libraries. The paper has five main objectives: (1) to provide a statistical and demographic profile of the Baby Boomers at the local, state, and national levels within Australia; (2) to provide characteristics of the Baby Boomer generation; (3) to present comparative results…

  3. Associations between an IgG3 polymorphism in the binding domain for FcRn, transplacental transfer of malaria-specific IgG3, and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria during infancy: A birth cohort study in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Dechavanne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transplacental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG to the fetus helps to protect against malaria and other infections in infancy. Recent studies have emphasized the important role of malaria-specific IgG3 in malaria immunity, and its transfer may reduce the risk of malaria in infancy. Human IgGs are actively transferred across the placenta by binding the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn expressed within the endosomes of the syncytiotrophoblastic membrane. Histidine at position 435 (H435 provides for optimal Fc-IgG binding. In contrast to other IgG subclasses, IgG3 is highly polymorphic and usually contains an arginine at position 435, which reduces its binding affinity to FcRn in vitro. The reduced binding to FcRn is associated with reduced transplacental transfer and reduced half-life of IgG3 in vivo. Some haplotypes of IgG3 have histidine at position 435. This study examines the hypotheses that the IgG3-H435 variant promotes increased transplacental transfer of malaria-specific antibodies and a prolonged IgG3 half-life in infants and that its presence correlates with protection against clinical malaria during infancy.In Benin, 497 mother-infant pairs were included in a longitudinal birth cohort. Both maternal and cord serum samples were assayed for levels of IgG1 and IgG3 specific for MSP119, MSP2 (both allelic families, 3D7 and FC27, MSP3, GLURP (both regions, R0 and R2, and AMA1 antigens of Plasmodium falciparum. Cord:maternal ratios were calculated. The maternal IgG3 gene was sequenced to identify the IgG3-H435 polymorphism. A multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between maternal IgG3-H435 polymorphism and transplacental transfer of IgG3, adjusting for hypergammaglobulinemia, maternal malaria, and infant malaria exposure. Twenty-four percent of Beninese women living in an area highly endemic for malaria had the IgG3-H435 allele (377 women homozygous for the IgG3-R435 allele, 117 women heterozygous for the Ig

  4. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans William Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention, or continue simply to receive usual care (control. We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7% with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042 between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026. We also observed a

  5. A comparative study to identify factors of caregiver burden between baby boomers and post baby boomers: a secondary analysis of a US online caregiver survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Lee, Sangeun; Cheon, Jooyoung; Hong, Soyun; Chang, Mido

    2018-05-02

    Baby boomers' position in the caregiving context is shifting from caregiver to care recipient as the population ages. While the unique characteristics of baby boomer caregivers are well established in caregiving literature, there is limited information about the next caregiving group after the baby boomers. In this study, the sociodemographic and caregiving-related characteristics of the two generations are compared and specific factors contributing to caregiver burden between baby boomer and post baby boomer caregivers are identified. This cross-sectional and correlational study used secondary analysis of data from the National Alliance for Caregiving and the American Association of Retired Persons. A structured online survey was conducted in 2014 with randomly selected samples (n = 1069) in the United States focusing on sociodemographics, caregiving-related characteristics, and burden of care. Descriptive statistics, multivariate linear regression analyses, and Steiger's Z-test were used to identify group differences in multivariate factors related to caregiver burden in two generational groups. Baby boomers and post baby boomers experienced caregiver burden to a similar degree. Caregiving-related factors are more likely to increase burden of care than sociodemographics in both groups. Caregiving without choice and spending longer hours on caregiving tasks were common factors that increased the burden in both generational groups (all p values baby boomer caregivers reported additional challenges, such as unemployment during caregiving, the dual responsibility of both adult and child care, and a family relationship with the care recipient. Due to the aging population of baby boomers, post baby boomers encounter different challenges related to caregiving burden, which is often considered an additional workload in their life course. Current policy and program tailored to baby boomers should be re-designed to meet the different needs of emerging caregivers

  6. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension... importation of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...

  7. 76 FR 81467 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of... importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on...

  8. The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and Qatar, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Chehab, MBBCh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding instills countless benefits that extend beyond the infant and child to the entire nation. One of the global targets set by the WHO to improve maternal, infant, and young child nutrition is to increase the rate of exclusive breast-feeding “in the first 6 months” up to at least 50% by 2025.3 Thus, as a global endeavor to promote and sustain breastfeeding, the WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI 1 year after the Innocenti Declaration of 1990. Regarding the State of Qatar, there was a 34% rate of early initiation of breastfeeding “within the first hour of birth” and a 29% rate of exclusive breastfeeding between 2010 and 2015. In Qatar during 2016, many obstacles in achieving the aforementioned global target remained. In addition, there are still no hospitals with a BFHI accreditation. Keywords: Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative, Breastfeeding, Maternal health, Qatar

  9. Anaerobic Cultures from Preserved Tissues of Baby Mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 4 C. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that prevents other bacteria from over-dominating a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one-month old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete such specimen ever recovered. The diversity of novel anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for the characterization of cultures.

  10. Baby Strange 阴晴圆缺苏格兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓申

    2016-01-01

    1972年,大名鼎鼎的英国华丽摇滚乐队T.Rex发表了他们迄今为止在美国最热卖的专辑《The Slider》,其中的歌曲《Baby Strange》以满满的能量和极具暗示性的歌词成为了乐队现场表演中大受欢迎的一首曲目。40年后的2012年,三名来自苏格兰格拉斯哥的小伙子以“Baby Strange”的歌名为自己的乐队命名。

  11. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Ultradian components of the sleep-wake cycle in babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna-Barreto, L; Benedito-Silva, A A; Marques, N; de Andrade, M M; Louzada, F

    1993-04-01

    Behavioral states may be analyzed as expressions of underlying cyclic activity involving several physiological systems. The human sleep-wake cycle in the first year of life shows, in addition to the establishment of circadian rhythmicity around the second month, the dynamics of its ultradian components, as can be seen in the more or less gradual decline of the polyphasic pattern. To detect these changes, we have analyzed the sleep-wake cycle of five babies of different ages (3, 4, 9, 11, and 13 months) observed for 5 consecutive days (Monday through Friday), 10 h (08:00-18:00 h) per day at a kindergarten by the first author, and during the night (18:00-08:00 h) by the parents. Behavioral observations were designed for minimizing interference with the babies' habits. Sleep/wake data were arranged in 60-min intervals, and the relative amount of time spent asleep per interval constituted the time series submitted for statistical analysis. The five resulting time series were submitted to spectral analysis for detecting the composition of frequencies contributing to the observed sleep/wake cycle. Several frequencies were thus obtained for each baby in the ultradian and circadian domain, ranging from one cycle in 2.0 h to one cycle in 24 h. The circadian component was the strongest rhythmic influence for all individuals except for the youngest (3-month-old) baby, who showed a semicircadian component as the main frequency in the power spectrum. Three individuals showed ultradian frequencies in the domain of 3-4 h. Differences in the spectra derive from three possible, and probably not exclusive, causes: 1) ontogenetic changes, 2) different masking effects, and 3) individual differences.

  13. US consumer attitudes toward sodium in baby and toddler foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Maalouf, Joyce; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1-3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, "It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium." Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%-70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%-87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%-99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%-100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Re-evaluation of Baby EBM Shielding Thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rizal Mohd Chulan; Siti Aisah Hashim; Wah, L.K.; Mukhlis Moktar

    2013-01-01

    The minimum energy required for an electron beam (EB) to be used as an irradiation device is 200 keV. Nuclear Malaysia's home grown EB machine, the Baby EB can generate up to 140 keV. Therefore, to enable it to be used for application, an internal funding was acquired to increase the energy to up to 300 keV. In doing so, the existing shielding with thickness of 0.35 cm for the top frame and 0.7 cm for the middle and bottom frame needs to be reevaluated. This is to ensure that the shield can still provide significant protection from harmful radiation. This re-evaluation is also needed because of the recent change of clean area dose limit from 2.5 μSv/ hr to 1.0 μSv/ hr. The location of Baby EBM also needs to be re-evaluated if the weight reached 4500 kg/ m 2 (concentrated load for laboratories area). From the calculation it was found that the existing shielding is unable to provide the required protection from the harmful radiation. The recommended thicknesses for the shielding are 3.26 cm for the top frame, 3.5 cm for the middle frame and 3.78 for the bottom frame. Therefore, the total weight of the Baby EBM becomes more than 3000 kg/ m 2 (3337.38 kg/ m 2 ) and this justify the need for the Baby EBM to be transferred from first floor (room no.43008), block 43 (ALUTRON building) to a more suitable location. It is preferable that the new location is in a ground floor that can bear the increased weight. (author)

  15. Neonatal bartter syndrome in an extremely low birth weight baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeparaj Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Bartter syndrome (BS in the neonatal period is a clinical challenge, more so in an extremely low birth weight (ELBW baby because of the inherent renal immaturity and the associated difficulty in fluid management. However, once a diagnosis is made, the disorder is known to respond well to fluid and electrolyte management, prostaglandin inhibitors, and potassium-sparing diuretics. Herein, we report a case of neonatal BS in a very premature ELBW infant.

  16. Birth parents who relinquished babies for adoption revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannor, R; Baran, A; Sorosky, A D

    1978-09-01

    The fact that adoption records may be opened by court decree to enable adoptees to have access to identifying information about their birth parents makes it incumbent upon those concerned with adoption practices to study the impact of this on adoptees, adoptive parents, birth parents, and professional practice. This paper reports on research addressed to the attitudes and feelings of birth parents years after they relinquished babies for adoption.

  17. A gauged baby Skyrme model and a novel BPS bound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C; Naya, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A

    2013-01-01

    The baby Skyrme model is a well-known nonlinear field theory supporting topological solitons in two space dimensions. Its action functional consist of a potential term, a kinetic term quadratic in derivatives (the 'nonlinear sigma model term') and the Skyrme term quartic in first derivatives. The limiting case of vanishing sigma model term (the so-called BPS baby Skyrme model) is known to support exact soliton solutions saturating a BPS bound which exists for this model. Further, the BPS model has infinitely many symmetries and conservation laws. Recently it was found that the gauged version of the BPS baby Skyrme model with gauge group U(1) and the usual Maxwell term, too, has a BPS bound and BPS solutions saturating this bound. This BPS bound is determined by a superpotential which has to obey a superpotential equation, in close analogy to the situation in supergravity. Further, the BPS bound and the corresponding BPS solitons only may exist for potentials such that the superpotential equation has a global solution. We also briefly describe some properties of soliton solutions.

  18. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  19. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal infections, which serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may pose a threat to the fetal-placental unit and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the periodontal status of women during puerperium and determining the possible relationship between their periodontal disease and low birth weight delivery. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The sample included 88 ex-pregnant women were seen at maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran. Half of the mothers had low birth babies (LBW (birth weight below 2500g- case group and the others had normal weight babies (>2500g- control group. The mothers’ data were obtained from medical files, interview and periodontal clinical examination carried out up to 3 days after delivery. Bleeding on probing, presence of supra-gingival calculus and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs were used for periodontal assessment Results: Among the known risk factors of LBW babies, history of previous LBW infant among case mothers reached statistical significance (p=0.0081, Student t-test. Mothers of LBW infants had less healthy areas of gingiva (p=0.042, and more deep pockets (p=0.0006, Mann-Whitney test. Conclusion: The maternal periodontal disease can be a potential independent risk factor for LBW.

  20. Finnish Baby Boomers and the Emergence of the Third Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Karisto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the lives of baby boomers in Finland, and is based on several studies previously published in Finnish. The article considers the particular characteristics of this group of baby boomers. It then discusses whether the baby boom cohorts can also be called a generation. Following this, the life course of the boomer generation is contrasted with various images that have appeared in the media and elsewhere about their lives. Boomers have been presented as a radical’ or ‘selfish’ generation. This article proposes two new themes: boomers as a crossroads generation and boomers as a bridging generation. The paper also considers the emergence of the third age as approached from a generational perspective. The third age has been defined as a generational field underpinned by agency and consumption, with its roots in the youth culture of the post-war decades. This characterization is also highly relevant to the Finnish case, but needs to be elaborated by taking into account socio-historical knowledge of the distinctive life course of the boomer generation.

  1. Born Too Soon: Care for the preterm baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing Neonatal intensive care units in high income settings are de-intensifying care, for example increasing use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and this makes comprehensive preterm care more transferable. For health systems in low and middle income settings with increasing facility births, district hospitals are the key frontier for improving obstetric and neonatal care, and some large scale programmes now include specific newborn care strategies. However there are still around 50 million births outside facilities, hence home visits for mothers and newborns, as well as women's groups are crucial for reaching these families, often the poorest. A fundamental challenge is improving programmatic tracking data for coverage and quality, and measuring disability-free survival. The power of parent's voices has been important in high-income countries in bringing attention to preterm newborns, but is still missing from the most affected countries. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children

  2. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: Bulky DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topinka, J.; Milcova, A.; Libalova, H.; Novakova, Z.; Rossner, P.; Balascak, I.; Sram, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    32 P-postlabelling and PAH-ELISA using the antiserum no. 29 were employed to analyze DNA adducts in venous and umbilical cord blood and the placenta of 79 mothers giving birth to 80 living babies in Prague (Czech Republic). Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary measurements of basic air pollutants (PM2.5, c-PAHs) during the entire pregnancy. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by questionnaire data and by plasma cotinine levels. The total DNA adduct levels in the lymphocytes of mothers and newborns were elevated by 30-40% (p 8 nucleotides vs. 0.15 ± 0.06 adducts/10 8 nucleotides) with newborns indicated a 30-40% increase of adducts in mothers. Almost equal PAH-DNA adduct levels were detected by anti-BPDE-DNA ELISA in the placenta of tobacco smoke-exposed and -unexposed mothers. Our results suggest a protective effect of the placental barrier against the genotoxic effect of some tobacco smoke components between the circulation of mother and child. We found a correlation between adduct levels in the blood of mothers and newborns.

  3. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  4. How to attract customers and develop online shop’s marketing? : Case: Baby Care

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find out suitable marketing strategy for our online shop which is named Baby Care selling baby products mainly. As ‘E-Commerce’ calls growing rapidly in China, online shops pattern is slowly recognized and accepted by consumers. Baby products’ marketing also becomes more and more popular and competitive. Today our online shop with traditional retailers is not only to partake in network counterparts, but also, it occupies a place to implement. Thus we need...

  5. Comparison between swinging and playing of white noise among colicky babies: A paired randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezici, Emel; Yigit, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of swinging and playing of white noise on the crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies. Infantile colic (IC) is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits among babies younger than 3 months. One of five babies older than 3 months also experiences IC. IC, unlike gastrointestinal problems, is regarded as an individual differentiation and maturation of the central nervous system. Providing a warm bath, breastfeeding, swinging and playing of white noise are nonpharmacological methods. The efficiency of these methods has been proven by various studies independently of one another. The study is a prospective, multicentre, paired randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted between April-December 2016. The study sample consisted of 40 1-month-old babies with gas pains who passed a hearing screening and their mothers. The total daily crying and sleeping durations of the babies were determined without any intervention on the first week. On the second week, 20 randomly selected babies (first group) were swung each time they cried, and on the third week, they were made to listen to white noise. The other 20 babies (second group) were made to listen to white noise on the second week and were swung on the third week. Swinging and playing of white noise were performed until the babies stopped crying. After every intervention, the total crying and sleeping durations of the babies were evaluated using a "Colicky Baby's Diary." Playing of white noise significantly decreased the daily crying durations (p white noise was found to be a more effective nonpharmacological method on crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies than swinging. Playing of white noise may be helpful for parents and healthcare personnel in reducing the gas pains of babies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Chemical pollution of baby food products in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarov, Yu P; Milushkina, O Yu; Tikhonova, y l; Aksenova, O I; Kalinovskaya, M V

    One of the main problems of nutrition of children and adolescents is to assess chemical contamination of baby food products and the establishment of the relation with the health of the child population. With the entering different chemical compounds in the body of the child there can be observed disorders of the nervous, urinary, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, as well as metabolic deteriorations, degenerative processes in parenchymal organs and bone destruction. The aim of the study was to analyze data on chemical contamination of baby food products in the Russian Federation for 2012-2014. The analysis was executed on the data of Federal Information Fund of social and hygienic monitoring of the Russian Federation. There were identified priority pollutants (toxic elements, nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamines, pesticides, hydroxymethylfurfural, mycotoxins) and risk areas (the Lipetsk region, the Krasnodar Territory, the Republic of Adygea, city of Moscow, Tatarstan, the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, the Ryazan region). There are detected contamination levels not exceeding MAC (in the dynamics of the three years offollow up, on average 22%), requiring their hygienic assessment. There were determined the baby food products containing most common occurred chemical contaminants: fruits and vegetables products, canned products, canned meat, cereals, dairy products, liquid and adapted and partially adapted milk formalas. Identified data indicate to a need for further studies of chemical substances in products for children’s nutrition in order to establish the causal relationships with a various diseases and the substantiation of methodological approaches to the risk assessment of combined exposure to chemical contaminants in concentrations up to the MPC on health of children, including infants.

  7. Australian baby boomers face retirement during the global financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Wells, Yvonne; O'Loughlin, Kate; Heese, Karla

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact in Australia of the global financial crisis on the baby boom cohort approaching later life. Data from national focus groups of people aged 50 to 64 years (N = 73), conducted in late 2008, found widespread but variable concern and uncertainty concerning work and retirement plans and experiences. A national survey (N = 1,009) of those aged 50 to 64 years in mid-2009 reported lower levels of financial satisfaction compared with other life domains; many planned to postpone retirement. Findings are interpreted in the context of policies and markets that differed significantly from those in the United States, notwithstanding the global nature of the financial crisis.

  8. Bogomolny equations in certain generalized baby BPS Skyrme models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Ł. T.

    2018-01-01

    By using the concept of strong necessary conditions (CSNCs), we derive Bogomolny equations and Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) bounds for two certain modifications of the baby BPS Skyrme model: the nonminimal coupling to the gauge field and the k-deformed ungauged model. In particular, we study how the Bogomolny equations and the equation for the potential reflect these two modifications. In both examples, the CSNC method appears to be a very useful tool. We also find certain localized solutions of these Bogomolny equations.

  9. The experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Modiba

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy and care given by doctors and midwives during this period. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die ervaring van moeders met betrekking tot die dood van ‘n baba tydens swangerskap te verken en te beskryf, asook die versorging wat hulle van vroedvroue en dokters gedurende die periode ontvang het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  10. Baby Boomers and Beds: a Demographic Challenge for the Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Ferris, Timothy G

    2018-03-01

    The United States is facing a significant demographic transition, with about 10,000 baby boomers turning age 65 each day. At the same time, the nation is experiencing a similarly striking transition in hospital capacity, as the supply of hospital beds has declined in recent decades. The juxtaposition of population aging and hospital capacity portends a potentially widening divergence between supply and demand for hospital care. We provide a closer look at current hospital capacity and a rethinking of the future role of hospital beds in meeting the needs of an aging population.

  11. ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN DISPOSABLE BABY DIAPERS

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEKEN TOPTANCI, Bircan; DEMİRCİ, Özlem; YALÇIN, Melis; KIZIL, Murat

    2018-01-01

     Most babies wearcotton diapers nearly 24 hours a day, and those diapers are in constant contactwith both skin and mucus membranes. This means that any chemicals in diapersare likely to wind up in your baby’s system if he or she wears disposablediapers. When parents pull a box of diapers off the shelf, how many of them areaware of the risks to which they are exposing their children: cancer, asthma,hormone disruption, and others. Dioxins, sodium polyacrylate,dyes, fragrances, and phth...

  12. Severe Bloch—Sulzberger syndrome in a newborn baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Chernikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of neonatal skin diseases is often a complicated interdisciplinary problem. The authors present the data available in the literature data and their clinical observation of a newborn baby with Bloch—Sulzberger syndrome, a rare genetic dermatosis. The specific feature of the observation is the development of the disease immediately after birth and its complex differential diagnosis. Central nervous system involvement as epilepsy syndrome determines the severity of the patient's condition and seriously affects the prognosis of the disease. The issues of in-depth studies using molecular genetic technologies that enhance the value of medical genetic counseling to the family are discussed.

  13. Baby MIND: A Magnetised Spectrometer for the WAGASCI Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, M.; et al.

    2017-04-26

    The WAGASCI experiment being built at the J-PARC neutrino beam line will measure the difference in cross sections from neutrinos interacting with a water and scintillator targets, in order to constrain neutrino cross sections, essential for the T2K neutrino oscillation measurements. A prototype Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), called Baby MIND, is being constructed at CERN to act as a magnetic spectrometer behind the main WAGASCI target to be able to measure the charge and momentum of the outgoing muon from neutrino charged current interactions.

  14. Plasticizers in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    2000-01-01

    The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one...... as in infant formulae. The calculated mean maximum intakes of the individual compounds from the total diet samples were below 10% of the restrictions proposed by the EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF), and the spread in individual intakes was considerable. DEHP was the plasticizer determined most...

  15. Planning for the baby boomers' healthcare needs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Terri C; Johnson, Edward; Gasperino, Daniel; Tokatli, Pinar

    2003-01-01

    Will the impact of baby boomers, as they age, be a bonanza or a bust for the healthcare system? A range of perspectives prevail, from increasing in-patient admissions capacity to accommodate the sheer numbers, to the creation of a variety of healthcare services and delivery channels that address their unique requirements. This case study presents a top 100, regional hospital's approach to this dilemma. The strategic marketing process using segmentation, targeting, and positioning (STP) was employed to guide the administration's planning and decision making.

  16. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  17. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  18. Using baby books to increase new mothers' safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether educational baby books are an effective method for increasing low-income, first-time mothers' safety practices during their child's first 18 months. Primiparous women (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational book group, a noneducational book group, or a no-book group. Home visits and interviews measured safety practices when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their children were 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational book group had fewer risks in their homes and exercised more safety practices than the no-book group (- 20% risk reduction; effect size = -.30). When the safety practices involved little time or expense (eg, putting away sharp objects), the educational book group was significantly more likely to engage in these behaviors than the no-book group (40% higher practices; effect size = 0.19) or noneducational book group (27% higher practices; effect size = 0.13). However, no differences were found between groups for behaviors that required high effort in time, money, or hassle (eg, installing latches on cabinets). Educational baby books appear to be an easy and low-cost way to increase the safety practices of new mothers, especially if the practices involve little to no time, money, or hassle. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Baby Books to Increase New Mothers’ Safety Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if educational baby books are an effective method for increasing low-income, first-time mothers’ safety practices during their child’s first 18 months. Patients and Methods Primiparous women (n = 167) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: an educational book group, a non-educational book group, or a no-book group. Home visits and interviews measured safety practices when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their child was 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Results Women in the educational book group had fewer risks in their homes and exercised more safety practices than the no-book group (effect size = −0.30; 20% risk reduction). When the safety practices involved little time or expense (e.g., putting away sharp objects), the educational book group was significantly more likely to engage in these behaviors than the no-book (40% higher practices; effect size = 0.19) or non-educational book groups (27% higher practices; effect size = 0.13). However, no differences were found between groups for behaviors that required high effort in time, money or hassle (e.g., installing latches on cabinets). Discussion Educational baby books appear to be an easy and low cost way to increase the safety practices of new mothers, especially if the practices involve little to no time, money, and hassle. PMID:21272822

  20. Compromised Agency: The Case of BabyLegs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Liboiron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of agency is ubiquitous in STS, particularly regarding cases of alternative ways of knowing and doing science such as civic, citizen, and feminist sciences, among others. Yet the focus on agency often glosses over the constraints placed on agents, particularly within asymmetrical power relations. This article follows the case of BabyLegs, a do-it-yourself monitoring tool for marine microplastic pollution, and the attempt to keep the technology open source within an intellectual property (IP system set up to privatize it. The tactics used to design BabyLegs as a feminine, silly, doll-tool to discredit the device in the eyes of an IP system that valued traditional gender roles lead to the eventual success of keeping the device open source. Yet, those same tactics also reinforced and reproduced the structures of power and essentialism they were designed to resist. I characterize this technological ambivalence as compromise, and argue that all agency exercised within asymmetrical power relations is compromised. This is not to say resistance is futile, but that agency is never pure, and this recognition lets us be more intentional in how we might compromise as practitioners of diverse scientific knowledges.

  1. Infant Positioning, Baby Gear Use, and Cranial Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachry, Anne H; Nolan, Vikki G; Hand, Sarah B; Klemm, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify predictors of cranial asymmetry. We hypothesize that among infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry in the sampled region, there is an association between exposure to more time in baby gear and less awake time in prone and side-lying than in infants who do not present with this condition. Methods The study employed a cross sectional survey of caregivers of typically developing infants and infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry. Results A mutivariable model reveals that caregivers of children who are diagnosed with cranial asymmetry report their children spending significantly less time in prone play than those children without a diagnosis of cranial asymmetry. Side-lying and time spent in baby gear did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions for Practice Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pediatricians, nurses and other health care professionals must provide parents with early education about the importance of varying positions and prone play in infancy and address fears and concerns that may serve as barriers to providing prone playtime.

  2. Labour analgesia and the baby: good news is no news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Felicity

    2011-01-01

    When investigating different methods of maternal pain relief in labour, neonatal outcome has not always been at the forefront, or else maternal changes, such as haemodynamics, fever, length of labour, need for oxytocin or type of delivery, are taken as surrogates for neonatal outcome. It is essential to examine the actual baby and to appreciate that labour pain itself has adverse consequences for the baby. For systemic analgesia, pethidine has been most extensively studied and compared with neuraxial analgesia. It depresses fetal muscular activity, aortic blood flow, short-term heart rate variability and oxygen saturation. In the newborn it exacerbates acidosis, depresses Apgar scores, respiration, neurobehavioural score, muscle tone and suckling. Alternatives have few advantages, remifentanil being the most promising. Neuraxial analgesia is associated with better Apgar scores and variable neurobehavioural changes. Neonatal acid-base status is not only better with epidural than with systemic opioid analgesia, it is also better than with no analgesia. The effect on breast feeding has yet to be established, though it is certainly no worse than that of systemic opioid analgesia. Variations in neuraxial technique have little impact on the newborn. Widespread ignorance of the benefit to the newborn of neuraxial labour analgesia in the UK among non-anaesthetists needs to be combated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Squirming motion of baby skyrmions in nematic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Paul J; Boyle, Timothy; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2017-09-22

    Skyrmions are topologically protected continuous field configurations that cannot be smoothly transformed to a uniform state. They behave like particles and give origins to the field of skyrmionics that promises racetrack memory and other technological applications. Unraveling the non-equilibrium behavior of such topological solitons is a challenge. We realize skyrmions in a chiral liquid crystal and, using numerical modeling and polarized video microscopy, demonstrate electrically driven squirming motion. We reveal the intricate details of non-equilibrium topology-preserving textural changes driving this behavior. Direction of the skyrmion's motion is robustly controlled in a plane orthogonal to the applied field and can be reversed by varying frequency. Our findings may spur a paradigm of soliton dynamics in soft matter, with a rich interplay between topology, chirality, and orientational viscoelasticity.A skyrmion is a topological object originally introduced to model elementary particles and a baby skyrmion is its two-dimensional counterpart which can be realized as a defect in liquid crystals. Here the authors show that an electric field can drive uniform motion of baby skyrmions in liquid crystals.

  4. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lavender, Tina; Furber, Christine; Campbell, Malcolm; Victor, Suresh; Roberts, Ian; Bedwell, Carol; Cork, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants (

  5. Parental Perception of a Baby Sign Workshop on Stress and Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Baby sign language is gaining in popularity. However, research has indicated a lack of empirical research supporting its use. In addition, research suggests that baby sign training may increase stress levels in parents. Methods: Nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years; five months participated in a…

  6. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Babies Are Determined by Their Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Rinah; Ariely, Dan; Chi, Won; Langleben, Daniel D.; Elman, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Background This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults. Methodology and Principal Findings Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a) key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome) and b) attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men. Conclusions These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation) motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring. PMID:19554100

  7. CDC Vital Signs–Safe Sleep for Babies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-09

    This podcast is based on the January 2018 CDC Vital Signs report. Every year, there are about 3,500 sleep-related deaths among U.S. babies. Learn how to create a safe sleep environment for babies.  Created: 1/9/2018 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/9/2018.

  8. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  9. Human Resource Careers of Baby Boomers: An Inquiry of Perceptions of Competent Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, MeLisa J.

    2012-01-01

    An extended career or working through planned retirement may assist baby boomers in recapturing financial losses experienced from the U.S. retirement market between 2007 and 2008. Job security, enhanced by adding value to an organization through competent performance, is an important link to the success of an extended career. Hence, baby boomers…

  10. De bruikbaarheid van de ‘shaken baby syndroom’-hypothese in het strafproces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, R.A.

    In het Nederlandse strafproces wordt regelmatig gebruik gemaakt van deskundigenbewijs van deskundigen die uitgaan van de ‘shaken baby syndroom’-hypothese om aan te tonen dat een verdachte een baby heeft mishandeld of gedood. In onder meer de Verenigde Staten en Engeland woedt een felle discussie

  11. 9 CFR 381.157 - Canned boned poultry and baby or geriatric food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canned boned poultry and baby or geriatric food. 381.157 Section 381.157 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.157 Canned boned poultry and baby or geriatric food. (a) Canned...

  12. 77 FR 55812 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Baby Bouncers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0038] Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Baby Bouncers and Walker-Jumpers AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... collection requirements for manufacturers and importers of children's articles known as baby-bouncers and...

  13. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  14. The Sociocognitive Determinates of HIV/AIDS Prevention Behaviors among Baby Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Carion R.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is steadily increasing among the baby boom population. Among this population, there is a gap between knowledge and behavioral choices. HIV risk perception is multifaceted and shaped by different sociodemographic factors. Baby boomers' perception of risk and sociocognitive determinates that impact their decision…

  15. Old Folks and Spoiled Brats : Why the baby Boomers' Saving Crisis Need Not be that Bad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, M.; Harms, P.

    2001-01-01

    We study the impact of an anticipated "baby boom" in an overlapping generations economy.The rise of the working population lowers the wage, and the high demand for assets causes a rise in the price of capital which will be reversed when the baby boomers leave the work-force.However, the swings in

  16. Babies, Music and Gender: Music Playschools in Finland as Multimodal Participatory Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Taru

    2011-01-01

    Studies of education and childhood studies in general tend to focus on the experiences and cultures of toddlers and school-age children. The experiences and cultures of babies and infants are often excluded from the scope of the studies of children. In Gilles Deleuze's (and Felix Guattari's) thinking, a child, and especially a baby or an infant,…

  17. Whose Hand Rocks the Cradle? Parallel Discourses in the Baby Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sacha; Goouch, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the practice narratives of a group of 25 caregivers who work with babies in daycare settings in England and seeks to illustrate awareness of, resistance to and compliance with powerful discourses. It is argued that multiple voices exert an influence over baby room practice, disempowering the caregivers and reducing their…

  18. Gender differences in the motivational processing of babies are determined by their facial attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinah Yamamoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults.Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome and b attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men.These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring.

  19. Basics about Babies' Brain Development = Los basicos del desarrollo del cerebro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This brochure for parents, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides facts about infants' brains and offers suggestions for parents to help their baby's development by providing experiences to stimulate neural development. The facts are: (1) a baby's brain needs many different experiences to be nourished, such as being talked or sung to…

  20. Association between Michelin tire baby syndrome and congenital panhyopituitarism in an Iranian girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Zahra; Tajziehchi, Leila; Ghavami, Fakhredin

    2014-08-01

    Michelin tire baby syndrome is a rare syndrome, diagnosed clinically by multiple circumferential skin folds. Multiple noncutaneous anomalies have been described with this syndrome. We report a case of Michelin tire baby syndrome with congenital panhypopituitarism. To date, there is no report of association between these two disorders.

  1. Compact baby universe model in ten dimension and probability function of quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Hu Shike

    1991-01-01

    The quantum probability functions are calculated for ten-dimensional compact baby universe model. The authors find that the probability for the Yang-Mills baby universe to undergo a spontaneous compactification down to a four-dimensional spacetime is greater than that to remain in the original homogeneous multidimensional state. Some questions about large-wormhole catastrophe are also discussed

  2. Oh! What a Smart Baby: What You Need to Know about Children's Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Renea; Colburn, Nell

    2005-01-01

    Brain research is complicated, but its message is simple: babies are born learning and what they learn is up to us. New research on infant brain development shows that a child's experiences in the first three years of life have a distinct impact on her later development and learning. Here's why. All babies are born with one organ that is not fully…

  3. Does "Wanting the Best" Create More Stress? The Link between Baby Sign Classes and Maternal Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Neil; Kirk, Elizabeth; Pine, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether gesturing classes (baby sign) affected parental frustration and stress, as advertised by many commercial products. The participants were 178 mother-infant dyads, divided into a gesture group (n = 89) and a non-gesture group (n = 89), based on whether they had attended baby sign classes or not. Mothers completed a…

  4. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in large preterm babies in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2012-09-01

    To describe aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in a subset of premature babies, having gestational age (GA) of ≥28 weeks and birth weight (BW) of ≥1000 g. Retrospective observational case series. Case records of 99 babies, who were diagnosed to have APROP between July 2002 and October 2010 were reviewed. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) was carried out in 19 babies. The mean GA was 31.7 weeks (range 28-35 weeks) and mean BW was 1572 g (range 1000-2310 g). All these babies received supplemental unblended oxygen 3 days or longer after birth. Of the 52 babies who had an eye exam in the neonatal intensive care unit prior to discharge, 35 babies had loss of vascularised retina from zone II to zone I and four babies from zone III to zone I, when examined as an outpatient. FFA revealed large geographic areas of vaso-obliteration (more than 30 disc areas) posterior to the shunt vessels within vascularised retina. Features of severe capillary bed loss in the vascularised retina were seen in our cases. Oxygen could be a precipitating factor in causing this retinopathy of prematurity in large babies.

  5. The Crossover Generation: Baby Boomers and the Role of the Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kirsty; Bannister, Marion; Sullivan, Jen

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the concept of baby boomers as a "crossover" generation, one that embodies characteristics of previous and later generations. The context is the retirement of the baby boomers and its potential impact on the public library. Ethnographic method within a constructivist framework was used, employing the techniques of…

  6. Is baby-led weaning feasible? When do babies first reach out for and eat finger foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charlotte M; Cameron, Kirsty; Tsiaka, Maria; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2011-01-01

    The baby-led weaning philosophy proposes that when solids are introduced, infants should be encouraged to self-feed with solid food, as opposed to spoon-feeding purees. We used data from the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS) to define the range of ages at which infants reach out for and eat finger foods and related this to developmental status. GMS recruited infants shortly after birth and followed them prospectively using postal questionnaires. Of the 923 eligible children, 602 had data on when they first reached out for food, and 340 (56%) had done so before age 6 months, but 36 (6%) were still not reaching for food at age 8 months. Infants who had not reached out for food by 6 months were less likely to be walking unaided at age 1 year (85 out of 224, 38%) compared with those who did (155 out of 286, 54%; P bread, rusks or biscuits. Of the 604 with information at age 8 months about current intake, all but 58 (9.6%) were having some finger foods at least daily, but only 309 (51%) were having them more than once per day. Baby-led weaning is probably feasible for a majority of infants, but could lead to nutritional problems for infants who are relatively developmentally delayed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A Tale of Two Baby-Friendly Hospitals: Comparison of a Military and a Civilian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Melissa V; Barnes, Courtney; Beal, Katie; Enciso, Angel Jaime; Love-Zaranka, Angela

    2016-10-01

    To compare and contrast military hospital and civilian hospital experiences of achieving Baby-Friendly designation, and to examine administration and staff responses as well as institutional and patient postimplementation outcomes. Staff, administration, and chairs of Baby-Friendly committees at both hospitals were interviewed. Motivating factors and perceived administrative support were similar at both institutions. Both sites saw an increase in exclusive breastfeeding rates upon discharge to a rate of 80-90%, and both noted an overall increase in delivery rates, which may also be attributed to achieving Baby-Friendly designation. Significant differences included the amount of time it took to achieve Baby-Friendly status, the number of specialties represented on the Baby-friendly committee, the percentage of employees who received training, pediatrics involvement and support, and funding sources for staff training.

  8. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences: What are the implications for future transport (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja

    , the so-called “baby boomers”, will comprise a large share of tomorrow’s older population, and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when they grow old. In order to better understand how the ageing baby boomers may affect future travel demand, the travel behaviour...... and expectations of Danish baby boomers were analysed based on 1772 standardised telephone interviews. In general, the baby boomers reported being healthy, independent and highly (auto)mobile. They were also optimistic regarding their level of mobility, capability to use a variety of travel modes and ability...... consumers of the transport system also as they age, but that the group is also heterogeneous. Thus, overly optimistic scenarios about independent baby boomers who differ from the previous generations and whose need for external support in old age will be minimal may be unrealistic....

  9. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences: What are the implications for future transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    , the so-called “baby boomers”, will comprise a large share of tomorrow’s older population, and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when they grow old. In order to better understand how the ageing baby boomers may affect future travel demand, the travel behaviour...... and expectations of Danish baby boomers were analysed based on 1772 standardised telephone interviews. In general, the baby boomers reported being healthy, independent and highly (auto)mobile. They were also optimistic regarding their level of mobility, capability to use a variety of travel modes and ability...... consumers of the transport system also as they age, but that the group is also heterogeneous. Thus, overly optimistic scenarios about independent baby boomers who differ from the previous generations and whose need for external support in old age will be minimal may be unrealistic....

  10. Safe Sleep for Your Baby: Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fast facts about SIDS: SIDS is the leading cause of death in babies 1 month to 1 year of ... baby to die suddenly and unexpectedly. Sleep-related causes of infant death are those linked to how or where a ...

  11. Bringing Baby-Friendly to the Indian Health Service: A Systemwide Approach to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Susan; Tah, Tina; Kenon, Clifton; Meyer, Jenna; Yazzie, Jeannette; Stephens, Celissa; Merewood, Anne

    2016-05-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) increases exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding protects against obesity and diabetes, conditions to which American Indians and Alaska Natives are particularly prone. As part of the First Lady'sLet's Move! in Indian Countryinitiative, the US Department of Health and Human Services' Indian Health Service (IHS) began implementing the BFHI in 2011. The IHS administers 13 US birthing hospitals. There are 5 tribally administered hospitals in the lower 48 states that receive IHS funding, and the IHS encouraged them to seek Baby-Friendly designation also. In the 13 federally administered hospitals, the IHS implemented a Baby-Friendly infant feeding policy, extensive clinician training, and Baby-Friendly compatible medical records. All hospitals also became compliant with the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. Strategies and solutions were shared systemwide via webinars and conference calls. Quality improvement methods, technical assistance, and site visits assisted with the implementation process. Between 2011 and December 2014, 100% (13 of 13) of IHS federally administered hospitals gained Baby-Friendly designation. The first Baby-Friendly hospitals in Arizona, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota were all IHS sites; 6% of all US Baby-Friendly hospitals are currently IHS hospitals. One tribal site has also been Baby-Friendly designated and 3 of the 5 remaining tribally administered hospitals in the lower 48 states are pursuing Baby-Friendly status. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative implementation systemwide is possible in a US government agency serving a high-risk, underprivileged population. Other systems looking to implement the BFHI can learn from the IHS model. © International Lactation Consultant Association 2015.

  12. Teenage pregnancy: a psychopathological risk for mothers and babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Gwendoline; Kadji, Caroline; Delvenne, Veronique

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy remains a public health problem of varying importance in developing and developed countries. There are risks and consequences for teen parents and the child on the medical and socioeconomic level. We conducted a literature search on multiple databases, focusing on the risk and the consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. We used different combined keywords as teen pregnancy, teen mother, teenage parents, teenage childbearing, teenage mother depression. Our search included different type of journals to have access on different views (medical, psychological, epidemiologic). The teen mothers are more at risk for postnatal depression, school dropout and bad socioeconomic status. The babies and children are more at risk for prematurity and low birthweight and later for developmental delays and behavior disorders. Pregnancy in adolescence should be supported in an interdisciplinary way (gynecologist, psychologist, child psychiatrist, midwives, pediatrician). We need further studies that allow targeting patients most at risk and personalizing maximum support.

  13. Australian baby boomers talk about the global financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpel, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Kate; Snoke, Martin; Kendig, Hal

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore baby boomers' views and plans in the early days of the global financial crisis (GFC) in 2008. Informants from National Seniors Australia were interviewed in 15 focus groups conducted nationally. Transcripts were analysed by themes from semi-structured questions. The GFC was found to shake the confidence and plans of boomers. Many workers decided to delay retirement and save longer following losses in superannuation. Those retired on market-linked superannuation felt forced to reduce expenses and restrain lifestyles. Those on full pensions were relatively unaffected. The GFC called into question boomers' expectations for retirement. While financial markets are showing signs of recovery, the GFC had precipitated a decision to work longer and to draw conservatively on retirement savings that may take many years to recover. The volatility of financial and employment markets underscores the value of the Age pension.

  14. Fatty acids changes of baby food fat by γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflaki, F.; Matloubi, H.; Ahmadi, M. A. A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a mutual protection when mixtures of components irradiated together, so experimental investigation is necessary for determination of the effects that actually occur in different class of nutrients in formulated foods. This work is concerned with the effect of γ irradiated on fatty acids content of a formulated baby food fat and the results is compared with changes of fatty acids in irradiated whole foods. Irradiation was performed with a gamma cell (Co-60) at dose levels of 0.5, 1.5, 6, 10, 30, 45 kGy at room temperature and in the presence of air. The samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that destruction of fatty acids in this formulated food is reasonably less than fatty acids of whole foods fat

  15. Television imaging system for fast neutron radiography using baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji; Miya, Kenzo; Katoh, Norihiko.

    1993-01-01

    A television imaging system for fast neutron radiography (FNR-TV) developed using the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was applied to the baby-cyclotron based fast neutron source to get images of thick objects quickly. In the system the same technique as a current television imaging system of thermal neutron radiography was applied, while the luminescent converter was used to detect fast neutrons. Using the CR39 track etch method it took about 7 h to get an image, while the FNR-TV only 20 s enough for taking the same object. However the FNR-TV imaging result of the simulation model of a large explosive device for the space launch vehicle of H-2 type was not so good as the image taken with the CR39 track etch method. The reason was that the luminescence intensity of the FNR-TV converter was a quarter of that in the YAYOI. (author)

  16. Diagnostic system for the nuclear medicine with baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Masao; Wakasa, Shyuichiro

    1982-01-01

    The system of cyclotron nuclear medicine consists of ''RI-production by using the cyclotron'', ''production of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with RI'', ''positron tomography''. On the other hand, Ultra compact cyclotron (Baby cyclotron) itself, RI production technique and positron tomography have been rapidly developed and advanced. We think that these three functions must be balance in the development in order to spread this system into the routine work in the hospital. However, since the technology of the synthesis for the labeled compounds is not so developed so far, more advance can be strongly expected. In this report, construction of the cyclotron nuclear medicine, utility for the practical use of RI produced by using the cyclotron, technique of RI production, and the studies on automated and efficient productions of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived positron emitters for medical diagnostic use are described. (author)

  17. Desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de lactentes desnutridos Neuropsychomotor development of malnourished babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mansur

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de lactentes com desnutrição leve e caracterizar seu perfil nutricional. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi do tipo transversal, numa população de 374 lactentes e amostra de 31 desnutridos leve, entre 7 e 24 meses de idade, matriculados em creches municipais. O estado nutricional foi identificado pelo critério de Gómez e caracterizado por um questionário. Para a avaliação neuropsicomotora utilizou-se a Escala de Desenvolvimento Psicomotor da Primeira Infância de Brunet e Lézine. RESULTADOS: Os principais resultados do questionário mostraram: infecções respiratórias (48,4%; diarréias (71,0%; pais em união estável (61,3%; pais com ensino fundamental incompleto (74,2% das mães, 83,8% dos pais; renda familiar de 1 a 3 salários-mínimos (80,6%; aleitamento materno satisfatório (67,7%; reação adversa a algum alimento (41,9%. Entre os dados neuropsicomotores, as médias das Idades de Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (14,45 meses e da Sociabilidade (14,74 meses foram as que obtiveram os valores mais abaixo da média da Idade Cronológica (16,41 meses. Todas as áreas avaliadas obtiveram Quocientes de Desenvolvimento dentro da normalidade, porém, as áreas da Linguagem e da Sociabilidade foram classificadas em nível "normal baixo" e as outras em nível "normal médio". CONCLUSÕES: A avaliação neuropsicomotora é instrumento fundamental na assistência ao lactente desnutrido, que tende a apresentar deficiências nas áreas da Linguagem e Sociabilidade, fornecendo subsídios para observar sua atuação exploratória, efeito de seu pensamento, e planejar o trabalho intervencionista.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the neuropsychomotor development of babies with slight malnutrition and to characterize their nutritional profile. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey on a population of 374 babies and a sample of 31 babies with slight

  18. CE: Beyond Maternity Nursing: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Regina

    2017-08-01

    : The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to promote breastfeeding in hospitals and birthing facilities worldwide. Since the program was launched in 1991, breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity have increased globally, a trend largely attributed to changes in hospital policies and practices brought about by the BFHI. This article provides an overview of these practices and policies, the institutional benefits of achieving BFHI certification, and the process through which health care facilities can do so. All nurses-whether they work in maternity care or another nursing specialty in a hospital, ambulatory, or community setting-can play a role in promoting societal health through their support of long-term breastfeeding as recommended by the WHO and UNICEF.

  19. Shaken baby syndrome manifesting as infantile spasms seizure type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Shiun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of child maltreatment leading to head injury is challenging. Here, we present the case of a 3-month-old female infant who presented with focal seizures that lasted for several minutes. After admission, she began to show intermittent clusters of head nods, irritable crying, arching, writhing, stiffening, and jerking of both arms. These results and electroencephalography findings were attributed as the diagnosis of infantile spasms (IS. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed the presence of chronic subdural hematoma mixed with acute ischemic injuries. Examination of the eye fundus confirmed the presence of retinal hemorrhage. Therefore, all evidence pointed to a diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome (SBS. Based on this case, we suggest that physicians should consider a diagnosis of SBS for children with new-onset IS and that should be evaluated, diagnosed, and treated as promptly as possible.

  20. On Storks and Babies: Correlation, Causality and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht Anja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of available data has created much excitement among marketing practitioners about their ability to better understand the impact of marketing investments. Big data allows for detecting patterns and often it seems plausible to interpret them as causal. While it is quite obvious that storks do not bring babies, marketing relationships are usually less clear. Apparent “causalities” often fail to hold up under examination. If marketers want to be sure not to walk into a causality trap, they need to conduct field experiments to detect true causal relationships. In the present digital environment, experiments are easier than ever to execute. However, they need to be prepared and interpreted with great care in order to deliver meaningful and genuinely causal results that help improve marketing decisions.

  1. Readout scheme for the Baby-MIND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Cadoux, F; Favre, Y; Martinez, B; Nicola, L; Parsa, S; Rayner, M; Antonova, M; Fedotov, S; Izmaylov, A; Kleymenova, A; Khabibullin, M; Khotyantsev, A; Kudenko, Y; Likhacheva, V; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Ovsiannikova, T; Shaykhiev, A; Suvorov, S; Yershov, N; Tsenov, R

    2016-01-01

    A readout scheme has been designed for the plastic scintillator bars of the Baby-MIND detector modules. This spectrometer will measure momentum and identify the charge of 1 GeV/c muons with magnetized iron plates interleaved with detector modules. One challenge the detector aims to address is that of keeping high charge identification efficiencies for momenta below 1 GeV/c where multiple scattering in the iron plates degrades momentum resolution. A front-end board has been developed, with 3 CITIROC readout chips per board and up to 96 channels. Hamamatsu MPPCs type S12571-025C photosensors were chosen for readout of wavelength shifting fibers embedded in plastic scintillators. Procurement of the MPPCs has been carried out to instrument 3000 channels in total. Design choices and first results of this readout scheme are presented.

  2. Don't throw the bathwater in with the baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Presidential Address of the European Association of Developmental Psychology this year concerned how genes and environments interplay to shape loneliness and other developmental psychological relevant outcomes. This is a very welcome. However, when developmental psychology now is ready to integrate recent genetic and neuroscience knowledge and methods, I think it would be very wise to not uncritical go through the mistakes that have be done in other disciplines and instead learn from their hard lessons. I discuss some problems (genes versus environments, identifying gene for a phenotype, environments cause of developmental outcomes, and gene X environment interaction and epigenetics) and some suggestions for solutions which can be used to avoid throwing in the bathwater with the baby.

  3. Don’t throw the bathwater in with the baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Presidential Address of the European Association of Developmental Psychology this year concerned how genes and environments interplay to shape loneliness and other developmental psychological relevant outcomes. This is a very welcome. However, when developmental psychology now is ready to integrate recent genetic and neuroscience knowledge and methods, I think it would be very wise to not uncritical go through the mistakes that have be done in other disciplines and instead learn from their hard lessons. I discuss some problems (genes versus environments, identifying gene for a phenotype, environments cause of developmental outcomes, and gene X environment interaction and epigenetics) and some suggestions for solutions which can be used to avoid throwing in the bathwater with the baby. PMID:23745130

  4. A DIFFERENTIATED APPROACH TO THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY BABY FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kondrat'eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of organization of rational feeding of children in the first year of life with the use of industrial production of weaning foods are discussed. The article provides guidance on the timing and sequence of the introduction of complementary baby food in healthy children and children with alimentary disorders. The sequence of individual products and administration of individual meals depends on the health status, nutritional status of the child and the state of his digestive system. In the diet of the child should be used food and meals of industrial production, made of raw materials of high quality which meet the stringent hygienic requirements for safety parameters and have guaranteed by chemical composition. The article presents data on practical advice on the introduction of feeding in the Centre of breast feeding support and management of Tomsk.

  5. 77 FR 22564 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0019] Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Full- Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs; Compliance Form AGENCY... safety standards for full-size and non-full-size baby cribs in response to the direction under section...

  6. Baby walkers--health visitors' current practice, attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Illingworth, Rachel; Hapgood, Rhydian; Woods, Amanda J; Collier, Jacqueline

    2003-09-01

    Baby walkers are a commonly used item of nursery equipment. Between 12% and 50% of parents whose infant uses a walker report that their child has suffered a walker-related injury. Health visitors' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to walkers and related health education has not been explored so far. The aim of the study was to describe health visitors' knowledge of walkers and walker-related injuries, their attitudes towards walkers and current practice with regard to walker health education, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and practice. A survey was carried out with 64 health visitors prior to participation in a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an educational package in reducing baby walker use. The response rate was 95%. Half of the health visitors always discussed walkers postnatally, most frequently at the 6-9 month check. Most did not usually discuss the frequency of walker-related injuries. Most had negative attitudes towards walkers, but believed that parents hold positive attitudes to them and that it is hard to persuade parents not to use them. Health visitors had a limited knowledge of walker use and walker-related injuries. Those giving advice on walkers most often had higher knowledge scores than those giving advice less often (P = 0.03). Those with higher knowledge scores held more negative attitudes towards walkers (rs = 0.29, P = 0.023) and believed parents to have more positive attitudes towards walkers (rs = -0.49, P negotiating alternatives to their use. The provision of audio-visual aids for discussing walkers might also be helpful.

  7. Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tychey, Claude; Briançon, Serge; Lighezzolo, Joëlle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Kabuth, Bernard; de Luigi, Valerie; Messembourg, Catherine; Girvan, Françoise; Rosati, Aurore; Thockler, Audrey; Vincent, Stephanie

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of postnatal depression on the quality of life of young French mothers and to evaluate if the gender of their child influences this. Postnatal depression (PND) constitutes a major public health problem considering its high prevalence and consequences upon quality of life and parental skills. This research is a cross-sectional study during the postnatal period. This study was carried out during a two-month period. Data were collected by interview and questionnaires. The authors compared the prevalence rate of PND and life quality in a cohort of 181 women and measured the short-term impact of the child's birth. Postnatal depression strongly negatively influences all dimensions of life quality explored through the SF36, e.g. physical functioning (PF), physical Role (RP), bodily pain (BP), mental health (MH), emotional role (RE), social functioning (SF), vitality (VT), general health (GH), standardized physical component (PCS) and standardized mental component (MCS). The baby's gender (having a boy) also significantly reduces quality of life, irrespective of depressive state. There is a relationship between baby gender and PND. This research is the first to show that the birth of a boy reduces several dimensions of the mothers' quality of life. The importance of the impairment of quality of life in case of PND, as well as its effects on mother-child interaction, could justify prevention programs and early psychotherapeutic care. Further research needs to explore the effectiveness of programmes targeting the construction of parenting skills as a preventative measure against PND, especially for parents of boys.

  8. The construction of radiation shielding for baby ebm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rizal Md Chulan; Leo Kwee Wah; Lee Chee Huei; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Fadzlie Nordin; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali; Mohd Yusof Ali; Mohd Rizal Mamat Ibrahim; Syed Nasaruddin Syed Idris; Mahmud Hamid; Mohd Khairi Mohd Said

    2005-01-01

    The construction of radiation shielding for electron beam machine, Baby EBM is necessary for prevention from x-ray (Bremstrahlung) that produced when electron bombarded the target material. The strength of produced x-ray is depending on electron energy and the atomic number of target material. In the construction process of radiation shielding, a few aspects need to be considered such as shielding material and its thickness to be used, mainframe for radiation shielding and the way fabrication to be done. In this project, the thickness of radiation shielding is calculated manually following the NCRP 51 guidelines whereas for frame design, shielding walls and fabrication is considered that the accelerator devices (accelerating tube, focusing device and neck) is vertically and the whole weight of Baby EBM. From the calculations, the thickness and the material for radiation shielding is to be used are 6mm lead. This radiation shielding has been tested (using the parameters that have been considered) to know the leak of radiation (at all surfaces) and direct radiation below 5 cm from the window. The value of high voltage that applied at accelerating tube is 80 kV and the voltage, current supply at electron gun is 3.0 V, 7.1 A respectively. The result of the testing found that dose rate under the window foil is more than 2000 mSv/hr and at all shielding surfaces are less than 0.5 mSv/hr, which is background reading and this is acceptable as compared to the theoretical calculation. The measurement was done using a survey meter typed Ludlum-model 3. (Author)

  9. Factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged zero to four months: a community-based study of Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Zekiye

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that affect exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged 0-4 months. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend feeding babies of 0-6 months exclusively with breast milk and starting complementary foods after the sixth month. In Turkey, however, a vast majority of babies 1-5 months of age (89.4%) are given complementary foods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in central Ankara province, with a sampling of 514 individuals who were selected using the convenience sampling method. Of the 514 mothers who participated in my research, 260 (50.6%) were found to be feeding their babies exclusively with breast milk; 77 (15.0%), with breast milk + water; 87 (16.9%), with breast milk + baby formula; 70 (13.6%), with breast milk + baby formula + other foods; and 20 (3.9%), baby formula + other foods. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis results, the mother's employment [odds ratio (OR) = 0.488; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.288-0.827) considerably reduced the incidence of complementary foods, while frequent crying of the baby (OR = 1.687; 95% CI = 1.125-2.530) significantly increased the use of supplementary foods in infant nutrition. This study concluded that frequent crying of the baby increases the likelihood of giving the baby complementary foods. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently. Exclusive breastfeeding of babies aged 0-6 months is crucial for the development and growth of the baby and instrumental in reducing infant morbidities and mortalities. One factor that increases the likelihood of provision of complementary foods is frequent crying of the baby. Midwives and nurses can encourage exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by providing individual education and counselling to women whose babies cry frequently.

  10. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring and explaining the baby boom in the developed world in the mid-twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early research on the baby boom tried to account for it as a logical recovery following the end of the Second World War (WWII. But it cannot be understood merely as a post-war phenomenon because its origins go back to the 1930s and early 1940s. Objective: I shall describe the methodology used to measure the total and marital baby boom and provide a detailed description of it. I shall attempt to explain the possible reasons that led to the sharp increase in the marital fertility rates and its subsequent decline. Methods: I will use various fertility indices that track the historical development of fertility (total and marital; period and cohort. Results: I show that there are major differences in the measurement of the baby boom depending on the index used. I found that the baby boom is highly heterogeneous in the 25 countries that form part of my study. It represented the logical response that families made to one period of prolonged political, economic, and military crisis (the crash of 1929 and WWII. Conclusions: Researchers who use only the total fertility indices are really analysing only the nuptiality boom, which took place during those years, rather than changes in reproductive behaviour. Contribution: I measure total and marital baby boom for 25 developed countries and perform the calculations to measure the impact of marital fertility and nuptiality on the total baby boom (TBB. I present a new explanation of the origins of the baby boom.

  12. Baby Factories in Nigeria: Starting the Discussion Toward a National Prevention Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Olaleye, Olalekan; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Huntley, Svetlana S; Brown, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Baby factories and baby harvesting are relatively new terms that involve breeding, trafficking, and abuse of infants and their biological mothers. Since it was first described in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization report in Nigeria in 2006, several more baby factories have been discovered over the years. Infertile women are noted to be major patrons of these baby factories due to the stigmatization of childless couples in Southern Nigeria and issues around cultural acceptability of surrogacy and adoption. These practices have contributed to the growth in the industry which results in physical, psychological, and sexual violence to the victims. Tackling baby factories will involve a multifaceted approach that includes advocacy and enacting of legislation barring baby factories and infant trafficking and harsh consequences for their patrons. Also, programs to educate young girls on preventing unwanted pregnancies are needed. Methods of improving awareness and acceptability of adoption and surrogacy and reducing the administrative and legal bottlenecks associated with these options for infertile couples should be explored to diminish the importance of baby factories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. CATHETER DURATION AND THE RISK OF SEPSIS IN PREMATURE BABIES WITH UMBILICAL VEIN CATHETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartojo Hartojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical catheters are frequently required in the management of severely ill premature babies. The risk of complications may increase with duration of UVC use. Objective: To determine whether the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLA-BSIs and sepsis remained constant over the duration of umbilical vein catheters (UVCs in high-risk premature neonates. Methods:retrospective analysis. The data were collected from the medical record of high risk premature neonates who had a UVC placed in neonatal care unit of Husada Utama Hospital between April 1st 2008 to April 30th 2011 with purposive sampling. Catheter duration was observed before and after 14 days on placement. Blood and UVC culture was performed to establish the risk of CLA-BSIs and sepsis. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were performed in the laboratorium data. Result: A total 44 high risk premature babies with UVCs were enrolled (sepsis group: n = 23 and non sepsis group: n = 21. Baseline demographics were similar between the groups. 15 babies in sepsis group have UVCs duration > 14 days, and 8 babies have UVCs 14 days show blood culture performance in 11 babies with positive evidence, UVCs culture performance is negative in 18 babies (p = 0.456. Burkholderia cepacia and Klebsiella pneumonia mostly appeared in blood culture performance. 25% of UVC culture performance shows Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Conclusions: The catheter duration have no significant difference in risk of sepsis in premature babies with Umbilical Vein Catheters.

  14. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    Full Text Available Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England.Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013.Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42% linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56% records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district or that include missing values (delivery variables. The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%. The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England.Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  15. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  16. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Katie; Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  17. Baby Shampoo Versus Povidone-Iodine or Isopropyl Alcohol in Reducing Eyelid Skin Bacterial Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Nguyen, Christine V; Yonkers, Marc A; Tao, Jeremiah P

    Baby shampoo is used as an alternative surgical skin preparation, but the evidence supporting its use is scarce with no descriptions of efficacy in the periocular region. The authors compare the efficacy of baby shampoo, povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) and isopropyl alcohol (IA) in reducing eyelid skin bacterial load. Prospective, randomized, comparative, and interventional trial. Bacterial load on adult, human eyelid skin was quantitated before and after cleansing with 1) dilute baby shampoo, 2) 10% PI, or 3) 70% IA. Paired skin swabs were collected from a 1 cm area of the upper eyelid of subjects before and after a standardized surgical scrub technique. Samples were cultured on 5% sheep blood agar for 24 hours. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was assessed and bacterial load per square centimeter of eyelid skin was quantified. Baseline and postcleansing samples were assessed from 42 eyelids of 42 subjects (n = 14 for each of baby shampoo, PI, and IA). Before cleansing, similar amounts of bacterial flora were grown from all specimens (median log CFU/cm = 2.04 before baby shampoo, 2.01 before PI, 2.11 before IA; p > 0.05). All 3 cleansing agents significantly reduced the bacterial load (p shampoo, 0.39 after PI, 0.59 after IA; p > 0.05). Change from baseline in bacterial load was statistically similar for all 3 agents (median reduction in log CFU/cm = 1.28 with baby shampoo, 1.57 with PI, 1.40 with IA; p > 0.05). These corresponded to bacterial load reductions of 96.3%, 96.6%, and 98.4% for baby shampoo, PI, and IA, respectively. Baby shampoo achieved comparable diminution in eyelid skin bacterial load to PI or IA. These data suggest baby shampoo may be an effective preoperative cleansing agent.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Hajdú

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to reveal the behavioural similarities and differences between the two countries. To meet this aim, a questionnaire-based quantitative research was designed. The sample consists of 993 mothers (590 from Hungary and 403 from Romania with small children. Results show that there is a difference between Romanian and Hungarian mothers regarding the baby food buying habits. The profile of the mothers buying jarred baby food can be characterised by living in towns, with one or two children, and the propensity to give jarred baby food to their child is growing with their age. The mothers agree that the labels contain tiny, unreadable letters, disordered information, unknown expressions and bad translation. The Hungarian mothers pay more attention to the indication of allergen and to the ingredients list. The most important information cluster they seek on a label is related to product ingredients, the second is related to usage of baby food and the least important are the label design elements. The paper provides insightful results for the producers and policy-makers to improve the baby food label quality to help consumers to make better, healthier and safer food choices for their children.

  19. Prostate cancer in the Baby Boomer generation: results from CaPSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles D; Moul, Judd W; Curtis, Lesley H; Elkin, Eric P; Hughes, M E; Carroll, Peter R

    2007-12-01

    Baby Boomers (those born in 1946 to 1964) are thought to place a high value on quality of life, and have a higher propensity to consume healthcare services than previous generations. We sought to characterize prostate cancer (CaP) presentation among this group, and determine whether treatment patterns differ between Baby Boomers and the preceding generation. We defined two birth cohorts: men born in 1927 to 1945 (pre-Boomers) and Baby Boomers. Our study cohort included men less than 65 years old, diagnosed with CaP between 1999 and 2003 (Baby Boomers, n = 812; pre-Boomers, n = 1843). We compared the two groups for clinical presentation, sociodemographics, and primary treatment, controlling for age effects. The primary endpoint was selection of radical prostatectomy as primary treatment. Most Baby Boomers were diagnosed with stage T1 disease (466, 61%), biopsy Gleason sums less than 7 (572, 73%), and prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.1 to 10.0 (509, 66%). This presentation was not clinically different from pre-Boomers. Baby Boomers had higher socioeconomic status than pre-Boomers. On multivariate analysis, Baby Boomers were more likely to undergo radical prostatectomy as primary therapy (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13 to 2.35). Controlling for age effects, however, there were no significant differences in treatment choice (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.87) or sociodemographics between these groups. Differences in CaP presentation and treatment between Baby Boomers and pre-Boomers may be related to age at diagnosis rather than innate differences in behavior. As more Baby Boomers are diagnosed with CaP, further research will be required to characterize this generation's impact on CaP care.

  20. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  1. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Tina; Furber, Christine; Campbell, Malcolm; Victor, Suresh; Roberts, Ian; Bedwell, Carol; Cork, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants (skin hydration when compared with using cotton wool and water (usual care). A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n=280), recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies) or cotton wool and water (140 babies). Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 %) babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4) vs. water 63.5 (14.2), p=0.47, 95% CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4) vs. water 63.6 (14.3), p=0.53, 95% CI -2.4 to 4.2). No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p=0.025 for complete responses). Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86207019.

  2. Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style.

  3. Alkaptonuria diagnosed in a 4-month-old baby girl: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Asok K; Mandal, Syamali; Dasgupta, Anindya; Ghosh, Tarun K

    2008-01-01

    The mother of a four month old female baby attended in the well baby clinic with the complaint of black staining of the diaper after few minutes of urination. The baby was born of a non consanguineous marriage, healthy and breast fed. Mother noticed that stain first at the age of two and half month. The urine when kept in a test tube for two hours turned black. Laboratory examination of urine revealed increased concentration of homogentisic acid. The patient was diagnosed as alkaptonuria. PMID:19014543

  4. #6: No Separation of Mother and Baby with Unlimited Opportunity for Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette, Crenshaw; Klaus, Phyllis H.; Klaus, Marshall H.

    2004-01-01

    In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission—the value of keeping mothers and their babies together from the moment of birth is discussed and presented as an evidenced-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. Babies held skin-to-skin with their mothers cry less often, breathe easier, and stay warmer than babies who are sepa...

  5. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  6. Sensing the baby boomers : tracking older adults' travel behavior using android-based smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project intends to demonstrate the possibilities for using smartphones to obtain highly : resolved behavioral information for older adults, especially leading edge baby boomers. : Towards this end, we are implementing a pilot study which will he...

  7. Processing of baby food using pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) and comparison with thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Ismail, Marliya; Farid, Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    Currently baby food is sterilized using retort processing that gives an extended shelf life. However, this type of heat processing leads to reduction of organoleptic and nutrition value. Alternatively, the combination of pressure and heat could be used to achieve sterilization at reduced temperatures. This study investigates the potential of pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) technology for baby food sterilization. Here, baby food (apple puree), inoculated with Bacillus subtilis spores was treated using PATS at different operating temperatures, pressures and times and was compared with thermal only treatment. The results revealed that the decimal reduction time of B. subtilis in PATS treatment was lower than that of thermal only treatment. At a similar spore inactivation, the retention of ascorbic acid of PATS-treated sample was higher than that of thermally treated sample. The results indicated that PATS could be a potential technology for baby food processing while minimizing quality deterioration.

  8. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay can ... should encourage their children to drink from a cup by their first birthday. As you make the ...

  9. The role of complementary foods in the psychomotor development of a baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Yatsyshina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the impact of complementary feeding on the psychomotor development of a baby. It describes possible psychomotor developmental disorders due to inadequate feeding of an infant during the first year of life.

  10. Mothers' feelings about breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davim, Rejane Marie Barbosa; Enders, Bertha Cruz; da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed at learning about the feelings experienced by mothers while breastfeeding their premature babies in a rooming-in facility, by means of individual interviews with 33 mothers during the period of February to April 2006, at a maternity hospital in Natal/RN/Brazil. The main feelings referred by the mothers regarding their inability to breastfeed their premature babies immediately after delivery were: sorrow, guilt, disappointment, frustration, insecurity, and fear of touching, holding or harming the delicate babies while breastfeeding. However, the mother-child bond that was formed when the baby was discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and taken to the rooming-in facility was reflected by feelings of fulfillment, pride, and satisfaction at experiencing the first breastfeeding.

  11. Keep Baby’s Heart Healthy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect in the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women talking with their health care providers about ways to increase chances of having a healthy baby.

  12. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers’ Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394

  13. Statistical modeling of the mother-baby system in newborn infants with cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Filonenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical model could consider the influence of specific maternal psychoemotional and personality factors on a newborn with cerebral ischemia and develop a procedure to prevent negative consequences of postpartum depression in the mother-baby system.

  14. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  15. Incidence of mitral valve prolapse in one hundred clinically stable newborn baby girls: an echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraratna, P A; Vlahovich, G; Kong, Y; Wilson, D

    1979-09-01

    Clinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed on 100 clinically stable, newborn baby girls. Mitral valve prolapse was noted on the echocardiograms of seven babies. Three subjects had systolic clicks, two of whom had systolic murmurs following the click. The four other babies who had echocardiographic evidence of mitral valve prolapse had no abnormal auscultatory signs. Of the 93 babies without evidence of mitral prolapse, 91 had normal echocardiograms and auscultatory features; one was noted to have a murmur consistent with a ventricular septal defect, and another had an eccentric aortic valve on the echocardiogram which was suggestive of a bicuspid aortic valve. Serial studies on our group of subjects will yield useful information regarding the natural history of mitral valve prolapse.

  16. Reflections on a Time-Limited Mother-Baby Yoga Program at the Wee Ones Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickholtz, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    This brief article discusses a yoga program offered to mothers and babies who were participating in a prison nursery. The author describes the goals and the sometimes unexpected effects of the program.

  17. How many low birthweight babies in low- and middle-income countries are preterm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of preterm birth among low birthweight babies in low and middle-income countries. METHODS: Major databases (PubMed, LILACS, Google Scholar were searched for studies on the prevalence of term and preterm LBW babies with field work carried out after 1990 in low- and middle-income countries. Regression methods were used to model this proportion according to LBW prevalence levels. RESULTS: According to 47 studies from 27 low- and middle-income countries, approximately half of all LBW babies are preterm rather than one in three as assumed in studies previous to the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: The estimate of a substantially higher number of LBW preterm babies has important policy implications in view of special health care needs of these infants. As for earlier projections, our findings are limited by the relative lack of population-based studies.

  18. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  19. Babies' Portal Website Hearing Aid Section: Assessment by Audiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The family has ultimate responsibility for decisions about the use and care during the daily routine and problem solving in the manipulation of hearing aids (HA in infants and children. Objective The purpose of the study was to assess technical and content quality of Babies' Portal website Hearing Aid section by audiologists. Methods Letters and e-mails were sent inviting professionals to surf the website and anonymously fill out an online form with 58 questions covering demographic data as well as the website's technical (Emory questionnaire with the subscales of accuracy, authorship, updates, public, navigation, links, and structure and content quality. Results A total of 109 professionals (tree men and 106 women with mean age of 31.6 years participated in the study. Emory percentage scores ranged from 90.1 to 96.7%. The Hearing Aid section contents were considered good or very good. Conclusion The website was deemed to have good technical and content quality, being suitable to supplement informational counseling to parents of hearing-impaired children fitted with hearing aids.

  20. Neurological sequelae of the operation "baby lift" airplane disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M; Conners, C K; Brook, I; Feldman, S; Mason, J K; Dugas, M; Collis, L; Copeland, B; Lewis, O; Denhoff, E

    1994-01-01

    The aircraft disaster of the first flight of Operation "Baby Lift", which departed from Saigon, Vietnam, April 4, 1975, was survived by 149 orphaned children on their way to adoptive homes in the West. It had 157 passenger fatalities. The aircraft disaster exposed the surviving children to a complex disaster environment in which subatmospheric decompression, hypoxia, and deceleration were experienced, many children suffered a transient unconsciousness. We examined 135 surviving children between 1978 and 1985. The U.S. resident children were examined in the years 1979 to 1982 at an average age of 8 years and 6 months. They displayed the following symptomatology: attention deficit (> 75%), hyperactivity (> 65%), impulse disorder (> 55%), learning disabilities (> 35%), speech and language pathology (> 70%), and soft neurological signs (> 75%). The European children were examined in the years 1983 to 1985. On arrival at the adoptive home, 2 weeks after the accident they displayed the following symptomatology: muscle hypotonia (26%), seizures (2.5%), and regressed developmental milestones (33%). At the time of the diagnostic evaluations (1983 to 1985) the average age was 11 years and 8 months. They displayed the following symptomatology: attention deficit (59%), hyperactivity (52%), impulse disorder (48%), learning disabilities (43%), soft neurological signs (43%), epilepsy (16%), and speech and language pathology (34%). We conclude that a complex disaster environment can cause brain damage in children without prolonged unconsciousness, and that victims of disasters require a thorough evaluation from a multidisciplinary team.

  1. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapień, Jarosław; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the Northeast, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency f ∝r-α, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent α is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest one for the set of states classified as "Midwest + West". Our interpretation is that the pool of selected names was quite narrow in the Southern states. The data is compared with some related statistics of names in Belgium, a country also with different regions, but having quite a different scale than the USA. There, the Zipf exponent is low for young people and for the Brussels citizens.

  2. Baby Boomers in an active adult retirement community: comity interrupted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Erin G; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D

    2012-04-01

    This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural and attitudinal differences exist between Boomers and older residents, and (c) shared age matters less than shared interests. Our data clearly show the operation of ageism in this community and an equating of being old with being sick. The conflict between these two age cohorts suggests that cohort consciousness among Boomers carries elements of age denial, shared by the older old. It also challenges the Third Age concept as a generational phenomenon.

  3. Radiation dose to neonates on a Special Care Baby Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Barry, J.L.; Smalley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The skin entrance dose to neonates on a special care baby unit was estimated from a knowledge of the technique factors, X-ray tube output and backscatter factors. Normalized organ dose data were employed to estimate radiation dose to a number of critical organs. Methods of reducing radiation dose to neonates were investigated. Initially, this involved changing the radiographic technique factors and introducing a lead rubber adjustable collimator, placed on top of the incubator, in addition to light beam diaphragms on the X-ray tube. These modifications to the examination technique appeared to reduce average entrance dose per radiograph from 92 μGy, to 58 μGy, a reduction of 37%. Later, a rare-earth film-screen combination was introduced to replace existing fast calcium tungstate screens. This enabled average entrance dose per radiograph to be reduced to 39 μGy, a further reduction of 33%. The mean radiation dose to a neonate is mainly determined by the number of radiographs. (author)

  4. Radiation dose to neonates on a Special Care Baby Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, K.; Barry, J.L.; Smalley, P.

    1989-03-01

    The skin entrance dose to neonates on a special care baby unit was estimated from a knowledge of the technique factors, X-ray tube output and backscatter factors. Normalized organ dose data were employed to estimate radiation dose to a number of critical organs. Methods of reducing radiation dose to neonates were investigated. Initially, this involved changing the radiographic technique factors and introducing a lead rubber adjustable collimator, placed on top of the incubator, in addition to light beam diaphragms on the X-ray tube. These modifications to the examination technique appeared to reduce average entrance dose per radiograph from 92 ..mu..Gy, to 58 ..mu..Gy, a reduction of 37%. Later, a rare-earth film-screen combination was introduced to replace existing fast calcium tungstate screens. This enabled average entrance dose per radiograph to be reduced to 39 ..mu..Gy, a further reduction of 33%. The mean radiation dose to a neonate is mainly determined by the number of radiographs.

  5. Neonatal cardiovascular system adaptation in babies with intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Petrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the adaptive features of the cardiovascular system in newborn infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR on the basis of a clinical instrumental study.Subjects and methods. A study group included 100 newborn infants with IUGR; a control group consisted of 40 babies with normal anthropometric measurements at birth. Medical history and clinical data and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings were analyzed.Results. All the examinees with IUGR had manifestations of cardiovascular system dysadaptation. There was a high rate of electrocardiographic changes, such as cardiac arrhythmias; low voltage; systolic overload of the right heart and left ventricle; signs of ventricular hypertrophy; and transient myocardial ischemia. The specific features of cardiac hemodynamics were decreased sizes of the left ventricle, lower parameters of its systolic function, and longer functioning of fetal communications.Conclusion. IUGR is associated with the development of cardiovascular system dysadaptation syndrome, which is due to prior perinatal hypoxia. The findings necessitate a follow-up of children by involving a cardiologist.

  6. Natural childbirth ideology is endangering women and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Hans Peter; Exton, Lynda

    2016-10-01

    Natural childbirth ideology has become dominant across much of the developed world. This ideology increasingly clashes with the reality of modern obstetrics, which is dealing with a demographic that is getting older and more obese, hence more complicated, and it has become a danger to the health of women and babies. The most visible expression of these trends is the focus on caesarean section rates which have become a key performance indicator of obstetric services. This trend is resulting in increasingly obvious negative consequences for morbidity and mortality, as chronicled in the Morecambe Bay Report, published in the UK last year. At the same time, there is mounting emphasis on patient autonomy in obstetric decision-making, which mandates informed consent. A 2015 Supreme Court decision in the UK (Montgomery vs Lanarkshire) is likely to impact on obstetric management in Australia and New Zealand. The 'paternalism in a skirt' of natural childbirth ideology is already exposing obstetricians and services to an ever-increasing degree of medicolegal risk. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Effect of intervention on development of hip posture in very preterm babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, J A; Edwards, A D; McCormick, D C; Roth, S C; Stewart, A L

    1991-01-01

    Preterm babies are physiologically hypotonic, which causes their posture to be flattened when lying in the prone position. This flattened posture may persist beyond term. In a prospective, randomised, controlled, double blind trial of postural support carried out on 45 babies born at less than 33 weeks of gestation, we showed that infants positioned with specific hip support during the period of intensive care had significantly fewer features of flattened posture at the age equivalent to term.

  8. From black holes to baby universes: Exploring the possibility of creating a cosmos in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoldi, S.; Merali, Z.; Guendelman, E.I.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the essential features of baby-universe production, starting from a description of black holes and wormholes, in terms of the causal structure of spacetime, and following a qualitative review of the connection between vacuum decay and inflation in early universe cosmology. Related open questions are also addressed, especially in connection with the possibility that baby universes could be formed within our present universe — either in a future particle accelerator, or spontaneously.

  9. Review of foreign reception of Jovan Babić’s works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses foreign reception of Jovan Babić’s works, which turns out to be very much alive and diverse. More precisely, the author limits himself to a short and very partial review of reception of only two Babić’s texts that, so far, attracted the most attention. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007 i br. 179041

  10. Does the gestation age of newborn babies influence the ultrasonic assessment of hip condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Slavica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ultrasound represents a method of examination of hips of newborn babies capable of defining hip condition and distinguishing stable and unstable hips based on morphological elements. It is accepted in a large number of countries as a method of examination of high risk newborns, or as a method of systematic screening. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between ultrasonically estimated hip maturity and respective gestation maturity both in premature and term-born babies, and to investigate the influence of different delivery types on hips condition. Methods. In our study 2045 patients, 1141 males and 904 females, were examined in at the Institute of Neonatology over a period of 5 years. The average age was 34.04 gestation weeks. There were significantly more premature (1698 or 83.03% than term-born babies (347 or 16.97%. Ultrasound hip examination, as a screening method, was carried out according to Graf. It was followed by clinical examination. Results were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (χ2-test, one-way ANOVA, multifactor ANOVA. Results. The overall frequency of unstable hips was 3.2%, 1.88% in males and 4.87% in females (p<0.05. 96.8% babies had stable hips, out of which 35.21% were mature and 61.59% immature. In the study of the breech presentation, out of 183 babies, unstable hips were found in 1.58% of male cases, and in 10.23% of female cases. Conclusion. Clinical screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip is insufficient for early diagnosis and decision about the treatment of premature babies. The high frequency of unstable hip type IIc (risky and IId (decentralized in premature babies requires early diagnosis and therapy. Wide swaddling for prematures should be applied up to eight months of age. Gentle manipulation is necessary while nursing and conducting physiotherapy of a premature baby.

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  12. Train of four fade in a child with stiff baby syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, C

    2012-02-03

    A case is described of a child with stiff baby syndrome who underwent open reduction and femoral shortening of congenital dislocated hip under general anaesthesia. Neuromuscular function was measured electromyographically and demonstrated a great degree of train of four fade (57%) after sevoflurane inhalational induction of anaesthesia. The response to suxamethonium (2 mg x kg(-1)) was normal. The neuromuscular response to volatile anaesthetic agents and suxamethonium may be abnormal in these children with stiff baby syndrome and intraoperative neuromuscular monitoring is recommended.

  13. Generalized smooth muscle hamartoma with multiple congenital anomalies without the "Michelin tire baby" phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Elise C; Nazareth, Michael R; Rothman, Ilene L

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with generalized smooth muscle hamartoma who presented with many of the variety of congenital anomalies that have been reported in babies with multiple symmetric circumferential rings of folded skin known as Michelin tire baby (MTB) syndrome, but our patient did not show the MTB phenotype. This constellation of findings in the absence of the MTB phenotype has not been previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Baby Boomers’ Adoption of Consumer Health Technologies: Survey on Readiness and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Van Slyke, Craig; Seale, Deborah; Wright, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background As they age, baby boomers (born 1946-1964) will have increasing medical needs and are likely to place large demand on health care resources. Consumer health technologies may help stem rising health care needs and costs by improving provider-to-patient communication, health monitoring, and information access and enabling self-care. Research has not explored the degree to which baby boomers are ready for, or are currently embracing, specific consumer health technologies This study ex...

  15. Baby Boomers: are we ready for their impact on health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Pamela R

    2011-09-01

    As the first of the Baby Boomer generation turns 65 this year, there is rising fear that a crisis awaits related to many mental health resources. This article describes the characteristics of Baby Boomers, their future mental health needs, and the extent of the impending insufficiency of mental health resources to meet those needs. Recommendations to address the unprecedented mental health demands of this generation are presented. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The construction of the Baby Boomer generation as a social problem in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis investigates how the ‘Baby Boomer generation’ has become constructed as a social problem in Britain. I begin by outlining the theoretical orientation of the research, which is grounded in Mannheim’s understanding that the problem of generations is to do with the interaction between generational location and wider social forces. The subsequent chapters present the\\ud results of a qualitative media analysis of the Baby Boomer problem, using a sample of Brit...

  17. Assessment of Irritation and Sensitization Potential of Eight Baby Skin Care Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galzote, Carlos; Thomas, Mini; Sachdev, Mukta

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic differences in skin sensitivity suggest that greater emphasis be focused on understanding a product's effect in diverse populations. The irritation and/or sensitization potential of 8 baby skin care products in Indian adults were evaluated using cumulative irritation tests (CIT) and human repeat insult patch testing (HRIPT) protocols. Healthy males or females aged 18 to 65 years of Indian ethnicity were treated with each of 6 products (cream, hair oil, lotion, body wash, shampoo, and baby soap) using CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 200). Baby powder and baby oil were evaluated by CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 107) in separate studies. CITs were conducted over 14 days; HRIPTs were conducted over 10 weeks. In both CIT and HRIPT, most products were considered mild, with no irritation. Baby soap and powder elicited reactions in the HRIPT induction phase, with positive challenge phase reactions (3 subjects), but were affirmed to be nonallergenic in the rechallenge phase. In these studies, 8 baby skin care products were evaluated by both CIT and HRIPT in Indian adults. The results of the studies indicated that all of the tested products were nonallergenic and nonirritating. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1244-1248.

  18. Reading baby books: medicine, marketing, money and the lives of American infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Janet; Weiner, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines American baby books from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. Baby books are ephemeral publications—formatted with one or more printed pages for recording developmental, health, and social information about infants and often including personal observations, artifacts such as photographs or palm prints, medical and other prescriptive advice, and advertisements. For historians they serve as records of the changing social and cultural worlds of infancy, offering insights into the interplay of childrearing practices and larger social movements.Baby books are a significant historical source both challenging and supporting current historiography, and they illustrate how medical, market and cultural forces shaped the ways babies were cared for and in turn how their won behavior shaped family lives. A typology of baby books includes the lavishly illustrated keepsake books of the late nineteenth century, commercial and public health books of the twentieth century, and on-line records of the present day. Themes that emerge over time include those of scientific medicine and infant psychology, religion and consumerism. The article relies on secondary literature and on archival sources including the collections of the UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library as well as privately held baby books.

  19. Baby sleeping bag and conventional bedding conditions--comparative investigations by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauseng, W; Kerbl, R; Thaller, S; Hanzer, M; Zotter, H

    2011-09-01

    Thermal stress is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recently, baby sleeping bags have been recommended as a preventive measure against SIDS. The aim of this study was to describe in which way the use of baby sleeping bags might influence thermoregulation of sleeping infants and maybe the incidence of SIDS. Body surface temperature was recorded by use of infrared thermography in 15 infants (median age 49 days). Recordings were done twice: after sleeping for 60 min under a blanket and after sleeping for 60 min in a baby sleeping bag. Temperature was recorded and compared for defined sites of body surface. Infants' mean body surface temperature as well as core temperature after sleeping in a baby sleeping bag did not show significant differences when compared to infants sleeping under a conventional blanket. Under controlled conditions, core temperature and mean body surface temperature are comparable, equally if using a baby sleeping bag or conventional bedding. However, under the more uncontrolled conditions of baby care at home, sleeping bags might provide a more constant temperature profile, while other bedding conditions may lead to significant variations of temperature pattern. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Rates of Complications After Newborn Circumcision in a Well-Baby Nursery, Special Care Nursery, and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mythili; Hamvas, Corrine; Coplen, Douglas

    2015-10-01

    To determine rates of complications after newborn circumcision by performing a retrospective chart review of patients circumcised at a well-baby nursery, neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and special care nursery (SCN) from 2007 to 2012. A total of 5129 babies (73%) were circumcised at the well-baby nursery and 1909 babies (27%) at the NICU and SCN. Forty-seven patients (0.67%, 95% CI 0.49% to 0.89%) had circumcision-related complications: 5 (0.07%) patients with acute and 42 (0.6%) with late complications. Babies in the NICU/SCN had increased odds of complication (OR 4.00, 95% CI 2.23 to 7.19) compared with those in well-baby nursery. There were increased odds of complications in babies with Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.89) compared with African American babies and in babies with private insurance (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 7.5) compared with nonprivate insurance. The rates of complications after newborn circumcisions were low. Babies in the NICU/SCN had increased odds of complication. © The Author(s) 2015.