WorldWideScience

Sample records for transparent alphabetic languages

  1. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rebwar Mala Nabi; Sardasht M-Raouf Mahmood; Mohammed Qadir Kheder; Shadman Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP) for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish langua...

  2. ALPHABETS OF THE MODERN SLAVIC LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIDWELL, CHARLES E.

    THE TABLES AND ACCOMPANYING EXPLANATIONS IN THIS OUTLINE ARE INTENDED FOR THE NON-SPECIALIST IN SLAVIC LANGUAGES WHO WISHES TO LEARN THE APPROXIMATE PRONUNCIATION AND TRANSLITERATION OF WORDS WRITTEN IN THE SLAVIC ALPHABET. EACH ALPHABET TREATED (CZECH, RUSSIAN, UKRAINIAN, BIELORUSSIAN, BULGARIAN, SLOVENIAN, SERBO-CROATIAN, POLISH, CHURCH SLAVIC,…

  3. Orthographic Transparency Modulates the Functional Asymmetry in the Fusiform Cortex: An Artificial Language Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Zhang, Mingxia; Xue, Feng; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained…

  4. Kichwa or Quichua? Competing Alphabets, Political Histories, and Complicated Reading in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limerick, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Over the past century, missionary educators, nation-state and academic planners, and literacy development workers have used alphabets for political ends for traditionally marginalized languages, and Native peoples have contested such planning with other alphabet proposals. Yet literacy work now often overlooks that there are multiple alphabets…

  5. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Rousan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  6. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  7. Transparency in Norwegian and Icelandic : Language contact vs. language isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.

    This research studies language contact as a possible cause of differences between languages in their degree of transparency. As transparency is assumed to facilitate intelligibility and learnability, especially for adult L2 learners, it is hypothesized that in particular contact settings with many

  8. The Effects of Shona Language Change on Monolingual Lexicography: The Need for a Revised Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Zivenge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: In this article, the phenomenon of Shona language change, its effects on lexicography and the need for a revised alphabet are discussed. Because of the defective Shona alphabet, lexicographers at the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI encountered problems in handling some words that were potential headwords in dictionaries they were compiling under the ALLEX project. The current Shona alphabet is unable to realize quite a number of sounds and morphemes in lexical items in everyday use by the native Shona speakers, because they are alien loanwords. The article was prompted by the challenges encountered during the compilation of Duramazwi reMimhanzi (Shona Musical Terms Dictionary. It shows how language change accounts for the problem of headword selection and how modifying the current alphabet can enhance monolingual Shona lexicographical work vis-à-vis the development of the Shona language. It therefore stresses the need for a revised alphabet so as to solve orthographical problems during dictionary compilation.

    PFUPISO YECHINYORWA: Matambudziko Anosanganwa Nawo Mukugadzira Maduramazwi eMutauro Mumwe chete neKuda Kwekushanduka Kwemutauro weChiShona: Panofanirwa Kuva neManyorerwo eChiShona Matsva. Muchinyorwa chino vanyori vanoongorora kushanduka kuri kuita mutauro weChiShona nekufamba kuri kuita nguva nematambudziko anosanganikwa nawo nekuda kweshanduko iyi zvikurusei mukugadzira maduramazwi ari mururimi rweChiShona chete. Vanyori vanoonesawo pfungwa yekuti panodiwa manyorerwo matsva. Nyanzvi dzinogadzira maduramazwi paAfrican Languages Research Institute (ALRI dzinosangana namadambudziko esarudzo yamazwi padzinenge dzichisarudza mazwi adzinenge dzichida kuisa mumaduramazwi adzinogadzira pachirongwa chokugadzira maduramazwi chinonzi ALLEX. Dambudziko resarudzo yemazwi rinowanikwa nekuda kwechimiro chebumbiro remanyorerwo eChiShona risingatenderi mamwe mavara ari mune imwe mitauro asiri muChiShona. Bumbiro iri

  9. American Sign Language Alphabet Recognition Using a Neuromorphic Sensor and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rivera-Acosta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and analysis of an American Sign Language (ASL alphabet translation system implemented in hardware using a Field-Programmable Gate Array. The system process consists of three stages, the first being the communication with the neuromorphic camera (also called Dynamic Vision Sensor, DVS sensor using the Universal Serial Bus protocol. The feature extraction of the events generated by the DVS is the second part of the process, consisting of a presentation of the digital image processing algorithms developed in software, which aim to reduce redundant information and prepare the data for the third stage. The last stage of the system process is the classification of the ASL alphabet, achieved with a single artificial neural network implemented in digital hardware for higher speed. The overall result is the development of a classification system using the ASL signs contour, fully implemented in a reconfigurable device. The experimental results consist of a comparative analysis of the recognition rate among the alphabet signs using the neuromorphic camera in order to prove the proper operation of the digital image processing algorithms. In the experiments performed with 720 samples of 24 signs, a recognition accuracy of 79.58% was obtained.

  10. ALPHABET SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING LEAP MOTION TECHNOLOGY AND RULE BASED BACKPROPAGATION-GENETIC ALGORITHM NEURAL NETWORK (RBBPGANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayanti Nurul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language recognition was used to help people with normal hearing communicate effectively with the deaf and hearing-impaired. Based on survey that conducted by Multi-Center Study in Southeast Asia, Indonesia was on the top four position in number of patients with hearing disability (4.6%. Therefore, the existence of Sign Language recognition is important. Some research has been conducted on this field. Many neural network types had been used for recognizing many kinds of sign languages. However, their performance are need to be improved. This work focuses on the ASL (Alphabet Sign Language in SIBI (Sign System of Indonesian Language which uses one hand and 26 gestures. Here, thirty four features were extracted by using Leap Motion. Further, a new method, Rule Based-Backpropagation Genetic Al-gorithm Neural Network (RB-BPGANN, was used to recognize these Sign Languages. This method is combination of Rule and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPGANN. Based on experiment this pro-posed application can recognize Sign Language up to 93.8% accuracy. It was very good to recognize large multiclass instance and can be solution of overfitting problem in Neural Network algorithm.

  11. The Influence of Orthography on the Production of Alphabetic, Second-Language Allophones by Speakers of a Non-alphabetic Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Im; Kim, Joo-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of orthographic information on the production of allophones in a second language (L2). Two proficiency levels of native Mandarin speakers learned novel Korean words with potential variants of /h/ based on auditory stimuli, and then they were provided various types of spellings for the variants, including the letters for [[Formula: see text

  12. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  13. Alphabet everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    There is a world of letters just waiting to be discovered in the world around us -- if we know how to look for it. In this engaging and delightful book, photographer Elliott Kaufman reveals the "secret" life of the alphabet through his photographs, showing how letters can be found in things we encounter everyday. Each letter of the alphabet is represented by multiple images, each unintentionally created by the intersection of architectural details, shadows, light, or natural elements as caught by Kaufman's keen eye. Some are obvious, while others demand a little more imagination to recognize, inviting the readers to start their own game of hunting for letters! This fun approach also reinforces the notion that learning to see the familiar in new ways encourages visual literacy and creativity.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Contracted versus Alphabetical English Braille and Attitudes of English as a Foreign Language Learners: A Case Study of a Farsi-Speaking Visually Impaired Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, Mohsen; Nazarloo, Saber Atash; Toosheh, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    In the educational system of Iran, in which English is a foreign language, the duration of primary school is six years. After that, these English as a foreign language students enter high school and start to learn English during an additional six-year period. In years seven and eight, English textbooks are embossed in alphabetic English braille;…

  15. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information...

  16. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Albu, Oana Brindusa

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent research topic in many scholarly disciplines and offers valuable insights for organizational communication. This entry provides an overview of the historical background and identifies some themes that presently inform the transparency literature. The entry...... then outlines the most important dimensions of the concept of transparency by highlighting two paradigmatic positions underpinning contemporary research in this area: namely, informational approaches that focus on the sharing of information and the perceived quality of that information and social process...... orientations that explore the dynamics of transparency in organizational settings. The entry highlights emergent methodological and conceptual insights concerning transparency as a dynamic and paradoxical social process with performative characteristics – an approach that remains underexplored....

  17. Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Mason, M.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency, as information disclosure, is becoming a widely accepted norm and set of practices in global climate governance. Disclosure of climate-related information is mainly seen as a way to monitor and/or reward various actors’ climate mitigation actions, thereby contributing, at least in

  18. Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  19. Fuzzy Markup language : a new solution for transparent intelligent agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2011-01-01

    From an industrial and technological point of view, fuzzy control theory deals with the development of a particular system controller on a specific hardware by means of an open or legacy programming language that is useful to address, in a high-level fashion, the hardware constraints. Independently

  20. Spelling Errors of Dyslexic Children in Bosnian Language with Transparent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranovic, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of spelling errors made by children with dyslexia in Bosnian language with transparent orthography. Three main error categories were distinguished: phonological, orthographic, and grammatical errors. An analysis of error type showed 86% of phonological errors, 10% of orthographic errors, and 4%…

  1. The Effects of Orthographic Depth on Learning to Read Alphabetic, Syllabic, and Logographic Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.; Natsume, Miwa; Stavropoulou, Katerina; Hoxhallari, Lorenc; Van Daal, Victor H.P.; Polyzoe, Nicoletta; Tsipa, Maria-Louisa; Petalas, Michalis

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of orthographic depth on reading acquisition in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Children between 6 and 15 years old read aloud in transparent syllabic Japanese hiragana, alphabets of increasing orthographic depth (Albanian, Greek, English), and orthographically opaque Japanese kanji ideograms,…

  2. Anglocentrism in reading acquisition models? A study in a language with transparent orthography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Diuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to check Share’s (2008 thesis about conventional reading acquisition models in a group of Argentinean children. This author proposes that reading models developed for English need to be reviewed when children are learning to read in a language with transparent orthography. Share questions the idea of learning proceeds in stages, the importance given to reading accuracy over speed and the relevance of phonological processing. A group of 52 children from low-income families were tested on letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid naming and reading of frequent words at the beginning and the middle of first grade. Additionally, children’s word and pseudo-word reading skills were tested at the end of first and second grade. Results showed that most children never resorted to non-phonological strategies as it is usually done by their equals in English. By the end of second grade the group had reached a high level of accuracy in reading, but important differences were found in reading speed. These results support Share’s (2008 proposal since reading acquisition did not develop in a series of stages but could be described as a continuous process in which children gradually increase their phonological recoding abilities and achieve accuracy early on. Therefore individual differences in reading speed become a critical aspect of reading.

  3. Acquired Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography: An Analysis of Acquired Disorders of Reading in the Slovak Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Hricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first reports of phonological, surface and deep dyslexia come from orthographies containing quasi-regular mappings between orthography and phonology including English and French. Slovakian is a language with a relatively transparent orthography and hence a mostly regular script. The aim of this study was to investigate impaired oral reading in Slovakian. A novel diagnostic procedure was devised to determine whether disorders of Slovakian reading resemble characteristics in other languages. Slovakian speaking aphasics showed symptoms similar to phonological dyslexia and deep dyslexia in English and French, but there was no evidence of surface dyslexia. The findings are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis.

  4. Alphabetical: How Every Letter Tells a Story

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    From minding your Ps and Qs to wondering why X should mark the spot, Alphabetical is a book for everyone who loves words and language. Whether it's how letters are arranged on keyboards or Viking runes, textspeak or zip codes, this book will change the way you think about letters for ever. How on Earth did we fix upon our twenty-six letters, what do they really mean, and how did we come to write them down in the first place? Michael Rosen takes you on an unforgettable adventure through the hi...

  5. The Coral Reef Alphabet Book for American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Larry G.

    This book, produced for the American Samoa Department of Education Marine Enhancement Program, presents underwater color photography of coral reef life in an alphabetical resource. The specimens are described in English, and some are translated into the Samoan language. A picture-matching learning exercise and a glossary of scientific and oceanic…

  6. How to "Save Your Skin" When Processing L2 Idioms: An Eye Movement Analysis of Idiom Transparency and Cross-Language Similarity among Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslicka, Anna B.; Heredia, Roberto R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study looks at whether bilinguals varying in language dominance show a processing advantage for idiomatic over non-idiomatic phrases and to what extent this effect is modulated by idiom transparency (i.e., the degree to which the idiom's figurative meaning can be inferred from its literal analysis) and cross-language similarity (i.e.,…

  7. How to Save You Skin When Processing L2 Idioms: An Eye Movement Analysis of Idiom Transparency and Cross-language Similarity among Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cieślicka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study looks at whether bilinguals varying in language dominance show a processing advantage for idiomatic over non-idiomatic phrases and to what extent this effect is modulated by idiom transparency (i.e., the degree to which the idiom’s figurative meaning can be inferred from its literal analysis and cross-language similarity (i.e., the extent to which an idiom has an identical translation equivalent in another language. An eye tracking experiment was conducted in which Spanish-English bilinguals were presented with literally plausible (i.e., idioms that can be interpreted both figuratively and literally transparent (e.g., break the ice, where the figurative meaning can be deduced from analyzing the idiom literally and opaque idioms (e.g., hit the sack, where the meaning cannot be inferred from idiom constituents. Idioms varied along the dimension of cross-language similarity, with half the idioms having word for word translation equivalents in English and Spanish and another half being different, that is, having no similar counterpart in another language. Each idiom was used either in its literal (e.g., get cold feet: become coldor figurative meaning (e.g., get cold feet: become afraid. In control phrases the last word of the idiom was replaced by a carefully matched control (e.g., get cold hands. Reading measures (fixation count, first pass/gaze reading time and total reading time revealed that cross-language similarity interacts in an important way with idiom transparency, such that opaque idioms were more difficult to process than transparent ones, and different transparent idioms took faster to process than similar transparent idioms. Results are discussed with regard to the holistic vs. compositional views of idiom storage and the role of activated L1 (first language knowledge in the course of L2 (second language figurative processing.

  8. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  9. The Alphabet of the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    One of the most culturally inspiring – yet unexpected – venues where you can find an exhibition about CERN and particle physics these days is the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt. Discover The Alphabet of the Universe: from CERN to North Africa and the Middle East in the cradle of knowledge par excellence.   The Alphabet of the Universe exhibition in Alexandria. (Image credit: Bibliotheca Alexandrina) With its 400 square metres surface area, about 40 exhibits and more than 50 people involved, The Alphabet of the Universe exhibition was inaugurated on 19 January in the Planetarium Science Centre (PSC), one of the main attractions of the New Library of Alexandria. “The exhibition has been designed to cover four main themes related to particle physics and CERN: what we know; open issues; accelerators and detectors; computing and applications,” explains Barbara Gallavotti, curator of the exhibition. “The exhibits were designed b...

  10. Theoretical explanations for preschoolers' lowercase alphabet knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence Turnbull, Khara L; Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Wiggins, Alice K

    2010-12-01

    Letter knowledge is a key aspect of children's language development, yet relatively little research has aimed to understand the nature of lowercase letter knowledge. We considered 4 hypotheses about children's lowercase letter knowledge simultaneously--uppercase familiarity, uppercase-lowercase similarity, own-name advantage, and frequency in printed English--as well as 3 interactions. Participants were 461 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years, all of whom attended public preschool programs serving primarily children from low-income homes, who completed a letter naming task. Uppercase familiarity was the strongest predictor of children's lowercase alphabet knowledge; children were more than 16 times more likely to know a lowercase letter if they knew the corresponding uppercase letter. Uppercase-lowercase similarity and frequency in printed English also predicted children's lowercase letter knowledge, as did the interaction between uppercase familiarity and own-name advantage and the interaction between uppercase familiarity and uppercase-lowercase similarity. Findings suggest that transference from uppercase letter knowledge may be a primary mechanism for lowercase letter knowledge and that young children's knowledge of the lowercase alphabet letters is multiply determined.

  11. Admission to selective schools, alphabetically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2010), s. 1100-1109 ISSN 0272-7757 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : admissions to school * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2010

  12. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  13. List context effects in languages with opaque and transparent orthographies: A challenge for models of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eTraficante

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of data which show that reading is a flexible and dynamic process and that readers can exert strategic control over it. Two main hypotheses on the control of reading processes have been suggested: the route de-emphasis hypothesis and the time-criterion hypothesis. According to the former, the presence of irregular words in the list might lead to an attenuation of the non-lexical process, while the presence of non-words could trigger a de-emphasis of the lexical route. An alternative account is proposed by the time-criterion hypothesis whereby the reader sets a flexible deadline to initiate the response. According to the latter view, it is the average pronunciation difficulty of the items in the block that modulates the time-criterion for response. However, it is worth noting that the list composition has been shown to exert different effects in transparent compared to opaque orthographies, as the consistency of spelling-sound correspondences can influence the processing costs of the non-lexical pathway. In transparent orthographies, the non-lexical route is not resource demanding and can successfully contribute to the pronunciation of regular words, thus its de-emphasis could not be as useful/necessary as in opaque orthographies. The complex patterns of results from the literature on list context effects are a challenge for computational models of reading which face the problem of simulating strategic control over reading processes. Different proposals suggest a modification of parameter setting in the non-lexical route or the implementation of a new module aimed at focusing attention on the output of the more convenient pathway. Simulation data and an assessment of the models’ fit to the behavioral results are presented and discussed to shed light on the role of the cognitive system when reading aloud.

  14. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  15. Alphabetic Phonics: An organization and expansion of orton-gillingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A R

    1985-01-01

    Alphabetic Phonics is a sequential language curriculum designed to assure that all students can achieve literacy. This curriculum is a 1980's organization and extension of the Orton-Gillingham-Childs multisensory teaching of the structure of English. Alphabetic Phonics allows 95 percent of the auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners in a regular classroom to master written English. The curriculum includes modern behavioral, psychological, and educational theories and practice. Developed initially as remediation for dyslexics, Alphabetic Phonics is succeeding both with small groups of severely blocked dyslexics and as prevention in regular classrooms in the primary grades. Administrators, classroom teachers, clinicians, remedial, and resource room specialists, as well as speech and language therapists representing small and large schools (public and private; remedial and accelerated) have traveled to Texas from forty states and six foreign countries during the past ten years to earn graduate credit in one or more of the four month-long Introductory Courses held each year. Teachers report that cultural minority students and those learning English as a second language benefit especially from reading instruction which emphasizes the foundations of English and time-on-task activities to effect mastery. Outreach programs and multimedia tools are being developed and implemented to broaden the programs availability to groups with varied needs.

  16. Spelling across Tasks and Levels of Language in a Transparent Orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana

    The paper reports the results of two studies on the spelling performance of 1st graders in a transparent writing system. The spelling performance of Italian children was assessed to determine the cross-task relationship between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling at the single word level (Study 1) and at the text level (Study 2), respectively. In study 1, 132 Italian children's spelling performance was assessed in 1st grade through two standardized tasks, i.e., word dictation, and spontaneous word spelling. In study 2, spelling performance of 81 Italian children was assessed in 1st grade through two tasks, i.e., text dictation, and spontaneous text spelling. In Study 1, spelling words and pseudo-words to dictation was found to be more difficult than spontaneous spelling of words. This effect was verified for all children (including low achievers and spelling impaired). The moderate correlation found between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling indicated that the two tasks are supported by partially different spelling processes and confirmed suggestions for including both types of spelling assessments in the school. In Study 2, children's spelling performances were not dependent across the two tasks (i.e., spelling a text under dictation or spontaneously). The two tasks shared the level of difficulty but performance in one task was not predictive of performance in the second task. Strong individual differences between children were found at the text level as a function of task. Similar to Study 1, the moderate correlation between spelling text to dictation and spontaneous spelling confirmed the usefulness of adopting both spelling assessments at school.

  17. Spelling across Tasks and Levels of Language in a Transparent Orthography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bigozzi

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of two studies on the spelling performance of 1st graders in a transparent writing system. The spelling performance of Italian children was assessed to determine the cross-task relationship between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling at the single word level (Study 1 and at the text level (Study 2, respectively. In study 1, 132 Italian children's spelling performance was assessed in 1st grade through two standardized tasks, i.e., word dictation, and spontaneous word spelling. In study 2, spelling performance of 81 Italian children was assessed in 1st grade through two tasks, i.e., text dictation, and spontaneous text spelling. In Study 1, spelling words and pseudo-words to dictation was found to be more difficult than spontaneous spelling of words. This effect was verified for all children (including low achievers and spelling impaired. The moderate correlation found between spelling to dictation and spontaneous spelling indicated that the two tasks are supported by partially different spelling processes and confirmed suggestions for including both types of spelling assessments in the school. In Study 2, children's spelling performances were not dependent across the two tasks (i.e., spelling a text under dictation or spontaneously. The two tasks shared the level of difficulty but performance in one task was not predictive of performance in the second task. Strong individual differences between children were found at the text level as a function of task. Similar to Study 1, the moderate correlation between spelling text to dictation and spontaneous spelling confirmed the usefulness of adopting both spelling assessments at school.

  18. The protection of the Cyrillic alphabet in telecommunications: Taxation aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilović Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Cyrillic and other specific alphabets is discouraged in some telecommunication services. In this paper; the author focuses on unequal treatment of the Cyrillic alphabet in telecommunications (in SMS messages, which is incompatible with the interests of a multilingual society to cherish its linguistic heritage and diversity. Referring to the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression (2005, the author suggests introducing measures which would lead to removing the discriminatory pricing of Cyrillic SMS messages; and introducing tax measures which would support mobile network operators and prevent possible market inequalities stemming from introducing these measures. The suggested solution is applicable to any multicultural society facing the same problem; regardless of languages in question.

  19. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index... SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A Antenna... Changes in equipment 78.109 Conditions for license 78.27 Coordination, frequencies 78.36 Cross reference...

  20. Decoding the Assessment Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The number of assessment instruments that help physics instructors evaluate the conceptual learning of their students has grown over the last twenty years. Today, the number of tests that are available begin to look like an alphabet soup, FCI, MBT, TUG-K, CSE, CSM, CSEM, DIRECT, BEMA, LOCE, FMCE, SEMCO, etc. What can these assessment tests do for you that is different from what you regularly do? How do these tests differ from the tests and other assessments you already give in class? What is meant by formative and summative assessment and why should you care? What are some of the issues associated with giving one of these assessment tests? These are the questions that will be addressed in this talk.

  1. Logic-Symbolic and Alphabetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dair Aily Franco de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to recoup the ideas and the proposal of H. Furth (1973, pointing it as another option to try to work with the children’s difficulties in the alphabetization process. The author considers the substitution of “schools of the language” for “schools of the thought”, that is, to substitute the option of the teacher in the reading-writing education, in its traditional form, of how to transform graphical signals into sonorous and vice-versa, for that one of the thought consolidation, feeding the intellect in development of the child by exercises of “symbolic logic”. For theoretical basing, we still present some aspects of the psychogenetic theory, as well as other works carried through more recently on the subject, that even so “transvestite” (disguised with new clothing, still find their beddings in the J. Piaget’s basis.

  2. dNTPs :  the alphabet of life

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    From microscopic bacteria to the giant whale, every single living organism on Earth uses the same language of life: DNA. Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates––dNTPs (dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP)––are the building blocks of DNA and are therefore the “alphabet of life”. A balanced supply of dNTPs is essential for integral DNA transactions such as faithful genome duplication and repair. The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) not only synthesizes all four dNTPs but also primarily maintains the cru...

  3. Alphabetical order effects in school admissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 483-498 ISSN 0267-1522 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : admissions * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2016

  4. A multifractal formalism for countable alphabet subshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meson, Alejandro; Vericat, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We study here the multifractal spectrum of local entropies for subshifts with an infinite alphabet. The description of this spectrum is obtained from the Legendre transform of a free energy map and Gibbs states associated with adequate potentials. The lack of compactness in the symbolic space necessitates modifications to the description for the compact case, i.e. for finite alphabet. In particular, the class of potentials must be restricted to a narrower one than that considered for the compact case

  5. Promoting Alphabet Knowledge Using Peer-Mediated Intervention: A Dynamic Duo for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen I.; Kinley, Hannah L.; Cook, Angela

    2017-01-01

    One of early childhood teachers' first questions of parents with regard to school readiness is whether the child knows the ABCs (Hyson & Tomlinson, 2014). Crucial pre-reading and writing skills, such as oral language, phonological awareness, print awareness, and alphabet letter recognition, are important to children's cognitive development…

  6. Alphabetical order effects in school admissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 483-498 ISSN 0267-1522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : admissions * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2016

  7. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T ... and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna. ... Les principaux thèmes qui y sont abordés recouvrent les axes de recherche ...

  8. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  9. Viewing speech in action: speech articulation videos in the public domain that demonstrate the sounds of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, S.; Beavan, D.; Lawson, E.; Leplâtre, G.; Scobbie, J. M.; Stuart-Smith, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce recently released, publicly available resources, which allow users to watch videos of hidden articulators (e.g. the tongue) during the production of various types of sounds found in the world’s languages. The articulation videos on these resources are linked to a clickable International Phonetic Alphabet chart ([International Phonetic Association. 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. ...

  10. Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    with the sharing of information and the perceived quality of the information shared. This narrow focus on information and quality, however, overlooks the dynamics of organizational transparency. To provide a more structured conceptualization of organizational transparency, this article unpacks the assumptions......Transparency is an increasingly prominent area of research that offers valuable insights for organizational studies. However, conceptualizations of transparency are rarely subject to critical scrutiny and thus their relevance remains unclear. In most accounts, transparency is associated...... that shape the extant literature, with a focus on three dimensions: conceptualizations, conditions, and consequences. The contribution of the study is twofold: (a) On a conceptual level, we provide a framework that articulates two paradigmatic positions underpinning discussions of transparency, verifiability...

  11. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  12. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  13. Universal brain signature of proficient reading: Evidence from four contrasting languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckl, Jay G; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Molfese, Peter J; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Bick, Atira; Frost, Stephen J; Hancock, Roeland; Wu, Denise H; Mencl, William Einar; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Lee, Jun-Ren; Oliver, Myriam; Zevin, Jason D; Hoeft, Fumiko; Carreiras, Manuel; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-15

    We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words. Results from three complementary analytic approaches demonstrate limited language variation, with speech-print convergence emerging as a common brain signature of reading proficiency across the wide spectrum of selected languages, whether their writing system is alphabetic or logographic, whether it is opaque or transparent, and regardless of the phonological and morphological structure it represents.

  14. Nurturing Phonemic Awareness and Alphabetic Knowledge in Pre-Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Patricia L.

    Reading research continues to identify phonemic awareness and knowledge of the alphabetic principle as key factors in the literacy acquisition process and to indicate that they greatly facilitate decoding efforts. While research indicates that phonemic awareness and alphabetic knowledge are necessary to literacy acquisition, many early childhood…

  15. On alphabetic presentations of Clifford algebras and their possible applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toppan, F.; Verbeek, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constructing a class of representations of Clifford algebras that can be named “alphabetic (re)presentations.” The Clifford algebra generators are expressed as m-letter words written with a three-character or a four-character alphabet. We formulate the

  16. Cyrillic alphabet as the designation of national identity among students of University of Priština with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miketić Sanja D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between culture and nationality and in that sense - national identity of a particular community - is a known thing for a long time. Nationality is usually strongly connected to culture. We will only mention few of their joint characteristics: language, religion, art, customs, tradition etc. In this article special attention will be paid to one of the features of national identity - language - and we will focus on the usage of Cyrillic alphabet of our target group (students of University of Priština, with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica. The study consists of two smaller researches. In the first part we explored reactions of students at University of Priština and we assumed that they will have different reactions towards Cyrillic alphabet and Latin alphabet used as stimuli-words comparing to pupils of Belgrade and Zrenjanin high schools and students of University of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš presented in The associative dictionary of Serbian language (Asocjativni rečnik srpskog jezika, 2005. In the second part we tried to find out if our informants prefer the usage of Cyrillic or Latin alphabet, and which one they find better in the esthetic sense. We compared attitudes of students who enroll University of Priština to attitudes of students who enroll University of Belgrade and differences between their attitudes. With both researches we wanted to see if there are formed verbal stereotypes with positive or negative connotation, and what are the attitudes on using Cyrillic alphabet among students in the age of expansion of Latin alphabet. We concluded that Cyrillic alphabet is more used and valued at University of Priština than in the rest of Republic of Serbia and the reason for that might be the stronger sense of national identity among these students.

  17. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families.

  18. A Chemical Alphabet for Macromolecular Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; McGuiness, Daniel Tunç; Marshall, Alan; Smith, Jeremy; Taylor, Stephen

    2018-06-08

    Molecular communications in macroscale environments is an emerging field of study driven by the intriguing prospect of sending coded information over olfactory networks. For the first time, this article reports two signal modulation techniques (on-off keying-OOK, and concentration shift keying-CSK) which have been used to encode and transmit digital information using odors over distances of 1-4 m. Molecular transmission of digital data was experimentally investigated for the letter "r" with a binary value of 01110010 (ASCII) for a gas stream network channel (up to 4 m) using mass spectrometry (MS) as the main detection-decoding system. The generation and modulation of the chemical signals was achieved using an automated odor emitter (OE) which is based on the controlled evaporation of a chemical analyte and its diffusion into a carrier gas stream. The chemical signals produced propagate within a confined channel to reach the demodulator-MS. Experiments were undertaken for a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with different diffusion coefficient values in air at ambient conditions. Representative compounds investigated include acetone, cyclopentane, and n-hexane. For the first time, the binary code ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is combined with chemical signaling to generate a molecular representation of the English alphabet. Transmission experiments of fixed-width molecular signals corresponding to letters of the alphabet over varying distances are shown. A binary message corresponding to the word "ion" was synthesized using chemical signals and transmitted within a physical channel over a distance of 2 m.

  19. New Languages and New Alphabetizations – Prime Subjects for Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Eugenia Aguilar González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some educational policies, pedagogical practices, and the curricular development of primary education in Mexico from the disciplines of Communication/Education. The purpose is to understand that the inclusion of the use of technologies and media literacy in the national curriculum cannot be carried out without diagnoses and prior discussions. These reforms do not guarantee the development of the necessary level of competence needed by the men and women of the 21st century. For these educational reforms to be successful, they should be considered the content of the new curriculum and to eliminate the old educational practices. These reforms must address the present conditions of the country in accordance with an extensive social dialog and a wide social perspective. One can use examples such as the case of Enciclomedia; of the national curriculum evaluation named Enlace; and some contents of the Spanish program to contrast contradictions and successes of the educational policies in the development of democracy in Mexico

  20. Modes of Alphabet Letter Production during Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Interrelationships with Each Other and Other Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Alstad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although handwriting is typically taught during early childhood and keyboarding may not be taught explicitly, both may be relevant to writing development in the later grades. Thus, Study 1 investigated automatic production of the ordered alphabet from memory for manuscript (unjoined, cursive (joined, keyboard letter modes (alphabet 15 sec, their relationships with each other, and spelling and composing in typically developing writers in grades 4 to 7 (n =113. Study 2 compared students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=27, dyslexia (impaired word spelling, n=40, or oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD (impaired syntax composing, n=11 or controls without specific writing disabilities (n=10 in grades 4 to 9 (n=88 on the same alphabet 15 modes, manner of copying, spelling, and sentence composing. In Study 1, sequential multilevel model regressions of predictor alphabet 15 letter production/selection modes on spelling and composition outcomes, measured annually from grade 4 to grade 7 (ages 9 to 13 years, showed that only the cursive mode uniquely, positively, and consistently predicted both spelling and composing in each grade. For composing, in grade 4 manuscript mode was positively predictive and in grades 5-7 keyboard selection was. In Study 2 all letter production modes correlated with each other and one’s best and fast sentence copying, spelling, and timed sentence composing. The groups with specific writing disabilities differed from control group on alphabet 15 manuscript mode, copy fast, and timed sentence composing. The dysgraphia and dyslexia groups differed on copying sentences in one’s best handwriting, with the dysgraphia group scoring lower. The educational and theoretical significance of the findings are discussed for multiple modes and manners of letter production/selection of the alphabet that support spelling and composing beyond the early grades in students with and without specific writing

  1. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  2. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Using language as a transparent resource in the teaching and learning of mathematics in a Grade 11 multilingual classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokgethi Setati

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw on a study conducted in Grade 11 classrooms to explore how the learners’ home languages can be used for teaching and learning mathematics in multilingual classrooms in South Africa. This report is part of a wider study that is still in progress. Based on an analysis of data collected through lesson observations in a Grade 11 class and learner interviews we argue for the deliberate, proactive and strategic use of the learners’ home languages as a transparent resource in the teaching and learning of mathematics in multilingual classrooms. Such use of the languages will ensure that learners gain access to mathematical knowledge without losing access to English, which many parents, teachers and learners presently see as a necessary condition for gaining access to social goods such as higher education and employment.

  4. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  5. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  6. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  7. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  8. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    , the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Universal Partial Words over Non-Binary Alphabets

    OpenAIRE

    Goeckner, Bennet; Groothuis, Corbin; Hettle, Cyrus; Kell, Brian; Kirkpatrick, Pamela; Kirsch, Rachel; Solava, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Chen, Kitaev, M\\"{u}tze, and Sun recently introduced the notion of universal partial words, a generalization of universal words and de Bruijn sequences. Universal partial words allow for a wild-card character $\\diamond$, which is a placeholder for any letter in the alphabet. We settle and strengthen conjectures posed in the same paper where this notion was introduced. For non-binary alphabets, we show that universal partial words have periodic $\\diamond$ structure and are cyclic, and we give ...

  10. From the Alphabet to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevisa La Rocca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues of social and cultural construction of the concepts of time, space, and thought. This analysis is matched by a parallel between the physics and those of communication. To be used as a reference is the shift from the Newtonian conception of time and space to the one proposed by Einstein. In fact, the concepts of space and time outlined in Newtonian physics well befits to what is the cultural and experiential that outlines M. McLuhan in his description of the aural and visual culture—an examination that, starting from the introduction of the alphabet, takes us to Gutenberg and the electric media. The revolution introduced by Einstein seems similar to the one that goes to the concepts of time, space, and thought with the advent of the Net. This article includes a review of the literature on the subject, through the lesson of Meyrowitz, McLuhan, Innis, Castells, Appadurai, Manovich, Berners-Lee to get to Carr. Facing this path is referred to as the birth of the hypertext moment of transition from linear thinking to the reticular.

  11. Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle through Invented Spelling among Hearing-Impaired Children Learning to Read and Write: Experimentation with a Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Pauline; Boisclair, Andree; Giasson, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Given the problems experienced by hearing-impaired individuals in learning the written language, a pedagogical approach was tested. The study examined the links between the development of representations of alphabetic system and the results in reading and writing of first graders. In the study, there were 31 hearing-impaired children and 25…

  12. Neuron recycling for learning the alphabetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar-Cabral, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss an approach to the phonic method of learning-teaching early literacy development, namely that the visual neurons must be recycled to recognize the small differences among pertinent letter features. In addition to the challenge of segmenting the speech chain and the syllable for learning the alphabetic principles, neuroscience has demonstrated another major challenge: neurons in mammals are programmed to process visual signals symmetrically. In order to develop early literacy, visual neurons must be recycled to overcome this initial programming together with phonological awareness, expanding it with the ability to delimit words, including clitics, as well as assigning stress to words. To achieve this goal, Scliar's Early Literacy Development System was proposed and tested. Sixteen subjects (10 girls and 6 boys) comprised the experimental group (mean age 6.02 years), and 16 subjects (7 girls and 9 boys) formed the control group (mean age 6.10 years). The research instruments were a psychosociolinguistic questionnaire to reveal the subjects' profile and a post-test battery of tests. At the beginning of the experiment, the experimental group was submitted to an intervention program based on Scliar's Early Literacy Development System. One of the tests is discussed in this paper, the grapheme-phoneme test: subjects had to read aloud a pseudoword with 4 graphemes, signaled by the experimenter and designed to assess the subject's ability to convert a grapheme into its correspondent phoneme. The average value for the test group was 25.0 correct answers (SD = 11.4); the control group had an average of 14.3 correct answers (SD = 10.6): The difference was significant. The experimental results validate Scliar's Early Literacy Development System and indicate the need to redesign early literacy development methods. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter K

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KCA Journal of Business Management ... In addition, the journal publishes invited research reviews and reports of ... Kiswahili is an interdisciplinary international journal devoted to the study of Kiswahili language, linguistics and literature.

  14. FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILMS IN LOUISIANA DEPOSITORIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BABINEAUX, AUDREY

    THIS MANUAL IS AN ANNOTATED LIST OF 16-MILLIMETER EDUCATIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILMS (BOTH LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL) WHICH WERE PURCHASED WITH STATE AND FEDERAL FUNDS AND PLACED IN LOUISIANA'S NINE FILM LIBRARIES. FILMS ARE ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY LANGUAGES. FILMS IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE ARE LISTED SEPARATELY FROM FILMS WITH ENGLISH NARRATION. A…

  15. Dyslexia subtypes in languages differing in orthographic transparency:English, French and Spanish / Subtipos de dislexia en lenguas que difieren en la transparencia ortográfica: inglés, francés y español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Sprenger-Charolles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of dissociated profiles in developmental dyslexia (the phonological profile with a selective deficit of the phonological reading route, and the surface profile with a selective deficit of the lexical reading route versus mixed profiles (with both deficits remains a major theoretical and clinical issue, along with the prevalence of these profiles and the variation in that prevalence across languages with different degrees of orthographic transparency. These issues are examined in a review of studies conducted in English, French and Spanish in which subtyping was established using either the classical method or the regression method. The most reliable results were those obtained with the classical method: (1 the most prevalent profile is the mixed profile; (2 the prevalence of dissociated profiles differs across languages and measures, phonological profiles being more frequent in the accuracy-based English studies than in the accuracy-based French and Spanish studies, and less frequent in the accuracy-based than in the latency-based French and Spanish studies. These last findings probably reflect a measurement issue, as it is easy to use the phonological reading route in transparent orthographies: in these cases, reading speed must be used to detect phonological deficits. These results are not consistent with the idea that clear-cut subtypes can be detected in developmental dyslexia.

  16. Standard Guide for Testing Materials for Aerospace Plastic Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide is intended to summarize the standard test methods available on individual and composite materials utilized in fabrication of aerospace plastic transparent enclosures. As such, it is intended to specifically include transparent thermoplastics, transparent elastomers, and reinforced plastics, whether thermoplastic or thermosetting. 1.2 This guide is intended as an aid in the search for test methods pertinent to Aerospace Plastic Transparent Enclosures. It should be understood that all methods listed may not apply to all enclosures. 1.3 The standards included refer to the properties or aspects listed in Table 1. The properties or aspects are listed in alphabetical order and the descriptions used are intended to facilitate the search. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limi...

  17. Structural alphabets derived from attractors in conformational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjung Jens

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical and partially redundant nature of protein structures justifies the definition of frequently occurring conformations of short fragments as 'states'. Collections of selected representatives for these states define Structural Alphabets, describing the most typical local conformations within protein structures. These alphabets form a bridge between the string-oriented methods of sequence analysis and the coordinate-oriented methods of protein structure analysis. Results A Structural Alphabet has been derived by clustering all four-residue fragments of a high-resolution subset of the protein data bank and extracting the high-density states as representative conformational states. Each fragment is uniquely defined by a set of three independent angles corresponding to its degrees of freedom, capturing in simple and intuitive terms the properties of the conformational space. The fragments of the Structural Alphabet are equivalent to the conformational attractors and therefore yield a most informative encoding of proteins. Proteins can be reconstructed within the experimental uncertainty in structure determination and ensembles of structures can be encoded with accuracy and robustness. Conclusions The density-based Structural Alphabet provides a novel tool to describe local conformations and it is specifically suitable for application in studies of protein dynamics.

  18. Second Language Idiom Learning in a Paired-Associate Paradigm: Effects of Direction of Learning, Direction of Testing, Idiom Imageability, and Idiom Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinel, Margarita P.; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In a paired-associate learning (PAL) task, Dutch university students (n = 129) learned 20 English second language (L2) idioms either receptively or productively (i.e., L2-first language [L1] or L1-L2) and were tested in two directions (i.e., recognition or production) immediately after learning and 3 weeks later. Receptive and productive…

  19. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter M

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... ... reports and academic theses are all appropriate contributions. ... Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official ... Therefore, the editor invites contributions that link relevant theory and ... It publishes articles on a wide range of topics in literature, language, linguistics and theatre studies.

  20. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The Journal acts as a medium of improving the quality of health care and medical ... and Heritage, Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, Semantic Web ... case reports; editorials; seminar and congress reports in relation to human health ... Rwanda Journal, Series D: Life and Natural Sciences.

  1. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Application and report 73.3500 FM and AM programming, Duplication of 73.242 FM assignment policies and... for 73.1940 Puerto Rico TV/FM, dual-language broadcasting in 73.1210 Q Quiet zone 73.1030 R Radiation... TV 73.669 Stereophonic pilot subcarriers—monophonic programming 73.4246 (*) Stereophonic sound...

  2. The impact of second language learning on semantic and nonsemantic first language reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.

  3. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks in the ...... computers affected students’ performance and attitude towards the Arabic class and, consequently, the Arabic language....

  4. Illegal alphabets and adult biliteracy latino migrants crossing the linguistic border, expanded edition

    CERN Document Server

    Kalmar, Tomás Mario

    2015-01-01

    How do "illegal aliens" chart the speech sounds of colloquial English? This book is timeless in offering an unusually direct entry into how a group of Mexican fruit pickers analyze their first encounter with local American speech in a tiny rural Midwestern community in the United States. Readers see close up how intelligently migrant workers help each other use what they already know-the alphabetic principle of one letter, one sound-to teach each other, from scratch, at the very first contact, a language which none of them can speak. They see how and why the strategies adult immigrants actually use in order to cope with English in the real world seem to have little in common with those used in publicly funded bilingual and ESL classrooms. What's new in this expanded edition of Tomás Mario Kalmar's landmark Illegal Alphabets and Adult Biliteracy are in-depth commentaries from six distinguished scholars-Peter Elbow, Ofelia García, James Paul Gee, Hervé Varenne, Luis Vázquez León, Karen Velasquez-who bring ...

  5. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger eff...

  6. Aerospace Transparency Research Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ... (ARRL), located at Wright-Patterson AFB OH, has advanced aerospace transparency technology through the investigative research of numerous optical and visual parameters inherent in aerospace transparencies...

  7. ALPHABET "Ante Portas": How English Text Invades Japanese Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the prominence of written English on shop signs in Japan. Based on data from a larger empirical study into multilingual signs in Tokyo, the most common ways of using English and the roman alphabet on Japanese shops signs are identified. It is argued that the ambivalent nature of English loan words plays a key role in the ever…

  8. Parents' Goals for and Perceptions of Alphabet Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sarah N.; Evans, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parents' goals for reading ABC books with their children and their perceptions of page features. Factor analysis of a questionnaire answered by 225 parents of junior and senior kindergarten students revealed four goals for reading alphabet books. In order of importance as rated by parents the goals were: Learning to Read,…

  9. Mastering the International Phonetic Alphabet; Guide and Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Donald M.

    The present volume, containing lessons with practice and review exercises, offers a systematic presentation of the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) most widely used as a simplified means of representing the pronunciation of General American English. The transcription symbols presented are those primarily employed by Kenyon and…

  10. Government Acronyms and Alphabetic Designations Used in DDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The compilation consists of a guide to acronyms and alphabetic designations used by the Department of Defense (DOD), federal government and foreign military organizations on documents to designate reports on research monitored by them and cataloged by the Defense Documentation Center (DDC). In all instances the acronyms are those actually used by…

  11. Alphabetics: A History of Our Alphabet. A Source Guide for Self-Directed Units. Great Ideas Series. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Sally J.

    This teaching resource presents a historical perspective of the alphabet which encompasses a study of major contributions by: (1) "Prehistoric People"; (2) "The Sumerians"; (3) "The Egyptians"; (4) "The Chinese"; (5) "The Greeks"; and (6) "The Romans." Background information, vocabulary study, student activities, a letter history, and a…

  12. Double Dutch : On the role of the transparency requirement with regard to the language in which standard contract terms for B2C-contracts must be drafted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.

    2017-01-01

    European legislation currently does not clearly determine in what language standard contract terms must be drafted in order to be validly incorporated into consumer contracts so they can be relied upon by a trader. This may be particularly problematic in the case of a cross-border contract as

  13. Educational Games for Early Childhood: Using Tabletop Surface Computers for Teaching the Arabic Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents initial evaluation regarding the use of simple educational games on tabletop surface computers to teach Kindergarten students in Qatar the Arabic alphabet. This effort is part of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a 3-year endeavor aimed to teach 5-year-olds Modern Standard...... to the students, along with data collected from system log files and class observations. Result analysis suggests that these kinds of games could be useful in (a) enhancing students’ engagement in language learning, (b) increasing their exposure to MSA, and (c) developing their vocabulary....... Arabic (MSA). The paper describes a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9 weeks in the project. All students were native speakers of the Qatari dialect and they were early users of similar surface technologies. The paper presents three of the games available...

  14. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  15. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  16. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Jardak, Seifallah

    2016-01-01

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  17. Bi-alphabetic pulse compression radar signal design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bi-alphabetic radar; Hamming scan; back-tracking; merit factor; ... of 14.08, 12.10, 9.85, 8.85, 8.83, 8.86, 8.58 and 8.50 respectively. Beyond n ˆ 59 but below n ˆ 117, the highest merit factor available is 9.56. Known high merit ... subjected to dual ternary±binary interpretation to facilitate a coincidence detection scheme.

  18. The influence of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop effects in trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Conklin, K.; Coderre, E.L.; Guo, T.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two

  19. Genesis, visual attributes and contemporary communication features of the alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Cvitić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout 5,000 years of human literacy, the alphabet system has developed from pictograms and ideograms to the contemporary system of Latin letters. The simplification of primary pictograms and their transformation to ideograms followed the major goal of written communication – to transmit thoughts and ideas. Besides, written communication has enabled preservation of knowledge, and that has generated the expansion of information and its availability today. The high speed of gathering written information, as well as its superabundance, calls for rethinking of semiotic features of Latin letters as the basic units of written communication in the Western world, especially in terms of marketing communication and its effectiveness. The written expression is the major tool of branding and getting closer to target market segments. Social development influences the development of communication, which is visible through numerous brands and signs, i.e. symbols that make products and companies recognizable in the market. The distinct sign forms of the alphabet are used to suggest the story of a brand, product or service. A constituent element of its comprehension is conscious or unconscious knowledge drawn from different sources in the environment. The history of human literacy, the development of each particular letter, the communication rules of the contemporary marketplace, the impact of brands and information superabundance make up the basis for further research into communication features of the alphabet, semantics of written forms and their redefinition in the context of effective marketing communication.

  20. Efficient motif finding algorithms for large-alphabet inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying motifs, recurring or conserved patterns, in the biological sequence data sets. To solve this task, we present a new deterministic algorithm for finding patterns that are embedded as exact or inexact instances in all or most of the input strings. Results The proposed algorithm (1 improves search efficiency compared to existing algorithms, and (2 scales well with the size of alphabet. On a synthetic planted DNA motif finding problem our algorithm is over 10× more efficient than MITRA, PMSPrune, and RISOTTO for long motifs. Improvements are orders of magnitude higher in the same setting with large alphabets. On benchmark TF-binding site problems (FNP, CRP, LexA we observed reduction in running time of over 12×, with high detection accuracy. The algorithm was also successful in rapidly identifying protein motifs in Lipocalin, Zinc metallopeptidase, and supersecondary structure motifs for Cadherin and Immunoglobin families. Conclusions Our algorithm reduces computational complexity of the current motif finding algorithms and demonstrate strong running time improvements over existing exact algorithms, especially in important and difficult cases of large-alphabet sequences.

  1. Transparency and product variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study long run effects of transparency on the consumer side in a differentiated market. Only some consumers know prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and firm entry. This improves welfare and, in most cases, average consumer utility....

  2. Syllable frequency and word frequency effects in spoken and written word production in a non-alphabetic script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfang eZhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of word frequency and syllable frequency are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of word frequency and syllable frequency, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory word frequency and syllable frequency effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The syllable frequency effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the syllable frequency effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the syllable frequency effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between word frequency and syllable frequency showed that the syllable frequency effect is independent of the word frequency effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.

  3. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  4. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  5. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  6. Transparency and Product Variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    We study the long run e¤ects of transparency in a circular town model of a differentiated market. The market is not fully transparent on the consumer side: A fraction of consumers are uninformed about prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and entry of firms. This i...

  7. Transparency in Health Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Transparency is an important tool for good governance, helping to expose abusive practices including fraud, patronage, corruption, and other abuses of power. Increasing transparency can also enhance accountability by providing performance management information and exposing policies and procedures to oversight. This U4 Brief discusses the role of transparency in preventing corruption in the health sector.

  8. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    voluntarism. I argue that transparency to factual questions occurs in practical deliberation in ways parallel to transparency in doxastic deliberation. I argue that this should make us reconsider the appeal to transparency in arguments against doxastic voluntarism, and the wider issue of distinguishing...... theoretical from practical rationality....

  9. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  10. The art of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  11. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    2015-01-01

    organizational effectiveness and widened democratic practice. Yet, with its most common operationalization, as information, transparency reinstalls a 'purified' notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy, and (mis)representation. We apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model......The current emphasis on organizational transparency signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, accountability, and participation. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustworthy knowledge about organizations, the transparency pursuit has great potential for enhanced...... of communication and critiquing its obliviousness to the representative nature of transparency-related messages and the attendant complexities of motivation. This critique interrogates the ambiguities and ambivalence of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how the goals of organizational transparency...

  12. "On Cloud Nine" and "On All Fours": Which Is More Transparent? Elements in EFL Learners' Transparency Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Crystal Jia-yi

    2015-01-01

    Idiom transparency refers to how speakers think the meaning of the individual words contributes to the figurative meaning of an idiom as a whole (Gibbs, Nayak, & Cutting, 1989). However, it is not clear how speakers or language learners form their assumptions about an idiom's transparency level. This study set out to discover whether there are…

  13. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  14. Transparency views by media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation, various problems surrounding the issues of transparency, such as 'What exactly should be transparent?' 'Is all that we want amounting only to transparency?' 'Is it possible to thoroughly implement transparency', etc., are discussed with due consideration for the viewpoints of the wide range of parties concerned involving areas of politics, administration, enterprises, media, individuals, and so on. First of all, the explanation is focused on how the transparency is recognised, as well as how it is regarded as important, for the public at large and the media. Then, based on the concept that transparency is required for what cannot be justified to be secret, we will contemplate what should be transparent in the areas of politics, administration and enterprises, using the case of nuclear issues as example. Next, the discussion will proceed to the point whether the achievement of transparency itself should be the ultimate goal, in the light of taking into consideration the standpoints of individuals and the receivers of the information, in addition to that of the administration, politics, and enterprises. In closing, we will discuss what the necessary measures will be to materialize the complete transparency on the basis of the discussions made thus far. (author)

  15. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  16. Reflections of Debates Upon Alphabet (Letter to Journal of Sebilürreşad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Soğukömeroğulları

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Otoman State which had used Arabic alphabet until a certain period the issue of writing in Latin alphabet was gained currency thanks to the students who had been to Europe and the embassadors who had come from Europe in 18th and 19th centuries. After Tanzimat (reforms in 1839 amendment of letters had been given point first and then it was abondoned and alphabet replacement attempts began. In later periods serious arguments among the ones in favour and against the transition to Latin alphabet occured. One of the media organs in which these arguments had been appeared was Sebilürreşad. In all these articles acceptance of Latin alphabet was refused and instead the amendment of current letters was required. Some of the articles were taken from the journals of that time and according to the broadcasting policy of the journal occupied a certain place even a little. When the journal had leaned to nationalism and Turanism in its first periods afteryears a critisism began in a distinct manner. The articles related to Latin alphabet belonged to the first periods of the journal. It was seen that especially Turks who had been forced to accept Latin alphabet by Russia in Turkish world were taken place in newspaper columns and it was emphasized that this situation would interrupt the unity within Turkish world. Relections of civilization, printery, economy, colonialism and nationalism in terms of alphabet were also taken place in the journal

  17. Alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from a comprehensive local database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), based on data from the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of SSH research output in Flanders (2000-2013). Using an unbiased estimator of the share of intentional alphabetical co-authorship (IAC), we find that alphabetical co-authorship is more engrained in SSH than in science as a whole. Within the SSH, large differences exist between disciplines. The highest proportions of IAC are found for Literature, Economics & business, and History. Furthermore, alphabetical co-authorship varies with publication type: it occurs most often in books, is less common in articles in journals or in books, and is rare in proceedings papers. The use of alphabetical co-authorship appears to be slowly declining. (Author)

  18. Bikol Dictionary. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Malcolm W.

    The Bikol language of the Philippines, spoken in the southernmost peninsula of Luzon Island and extending into the island provinces of Catanduanes and Masbate, is presented in this bilingual dictionary. An introduction explains the Bikol alphabet, orthographic representation (including policies adopted in writing Spanish and English loan words),…

  19. Hupa Language: Literature and Culture. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom, Ed.; And Others

    One in a series of materials developed to revive the Hupa language and renew knowledge of Hupa culture, this lexicon includes vocabulary, phrases, and stories in Hupa and English. The major portion of the document is an English-Hupa lexicon of basic vocabulary listed alphabetically by the English words. In addition to the Hupa and English terms,…

  20. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  1. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  2. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  3. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  4. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  5. Advice on Admissions Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Admissions transparency means that prospective domestic undergraduate students can easily find good quality admissions information that allows them to compare courses and providers and make informed study choices. In October 2016 the Higher Education Standards Panel (HESP) made recommendations to achieve greater transparency in higher education…

  6. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  7. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    and trustworthy knowledge about contemporary organizations, the transparency discourse has significant democratic potential. Yet, its most common operationalization – as information availability – reinstalls a “purified” notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy and misrepresentation. In this paper......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  8. Moving Beyond of The Alphabet Soup of HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Chris; Coates, Thomas J.; Curran, James

    2010-01-01

    It is time to scrap the “ABCs” and elevate the debate on HIV prevention beyond the incessant controversies over individual interventions. The ABCs are a woefully incomplete list of necessary prevention interventions, but the goal should not be to just add more letters to the prevention alphabet. Instead, advancing global HIV prevention means holding national gover nments, donors and global agencies accountable for prevention efforts that are tailored to national epidemics, bring quality interventions to a scale, and address environmental factors in vulnerability. The debate is not so much about one intervention or another, but whether countries have a comprehensive prevention effort in place that responds to their own unique situations. PMID:18641471

  9. A Note on Sequence Prediction over Large Alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Gagie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Building on results from data compression, we prove nearly tight bounds on how well sequences of length n can be predicted in terms of the size σ of the alphabet and the length k of the context considered when making predictions. We compare the performance achievable by an adaptive predictor with no advance knowledge of the sequence, to the performance achievable by the optimal static predictor using a table listing the frequency of each (k + 1-tuple in the sequence. We show that, if the elements of the sequence are chosen uniformly at random, then an adaptive predictor can compete in the expected case if k ≤ logσ n – 3 – ε, for a constant ε > 0, but not if k ≥ logσ n.

  10. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  11. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  12. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  13. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  14. Proactive Interference & Language Change in Hearing Adult Students of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Harry W.; Kreske, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that found, contrary to previous reports, that a strong, symmetrical release from proactive interference (PI) is the normal outcome for switches between American Sign Language (ASL) signs and English words and with switches between Manual and English alphabet characters. Subjects were college students enrolled in their first ASL…

  15. A Dictionary for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  16. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  17. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  18. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  19. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  20. A hidden markov model derived structural alphabet for proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Gautier, R; Tufféry, P

    2004-06-04

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depends on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have set up a hidden Markov model that discretizes protein backbone conformation as series of overlapping fragments (states) of four residues length. This approach learns simultaneously the geometry of the states and their connections. We obtain, using a statistical criterion, an optimal systematic decomposition of the conformational variability of the protein peptidic chain in 27 states with strong connection logic. This result is stable over different protein sets. Our model fits well the previous knowledge related to protein architecture organisation and seems able to grab some subtle details of protein organisation, such as helix sub-level organisation schemes. Taking into account the dependence between the states results in a description of local protein structure of low complexity. On an average, the model makes use of only 8.3 states among 27 to describe each position of a protein structure. Although we use short fragments, the learning process on entire protein conformations captures the logic of the assembly on a larger scale. Using such a model, the structure of proteins can be reconstructed with an average accuracy close to 1.1A root-mean-square deviation and for a complexity of only 3. Finally, we also observe that sequence specificity increases with the number of states of the structural alphabet. Such models can constitute a very relevant approach to the analysis of protein architecture in particular for protein structure prediction.

  1. Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiYan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8. These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition.

  2. An Interactive Augmented Reality Implementation of Hijaiyah Alphabet for Children Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Akbar, F.; Syahputra, M. F.; Budiman, M. A.; Hizriadi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Hijaiyah alphabet is letters used in the Qur’an. An attractive and exciting learning process of Hijaiyah alphabet is necessary for the children. One of the alternatives to create attractive and interesting learning process of Hijaiyah alphabet is to develop it into a mobile application using augmented reality technology. Augmented reality is a technology that combines two-dimensional or three-dimensional virtual objects into actual three-dimensional circles and projects them in real time. The purpose of application aims to foster the children interest in learning Hijaiyah alphabet. This application is using Smartphone and marker as the medium. It was built using Unity and augmented reality library, namely Vuforia, then using Blender as the 3D object modeling software. The output generated from this research is the learning application of Hijaiyah letters using augmented reality. How to use it is as follows: first, place marker that has been registered and printed; second, the smartphone camera will track the marker. If the marker is invalid, the user should repeat the tracking process. If the marker is valid and identified, the marker will have projected the objects of Hijaiyah alphabet in three-dimensional form. Lastly, the user can learn and understand the shape and pronunciation of Hijaiyah alphabet by touching the virtual button on the marker

  3. Limits of transparency of transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is essential for further progress in materials and applications. These materials have a sufficiently large band gap, so that direct optical transitions do not lead to absorption of light within the visible spectrum. Since the presence of free carriers is essential for conductivity and thus for device applications, this introduces the possibility of additional absorption processes. In particular, indirect processes are possible, and these will constitute a fundamental limit of the material. The Drude theory is widely used to describe free-carrier absorption, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. We will present calculations of phonon- and defect-assisted free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We will focus in detail on SnO2, but the methodology is general and we will also compare the results obtained for other TCO materials such as In2O3. These calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. This work was performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle and was supported by ARO and NSF.

  4. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Supporting Transparency between Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    The paper presents the results of a case study that explores the potentials of weblogs and social bookmarking to support transparency in a university course. In the course, groups of students used weblogs and social bookmarking in their work. The objective of the case was to empower students...... by providing them with tools that would be visible to the other students in the course, thus, making students’ ideas, thoughts and questions visible to the other students in the course. The paper concludes that use of digital media for transparency can support empowerment of students and inspiration among...... students in a course, but that the challenge is to create a balance between personal tools and tools for collaborative group work that are also suitable for transparency between students....

  6. Different patterns and development characteristics of processing written logographic characters and alphabetic words: an ALE meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linlin; Nie, Yaoxin; Chang, Chunqi; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-06-01

    The neural systems for phonological processing of written language have been well identified now, while models based on these neural systems are different for different language systems or age groups. Although each of such models is mostly concordant across different experiments, the results are sensitive to the experiment design and intersubject variability. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis can quantitatively synthesize the data from multiple studies and minimize the interstudy or intersubject differences. In this study, we performed two ALE meta-analysis experiments: one was to examine the neural activation patterns of the phonological processing of two different types of written languages and the other was to examine the development characteristics of such neural activation patterns based on both alphabetic language and logographic language data. The results of our first meta-analysis experiment were consistent with the meta-analysis which was based on the studies published before 2005. And there were new findings in our second meta-analysis experiment, where both adults and children groups showed great activation in the left frontal lobe, the left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral middle/superior occipital gyrus. However, the activation of the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus was found increase with the development, and the activation was found decrease in the following areas: the right claustrum and inferior frontal gyrus, the left inferior/medial frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, the right cerebellum, and the bilateral fusiform gyrus. It seems that adults involve more phonological areas, whereas children involve more orthographic areas and semantic areas. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic voluntar......It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic...

  8. Mining protein loops using a structural alphabet and statistical exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein loops encompass 50% of protein residues in available three-dimensional structures. These regions are often involved in protein functions, e.g. binding site, catalytic pocket... However, the description of protein loops with conventional tools is an uneasy task. Regular secondary structures, helices and strands, have been widely studied whereas loops, because they are highly variable in terms of sequence and structure, are difficult to analyze. Due to data sparsity, long loops have rarely been systematically studied. Results We developed a simple and accurate method that allows the description and analysis of the structures of short and long loops using structural motifs without restriction on loop length. This method is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA. HMM-SA allows the simplification of a three-dimensional protein structure into a one-dimensional string of states, where each state is a four-residue prototype fragment, called structural letter. The difficult task of the structural grouping of huge data sets is thus easily accomplished by handling structural letter strings as in conventional protein sequence analysis. We systematically extracted all seven-residue fragments in a bank of 93000 protein loops and grouped them according to the structural-letter sequence, named structural word. This approach permits a systematic analysis of loops of all sizes since we consider the structural motifs of seven residues rather than complete loops. We focused the analysis on highly recurrent words of loops (observed more than 30 times. Our study reveals that 73% of loop-lengths are covered by only 3310 highly recurrent structural words out of 28274 observed words. These structural words have low structural variability (mean RMSd of 0.85 Å. As expected, half of these motifs display a flanking-region preference but interestingly, two thirds are shared by short (less than 12 residues and long loops. Moreover, half of

  9. Mining protein loops using a structural alphabet and statistical exceptionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regad, Leslie; Martin, Juliette; Nuel, Gregory; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2010-02-04

    Protein loops encompass 50% of protein residues in available three-dimensional structures. These regions are often involved in protein functions, e.g. binding site, catalytic pocket... However, the description of protein loops with conventional tools is an uneasy task. Regular secondary structures, helices and strands, have been widely studied whereas loops, because they are highly variable in terms of sequence and structure, are difficult to analyze. Due to data sparsity, long loops have rarely been systematically studied. We developed a simple and accurate method that allows the description and analysis of the structures of short and long loops using structural motifs without restriction on loop length. This method is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA. HMM-SA allows the simplification of a three-dimensional protein structure into a one-dimensional string of states, where each state is a four-residue prototype fragment, called structural letter. The difficult task of the structural grouping of huge data sets is thus easily accomplished by handling structural letter strings as in conventional protein sequence analysis. We systematically extracted all seven-residue fragments in a bank of 93000 protein loops and grouped them according to the structural-letter sequence, named structural word. This approach permits a systematic analysis of loops of all sizes since we consider the structural motifs of seven residues rather than complete loops. We focused the analysis on highly recurrent words of loops (observed more than 30 times). Our study reveals that 73% of loop-lengths are covered by only 3310 highly recurrent structural words out of 28274 observed words). These structural words have low structural variability (mean RMSd of 0.85 A). As expected, half of these motifs display a flanking-region preference but interestingly, two thirds are shared by short (less than 12 residues) and long loops. Moreover, half of recurrent motifs exhibit a significant level of

  10. Neuroscience applied to learning alphabetic principles: new proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Scliar-Cabral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p187   This study reviews recent data on functional illiteracy and advances on neuroscience about the reading process. alarming figures on functional illiteracy will be presented with examples of UK and brazil. Empirical evidences brought by neuroscience prove the neuropsychological basis constructs, namely invariance already claimed by modern linguistics. however, emphasis will be given to the psychological reality of letters’ feature invariance, demonstrated by various experiments which had been recently run by neuroscientists. two types of invariance are shown, the spatial and the font invariance, exemplified by a description of invariant features of the roman alphabet. We then cite the major difficulties faced at by beginning readers, namely, how to dismember the chain speech into words (separated in the written space by blanks and the syllable into its units, in order to link them to their correspondent graphemes (composed by one or more letters.  in addition, one of the major difficulties is how to teach neurons to dissymmetrize the letter features. neuroscience conclusions from experiments about the readingprocess demonstrate that neurons of the  occipito-temporalventral region of the left hemisphere must be recycled in orderto learn how to recognize the written word.  altogether withthe results obtained on a well succeeded experience run by theprogram Early intervention initiative (Eii and by an experimentrun in a Florianopolis school, in 2012, they give support to thestrategies to prevent functional illiteracy.

  11. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...... and budget imbalance, also appear to affect the level of transparency...

  12. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  13. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  14. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  15. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  16. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  17. (Dis)connections between Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; Kidd, Joanna C.; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are found to co-occur in school-aged children learning Chinese, a non-alphabetic language (Wong, Kidd, Ho, & Au in "Sci Stud Read" 14:30--57, 2010). This paper examined the "Distinct" hypothesis--that SLI and dyslexia have different cognitive deficits and behavioural…

  18. Effects of Dual Coded Multimedia Instruction Employing Image Morphing on Learning a Logographic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Blackwell, Aleka Akoyunoglou

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of alphabetic languages, which use letters governed by grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, often find it particularly challenging to learn a logographic language whose writing system employs symbols with no direct sound-to-spelling connection but links to the visual and semantic information. The visuospatial properties of…

  19. Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Efficacy of a Model that Partners Speech-Language Pathologists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a professional development program for early childhood educators that facilitated emergent literacy skills in preschoolers. The program, led by a speech-language pathologist, focused on teaching alphabet knowledge, print concepts, sound awareness, and decontextualized oral language within naturally…

  20. File: nuclear safety and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Jeandron, C.

    2001-01-01

    Several experiences of nuclear safety and transparency are related in this file. Public information, access to documents, transparency in nuclear regulation are such subjects developed in this debate. (N.C.)

  1. Transparent Armor Cost Benefit Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prokurat Franks, Lisa; Holm, David; Barnak, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...; the increase in demand for transparent gun shields in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and early versions of jerry-rigged shields used in OIF, including Pope glass and Transparent Armored Gun Shields (TAGS...

  2. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  3. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  4. Transparency -- Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.

    1994-01-01

    The increasingly popular term transparency has been used throughout the IAEA Safeguards Symposium to mean many things to many people. It has rather little utility as a catch-all term or buzz word. A precise definition of transparency is in order. In this paper, transparency is the provision to the IAEA of additional information for which the IAEA has an identified use and includes any associated increased IAEA access to sue the information. In 1993, the IAEA Board endorsed very specific proposals for provision to the IAEA of additional information on international nuclear transfers. It also made specific decisions on verification in the context of tis earlier confirmation of the very sweeping access rights for special inspections outlined by the director general. Additional information to the IAEA has two potential practical uses. First, it could help identify inconsistencies within the entirety of the information available to the IAEA, including information from inspections. These inconsistencies could be an indication of some violation of safeguards undertakings. Second, a declaration of the Member State could facilitate IAEA interpretation of analyses of other information or facilitate resolution of ambiguities. In these respects, additional information is not different from currently used information. When considering seeking specific additional information, the IAEA must balance the potential contribution of the information and its expected costs

  5. Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Morrissey, John R; Patel, Vinod

    2014-10-11

    The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring "important, simple things are done right all the time." Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components:• an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,• a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,• a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting. Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality. QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2-90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation. International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for

  6. Amino acid alphabet reduction preserves fold information contained in contact interactions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Armando D

    2015-12-01

    To reduce complexity, understand generalized rules of protein folding, and facilitate de novo protein design, the 20-letter amino acid alphabet is commonly reduced to a smaller alphabet by clustering amino acids based on some measure of similarity. In this work, we seek the optimal alphabet that preserves as much of the structural information found in long-range (contact) interactions among amino acids in natively-folded proteins. We employ the Information Maximization Device, based on information theory, to partition the amino acids into well-defined clusters. Numbering from 2 to 19 groups, these optimal clusters of amino acids, while generated automatically, embody well-known properties of amino acids such as hydrophobicity/polarity, charge, size, and aromaticity, and are demonstrated to maintain the discriminative power of long-range interactions with minimal loss of mutual information. Our measurements suggest that reduced alphabets (of less than 10) are able to capture virtually all of the information residing in native contacts and may be sufficient for fold recognition, as demonstrated by extensive threading tests. In an expansive survey of the literature, we observe that alphabets derived from various approaches-including those derived from physicochemical intuition, local structure considerations, and sequence alignments of remote homologs-fare consistently well in preserving contact interaction information, highlighting a convergence in the various factors thought to be relevant to the folding code. Moreover, we find that alphabets commonly used in experimental protein design are nearly optimal and are largely coherent with observations that have arisen in this work. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 76 FR 1180 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Transparency Initiative, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry.'' The...

  8. Transparent Model Transformation: Turning Your Favourite Model Editor into a Transformation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Current model transformation languages are supported by dedicated editors, often closely coupled to a single execution engine. We introduce Transparent Model Transformation, a paradigm enabling modelers to specify transformations using a familiar tool: their model editor. We also present VMTL, th...... model transformation tool sharing the model editor’s benefits, transparently....

  9. The Nature of Developmental Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Keuning, Jos

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the nature of developmental dyslexia in a language considered to have a transparent orthography, namely, Dutch. We assessed the accuracy and efficiency of decoding words and pseudowords with four lengths as well as three types of phonological ability in 2,760 typical children and 397 peers with dyslexia across…

  10. Is Chinese Special? Four Aspects of Chinese Literacy Acquisition That Might Distinguish Learning Chinese from Learning Alphabetic Orthographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Catherine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…

  11. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  12. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  13. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  14. Illusionary Transparency? Oil Revenues, Information Disclosure, and Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori, Jerome Jeffison; Lujala, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    xperience shows that discovery of valuable natural resources can become a curse rather than a blessing, and transparency has been identified as key to better resource governance because it can limit opportunities for corruption and mismanagement. This article shows that information disclosure, in which many governments and donor institutions engage, does not automatically translate into transparency. Ghana has embedded transparency as one of its key principles in oil management. However, fiel...

  15. Impact of data transparency: Scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohit; Bhardwaj, Payal

    2018-01-01

    Data transparency has been an important aspect of medical research as it helps in enabling evidence-based decisions in medicine which leads to foster trust among the patients and research community alike. Currently, it is one of the key talking points owing to a number of initiatives taken by the pharmaceutical organizations, regulatory bodies, and the other decision enablers of the industry. Thanks to this, there are a number of ways by which a single piece of datum is available through multiple access points, namely, clinical trial disclosures (CTDs), clinical study reports (CSRs), plain language summaries, and scientific publications including abstracts, posters, and manuscripts, to name a few. This may pose a burden of documentation on the pharmaceutical organizations, demanding downsizing of medical writing documents. Since CTDs, CSRs, and other regulatory document are more or less template driven; there may not be much scope to interfere with their structure and submission timings. Scientific publications, on the other hand, provide the flexibility of presenting the clinical data that is typically not dependent on a particular format and timelines. The present paper discusses how the upcoming data transparency initiatives could affect the publication practices across the pharmaceutical industry and what could pharmaceutical companies do to get the maximum benefit out of the data transparency initiatives.

  16. Hand Movements and Braille Reading Efficiency: Data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa; Wormsley, Diane P.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Using a subset of data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study, researchers analyzed the patterns and characteristics of hand movements as predictors of reading performance. Statistically significant differences were found between one- and two-handed readers and between patterns of hand movements and reading rates. (Contains 6…

  17. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  18. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  19. Collaborative Research: The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study as an Example of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormsley, Diane P.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Erin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Alphabetic Braille Contracted Braille Study in relation to the dimensions of collaborative research: extent, intensity, substance, heterogeneity, velocity, formality, and productivity. It also discusses the dimensions of financing research and researchers' attitudes. The overall consensus is that the study would not have…

  20. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo name), see Caustic potash solution 5 2 CPS Potassium oleate 34 POE Potassium salt of polyolefin... Sodium polyacrylate solution 43 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alphabetical List of Cargoes I Table I to Part 150...

  1. Perceptual Confusions of the Manual Alphabet by Naive, Trained, and Familiar Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M. Dixie; Danhauer, Jeffrey L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the confusion resulting from reliance on visual perceptual teachers in the identification of dactylemes (handshapes) in the American Manual Alphabet (MA) is reported. A hierarchy of errors varying with subjects' degree of expertness in the MA is established. This can help manual communication teachers develop techniques for…

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  3. Instruction to Help Young Children Develop Language and Literacy Skills: The Roles of Program Design and Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Barbara; Vadasy, Patricia; Smolkowski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the kinds of instructional activities that young children need to develop basic language and literacy skills based on recent research and program evaluations. This includes approaches to develop alphabetic understanding, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and oral language. Activities and materials from the Pre-kindergarten…

  4. The transparency trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Ethan

    2014-10-01

    To promote accountability, productivity, and shared learning, many organizations create open work environments and gather reams of data on how individuals spend their time. A few years ago, HBS professor Ethan Bernstein set out to find empirical evidence that such approaches improve organizational performance. What he discovered is that this kind of transparency often has an unintended consequence: It can leave employees feeling vulnerable and exposed. When that happens, they conceal any conduct that deviates from the norm so that they won't have to explain it. Unrehearsed, experimental behaviors sometimes stop altogether. But Bernstein also discovered organizations that had established zones of privacy within open environments by setting four types of boundaries: around teams, between feedback and evaluation, between decision rights and improvement rights, and around periods of experimentation. Moreover, across several studies, the companies that had done all this were the ones that consistently got the most creative, efficient, and thoughtful work from their employees. Bernstein's conclusion? By balancing transparency and privacy, organizations can capture the benefits of both, and encourage just the right amount of "positive deviance" needed to increase innovation and productivity.

  5. Corneal structure and transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  6. Lattice Transparency of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O

    2017-03-08

    Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.

  7. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  8. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  9. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  10. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  11. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  12. Budget transparency in local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Perona, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This work will study the socio-demographic determinants, political, budgetary and economic, that affect the transparency of local entities. To perform the study, we have chosen the transparency index data for the 110 largest municipalities of Spain, in 2012 has been chosen from the information offered by the website of the organization Transparency International Spain. The results indica...

  13. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  14. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  15. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  16. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  17. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  18. A geometric language for representing structure in polyphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, Deutsch and Feroe proposed a formal language for representing melodic pitch structure that employed the powerful concept of hierarchically-related pitch alphabets. However, neither rhythmic structure nor pitch structure in polyphonic music can be adequately represented using this language....... A new language is proposed here that incorporates certain features of Deutsch and Feroe’s model but extends and generalises it to allow for the representation of both rhythm and pitch structure in polyphonic music. The new language adopts a geometric approach in which a passage of polyphonic music...

  19. Transparency through the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haginoya, Tohru [Inst. of Nuclear Materials Management, Japan Chapter, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  20. Transparency through the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  1. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  2. Transparency and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having outlined some lessons learnt after the Chernobyl accident, notably the facts that risk assessment and management were not separated, that radioactivity measurements have suffered from a lack of means and of preparedness, and that there has been few information exchanged between the different concerned countries, this document presents the four international conventions which have been negotiated after this accident (they concern the notification, assistance, safety, safety of fuel management and of radioactive wastes). It discusses the lessons learnt in France, the credibility of information and the confidence in authorities, the evolution of transparency and information in France and in the rest of the World, the transposition of the Arhus Convention in the communautary and national law, the innovating European approaches, and the evolutions in France

  3. LEARNING NONADJACENT DEPENDENCIES IN PHONOLOGY: TRANSPARENT VOWELS IN VOWEL HARMONY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Nonadjacent dependencies are an important part of the structure of language. While the majority of syntactic and phonological processes occur at a local domain, there are several processes that appear to apply at a distance, posing a challenge for theories of linguistic structure. This article addresses one of the most common nonadjacent phenomena in phonology: transparent vowels in vowel harmony. Vowel harmony occurs when adjacent vowels are required to share the same phonological feature value (e.g. V +F C V +F ). However, transparent vowels create a second-order nonadjacent pattern because agreement between two vowels can 'skip' the transparent neutral vowel in addition to consonants (e.g. V +F C V T -F C V +F ). Adults are shown to display initial learning biases against second-order nonadjacency in experiments that use an artificial grammar learning paradigm. Experiments 1-3 show that adult learners fail to learn the second-order long-distance dependency created by the transparent vowel (as compared to a control condition). In experiments 4-5, training in terms of overall exposure as well as the frequency of relevant transparent items was increased. With adequate exposure, learners reliably generalize to novel words containing transparent vowels. The experiments suggest that learners are sensitive to the structure of phonological representations, even when learning occurs at a relatively rapid pace.

  4. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  5. Student Perceptions of Teaching Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alecia D.; Hunt, Andrea N.; Powell, Rachel E.; Dollar, Cindy Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the relationship between teaching transparency and active learning through the perspectives of their students. Active learning directly engages students in the learning process while transparency involves the instructor's divulgence of logic regarding course organization and activity choices. After utilizing these teaching…

  6. Transparency as an ethical safeguard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spagnolli, Anna; Frank, Lily E.; Haselager, Pim; Kirsh, David; Ham, Jaap; Spagnolli, Anna; Blankertz, Benjamin; Gamberini, Luciano; Jacucci, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Transparency seems to represent a solution to many ethic issues generated by systems that collect implicit data from users to model the user themselves based on programmed criteria. However, making such systems transparent -- besides being a major technical challenge - risks raising more issues than

  7. Classification and closure properties of languages for describing concurrent system behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szijarto, M.

    1981-01-01

    The correspondence between sequential program schemes and formal languages is well known. The situation is more complicated in the case of parallel program schemes, and trace languages have been introduced to describe them. The author introduces the concept of the closure of a language on a so called independence relation on the alphabet of the language, and formulate several theorems about them and the trace languages. He investigates the closedness properties of Chomsky classes under closure on independence relations, and as a special case we derive a new necessary and sufficient condition for the regularity of the commutative closure of a language. 12 references.

  8. Reading Hidden Messages Through Deciphered Manual Alphabets on Classic Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Joseph Anthony, Jr.

    1998-10-01

    Decipherment is the tool used to uncover several types of hand signs that played vital roles in the creation of hidden messages in classic artwork. A 3,100 B.C. bas-relief of The 'Kaph' Telescope, formerly named The Narmer Palette, and Michaelangelo Buonarrotte's Battle of Cascina of 1506 were two key works of art that show certain similarities even though separated by 4,500 years. It is evident that Renaissance humanists provided artists with certain knowledge of the ancients. Results of incorporating a number of minor works of art showed that the competence of ancient Egyptians, Cretans and Australian Aboriginals, to name a few, as astronomers, was underestimated. Some deciphered Indus seals attested to a global understanding of the universe, with Gemini and the star of Thuban at the center of their attention. Certain forms of secrecy had to be undertaken for various reasons throughout the millennia. Three examples are: (1) In Italy, to keep controversial and truthful teachings discreet and hidden, artists embedded them in artwork long before the plight of Galileo Galilei and his discoveries. (2) Among Jewish Kabbalists, a well-known design was obscured in The Arnolfini Wedding painting for fear it would be lost due to persecution. (3) Michaelangelo Buonarrotte indicated several meanings through the hands of The Statue of Moses. They were overlooked by several societies, including the gesticulating culture of Italy, because they oppressed the value of signed languages. Spatial decipherment may testify to a need for the restoration of a spatial writing system for expanded linguistic accessibility. A 21st century model community for sign language residents and employees will benefit visual learners, particularly visual artists and non-phonetic decipherers, to better uncover, understand and perhaps use ancient hand forms to restore ancient knowledge. Moreover, the National Association of Teaching English (NATE) has recently endorsed the addition of two skills

  9. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  10. Phenomenal transparency in achromatic checkerboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, S C

    1999-04-01

    The study explored the luminance relations that determine the occurrence of achromatic transparency in phenomenal surfaces on complex backgrounds. Let the luminances of the left and right parts of a transparent surface on a bipartite background and those of the left and right parts of the bipartite background be p and q and m and n, respectively. Metelli proposed that this surface looks transparent when the rule p q if m > n) is satisfied, and Masin and Fukuda that it looks transparent when the inclusion rule is satisfied, that is, when p epsilon (m, q) or q epsilon (p, n). These rules also apply to achromatic checkerboards formed by one checkerboard enclosed in another checkerboard. This study shows that only the inclusion rule correctly predicted the occurrence of transparency in these checkerboards.

  11. Common Practices of Transparency in the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee; Oh, Kju Myeng

    2010-01-01

    Along with greater access to information, particularly through the Internet, there is the increasing demand of the public for transparency, particularly in matters and decisions affecting their lives. The public demands to know more about Nuclear Regulatory Organization's (NROs) and their activities resulting in more interactions with the public to help make nuclear safety activities more understandable and transparent. As a general concept, 'transparency' means literally that something can be seen through. The definition tells us that it is, more actively, to provide the public with factual information about our activities, and to respond promptly to 'the public's right to know' about the information acquired by NROs. NROs around the world recognize the importance of openness and transparency to the success of their programs to protect public health and safety. All agree that good practice in transparency and being proactive with information help to protect against perceptions of secrecy and to instil public confidence and accountability in what they do. On the other hand, NROs face many challenges in their quest to be open and transparent with their stakeholders. government, nuclear operators, NGOs, media, our colleagues, and particularly with the general public. The most frequently identified challenge was striking the right balance between openness and security-related considerations with many responders citing the need to protect proprietary information whilst still accommodating the public's desire to be well informed. Other challenges include deciding how much transparency is needed to satisfy the public and how information, that is often highly technical and complex, can be presented in a meaningful way through the use of clear and simple language. In this paper, we summarize the survey results done by WGPC on relevant practices of NRO's flux of work concerning public communication matters. By comprehensively searching the international status, we may have

  12. Enhancing transparent fuzzy controllers through temporal concepts : an application to computer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Vitiello, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, FML (Fuzzy Markup Language) is emerging as one of the most efficient and useful language to define a fuzzy control thanks to its capability of modeling Fuzzy Logic Controllers in a human-readable and hardware independent way, i.e. the so-called Transparent Fuzzy Controllers

  13. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  14. The Ideological Aspects of Contemporary Cyrillic Alphabet Transliteration Practices in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustina Selvelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the new rules on the transliteration of the Cyrillic alphabet adopted in Bulgaria, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia over the last few years. It also considers the possible political and identity reasons underlying changes to such practices. To this aim, I contextualize the question within various ongoing debates in the respective countries, with reference to the ideologies that have emerged in the most recent post-socialist period.

  15. A reduced amino acid alphabet for understanding and designing protein adaptation to mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchebest, C; Benros, C; Bornot, A; Camproux, A-C; de Brevern, A G

    2007-11-01

    Protein sequence world is considerably larger than structure world. In consequence, numerous non-related sequences may adopt similar 3D folds and different kinds of amino acids may thus be found in similar 3D structures. By grouping together the 20 amino acids into a smaller number of representative residues with similar features, sequence world simplification may be achieved. This clustering hence defines a reduced amino acid alphabet (reduced AAA). Numerous works have shown that protein 3D structures are composed of a limited number of building blocks, defining a structural alphabet. We previously identified such an alphabet composed of 16 representative structural motifs (5-residues length) called Protein Blocks (PBs). This alphabet permits to translate the structure (3D) in sequence of PBs (1D). Based on these two concepts, reduced AAA and PBs, we analyzed the distributions of the different kinds of amino acids and their equivalences in the structural context. Different reduced sets were considered. Recurrent amino acid associations were found in all the local structures while other were specific of some local structures (PBs) (e.g Cysteine, Histidine, Threonine and Serine for the alpha-helix Ncap). Some similar associations are found in other reduced AAAs, e.g Ile with Val, or hydrophobic aromatic residues Trp with Phe and Tyr. We put into evidence interesting alternative associations. This highlights the dependence on the information considered (sequence or structure). This approach, equivalent to a substitution matrix, could be useful for designing protein sequence with different features (for instance adaptation to environment) while preserving mainly the 3D fold.

  16. SA-Search: a web tool for protein structure mining based on a Structural Alphabet

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Frédéric; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Hochez, Joëlle; Tufféry, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    SA-Search is a web tool that can be used to mine for protein structures and extract structural similarities. It is based on a hidden Markov model derived Structural Alphabet (SA) that allows the compression of three-dimensional (3D) protein conformations into a one-dimensional (1D) representation using a limited number of prototype conformations. Using such a representation, classical methods developed for amino acid sequences can be employed. Currently, SA-Search permits the performance of f...

  17. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    count rate of Bob’s detectors. In this detector-limited regime , it is advantageous to increase M to encode as much information as possible in each...High- rate field demonstration of large-alphabet quantum key distribution Catherine Lee,1, 2 Darius Bunandar,1 Zheshen Zhang,1 Gregory R. Steinbrecher...October 12, 2016) 2 Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables secure symmetric key exchange for information-theoretically secure com- munication via one-time

  18. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Laurice; Weiss, Yael; Katzir, Tami; Bitan, Tali

    2018-01-01

    Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks) provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27) and 5th (N = 29) grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks), and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks). Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older readers. Moreover

  19. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurice Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27 and 5th (N = 29 grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks, and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks. Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older

  20. Numerically Optimized Uniformly Most Powerful Alphabets for Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward Two-Way Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hekrdla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the issue of the parametric performance of the Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward (HDF strategy in a wireless 2-way relay channel. Promising HDF, representing the concept of wireless network coding, performs well with a pre-coding strategy that requires Channel State Information (CSI on the transceiver side. Assuming a practical case when CSI is available only on the receiver side and the channel conditions do not allow adaptive strategies, the parametrization causes significant HDF performance degradation for some modulation alphabets. Alphabets that are robust to the parametrization (denoted Uniformly Most Powerful (UMP have already been proposed restricting on the class of non-linear multi-dimensional frequency modulations. In this work, we focus on the general design of unrestricted UMP alphabets. We formulate an optimization problem which is solved by standard non-linear convex constrained optimization algorithms, particularly by Nelder-Mead global optimization search, which is further refined by the local interior-pointsmethod.

  1. Nuclear deterrence: which environmental transparency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the field of nuclear geopolitics. The author discusses the tensions between the principle of transparency regarding environmental issues on the one hand, and the protection of nuclear deterrence as instrument of power on the other hand. According to the French law, the preservation of nuclear power instruments means the acknowledgement of a legal regime which is specific to national defence requirements in terms of secret and right to information. Thus, the author discusses the constitutional limitations of the environmental transparency obligation for the protection of Nation's fundamental interests. Then, by commenting the Rainbow Warrior affair, the author highlights the exceptional limitations of the transparency requirement regarding nuclear issues

  2. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  3. Using Dialogic Reading to Enhance Emergent Literacy Skills of Young Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an early reading intervention on preschool-age dual language learners' (DLL) early literacy skills. Instruction in phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge was embedded in interactive reading strategies, also known as dialogic reading. A single subject multiple baseline across subjects design was applied to…

  4. Reading in Asian Languages: Making Sense of Written Texts in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; Wang, Shaomei, Ed.; Iventosch, Mieko, Ed.; Goodman, Yetta M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction…

  5. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  6. Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where available and appropriate, EPA will use peer-reviewed information, standardized test methods, consistent data evaluation procedures, and good laboratory practices to ensure transparent, understandable, and reproducible scientific assessments.

  7. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  8. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Yang, P. K.; Lee, C. P.; Tsai, M. L.; Kang, C. F.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance

  9. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  10. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  11. A Concise Dictionary of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Misun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an essay collection by Marek Bieńczyk, Przeźroczystość [Transparency]. The concept, placed in various context, shows various aspects and is seen in various shades. The author does not put forward a statement, but rather proposes a work to be done: to determine the modality of transparency. The concept initially seems to be mainly epistemological: the cognizant subject would like to make the world transparent, to discover all possible mysteries. Before that, however, the subject must know itself, and here the dream of trans­parency also plays the key role. Lack of epistemological transparency is the main cause of melancholy and its reverse — hysteria. The concept turns out to be important in the domain of love — the loer thinks that (she knows the desired person more better anybody else, that (she has entirely penetrated the subjectivity of the Other. Ultimately, however, the dream of transparency goes down to a slow demise of the subject: as self-discovery progresses, there is less and less of the discoverer. In conclusion of this work, the border of modality of the concept turns out to be horrifyingly obvious. The desire for transparency consequently searches not for knowledge, but for an escape whose name is death.

  12. Semi-transparent solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  13. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  15. Interaction between social influence and payoff transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xie, Wenwen; Ye, Maolin

    2014-02-01

    Social influence and payoff transparency interact with each other to influence decision making. Social influence masks payoff transparency, and lacking transparency drives people to seek social influence. Moreover, our survey supports our claim by showing that social influence and payoff transparency correlate with each other (r(53) = -.71). Bentley et al.'s model can be revised to accommodate the covariance.

  16. Recognition of Indian Sign Language in Live Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Joyeeta; Das, Karen

    2013-05-01

    Sign Language Recognition has emerged as one of the important area of research in Computer Vision. The difficulty faced by the researchers is that the instances of signs vary with both motion and appearance. Thus, in this paper a novel approach for recognizing various alphabets of Indian Sign Language is proposed where continuous video sequences of the signs have been considered. The proposed system comprises of three stages: Preprocessing stage, Feature Extraction and Classification. Preprocessing stage includes skin filtering, histogram matching. Eigen values and Eigen Vectors were considered for feature extraction stage and finally Eigen value weighted Euclidean distance is used to recognize the sign. It deals with bare hands, thus allowing the user to interact with the system in natural way. We have considered 24 different alphabets in the video sequences and attained a success rate of 96.25%.

  17. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (∼15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27911774

  18. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.

    2017-03-14

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 1011 to 1015 cm-2. These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  19. Issues in Canadian board transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparency is considered one of the principles of good corporate governance. But what does it mean – in practice – especially when it comes to Board transparency – i.e. the ability of shareholders to gain knowledge about an organization’s corporate governance practices in order to make an informed assessment of Directors’ individual and collective roles and performance. In a preliminary investigation of Board transparency practices in Canadian listed firms (using data from 2003-2004, it was found that there were wide variations in the nature and quantity of corporate governance practices disclosed. The reasons for these variations are discussed and a number of recommendations for improved disclosure are presented.

  20. Transparency of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk. A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context. (authors)

  1. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  2. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  3. Does doxastic transparency support evidentialism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate.......Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate....

  4. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  5. Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, Joachim A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphing functions is an important topic in algebra and precalculus high school courses. The functions that are usually discussed include polynomials, rational, exponential, and trigonometric functions along with their inverses. These functions can be used to teach different aspects of function theory: domain, range, monotonicity, inverse…

  6. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  7. Exploring the evolution of standard amino-acid alphabet: When genomics meets thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2007-01-01

    One of the most intriguing aspects of life is that despite the diversified apparent shapes, similar building blocks and infrastructures, such as standard amino acids and canonical genetic codes, are shared by most life on Earth. Thus, it is challenging to explore: why nature just selects these building blocks and strategies from numerous candidates to construct life? Was this deterministic or fortuitous? Thanks to the rapid progress in genomics, bioinformatics and synthetic biology, more and more basic principles underlying life design and construction were disclosed in the past decade. However, since the origin of early life is substantially a chemical process, to understand the enigma of life origin, chemists' efforts can not be neglected. In this paper, we focus on the evolution of standard amino-acid alphabet and indicate that chemistry, especially thermodynamics, is indeed critical to understanding the forming mechanisms of amino-acid alphabet. It is revealed that nature prefers low free energy and thus ubiquitous (cheap) small amino acids when beginning to build life, which is compatible with many recent findings from genomics and bioinformatics

  8. Why is Transparency Greenland Necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland is facing significant changes in the composition of its economy, and is moving rapidly in the direction of becoming a commodities economy. Studies conducted by Transparency International in other parts of the world suggest that oil exploration and mining are among the areas of economic...

  9. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services.…

  10. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  11. Camuflagem e transparência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de A. Silveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio estabelece, a partir da compreensão de ELIADE, analogias entre alguns símbolos universais e os rituais de morte desenvolvidos pela Enfermagem, desnudando a camuflagem ali existente e apontando sua transparência como forma de enriquecer a prática profissional, beneficiando cuidadora(es e sujeitos do cuidado.

  12. Camuflagem e transparência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de A. Silveira

    Full Text Available O ensaio estabelece, a partir da compreensão de ELIADE, analogias entre alguns símbolos universais e os rituais de morte desenvolvidos pela Enfermagem, desnudando a camuflagem ali existente e apontando sua transparência como forma de enriquecer a prática profissional, beneficiando cuidadora(es e sujeitos do cuidado.

  13. Legal framework to ensure transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a national and an international trend towards administrative transparency. This trend has not stopped at. the Swiss border. Some cantons of Switzerland have already introduced the transparency principle at the cantonal level. At the federal level, the Swiss Confederation introduced on 1 July 2006 the new Federal 'Freedom of Information Act'. Also the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (I-ISK) falls under this rule. Before introduction of this law on transparency. most of the documents of Swiss federal Administration were treated as confidential. Access rights to official documents were granted only on certain conditions and in special cases. But there is a general interest, that the public should have the possibility to ask to look at the files of the administration. Since years, the administration had no longer been able to hide behind secretiveness. For instance, the introduction of Internet brought a lot of transparency. The administration had to explain what sort of job it is actually doing and how it is doing. Also, the media were and are increasing their research for information. In this context, the new law on transparency ('Freedom of Information Act') is rather an evolution than a revolution. The Freedom of Information Act guarantees the public access to official documents. Most of the documents of the Federal Administration are public. This access can be limited, differentiated or refused in certain cases. That means that the principle of proportionality between private interests and public transparency has to be applied. The real challenge for the authority is the trade off between the public's right to access information and the industrial legitimate efforts to protect industrial and trade secrets. In the nuclear field, the international principle of transparency has also become an important national principle for Switzerland and FISK. The Swiss Nuclear Energy Act says that 'The relevant authorities shall regularly inform the general

  14. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua; Yang, Xu; Gu, Jianqiang; Jiang, Jun; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena

  15. Outside finance, dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies optimal financial contracts and product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. When firms seeking outside finance resort to actively monitored debt in order to commit against opportunistic behaviour, the dominant lender can influence corporate transparency.

  16. Categories and Dimensions of Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    Transparency is a distinctive area of research across disciplines and presents significant importance for organization studies. However, transparency is rarely subject to structured and critical scrutiny and as a result its relevance for organizational analysis is underestimated. In an attempt...... to foreground the value of transparency studies, we offer an overview of the existing research and indicate two paradigmatic positions underpinning the transparency literature, namely what we term non-performative and performative approaches. The main contribution of the paper lies in this ground......, an approach which remains underexplored. Finally, we discuss some avenues for future studies of the organizing properties of transparency: the secrecy-transparency interplay, the power-transparency nexus and the transparency ‘family tree’ (i.e., intersections between multiple forms of disclosure)....

  17. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  18. Playing the numbers game: Dealing with transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachidi, S.; Huysman, M.H.; Berends, Hans; van de Weerd, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Our research focus is on unpacking the performativity of transparency in order to explain how digital technologies, formerly perceived as enablers of surveillance and control, afford opaqueness as much as transparency. We develop a sociomaterial perspective on transparency and investigate how

  19. Organizational Transparency as Myth and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2015-01-01

    Transparency has achieved a mythical status in society. Myths are not false accounts or understandings, but deep-seated and definitive descriptions of the world that ontologically ground the ways in which we frame and see the world around us. We explore the mythical nature of transparency from...... of the transparency myth....

  20. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  1. Transparency in port-Hamiltonian based telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, C; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    After stability, transparency is the major issue in the design of a telemanipulation system. In this paper we exploit a behavioral approach in order to provide an index for the evaluation of transparency in port-Hamiltonian based teleoperators. Furthermore we provide a transparency analysis of

  2. Transparency in Port-Hamiltonian-Based Telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, Cristian; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, Cesare

    After stability, transparency is the major issue in the design of a telemanipulation system. In this paper, we exploit the behavioral approach in order to provide an index for the evaluation of transparency in port-Hamiltonian-based teleoperators. Furthermore, we provide a transparency analysis of

  3. Pixel masks for screen-door transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Mulder (Jurriaan); F.C.A. Groen; J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRendering objects transparently gives additional insight in complex and overlapping structures. However, traditional techniques for the rendering of transparent objects such as alpha blending are not very well suited for the rendering of multiple transparent objects in dynamic scenes.

  4. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  5. Natural language retrieval in nuclear safety information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komata, Masaoki; Oosawa, Yasuo; Ujita, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    A natural language retrieval program NATLANG is developed to assist in the retrieval of information from event-and-cause descriptions in Licensee Event Reports (LER). The characteristics of NATLANG are (1) the use of base forms of words to retrieve related forms altered by the addition of prefixes or suffixes or changes in inflection, (2) direct access and short time retrieval with an alphabet pointer, (3) effective determination of the items and entries for a Hitachi event classification in a two step retrieval scheme, and (4) Japanese character output with the PL-1 language. NATLANG output reduces the effort needed to re-classify licensee events in the Hitachi event classification. (author)

  6. Establishing language skills in Europe : The inspirations on Chinese foreign language study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, P.; Fu, G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to promote transparency and coherence for language learning, teaching and especially estimate, Council of Europe(CoE)developed the Common European Framework of Reference(CEFR) and European Language Portfolio(ELP).The CEFR and the ELP are one of the most influential documents of the last

  7. Target Advertising and Market Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...

  8. P -type transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n -type, such as Sn doped In 2 O 3 , Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO 2 . However, the development of efficient p -type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2 p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2 p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3 d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p -TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p -TCOs, including Cu + -based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr 3+ -based oxides (3 d 3 ) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2 ). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p -type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p -TCOs for transparent p – n junctions will also be briefly discussed. (topical review)

  9. When safety rhymes with transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Marion; Larroque, Damien; Vandermersch, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Transparency and Nuclear Safety Act, which took effect in 2006, requires each operator to document the measures taken to ensure nuclear safety and radiological protection and to list incidents and accidents as well as actions taken to protect the environment. This specifies the nature and limits of radioactive and non-radioactive releases, the quantity of waste to be stored at the facility, actions taken to limit waste volume, and effects on health and the environment, especially on soil and water. (authors)

  10. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  11. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  12. Unpacking the Right to Plain and Understandable Language in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being ...

  13. Cloaked in the Light: Language, Consciousness, and the Problem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    through language is fundamentally different from perception, how can one avoid the conclusion ..... faith of a descriptive psychology, the transparency of experience .... of prescriptive grammarians over proper usage. One ..... A: 'What privilege?

  14. Reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators: Trends in the alphabetization of authorship in economics and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    The paper adds a category to the list of possible negative steering effects of bibliometric indicators with a category for changes in credit assignment. The results of a longitudinal study of credit assignment practices in the fields of economics and information science are presented. The practice...... of alphabetization of authorship is demonstrated to vary significantly between the two fields. A slight increase is demonstrated to have taken place in economics during the last 30 years (1978-2007). A substantial decrease is demonstrated to have taken place in information science during the same period. A possible...... explanation for the demonstrated difference could be that information scientists have been much more aware of the bibliometric consequences of being first author compared to their colleagues in comparable fields (e.g., economics). This and other possible reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators...

  15. Unnatural base pair systems toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet in the central dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Ichiro; Kimoto, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet of DNA, several artificial third base pairs (unnatural base pairs) have been created. Synthetic DNAs containing the unnatural base pairs can be amplified faithfully by PCR, along with the natural A-T and G-C pairs, and transcribed into RNA. The unnatural base pair systems now have high potential to open the door to next generation biotechnology. The creation of unnatural base pairs is a consequence of repeating "proof of concept" experiments. In the process, initially designed base pairs were modified to address their weak points. Some of them were artificially evolved to ones with higher efficiency and selectivity in polymerase reactions, while others were eliminated from the analysis. Here, we describe the process of unnatural base pair development, as well as the tests of their applications.

  16. Balinese Alphabet Sebagai Aplikasi Media Pembelajaran Aksara Bali Berbasis Android Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ary Setiyawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksara Bali menjadi salah satu kekayaan budaya Bali yang hampir punah walaupun sebagaian besar insitusi pendidikan di Bali telah melakukan pembelajaran Aksara Bali tersebut. Metode pengajaran dapat menjadi salah satu faktor terhadap ketidaktertarikan siswa khususnya anak-anak akan Aksara Bali apabila penyampaian yang diberikan kurang. Media pembelajaran Aksara Balimenjadi solusi yang dikemas berbentuk sebuah aplikasi yang dapat dipasang/di-install pada gadget yang menggunakan sistem operasi Android. Aplikasi ini berfokuskan pada pembelajaran Aksara Bali (mengenal bentuk, bunyi, tulisan, dan merangkai kata serta permainan menggunakan Aksara Bali. Aplikasi Balinese Alphabet telah berjalan sukses pada sistem operasi Android dan termasuk dalam kategori baik sesuai pada hasil yang didapat dari hasil survey dengan rincian penilaian tertinggi dari aspek grafis visual dan audio terletak pada kategori baik dengan persentase sejumlah 47%, sedangkan penilaian tertinggi dari aspek entertainment dan pembelajaran terletak pada kategori baik dengan persentase sejumlah 57%.   Kata Kunci: Media Pembelajaran, Budaya Bali, Aksara Bali, Android.

  17. From algorithmic computing to direct retrieval: evidence from number and alphabetic arithmetic in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, P; Fayol, M

    1998-03-01

    A number of theories of mental arithmetic suggest that the ability to solve simple addition and subtraction problems develops from an algorithmic strategy toward a strategy based on the direct retrieval of the result from memory. In the experiment presented here, 2nd and 12th graders were asked to solve two tasks of number and alphabet arithmetic. The subjects transformed series of 1 to 4 numbers or letters (item span) by adding or subtracting an operand varying from 1 to 4 (operation span). Although both the item and operation span were associated with major and identical effects in the case of both numbers and letters at 2nd grade, such effects were clearly observable only in the case of letters for the adult subjects. This suggests the use of an algorithmic strategy for both types of material in the case of the children and for the letters only in the case of the adults, who retrieved numerical results directly from memory.

  18. SA-Search: a web tool for protein structure mining based on a Structural Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Frédéric; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Hochez, Joëlle; Tufféry, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    SA-Search is a web tool that can be used to mine for protein structures and extract structural similarities. It is based on a hidden Markov model derived Structural Alphabet (SA) that allows the compression of three-dimensional (3D) protein conformations into a one-dimensional (1D) representation using a limited number of prototype conformations. Using such a representation, classical methods developed for amino acid sequences can be employed. Currently, SA-Search permits the performance of fast 3D similarity searches such as the extraction of exact words using a suffix tree approach, and the search for fuzzy words viewed as a simple 1D sequence alignment problem. SA-Search is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/cgi-bin/SA-Search.

  19. Transparent conductor based on aluminum nanomesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarkin, B; Mohammed, A S; Stsiapanau, A; Zhuk, S; Satskevich, Y; Smirnov, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a transparent conductor based on Al nanomesh, which was fabricated through Al anodization and etching processes. The Al anodization was performed at low temperature condition to slow down the anodization rate to achieve the well-controlled thickness of an Al nanomesh. By careful controlling of the anodization process, we can fabricate Al nanomesh transparent conductors with different sheet resistance and optical transparency in the visible spectrum range. We shall show that Al nanomesh transparent conductor is a strong contender for a transparent conductor dominated by ITO

  20. Transparency in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with transparency schemes based on sharp cutoff models are discussed. The soft spheres model of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been used to explore the influence of the realistic nuclear density geometry on transparency. An average nuclear transparency and an average reaction transparency are defined and their dependence on target and projectile dimensions and on the hadron-nucleon collision cross section are described. The results are expected to be valid for projectile energies above several hundred MeV/nucleon through the ultrarelativistic regime. For uniform (hard sphere) nuclear profiles, methods for obtaining effective total transparencies are suggested

  1. Calibration and statistical techniques for building an interactive screen for learning of alphabets by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riby Abraham Boby

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation details of a portable interactive device called Image-projective Desktop Varnamala Trainer. The device uses a projector to produce a virtual display on a flat surface. For enabling interaction, the information about a user’s hand movement is obtained from a single two-dimensional scanning laser range finder in contrast with a camera sensor used in many earlier applications. A generalized calibration process to obtain exact transformation from projected screen coordinate system to sensor coordinate system is proposed in this article and implemented for enabling interaction. This permits production of large interactive displays with minimal cost. Additionally, it makes the entire system portable, that is, display can be produced on any planar surface like floor, tabletop, and so on. The calibration and its performance have been evaluated by varying screen sizes and the number of points used for calibration. The device was successfully calibrated for different screens. A novel learning-based methodology for predicting a user’s behaviour was then realized to improve the system’s performance. This has been experimentally evaluated, and the overall accuracy of prediction was about 96%. An application was then designed for this set-up to improve the learning of alphabets by the children through an interactive audiovisual feedback system. It uses a game-based methodology to help students learn in a fun way. Currently, it has bilingual (Hindi and English user interface to enable learning of alphabets and elementary mathematics. A user survey was conducted after demonstrating it to school children. The survey results are very encouraging. Additionally, a study to ascertain the improvement in the learning outcome of the children was done. The results clearly indicate an improvement in the learning outcome of the children who used the device over those who did not.

  2. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  3. Off the Charts: Medical documentation and selective redaction in the age of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew William; de Asua, Diego Real; Gabbay, Ezra; Fins, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    A growing demand for transparency in medicine has the potential to strain the doctor-patient relationship. While information can empower patients, unrestricted patient access to the electronic medical record may have unintended consequences. Medical documentation is often written in language that is inaccessible to people without medical training, and without guidance, patients have no way to interpret the constellation of acronyms, diagnoses, treatments, impressions, and arguments that appear throughout their own chart. Additionally, full transparency may not allow physicians the intellectual or clinical freedom they need to authentically express questions, problematic impressions, and concerns about the patient's clinical and psychosocial issues. This article examines the ethical challenges of transparency in the digital era and suggests that selective redaction may serve as a means to maintain transparency, affirm physician's discretion, and uphold the core values of the doctor-patient relationship amidst disruptive technological change.

  4. Exploring Quantitative Framework to Evaluate Nuclear Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jeemin; Yim, Mansung; Park, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a definition of nuclear transparency is elaborated and ways to represent a country's nuclear transparency are examined. For evaluating nuclear transparency, it is necessary to define three elements first; an information seeker who wants to see, an information seek whom an information seeker wants to see, and information related to nuclear materials and activities. The States with high capacity of civilian nuclear power had a tendency to follow IAEA safeguards agreements well. And it means that their levels of the transparency are relatively high. Besides, the data of international assurances is one of the good indicators to confirm States' transparency. The current study explored the use of two measures, IAEA safeguards and voluntary reporting as a way to represent nuclear transparency. Using these measures seemed to agree with the notion that nuclear transparency is important in the success of civilian nuclear power development

  5. Practice Variation in Big-4 Transparency Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girdhar, Sakshi; Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency reports published by the Big-4 public accounting firms in the UK, Germany and Denmark to understand the determinants of their content within the networks of big accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws...... on a qualitative research approach, in which the content of transparency reports is analyzed and semi-structured interviews are conducted with key people from the Big-4 firms who are responsible for developing the transparency reports. Findings: The findings show that the content of transparency reports...... is inconsistent and the transparency reporting practice is not uniform within the Big-4 networks. Differences were found in the way in which the transparency reporting practices are coordinated globally by the respective central governing bodies of the Big-4. The content of the transparency reports...

  6. Transparency as an element of public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the modern society, there is increasing demands for greater transparency. It has been discussed with respect to corruption or ethics issues in social science. The need for greater openness and transparency in nuclear regulation is widely recognised as public expectations on regulator grow. It is also related to the digital and information technology that enables disclosures of every activity and information of individual and organisation, characterised by numerous 'small brothers'. Transparency has become a key word in this ubiquitous era. Transparency in regulatory activities needs to be understood in following contexts. First, transparency is one of elements to build public confidence in regulator and eventually to achieve regulatory goal of providing the public with satisfaction at nuclear safety. Transparent bases of competence, independence, ethics and integrity of working process of regulatory body would enhance public confidence. Second, activities transmitting information on nuclear safety and preparedness to be accessed are different types of transparency. Communication is an active method of transparency. With increasing use of web-sites, 'digital transparency' is also discussed as passive one. Transparency in regulatory process may be more important than that of contents. Simply providing more information is of little value and specific information may need to be protected for security reason. Third, transparency should be discussed in international, national and organizational perspectives. It has been demanded through international instruments. for each country, transparency is demanded by residents, public, NGOs, media and other stakeholders. Employees also demand more transparency in operating and regulatory organisations. Whistle-blower may appear unless they are satisfied. Fourth, pursuing transparency may cause undue social cost or adverse effects. Over-transparency may decrease public confidence and the process for transparency may also hinder

  7. Sur l’origine de l’écriture libyque. Quelques propositions On the origin of the Libyco-Berber alphabet: A few proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Casajus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article propose quelques hypothèses sur l’origine des alphabets dits libyques. Attestés par plus d’un millier d’inscriptions recueillies dans toute l’Afrique du Nord, depuis la Libye jusqu’aux îles Canaries, ces alphabets sont selon toute vraisemblance les ancêtres des alphabets touaregs actuels. La seule inscription qui ait pu être datée avec un degré raisonnable de certitude est une bilingue libyco-punique, mise au jour sur le site de Dougga (Tunisie, qui daterait de 139 avant J.-C. Il semble que les alphabets libyques existaient déjà alors depuis plusieurs siècles. Leurs créateurs ont emprunté quelques lettres (au moins quatre aux alphabets phénico-puniques. Pour composer les autres lettres, ils semblent avoir eu recours à des procédés géométriques simples qu’on essaie ici de reconstituer.A few hypotheses about the origin of the so-called “Libyan” alphabets are presented. Attested in more than a thousand inscriptions from Libya to the Canary Islands in northern Africa, these alphabets are probably the forebears of the current ones used by the Tuareg. The only inscription that has been dated (139 BCE with a reasonable degree of certainty is bilingual, Libyco-Punic, from Dougga in Tunisia. The “Libyan” alphabets apparently already existed, several centuries earlier. Their creators borrowed a few — at least four — letters from the Phoenician/Punic alphabets; and apparently used simple geometric procedures, which are reconstituted herein, for the other letters.

  8. Transparency as Ideal and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    New Public Management (NPM) ideas and practices have significantly reshaped labour market policy. This article takes a closer look at some of the implications of NPM practices and “audit culture” at local Public Employment Service (PES) authorities in Sweden. Based on interviews with staff...... of government” that make transparent and “legible” desirable traits in the individual. Such classificatory schemes, we argue, are integral parts of the operational procedures of NPM. Moreover, the analysis shows that the categories through which the individual moves are plastic and pliable in relation...... to political predicates and labour market fluctuations. In this process, employability and disability become floating categories...

  9. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  10. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  11. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  12. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  13. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  14. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... narrative transparency. Central to narrative transparency is an emphasis on stake-holder dialogue and an invitation to stake-holders to play the role of auditor. This article illustrates how alternative marketing organisations engage in rhetorical tactics central to a narrative approach, to communicate...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  15. Privacy-Preserving Transparency-Enhancing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Pulls, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Transparency is a key principle in democratic societies. For example, the public sector is in part kept honest and fair with the help of transparency through different freedom of information (FOI) legislations. In the last decades, while FOI legislations have been adopted by more and more countries worldwide, we have entered the information age enabled by the rapid development of information technology. This has led to the need for technological solutions that enhance transparency, for exampl...

  16. Towards Transparency in Finance and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Tara Vishwanath; Daniel Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    The study of transparency is increasingly a more topical, broadly relevant, but also more under-researched enterprise. The Asian financial crisis has highlighted not only the welfare consequences of financial sector transparency, sparking a series of yet unresolved debates, but has also linked this relatively narrow problem to the broader context of transparency in governance. Its significance has broadened geographically as well as across different sectors. It has been observed that curtailm...

  17. The Multi-Faceted Concept of Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Transparency has become a catchword and in the economic-political debate is often seen as a universal remedy for all sorts of problems. In this paper, we analyze and discuss the meaning and use of the concept of transparency in economic research. We look for common denominators across different areas where the concept is used, and find that transparency in essence is about reductions in information asymmetries, and therefore entails the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver. Tra...

  18. Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yongmin; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-04-17

    Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including transparent conducting panels, broadband metamaterials, and antireflective solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Liquidity and Transparency in Bank Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lev Ratnovski

    2013-01-01

    Banks may be unable to refinance short-term liabilities in case of solvency concerns. To manage this risk, banks can accumulate a buffer of liquid assets, or strengthen transparency to communicate solvency. While a liquidity buffer provides complete insurance against small shocks, transparency covers also large shocks but imperfectly. Due to leverage, an unregulated bank may choose insufficient liquidity buffers and transparency. The regulatory response is constained: while liquidity buffers ...

  20. 3 CFR - Transparency and Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy... public. Government should be participatory. Public engagement enhances the Government's effectiveness and...

  1. The use of Sanskrit, an ancient language, as a tool to evaluate cleft palate speech problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajiwala Kalpesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech is a complex process. The evaluation of speech in an individual with cleft palate is difficult, and the existing classification of phonemes is complicated. Sanskrit, an ancient language, has an arrangement of alphabets that is orderly and scientific and therefore provides a simple means to understand the production of phonemes and memorize them. This article demonstrates the inherent advantage of this arrangement of Sanskrit alphabets to effectively analyze defective cleft palate speech and provides a tool for surgeons to decide a course of action in their routine clinical practice. Improved insight into the speech defect by the surgeon also facilitates better coordination with the speech language pathologist in assessment and treatment of a child with cleft palate.

  2. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G K

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages

  3. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr. [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  4. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards

  5. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jr, Thomas G [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  6. Radiation-shielding transparent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumeki, Asao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To obtain radiation-shielding transparent material having a high resistivity to the radioactive rays or light irradiation which is greater at least by two digits as compared with lead glass. Constitution : The shielding material is composed of a saturated aqueous solution zinc iodide. Zinc iodide (specific gravity of 4.2) is dissolved by 430 g into 100 cc of water at a temperature of 20 0 C and forms a heavy liquid with a specific gravity of 2.80. The radiation length of the heavy liquid is 3.8 cm which is 1.5 times as large as lead glass. The light transmission is greater than 95% in average. Furthermore, by adding hypophosphorous acid as a reducing agent to the aqueous solution of the lead iodide, the material is stabilized against the irradiation of light or radioactive rays and causes no discoloration for a long time. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Transparency and public value : Analyzing the transparency practices and value creation of public utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, S.C.; Meijer, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent transparency is a condition for the creation of public value. Transparency is usually narrowly defined as a tool for external stakeholders to monitor the internal workings of an organization, but public value management positions transparency as a broader

  8. The colors of the alphabet: naturally-biased associations between shape and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-04-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate children, and adults. We found that pre-literate children associate O with white and X with black and discovered that they also associate I and ameboid nonsense shapes with white; Z and jagged nonsense shapes with black; and C with yellow; but do not make a number of other associations (B blue; Y yellow; A red; G green) seen in literate children and adults. The toddlers' mappings were based on the shape and not the sound of the letter. The results suggest that sensory cortical organization initially binds specific colors to some specific shapes and that learning to read can induce additional associations, likely through the influence of higher order networks as letters take on meaning.

  9. Parameter-Invariant Hierarchical Exclusive Alphabet Design for 2-WRC with HDF Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Uřičář

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical eXclusive Code (HXC for the Hierarchical Decode and Forward (HDF strategy in the Wireless 2-Way Relay Channel (2-WRC has the achievable rate region extended beyond the classical MAC region. Although direct HXC design is in general highly complex, a layered approach to HXC design is a feasible solution. While the outer layer code of the layered HXC can be any state-of-the-art capacity approaching code, the inner layer must be designed in such a way that the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (received at the relay will be provided. The simplest case of the inner HXC layer is a simple signal space channel symbol memoryless mapper called Hierarchical eXclusive Alphabet (HXA. The proper design of HXA is important, especially in the case of parametric channels, where channel parametrization (e.g. phase rotation can violate the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (as seen by the relay, resulting in significant capacity degradation. In this paper we introduce an example of a geometrical approach to Parameter-Invariant HXA design, and we show that the corresponding hierarchical MAC capacity region extends beyond the classical MAC region, irrespective of the channel pametrization.

  10. Structural deformation upon protein-protein interaction: a structural alphabet approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juliette; Regad, Leslie; Lecornet, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2008-02-28

    In a number of protein-protein complexes, the 3D structures of bound and unbound partners significantly differ, supporting the induced fit hypothesis for protein-protein binding. In this study, we explore the induced fit modifications on a set of 124 proteins available in both bound and unbound forms, in terms of local structure. The local structure is described thanks to a structural alphabet of 27 structural letters that allows a detailed description of the backbone. Using a control set to distinguish induced fit from experimental error and natural protein flexibility, we show that the fraction of structural letters modified upon binding is significantly greater than in the control set (36% versus 28%). This proportion is even greater in the interface regions (41%). Interface regions preferentially involve coils. Our analysis further reveals that some structural letters in coil are not favored in the interface. We show that certain structural letters in coil are particularly subject to modifications at the interface, and that the severity of structural change also varies. These information are used to derive a structural letter substitution matrix that summarizes the local structural changes observed in our data set. We also illustrate the usefulness of our approach to identify common binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Our study provides qualitative information about induced fit. These results could be of help for flexible docking.

  11. Structural deformation upon protein-protein interaction: A structural alphabet approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecornet Hélène

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of protein-protein complexes, the 3D structures of bound and unbound partners significantly differ, supporting the induced fit hypothesis for protein-protein binding. Results In this study, we explore the induced fit modifications on a set of 124 proteins available in both bound and unbound forms, in terms of local structure. The local structure is described thanks to a structural alphabet of 27 structural letters that allows a detailed description of the backbone. Using a control set to distinguish induced fit from experimental error and natural protein flexibility, we show that the fraction of structural letters modified upon binding is significantly greater than in the control set (36% versus 28%. This proportion is even greater in the interface regions (41%. Interface regions preferentially involve coils. Our analysis further reveals that some structural letters in coil are not favored in the interface. We show that certain structural letters in coil are particularly subject to modifications at the interface, and that the severity of structural change also varies. These information are used to derive a structural letter substitution matrix that summarizes the local structural changes observed in our data set. We also illustrate the usefulness of our approach to identify common binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Conclusion Our study provides qualitative information about induced fit. These results could be of help for flexible docking.

  12. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  13. Arabic sign language recognition based on HOG descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jmaa, Ahmed; Mahdi, Walid; Ben Jemaa, Yousra; Ben Hamadou, Abdelmajid

    2017-02-01

    We present in this paper a new approach for Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet recognition using hand gesture analysis. This analysis consists in extracting a histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features from a hand image and then using them to generate an SVM Models. Which will be used to recognize the ArSL alphabet in real-time from hand gesture using a Microsoft Kinect camera. Our approach involves three steps: (i) Hand detection and localization using a Microsoft Kinect camera, (ii) hand segmentation and (iii) feature extraction using Arabic alphabet recognition. One each input image first obtained by using a depth sensor, we apply our method based on hand anatomy to segment hand and eliminate all the errors pixels. This approach is invariant to scale, to rotation and to translation of the hand. Some experimental results show the effectiveness of our new approach. Experiment revealed that the proposed ArSL system is able to recognize the ArSL with an accuracy of 90.12%.

  14. Terminology for the body in social interaction, as appearing in papers published in the journal 'Research on Language and Social Interaction', 1987-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a list of terms referring generally to the body in descriptions and analyses of social interaction, as used by authors in papers published in ROLSI. The list includes over 200 items, grouped according to common phrasing and within alphabetical order. The list was compiled in preparation...... for the review paper: Nevile, M. (2015) The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction,48(2): 121-151....

  15. Transparent face recognition in the home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, G.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The BASIS project is about the secure application of transparent biometrics in the home environment. Due to transparency and home-setting requirements there is variance in appearance of the subject. An other problem which needs attention is the extraction of features. The quality of the extracted

  16. Transparency | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transparency means openness. It allows Canadians to hold the government accountable through the proactive release of information on government activities, programs, policies, and services in formats that are easy to find, access, and use. Transparency is the key element in the Government of Canada's Commitment to ...

  17. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    .... Therefore, a published budget that does not include significant cash or non-cash resources, including... transparency is a critical element of effective public financial management, helps build market confidence, and sets the stage for economic sustainability. Transparency also provides a window into government budgets...

  18. Substantive Transparency Requirements in International Investment Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Jens Hillebrand

    2017-01-01

    Few concepts in public governance evoke a more positive sentiment than transparency. Whether ultimately grounded in expediency or morality, transparency has emerged out of its municipal origins and been received at the international plane. This article examines the current state of evolution of the

  19. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  20. 18 CFR 358.7 - Transparency rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transparency rule. 358.7 Section 358.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transparency rule. (a) Contemporaneous disclosure. (1) If a transmission provider discloses non-public...

  1. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  2. Transparency in netchains : evaluation and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Schepers, H.E.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper was written for KLICT to evaluate the focus area Transparency in Netchains. It revisits the definitions and research agenda in the review paper with which the focal area started (Hofstede 2002). The definition of transparency has turned out to serve its purpose. The research has

  3. Can transparency be measured - a look ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    The simple answer to this question is no. But if you define the expression and decide transparency actually is, the answer might be different. Transparency means different things in different places. In one country transparency meant almost total access to anything that a government authority has in its possession. In another country transparency is more strict access to certain decisions, decisions makers or documents written with the sole purpose of informing the public. What variables could be found in the word transparent, what is a transparent regulator? In this short presentation we will deal with some important settings or fundamental prerequisites for a regulator calling itself transparent. Perhaps we should look at them in order of importance. Some days it is difficult to do all at once. As a final point, if we as regulators wish to call ourselves transparent in a future with diminishing national borders, fast electronic communication and increasing world wide media impact, what does the world require from us as regulators? (author)

  4. Organizational Transparency in the Internet Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    as a panacea to concerns about privacy, organizational conduct and accountability, this paper explores the boundary work that goes into doing and promising transparency Using insights from the literature on transparency, ´sociologies of translations' and process approaches to organization, this paper captures...

  5. Transparency, price-dependent demand and product variety

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yiquan; Wenzel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between transparency on the consumer side and product variety as analyzed in Schultz (2009). We identify two welfare effects of transparency. More transparency decreases price-cost margins which is beneficial forwelfare. On the other hand, more transparency reduces variety which can be positive or negative for welfare. Overall, more transparency is always welfareimproving.

  6. The impact of records management system in transparency of public administrations: Transparency by design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustí Cerrillo Martínez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Records management system has a great impact in the improvement of transparency in public administration. Transparency by design refers to the inclusion of transparency duties stated by legislation in force in the records’ life cycle in a way that it guarantees citizens effective access to public information. In this paper, the changes that public administrations have to propel in their records management systems to improve public transparency and to make easy access to information are analysed. In particular, as a case study, provisions made by Law 19/2014, of December 29, on Transparency, Access to Public Information and Good Governance of Catalonia are explored.

  7. Competition for transparency as a carrier of competition. Transparency needs in the European wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Hanneke de; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses different transparency aspects regarding European wholesale electricity markets and discusses transparency issues to be solved. In Europe, currently some progress has been made with respect to market transparency but transparency issues related to transmission, system operation and regulation have received little attention so far. Transmission system operators (TSOs) and regulatory authorities need certain market information in order to secure efficient competition. However, TSOs and regulatory authorities need to communicate themselves in order to facilitate competition and decrease uncertainty among market participants. Furthermore, considering ongoing market integration both TSOs and regulatory authorities must exchange information amongst themselves in order to facilitate coordination and monitoring activities. The effect of a higher level of transparency on effective competition is depended on two categories of transparency aspects: aspects that are related to transparency in the sense of open and adequate communication (perspicuity) and aspects that are related to the easiness to understand (clarity). Transparency includes both aspects. Pursuing overall harmonization of the European transparency level is important to fully profit from a higher level of (international) harmonization. Effective harmonization requires harmonization on all communication aspects. For Europe, with its many immature markets, the dilemma remains whether it is preferable to have less transparency with a high level of harmonization or to have a higher level of transparency but a lower level of harmonization. (Author)

  8. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  9. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks Guest Feature Editors Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors Submission deadline: 15 June 2007 Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems. Scope of Submission The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics related to the interworking between core and edge networks. The core network

  10. The prevalence of synaesthesia depends on early language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcus R; Chromý, Jan; Crawford, Lyle; Eagleman, David M; Enns, James T; Akins, Kathleen A

    2017-02-01

    According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque). However, exploratory analyses suggested that this was because more Czechs learned non-native second languages, which was strongly associated with synaesthesia, consistent with the learning hypothesis. Furthermore, the incidence of synaesthesia among speakers of opaque languages was double that among speakers of transparent languages other than Czech, also consistent with the learning hypothesis. These findings contribute to an emerging understanding of synaesthetic development as a complex and lengthy process with multiple causal influences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Transparency in Global Environmental Governance: A Coming of Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article draws on the contributions to this special issue to consider the implications of a transparency turn in global environmental and sustainability governance. Three interrelated aspects are addressed: why transparency now? How is transparency being institutionalized? And what

  12. 76 FR 7522 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... transparency while retaining the protection of information that should be considered in the contracting process... the need for transparency in Government contracting information and believe these recommendations... Regulation; Enhancing Contract Transparency AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...

  13. MO-AB-201-03: The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroger, L. [University of California Davis (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  14. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  15. MO-AB-201-03: The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroger, L.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  16. The Link between Form and Meaning in American Sign Language: Lexical Processing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robin L.; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Signed languages exploit iconicity (the transparent relationship between meaning and form) to a greater extent than spoken languages. where it is largely limited to onomatopoeia. In a picture-sign matching experiment measuring reaction times, the authors examined the potential advantage of iconicity both for 1st- and 2nd-language learners of…

  17. Optimal Degrees of Transparency in Monetary Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    According to most academics and policymakers, transparency in monetary policymaking is desirable. I examine this proposition in a small theoretical model emphasizing forward-looking private sector behavior. Transparency makes it easier for price setters to infer the central bank's future policy...... intentions, thereby making current inflation more responsive to policy actions. This induces the central bank to pay more attention to inflation rather than output gap stabilization. Then, transparency may be disadvantageous. It may actually be a policy-distorting straitjacket if the central bank enjoys low...

  18. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  19. Double optomechanical transparency with direct mechanical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ling-Chao; Shi Rao; Xu Jun; Hu Xiang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We present a mechanism for double transparency in an optomechanical system. This mechanism is based on the coupling of a moving cavity mirror to a second mechanical oscillator. Due to the purely mechanical coupling and the radiation pressure, three pathways are established for excitations of the probe photons into the cavity photons. Destructive interference occurs at two different frequencies, leading to double transparency to the probe field. It is the coupling strength between the mechanical oscillators that determines the locations of the transparency windows. Moreover, the normal splitting appears for the generated Stokes field and the four-wave mixing process is inhibited on resonance. (paper)

  20. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  1. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  2. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  3. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  4. Transparent soil for imaging the rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Downie

    Full Text Available Understanding of soil processes is essential for addressing the global issues of food security, disease transmission and climate change. However, techniques for observing soil biology are lacking. We present a heterogeneous, porous, transparent substrate for in situ 3D imaging of living plants and root-associated microorganisms using particles of the transparent polymer, Nafion, and a solution with matching optical properties. Minerals and fluorescent dyes were adsorbed onto the Nafion particles for nutrient supply and imaging of pore size and geometry. Plant growth in transparent soil was similar to that in soil. We imaged colonization of lettuce roots by the human bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 showing micro-colony development. Micro-colonies may contribute to bacterial survival in soil. Transparent soil has applications in root biology, crop genetics and soil microbiology.

  5. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  7. Transparent Oxide Semiconductors for Emerging Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Transparent oxide electronics have emerged as promising materials to shape the future of electronics. While several n-type oxides have been already studied and demonstrated feasibility to be used as active materials in thin film transistors, high

  8. Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian Women Parliamentarians and Young Female University Students. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are ...

  9. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  10. On transparent potentials: a Born approximation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, C.

    1980-01-01

    In the frame of the scattering inverse problem at fixed energy, a class of potentials transparent in Born approximation is obtained. All these potentials are spherically symmetric and are oscillating functions of the reduced radial variable. Amongst them, the Born approximation of the transparent potential of the Newton-Sabatier method is found. In the same class, quasi-transparent potentials are exhibited. Very general features of potentials transparent in Born approximation are then stated. And bounds are given for the exact scattering amplitudes corresponding to most of the potentials previously exhibited. These bounds, obtained at fixed energy, and for large values of the angular momentum, are found to be independent on the energy

  11. Transparency of atom-sized superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-der-Post, N.; Peters, E.T.; Van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Yanson, I.K.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the transparency of atom-size superconducting tunnel junctions by comparing experimental values of the normal resistance and Subgap Structure with the theoretical predictions for these phenomena by Landauer's formula and Multiple Andreev Reflection, respectively

  12. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe in this paper a transparent conducting film (TCF). ... conducting carbon nanotube film which is crack-resistant for solar cell applications. ... CA 90095, USA; Nanocomp Technologies, Inc, 162 Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 03301 ...

  13. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  14. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education.

  15. Transparent wood for functional and structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yang, Xuan; Berglund, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Optically transparent wood combines mechanical performance with optical functionalities is an emerging candidate for applications in smart buildings and structural optics and photonics. The present review summarizes transparent wood preparation methods, optical and mechanical performance, and functionalization routes, and discusses potential applications. The various challenges are discussed for the purpose of improved performance, scaled-up production and realization of advanced applications. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  16. Transparent Hydrophobic Coating by Sol Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2016-01-01

    Transparent hydrophobic coating of inorganic based tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by sol gel method by varying fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) content which works as hydrophobic agent. Surface contact angle, transmittance degree and surface morphology were characterized for each sample. All samples show good transparency which was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity obtained increases with FAS content indicates that FAS is best candidate to induce hydrophobicity for inorganic coating. (author)

  17. Architectural drawing, intention, perception and Gestalt. Transparencies, stratification and graphic polyphony

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Alba, Carlos L.; Allepuz Pedreño, Ángel; Juan Gutiérrez, Pablo Jeremías

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Gestalt theory laid the foundations to infer perceptual laws through empirical experiences relating the phenomenon of visual perception with epistemology. Thus, determining perceptual aspects involved in graphic design or in pictorial language itself could be intentionally used ever since based on the knowledge of these perceptual of laws. Some of these, such as ground-figure, continuity, closure or the different expressive possibilities arising from the use of transparency allow to unfo...

  18. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF SCHOLARSHIP ON SECOND LANGUAGE COMPOSING PROCESSES: 1976-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Reichelt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two sections: (1 an annotated bibliography of full-length, published, (mostly basic research on second language writing and overviews thereof, and (2 an unannotated bibliography of both basic and applied research (mostly unpublished and commentary on second language composing. Both sections have been arranged in chronological order to allow readers to follow the development of scholarship in this area. Entries are listed alphabetically within a given year. While this bibliography is extensive, it is not meant to be exhaustive, and while the focus here is on research, many of the studies included address pedagogical matters in a substantive manner.

  19. Transparency in Canadian public drug advisory committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Transparency in health care resource allocation decisions is a criterion of a fair process. We used qualitative methods to explore transparency across 11 Canadian drug advisory committees. We developed seven criteria to assess transparency (disclosure of members' names, disclosure of membership selection criteria, disclosure of conflict of interest guidelines and members' conflicts, public posting of decisions not to fund drugs, public posting of rationales for decisions, stakeholder input, and presence of an appeals mechanism) and two sub-criteria for when rationales were posted (direct website link and readability). We interviewed a purposeful sample of key informants who were conversant in English and a current or past member of either a committee or a stakeholder group. We analyzed data using a thematic approach. Interviewing continued until saturation was reached. We examined documents from 10 committees and conducted 27 interviews. The median number of criteria addressed by committees was 2 (range 0-6). Major interview themes included addressing: (1) accessibility issues, including stakeholders' degree of access to the decision making process and appeal mechanisms; (2) communication issues, including improving internal and external communication and public access to information; and (3) confidentiality issues, including the use of proprietary evidence. Most committees have some mechanisms to address transparency but none had a fully transparent process. The most important ways to improve transparency include creating formal appeal mechanisms, improving communication, and establishing consistent rules about the use of, and public access to, proprietary evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency with matched pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the last several years there have been studies and experiments showing how, by applying an additional laser beam, optically-thick transitions may be rendered nearly transparent to probing radiation. This transparency results from a quantum interference, very much like a Fano interference, which is established by the additional laser. This talk describes the difference between the quantum interference as exhibited by an independent atom and by an optically-thick ensemble of atoms. We find that an ensemble of atoms establishes transparency through a strong nonlinear interaction which, for a lambda system, tends to generate a matching temporal envelope on the complementary transition. For a ladder system, phase conjugate pulses are generated and, after a characteristic distance, establish transparency. The transparency of an optically-thick medium is therefore not a Beer's law superposition of the independent atom response. To transmit a pulse through an otherwise opaque media, the front edge of the complementary pulse should lead, in the manner of open-quotes counter-intuitiveclose quotes adiabatic transfer, the front edge of the pulse which is to be rendered transparent. Thereafter the pulses should be matched or, for a ladder system, phase-conjugately matched

  1. Lutetium oxide-based transparent ceramic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Zachary; Cherepy, Nerine; Kuntz, Joshua; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-19

    In one embodiment, a transparent ceramic of sintered nanoparticles includes gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with europium having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YEu.sub.YO.sub.3, where X is any value within a range from about 0.05 to about 0.45 and Y is any value within a range from about 0.01 to about 0.2, and where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm. In another embodiment, a transparent ceramic scintillator of sintered nanoparticles, includes a body of sintered nanoparticles including gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with a rare earth activator (RE) having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YRE.sub.YO.sub.3, where RE is selected from the group consisting of: Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy, where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm.

  2. LOOP CALCULUS AND BELIEF PROPAGATION FOR Q-ARY ALPHABET: LOOP TOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; CHERNYAK, VLADIMIR [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    Loop calculus introduced in [1], [2] constitutes a new theoretical tool that explicitly expresses symbol Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) solution of a general statistical inference problem via a solution of the Belief Propagation (BP) equations. This finding brought a new significance to the BP concept, which in the past was thought of as just a loop-free approximation. In this paper they continue a discussion of the Loop Calculus, partitioning the results into three Sections. In Section 1 they introduce a new formulation of the Loop Calculus in terms of a set of transformations (gauges) that keeping the partition function of the problem invariant. The full expression contains two terms referred to as the 'ground state' and 'excited states' contributions. The BP equations are interpreted as a special (BP) gauge fixing condition that emerges as a special orthogonality constraint between the ground state and excited states, which also selects loop contributions as the only surviving ones among the excited states. In Section 2 they demonstrate how the invariant interpretation of the Loop Calculus, introduced in Section 1, allows a natural extension to the case of a general q-ary alphabet, this is achieved via a loop tower sequential construction. The ground level in the tower is exactly equivalent to assigning one color (out of q available) to the 'ground state' and considering all 'excited' states colored in the remaining (q-1) colors, according to the loop calculus rule. Sequentially, the second level in the tower corresponds to selecting a loop from the previous step, colored in (q-1) colors, and repeating the same ground vs excited states splitting procedure into one and (q-2) colors respectively. The construction proceeds till the full (q-1)-levels deep loop tower (and the corresponding contributions to the partition function) are established. In Section 3 they discuss an ultimate relation between the loop calculus and the Bethe

  3. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Sekerin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  4. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  5. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  6. Organizational Transparency & Sense Making: The case of Northern Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Organizational transparency is associated with mutual understanding and consensus between the organization and its constituents, but is typically defined as information disclosure. Such definitions pose the risk of simplification and provide incomplete understandings of the transparency phenomenon....... Additionally, research rarely focuses on how transparency is translated within crisis situations. This article presents a sense-making and discourse analysis perspective of transparency. We use the case of the British bank Northern Rock to show how this bank and its stakeholders enacted transparency...

  7. Transparent Data Encryption -- Solution for Security of Database Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Dr. Anwar Pasha; Qureshi, Dr. Riyazuddin

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with Transparent Data Encryption which is a technology used to solve the problems of security of data. Transparent Data Encryption means encrypting databases on hard disk and on any backup media. Present day global business environment presents numerous security threats and compliance challenges. To protect against data thefts and frauds we require security solutions that are transparent by design. Transparent Data Encryption provides transparent, standards-based secur...

  8. Economy and Transparency: The Model Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relation of Transparency and Economic growth is a long global debate in the society. Theoretically, policy makers, scholars and researchers argue that there is a close relation among these two variables. However, the quantitative relation and any global model is yet unrevealed. So, the main aim of this paper is to ascertain the nature, dimension and extent of the relationship between economy and Transparency as well as to invent a global model. This paper is useful for researchers, planners, policy makers and scholars who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the thrust for quantitative relation of these two variables. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In introductory section, this paper briefly describes theoretical relationship of economy and Transparency as well as it also describes the proxy variables.GDP (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI scores (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of level of Transparency. In methodology section this paper describes the detail methodology, sampling procedure and level of analysis. This study randomly selects 30 countries (10 from higher CPI scores+10 from moderate CPI scores+ 10 from lower CPI scores around the globe as sample. In the third section, this research presents the correlation value which divulge that there is a positive correlation (p=.047 with 95% confidence level. That reveals, if the level of transparency of any country increase, the GDP also increase accordingly. Then in this section two quantitative models are developed using linear regression analysis. First invented model is: Economy (GDP in billion US$ = [(8.983*Level of transparency -108.11]. This paper termed the first invented model as “Mahmud EcoT Model-1”. This model calibrates that one unit improvement of transparency leads 8.98 billion US$ improvement in the GDP of a country. Then taking this unit

  9. Transparency in Europe: A Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, Frederic; Way, Dominic; Löfstedt, Ragnar; Evensen, Darrick

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, European pharmaceutical regulators have increasingly committed to heightening access to raw safety-related data as part of a wave of transparency initiatives (e.g., providing public Internet-mediated access to clinical trials data). Yet, the regulators--who are under significant pressure--have not yet benefited from a systematic review of this new policy. In seeking to inject much needed evidence, this article explores the effects of new transparency policies designed to promote meaningful communication of risks and benefits to patients. Results of a cross-national European survey with respondents from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, France, Germany, and Sweden (N = 5,648) shed light on how patients and the public are likely to react to the regulators' new transparency policies. The findings demonstrate clear national variations in how European citizens are likely to react and emphasize the need to develop evidence-based, reasoned transparency policies that integrate benefit-risk communication. The authors conclude by providing six specific recommendations, informed by the study, that seek to improve the European transparency model both within the medical field and across health, safety, and environmental policy domains. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPARENCY:A CONCEPTUAL DISSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andreea SÎNTEJUDEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transparency has increasingly attracted the attention of academic, political and business areas. Many studies have demonstrated the need for adopting this corporate governance principle also in the public sector, a phenomenon that has become widespread at international level. The academic study field defines transparency as the ability to look clearly through the window of an institution. Starting from this statement, the research focuses on the importance of transparency in public governance and on the framework for identifying and assessing this concept. Furthermore, this paper also analysis the limits of this notion in order to maintain its significance and effectiveness. Thus, based on the literature review, this study summarizes the opinions and arguments of various authors in the field regarding the notion of transparency in the public sector. At the same time, it analysis the conclusions of empirical studies on this topic. The results of the study reveal the importance and necessity of information disclosure among different users for increasing citizens' trust in government and achieving good governance. However, the positive aspects of transparency tend to be overestimated and considering the ambiguity of this concept it should be carefully handled.

  11. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  12. Tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presley, R E; Munsee, C L; Park, C-H; Hong, D; Wager, J F; Keszler, D A

    2004-01-01

    A SnO 2 transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT) is demonstrated. The SnO 2 channel layer is deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then rapid thermal annealed in O 2 at 600 deg. C. The TTFT is highly transparent, and enhancement-mode behaviour is achieved by employing a very thin channel layer (10-20 nm). Maximum field-effect mobilities of 0.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 2.0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are obtained for enhancement- and depletion-mode devices, respectively. The transparent nature and the large drain current on-to-off ratio of 10 5 associated with the enhancement-mode behaviour of these devices may prove useful for novel gas-sensor applications

  13. [Transparency in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Transparent Ceramic Scintillator Fabrication, Properties and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepy, N.J.; Kuntz, J.D.; Roberts, J.J.; Hurst, T.A.; Drury, O.B.; Sanner, R.D.; Tillotson, T.M.; Payne, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transparent ceramics offer an alternative to single crystals for scintillator applications such as gamma ray spectroscopy and radiography. We have developed a versatile, scaleable fabrication method, using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) to produce feedstock which is readily converted into phase-pure transparent ceramics. We measure integral light yields in excess of 80,000 Ph/MeV with Cerium-doped Garnets, and excellent optical quality. Avalanche photodiode readout of Garnets provides resolution near 6%. For radiography applications, Lutetium Oxide offers a high performance metric and is formable by ceramics processing. Scatter in transparent ceramics due to secondary phases is the principal limitation to optical quality, and afterglow issues that affect the scintillation performance are presently being addressed

  15. Transparent Solar Concentrator for Flat Panel Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chang, Fuh-Yu; Young, Hong-Tsu; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chia-Hsiung

    2012-06-01

    A new concept of the transparent solar concentrator for flat panel display is experimentally demonstrated without adversely affecting the visual effects. The solar concentrator is based on a solar light-guide plate with micro prisms, not only increasing the absorption area of solar energy but also enhancing the conversion efficiency. The incident light is guided by the designed solar light-guide plate according to the total internal reflection (TIR), and converted into electrical power by photovoltaic solar cells. The designed transparent solar concentrator was made and measured with high transparency, namely 94.8%. The developed solar energy system for display can store energy and supply the bias voltage to light on two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) successfully.

  16. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  17. Native language effects on spelling in English as a foreign language: a time-course study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Pedersen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The study explores first language (L1) influences on the mechanisms of spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL). We hypothesized that the transparency of L1 orthography influences (a) the amount of hesitation associated with spelling irregular English words, and (b) the size of units EFL...... spellers operate. Participants were adult speakers of three languages differing by the degree of transparency, Danish, Russian, and Italian (n = 60), and a group of English native speakers (n = 20). We analyzed keystroke logs from typed spellings of 30 English words. The amount of hesitation (number...... of corrections and number of long within-word pauses), was equal across all participants groups, thus disconfirming our first hypothesis. Inter-key intervals between onsets and rhymes were longer than within-rhyme intervals, but only in Danes and native English speakers, and not in Russians and Italians. We...

  18. Transparent Proxy for Secure E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalák, Juraj; Hudec, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the security of e-mail messages and e-mail server implementation by means of a transparent SMTP proxy. The security features include encryption and signing of transported messages. The goal is to design and implement a software proxy for secure e-mail including its monitoring, administration, encryption and signing keys administration. In particular, we focus on automatic public key on-the-fly encryption and signing of e-mail messages according to S/MIME standard by means of an embedded computer system whose function can be briefly described as a brouter with transparent SMTP proxy.

  19. Customer satisfaction: The role of transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  20. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  1. Nuclear transparencies from photoinduced pion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Cosyn; M.C. Martinez; J. Ryckebusch; B. Van Overmeire

    2006-12-01

    We present a relativistic and cross-section factorized framework for computing nuclear transparencies extracted from A({gamma}, {pi} N) reactions at intermediate energies. The proposed quantum mechanical model adopts a relativistic extension to the multiple-scattering Glauber approximation to account for the final state interactions of the ejected nucleon and pion. The theoretical predictions are compared against the experimental {sup 4}He({gamma},p {pi}{sup -}) data from Jefferson Lab. For those data, our results show no conclusive evidence for the onset of mechanisms related to color transparency.

  2. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency In Rydberg Atomic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2018-03-01

    Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium.

  3. Gradually, the industry world opens for transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article comments some noticeable evolutions of various industrial sectors towards information transparency. It indicates the four types of structures which exist in France for local information on nuclear installations (CLI and CI), on waste processing installations (CSS), and on industrial pollutions (SPPPI), comments the efforts made by the different actors and industries of the French nuclear sector (public debates, visits, legal framework, local commissions of information, authorities like ASN and IRSN), addresses the case of chemical industry (a slow implementation of transparency due to a different and more spread organisation), and outlines that the oil and gas industry presents less opportunities for a dialogue

  4. Transparent oxide electronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Rodrigo; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at lo

  5. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  6. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  7. Transparent ‘solution’ of ultrathin magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals for flexible and transparent nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Sun, Qian; Chen, Bo; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Jian-Feng; Wu, Xi; Zou, Hai-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Transparent solutions of nanocrystals exhibit many unique properties, and are thus attractive materials for numerous applications. However, the synthesis of transparent nanocrystal solutions of magnesium hydroxide (MH) with wide applications is yet to be realized. Here, we report a facile two-step process, which includes a direct reactive precipitation in alcohol phase instead of aqueous phase combined with a successive surface modification, to prepare transparent alcohol solutions containing lamellar MH nanocrystals with an average size of 52 nm and an ultrathin thickness of 1–2 nm, which is the thinnest MH nanoplatelet reported in the literatures. Further, highly flexible and transparent nanocomposite films are fabricated with a solution mixing method by adding the transparent MH nanocrystal solutions into PVB solution. Considering the simplicity of the fabrication process, high transparency and good flexibility, this MH/polymer nanocomposite film is promising for flame-resistant applications in plastic electronics and optical devices with high transparency, such as flexible displays, optical filters, and flexible solar cells. (paper)

  8. Language study on Spliced Semigraph using Folding techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, K.; Padmashree, J.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed algorithm to identify cut vertices and cut edges for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph and splicing the n-Cut Spliced Semigraph using cut vertices else cut edges or combination of cut vertex and cut edge and applying sequence of folding to the spliced semigraph to obtain the semigraph quadruple η(S)=(2, 1, 1, 1). We observed that the splicing and folding using both cut vertices and cut edges is applicable only for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph where n > 2. Also, we transformed the spliced semigraph into tree structure and studied the language for the semigraph with n+2 vertices and n+1 semivertices using Depth First Edge Sequence algorithm and obtain the language structure with sequence of alphabet ‘a’ and ‘b’.

  9. Similarities and differences between Turkic languages and comparative methods in teaching them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulzura Zhumakunova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkic languages are cognate language which stem back to the single ancestor – Proto-Turkic language. In the course of long and convoluted history of Turkic-speaking peoples, all of their languages suffered various degrees of change on every level of its structure – in phonemes, morphemes, vocabulary and syntax. At the same time, all of these languages have preserved some of their common features which link them to their ancestor tongue. In this article, the author, from her long experience of teaching Kyrgyz at Ankara University, explains her vision of teaching Turkic languages in general and describes the methods and approaches which she deems helpful in successful teaching on university level. In teaching a Turkic language, the main objective is not to focus on language study as such, but take a breathtaking journey along the hidden paths of one’s mother tongue and get to understand it in a more profound way, in its historical retrospective. Turkic languages have always attracted linguists and were in the focus of their studies. Getting acquainted with various linguistic theories and the works of prominent Turkologists, as seen from teaching practice, is also very helpful to shape an enduring interest in learning both the target language and first language more profoundly. We also have to take into account such extralinguistic factors as the objective of language study, friendliness of the environment and the demand for language in a given environment. The article examines these issues through the alphabets and their various uses among Turkic peoples. When setting up a language study program, it is also important to take into account how familiar students are with the target language. Overall, this new type of work required a fundamental study of methodological foundations of language teaching. New types of academic and learners’ dictionaries have to be prepared, as well as new textbooks to help students of a specific Turkic language.

  10. Learning to Write in Braille: An Analysis of Writing Samples from Participants in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted (ABC) Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Jane N.; Wright, Tessa S.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of data from 114 writing samples of 39 children who read braille and who were included in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille (ABC) Study between 2002 and 2005. Writing characteristics, miscues, and composition characteristics are analyzed, and two case studies are included. (Contains 1 box and 2 tables.)

  11. The Effectiveness of Using Augmented Reality Apps in Teaching the English Alphabet to Kindergarten Children: A Case Study in the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Al-Jafar, Ali A.; Al-Yousefi, Zainab H.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental research study scrutinized the effectiveness of using augmented reality (AR) applications (apps) as a teaching and learning tool when instructing kindergarten children in the English alphabet in the State of Kuwait. The study compared two groups: (a) experimental, taught using AR apps, and (b) control, taught using traditional…

  12. Fluency and Accuracy in Alphabet Writing by Keyboarding : A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Elaine; Morales, Celia; Gil, Verónica; Jiménez-Suárez, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether children with and without difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or both differed in alphabet writing when using a keyboard. The total sample consisted of 1,333 children from Grades 1 through 3. Scores on the spelling and handwriting factors from the

  13. Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Diaz, Alicia; Artiles, Ceferino

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The "Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado"…

  14. Transparent Watercolor. Art Education: 6673.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    An introductory course designed to develop skills and techniques in transparent watercolor offers an exploration of a variety of techniques emphasizing drawing and composition and allowing the student to create and matt his own paintings. Students in grades 7 through 12 develop competencies in flat and graded wash and dry and stipple brush…

  15. Color transparency experiments at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippone, B.W. [Caifornia Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The phenomena of Color Transparency has recently attracted a significant amount of theoretical (and experimental) interest. With an increase in the CEBAF beam energy to 8 - 10 GeV, important new data on the process could become available. The present status of the experiments and future prospects at CEBAF are discussed.

  16. Fiscal Transparency, Elections and Public Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable variation in levels and changes in public employment within and between developed democracies. This article highlights the importance of fiscal transparency in determining changes in public employment. It argues that economic growth increases public employment under low fiscal...

  17. Providing Transparency to the Title IX Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Terry

    2017-01-01

    When U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos announced Sept. 7, 2017, that her department would revisit how Title IX rules are enforced with respect to campus sexual assault, she said the first step would be a "transparent notice and comment process" to replace the 2011 "guidance" (and follow up 2014 guidance) that has been…

  18. Tackling Production Techniques: Telling Tales with Transparencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1986-01-01

    This lesson introduces students to procedures for creating both hand-drawn and machine-made transparencies and requires each of them to create one example to illustrate the same story. Detailed plans include performance objectives, materials needed, instructions for presenting the lesson, a sample student task card, and suggestions for evaluating…

  19. A TECHNOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENT E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain technologies and recently card readers with biometric authentication have been employed to achieve transparent polls. However, high level frauds still accompany results due to human control of these technological devices and have not generated the required trust resulting in a drastic decrease in voter ...

  20. Transparent and Flexible Supercapacitors with Networked Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthika, S; Sow, Chaitali; Kulkarni, G U

    2017-10-01

    Transparent and flexible energy storage devices have received immense attention due to their suitability for innovative electronics and displays. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate devices with high storage capacity and high degree of transmittance. This study describes a simple process for fabrication of supercapacitors with ≈75% of visible transparency and areal capacitance of ≈3 mF cm -2 with high stability tested over 5000 cycles of charging and discharging. The electrodes consist of Au wire networks obtained by a simple crackle template method which are coated with MnO 2 nanostructures by electrodeposition process. Importantly, the membrane separator itself is employed as substrate to bring in the desired transparency and light weight while additionally exploiting its porous nature in enhancing the interaction of electrolyte with the active material from both sides of the substrate, thereby enhancing the storage capacity. The method opens up new ways for fabricating transparent devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance

  2. Listed Firm's Level of Stakeholder Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes how Danish listed firms comply with the Danish Corporate Governance Code's recommendations regarding the categories: Role of shareholders, role of stakeholders and transparency. It is shown that the number of recommendations can be explained by six different underlying facto...

  3. Can Nudges Be Transparent and Yet Effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bruns (Hendrik); E. Kantorowicz-Reznichenko (Elena); K. Klement (Katharina); M. Luistro Jonsson (Marijane); B. Rahali (Bilel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstract‘Nudges’ receive growing attention as an effective strategy to alter people's decisions without significantly changing economic incentives or limiting options. However, being often very subtle and covert, nudges are also criticized as unethical. By not being transparent about the

  4. Practice variation in Big-4 transparency reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girdhar, Sakshi; Jeppesen, K.K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency reports published by the Big-4 public accounting firms in the UK, Germany and Denmark to understand the determinants of their content within the networks of big accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach The study draws on a

  5. International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By offering a common format and central repository, the IATI improves the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of international aid. It is used ... organizations. IDRC is one of almost 400 participants who publish project titles and descriptions, country and geographic area, aid type, dates, and budget information.

  6. Printable Transparent Conductive Films for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Printed electronics are an important enabling technology for the development of low-cost, large-area, and flexible optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive films (TCFs) made from solution-processable transparent conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers, can simultaneously exhibit high mechanical flexibility, low cost, and better photoelectric properties compared to the commonly used sputtered indium-tin-oxide-based TCFs, and are thus receiving great attention. This Review summarizes recent advances of large-area flexible TCFs enabled by several roll-to-roll-compatible printed techniques including inkjet printing, screen printing, offset printing, and gravure printing using the emerging transparent conductive materials. The preparation of TCFs including ink formulation, substrate treatment, patterning, and postprocessing, and their potential applications in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and touch panels are discussed in detail. The rational combination of a variety of printed techniques with emerging transparent conductive materials is believed to extend the opportunities for the development of printed electronics within the realm of flexible electronics and beyond. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Transparent conducting materials: Overview and recent results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Illiberi, A.; Hovestad, A.; Barbu, I.; Klerk, L.; Buskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to

  8. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  9. Collinear light scattering using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Sokolov, A.V.; Walker, D.R.; Yavuz, D.D.; Yin, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes two types of nonlinear optical processes which are based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These are: (1) Collinear generation of FM-like Raman sidebands and (2) a type of pondermotive light scattering which is inherent to the interaction of slow light with cold atoms. Connections to other areas of EIT-based nonlinear optics are also described

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to slow and stop broadband laser pulses inside an atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion of Harris et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 552 (1993)], the key idea is to use matched Fourier components for the probe and coupling laser beams

  11. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  12. The PP2C Alphabet is a negative regulator of stress-activated protein kinase signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Caroline; Sahmi, Malha; Ashton-Beaucage, Dariel; Stronach, Beth; Therrien, Marc

    2009-02-01

    The Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 pathways, also known as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways, are signaling conduits reiteratively used throughout the development and adult life of metazoans where they play central roles in the control of apoptosis, immune function, and environmental stress responses. We recently identified a Drosophila Ser/Thr phosphatase of the PP2C family, named Alphabet (Alph), which acts as a negative regulator of the Ras/ERK pathway. Here we show that Alph also plays an inhibitory role with respect to Drosophila SAPK signaling during development as well as under stress conditions such as oxidative or genotoxic stresses. Epistasis experiments suggest that Alph acts at a step upstream of the MAPKKs Hep and Lic. Consistent with this interpretation, biochemical experiments identify the upstream MAPKKKs Slpr, Tak1, and Wnd as putative substrates. Together with previous findings, this work identifies Alph as a general attenuator of MAPK signaling in Drosophila.

  13. Hidden Markov model-derived structural alphabet for proteins: the learning of protein local shapes captures sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Tufféry, P

    2005-08-05

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depend on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have recently set up a Hidden Markov Model to optimally compress protein three-dimensional conformations into a one-dimensional series of letters of a structural alphabet. Such a model learns simultaneously the shape of representative structural letters describing the local conformation and the logic of their connections, i.e. the transition matrix between the letters. Here, we move one step further and report some evidence that such a model of protein local architecture also captures some accurate amino acid features. All the letters have specific and distinct amino acid distributions. Moreover, we show that words of amino acids can have significant propensities for some letters. Perspectives point towards the prediction of the series of letters describing the structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence.

  14. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  15. Emergent name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S

    2009-01-01

    The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.

  16. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  17. Unimodal and multimodal regions for logographic language processing in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eDeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human neocortex appears to contain a dedicated visual word form area (VWFA and an adjacent multimodal (visual/auditory area. However, these conclusions are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of alphabetic language processing, languages that have clear grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence (GPC rules that make it difficult to disassociate visual-specific processing from form-to-sound mapping. In contrast, the Chinese language has no clear GPC rules. Therefore, the current study examined whether native Chinese readers also have the same VWFA and multimodal area. Two cross-modal tasks, phonological retrieval of visual words and orthographic retrieval of auditory words, were adopted. Different task requirements were also applied to explore how different levels of cognitive processing modulate activation of putative VWFA-like and multimodal-like regions. Results showed that the left occipitotemporal sulcus responded exclusively to visual inputs and an adjacent region, the left inferior temporal gyrus, showed comparable activation for both visual and auditory inputs. Surprisingly, processing levels did not significantly alter activation of these two regions. These findings indicated that there are both unimodal and multimodal word areas for non-alphabetic language reading, and that activity in these two word-specific regions are independent of task demands at the linguistic level.

  18. A meaning for transparency in decision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wene, C.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy System Technology; Espejo, R. [Univ. of Lincolnshire and Humberside, Lincoln (United Kingdom). Lincoln School of Management

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we discuss transparency in decision processes. We argue that transparency requires fostering, producing and maintaining distributed dialogues and communications between all those affected by (the stakeholders) and those producing these decisions (the decision makers and the actors/experts). The issues raised in these dialogues will not only refer to questions of technical efficiency, but also to what is right and fair and what is considered to be good in society. Social policies, particularly those of wide social significance, are in one form or another the outcome of multiple meaning creation processes, reflecting their multiple spheres of influence, from the local to the global, from the disciplinary to the multi- and transdisciplinary. Each of these processes requires transparency. This paper is focused on the structural requirements to make these dialogues and communications effective at all levels, taking into account the need for technical explanation, proof of authenticity and legitimacy of actions. Moreover it is concerned with the alignment of these meanings creation processes in order to increase the chances of having not only a distributed but also a coherent overall decision process. Our emphasis is in defining forms of interaction among stakeholders in order to ground the debate of the policy throughout the organisation, beyond senior levels of management. The aim is increasing the demands on those responsible for policy implementation, stretching them so that they offer the best of themselves. We argue that this is the basis for a structural mechanism for transparency. The outcome of this paper is a conceptual framework to study issues of transparency in policy making which is illustrated with reference to nuclear waste management in Sweden.

  19. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  20. A meaning for transparency in decision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wene, C.O.; Espejo, R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss transparency in decision processes. We argue that transparency requires fostering, producing and maintaining distributed dialogues and communications between all those affected by (the stakeholders) and those producing these decisions (the decision makers and the actors/experts). The issues raised in these dialogues will not only refer to questions of technical efficiency, but also to what is right and fair and what is considered to be good in society. Social policies, particularly those of wide social significance, are in one form or another the outcome of multiple meaning creation processes, reflecting their multiple spheres of influence, from the local to the global, from the disciplinary to the multi- and transdisciplinary. Each of these processes requires transparency. This paper is focused on the structural requirements to make these dialogues and communications effective at all levels, taking into account the need for technical explanation, proof of authenticity and legitimacy of actions. Moreover it is concerned with the alignment of these meanings creation processes in order to increase the chances of having not only a distributed but also a coherent overall decision process. Our emphasis is in defining forms of interaction among stakeholders in order to ground the debate of the policy throughout the organisation, beyond senior levels of management. The aim is increasing the demands on those responsible for policy implementation, stretching them so that they offer the best of themselves. We argue that this is the basis for a structural mechanism for transparency. The outcome of this paper is a conceptual framework to study issues of transparency in policy making which is illustrated with reference to nuclear waste management in Sweden

  1. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  2. Through a glass darkly - the meaning of transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loy, J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper first discusses the word 'transparency'. It is a metaphor drawn from optics; it is a term used in social and political science; the international civil society organisation. 'Transparency International' sees it as the paradigm to fight corruption in the world. From this discussion, the paper offers a working definition applicable to a nuclear regulatory organisation. The paper describes a difference between having transparent process, which might be called passive transparency; and transparent engagement with stakeholders -- active transparency. It discusses some of the issues and problems that arise for a nuclear regulatory organisation seeking to operate transparently. Much of the difficulty with true transparency is that it reveals the 'untidiness' of life. 'We see now as through a glass darkly'. What is the general view of society and the cultural attitudes towards Government agencies revealing that they are not perfect'? Can you have a transparent nuclear regulator of a secretive industry and with other stakeholders having political agendas? How can a technical 'judgment call' ever be fully transparent? Can an active culture of transparency sometimes result in a mere public relations campaign? Can transparency in a nuclear regulatory create expectations amongst stakeholders that will prove impossible to meet? These questions are discussed with some real-life examples. The paper concludes with some suggested 'fundamentals' for transparency in nuclear regulatory organisations. (author)

  3. Review of Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2011. Selected Papers from ‘Going Romance’ Utrecht 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Colaço

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present volume contains a selection of twelve peer-reviewed papers presented at 'Going Romance' in 2011. Celebrating its 25th edition, the conference took place on December 8-10, in Utrecht, Holland, where the event was first held in 1986. While keeping the focus on the formal study of the Romance languages, the articles represent a wide range of topics related to different research areas, such as phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and language acquisition. The papers are arranged in alphabetical order by author.

  4. Fairness through Transparency: The Influence of Price Transparency on Consumer Perceptions of Price Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Rothenberger

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes that price transparency is a significant factor affecting customer judgments of the fairness of sellers’ prices. Cognitive judgments of fairness require a certain amount of information processing; therefore, the level of transparency and the amount of price information affect fairness judgments. The more clear information consumers possess concerning seller prices, the more positive the judgment will be. Customer price fairness judgment is an effective measurement for the ...

  5. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  6. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  7. Transparency in Supply Chains: Is Trust a Limiting Factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Frentrup, Mechthild; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    Transparency has gained much relevance in food chains. This paper summarizes the determinants of transparency and points out that transparency in the sense of effective information exchange needs trust as a mediator in order to become a powerful tool in supply chain management. In addition to that this paper analyses the characteristics of trust and highlights the reciprocal and dynamic mechanisms of trust on transparency and vice versa. It is argued that both constructs should be enhanced at...

  8. International trade and the role of market transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Eckwert, Bernhard; Wong, Kit Pong

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the economic role of market transparency on the decision problems of an international firm. Transparency is described in terms of the informativeness of a publicly observable signal. With higher transparency, the signal conveys more precise information about the random foreign exchange rate. We analyze the interaction between market transparency, ex ante expected production, domestic sales, and exports of the firm. Furthermore, we discuss the welfare implications of more tr...

  9. Analysis of Arguments in the Public Debate on the Alphabet Change in bilingual Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyazzat Kimanova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By focusing on an example of a public social debate on language policy, this article aims at showing the relevant contribution of argument analysis to the understanding of such debates. Argumentative discourse constitutes an essential condition for real democratic practice. Perelman & Olbrechts-Tyteca (1958: 73 point out that the commitment to argumentative practice offers an alternative to the use of violence. The relationship between argumentation and a democratic society is fundamental: argumentation is the substance of democracy, which differs from other social systems in that the only legitimate power is the power of the word. It is free will, which builds on the word alone, that enables us to live together in freedom. An important aspect of democracy, being based on a dialectic ideal, is its uncertain outcome: van Eemeren (2002: 71 characterizes democracy as «institutionalized uncertainty». Thus, insight into the functioning of argumentation contributes significantly to the understanding of democratic processes

  10. Enhancing Transparency in Multidisciplinary Expert Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukki, Kristiina; Pulkkinen, Urho

    2003-01-01

    Faced with problems of public acceptance most nuclear waste management organisations now acknowledge the importance of transparency in their pursuit of solutions for high-level nuclear waste disposal. To make progress the implementing organizations need the trust of other stakeholders in the decision-making process. For such trust these outside stakeholders need knowledge on the grounds for the judgments and decisions made in different scientific and technical disciplines. Transparency is, however, at least as important for the multidisciplinary expert communication itself. As a matter of fact, the transparency of the internal expert interaction processes is a prerequisite for the true transparency of the communication between the implementer and the external stakeholder groups. The introduced conceptual framework has been developed for the identification of the requirements of safety-informed communication in multidisciplinary expert work in nuclear waste management. The framework offers a common thinking model and common concepts which can be utilized in the development of the communication practices. The basis of the framework is on the possibility to understand the safety-critical significance of one's work. The transparency of communication is, for its part, based on making explicit the relevant knowledge necessary for gaining the understanding. This supplementary knowledge, which is related to the substance issues but is not scientific-technical by nature, enhances the experts' awareness of the context of their own contribution and of the background of the other experts' contributions. The common conceptualization and modelling of the knowledge-related dependencies between the tasks make it possible to realize the significance of the supplementary knowledge for transparent communication in actual situations. They also facilitate the recognition of the need for different types of supplementary knowledge in the interfaces between the tasks. By enhancing mutual

  11. Fiscal transparency, political parties, and debt in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    Many believe and argue that fiscal, or budgetary, transparency has large, positive effects on fiscal performance. However, the evidence linking transparency and fiscal policy outcomes is less compelling. To analyze the effects of fiscal transparency on public debt accumulation, we present a career...

  12. Toward Transparency : New Approaches and Their Application to Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwanath, Tara; Kaufmann, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s not only highlighted the welfare consequences of transparency in the financial sector but also linked this relatively narrow problem to the broader context of transparency in governance. It has been observed that objections to transparency, often on flimsy pretexts, are common even in industrialized countries. This article argues that transparen...

  13. 25 Years of Transparency Research : Evidence and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Porumbescu, Gregory A.; Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes the cross-disciplinary literature on government transparency. It systematically reviews research addressing the topic of government transparency published between 1990 and 2015. The review uses 187 studies to address three questions: (1) What forms of transparency has the

  14. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  15. Spall Strength Measurements in Transparent Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jonathan; Rahmat, Meysam; Petel, Oren

    2017-06-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are seeing more frequent use in transparent armour applications. The role of the microstructure on the performance of these materials under dynamic tensile loading conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, a series of plate impact experiments was conducted in order to evaluate the dynamic response of an epoxy (EPON 828) cured with two differed hardeners. The purpose was to compare the role of these hardeners on the dynamic performance of the resulting transparent epoxy. The material response was resolved with a multi-channel photonic Doppler velocimeter. This system was used to determine the shock Hugoniot and dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the materials. The experimental results are presented in reference to spall theory and are evaluated against results predicted by an analytical model of the impacts. While varying the hardener did not change the shock Hugoniot of the epoxy, it did have an effect on the measured spall strengths.

  16. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  17. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  18. THE DECISIONAL TRANSPARENCY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIA MARIA CILIBIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decisional transparency is one of the principles of good administration, fundamental principles of public administration and it is enshrined in the law of many European Union member states, including our country. In their work the public authorities must show transparency reflected by the active involvement of citizens in administrative decision as its primary beneficiary. The citizen information, consultation and his stimulation to participate actively in the elaboration of draft normative acts for their preparation and before that by bringing them to public knowledge, are tasks of the public authorities which exceed the limit of the obligations imposed by internal rules and are significant efforts to modernize the public administration and rallying to the administrative structures.

  19. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls that the French nuclear industry works within the frame defined by international treaties and laws which ensure rigor and transparency. He gives some explanations for the resorting to Russian installations and for reprocessed uranium recycling (among them: supply security for the French nuclear industry, strategy of complete use of uranium energetic potential). Then, he outlines how the French State must further improve transparency and pedagogy about radioactive waste and material management. A technical appendix is provided, describing the fuel cycle (natural uranium extraction, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiation, used fuel processing, reprocessed uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in MOX, waste storage), giving an overview of the international supply context (concurrence and security needs), discussing valorization perspectives for materials which are not used in the current fuel cycle, describing the various aspects of radioactive waste management for the various types of wastes (long life, low or high activity for example), describing the control performed by public authorities and organisations

  20. Transparent and conductive paper from nanocellulose fibers

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on a novel substrate, nanopaper, made of cellulose nanofibrils, an earth abundant material. Compared with regular paper substrates, nanopaper shows superior optical properties. We have carried out the first study on the optical properties of nanopaper substrates. Since the size of the nanofibrils is much less than the wavelength of visible light, nanopaper is highly transparent with large light scattering in the forward direction. Successful depositions of transparent and conductive materials including tin-doped indium oxide, carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires have been achieved on nanopaper substrates, opening up a wide range of applications in optoelectronics such as displays, touch screens and interactive paper. We have also successfully demonstrated an organic solar cell on the novel substrate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  1. An Investigation on Properties of Transparent Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    TOPÇU, İlker Bekir; UYGUNOĞLU, Tayfun

    2016-01-01

    Transparentconcrete is a cement-based building material which has optical properties dueto the embedded light transmitting elements within the composite. In thisstudy, the design of transparent concrete, its mechanical properties, lighttransmission properties of optical fibers and the use of optic fibers werediscussed. The study was performed as a literature review, and it was focusedon the light absorption of translucent concrete, transmission, the mechanismand losses in the transmission. In...

  2. Fatigue Fracture Behaviors of Transparent Polycarbonate Materials

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Xiao-wen; WU Nan; ZHANG Xuan; MA Li-ting; LI Lei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the different stress ratios (R) and annealing treatment on the fatigue properties of the transparent polycarbonate (PC) sheet and the mechanism behind were studied, the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) process and mechanism were analyzed. The results show that after annealing, the residual stress of the PC samples decreases obviously and the fatigue properties are greatly improved. This is because the machining process results in tensile stress in the PC samples, eliminating the ...

  3. Price Transparency in the Online Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonathan L; Mills, Parker H

    2016-05-01

    Plastic surgeons are sometimes hesitant to provide their pricing information online, due to several concerns. However, if implemented right, price transparency can be used as a lead generation tool that provides consumers with the pricing information they want and gives the physician the consumer's contact information for follow-up. This study took place during the author's first year in private practice in a new city. An interactive price transparency platform (ie, cost estimator) was integrated into his website, allowing consumers to submit a "wishlist" of procedures to check pricing on these procedures of interest. However, the consumer must submit their contact information to receive the desired breakdown of costs that are tailored based on the author's medical fees. During that first year, without any advertising expenditure, the author's website received 412 wishlists from 208 unique consumers. Consumers (17.8%) that submitted a wishlist came in for a consultation and 62% of those booked a procedure. The average value of a booked procedure was over US $4000 and cumulatively, all of the leads from this one lead source in that first year generated over US $92,000 in revenue. When compared with non-price-aware patients, price-aware patients were 41% more likely to book a procedure. Price transparency led to greater efficiency and reduced consultations that ended in "sticker shock." When prudently integrated into a medical practice, price transparency can be a great lead generation source for patients that are (1) paying out of pocket for medically necessary services due to a high-deductible health plan or (2) paying for services not typically covered by insurance, such as cosmetic services.

  4. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  5. Transparent Conductive Ink for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, X. J.; Rolin, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Nanotechnology is listed in NASA's Technology Roadmap as a key area to invest for further development.1 This research project focused on using nanotechnology to improve electroluminescent lighting in terms of additive manufacturing and to increase energy efficiency. Specifically, this project's goal was to produce a conductive but transparent printable ink that can be sprayed on any surface for use as one of the electrodes in electroluminescent device design. This innovative work is known as thick film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology. TDEL devices are used for "backlighting, illumination, and identification due to their tunable color output, scalability, and efficiency" (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). These devices use a 'front-to-back' printing method, where the substrate is the transparent layer, and the dielectric and phosphor are layered on top. This project is a first step in the process of creating a 3D printable 'back-to-front' electroluminescent device. Back-to-front 3D-printed devices are beneficial because they can be printed onto different substrates and embedded in different surfaces, and the substrate is not required to be transparent, all because the light is emitted from the top surface through the transparent conductor. Advances in this area will help further development of printing TDEL devices on an array of different surfaces. Figure 1 demonstrates the layering of the two electrodes that are aligned in a parallel plate capacitor structure (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). Voltage is applied across the device, and the subsequent electron excitation results in

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ( 31 P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the 31 P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. 1 H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T 1 and T 2 with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T 1 or T 2 , consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. 1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T 1 relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine γ-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T 1 with increasing magnetic field

  7. Single quadrature duplication and transparent taps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ajung

    2004-01-01

    The concept of single quadrature duplication, which is the process of producing two outputs with the same homodyne detecting statistics as an input, is addressed. This device has important potential application to optical communications as a transparent optical tap in a local area network environment. The characteristics of the device are examined, and a realization scheme employing a coupler and phase-sensitive amplifiers is proposed

  8. The ESM and the Principle of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nes Matteo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This note analyses a peculiar feature of the ESM, namely the lack of an acceptable set of standards for the fundamental democratic principle of transparency. Moving from the particular nature of this mechanism, we will highlight the most critical concerns connected to secrecy, confidentiality and inviolability of documents, looking not only at the ESM Treaty but also at relevant documents approved by its bodies (in particular the Code of Conduct and the By-Laws.

  9. Agent Transparency for an Autonomous Squad Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    comprehension, trust, and usability of an intelligent agent while assessing workload and accounting for individual differences. Transparency information did...contribute to differences between conditions on SA probes; however, follow-up analysis, once accounting for homogeneity of variance, showed no...2013;28(1):84–88. Jian JY, Bisantz AM, Drury CG. Foundations for an empirically determined scale of trust in automated systems. International

  10. Basic self-knowledge and transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Cogito -like judgments, a term coined by Burge (1988), comprise thoughts such as, I am now thinking , I [hereby] judge that Los Angeles is at the same latitude as North Africa, or I [hereby] intend to go to the opera tonight. It is widely accepted that we form cogito -like judgments in an authoritative and not merely empirical manner. We have privileged self-knowledge of the mental state that is self-ascribed in a cogito -like judgment. Thus, models of self-knowledge that aim to explain privileged self-knowledge should have the resources to explain the special self-knowledge involved in cogito judgments. My objective in this paper is to examine whether a transparency model of self-knowledge (i.e., models based on Evans ' 1982 remarks) can provide such an explanation: granted that cogito judgments are paradigmatic cases of privileged self-knowledge, does the transparency procedure explain why this is so? The paper advances a negative answer, arguing that the transparency procedure cannot generate the type of thought constitutive of cogito judgments.

  11. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration

  12. Sovereign Wealth Funds: Issue of transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the paper includes Sovereign Wealth Funds and the formation of the first regulatory framework for their investment activities. Sovereign Wealth Funds invested a significant amount of money in Western financial institutions during the global financial crisis and thus played a crucial role in the preservation and stabilization of the global financial system. However, at the same time, a large gap between the financial power of Sovereign Wealth Funds and the level of their transparency was noted. The need to improve the transparency of Sovereign Wealth Funds has been recognized by international institutions, the OECD and the IMF, which initiated the formulation of the first international regulatory framework regarding the operations of these types of funds. The current international regulatory framework represents a sufficient basis for the gradual improvement of transparency, but because of its non-binding and voluntary nature, certain issues such as the protection of national security interests remain open. Therefore, the solutions can be sought through a process of continuous improvement of international regulation as well as strengthening cooperation between Sovereign Wealth Funds and governments of countries in which they invest.

  13. Transparent semiconducting oxides: materials and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, Marius; Frenzel, Heiko; Lajn, Alexander; Lorenz, Michael; Schein, Friedrich; von Wenckstern, Holger [Universitaet Leipzig, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are a well-known material class allowing Ohmic conduction. A large free carrier concentration in the 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} range and high conductivity (beyond 10{sup 4} S/cm) is feasible simultaneously with high transparency. Applications are manifold and include touch screens and front contacts for displays or solar cells. Transparent semiconducting oxides (TSO) are oxides with an intermediate free carrier concentration (typically 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) allowing the formation of depletion layers. We review recent results on TSO-based transistors and inverters. Most work has been reported on MISFETs. We show that MESFETs exhibit high performance and low voltage operation of oxide electronics. MESFET-based inverters offer superior performance compared to results reported for TSO MISFET-based circuits. Optical image of inverter based on thin film MESFETs with Mg{sub 0.003}Zn{sub 0.997}O channels (left) and experimental inverter characteristic for supply voltage of V{sub DD} = + 2.0 V (right). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. National transparency assessment of Kuwait's pharmaceutical sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Dalia A; Alkhamis, Yousif; Qaddoumi, Mohammad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2015-09-01

    Corruption is one of several factors that may hinder the access to pharmaceuticals. Since Kuwait has the highest per-capita spending on pharmaceuticals in the region, we wanted to evaluate the level of transparency in its pharmaceutical sector using an established assessment tool adapted by the World Health Organization. Standardized questionnaires were conducted via semi-structured interviews with key informants to measure the level of transparency in eight functions of the public pharmaceutical sector. The scores for the degree of vulnerability to corruption reflected marginal to moderate venerability to corruption for most pharmaceutical sectors. The perceived strengths included availability of appropriate laws, the presence of clear standard operating procedures, and the use of an efficient registration/distribution system. Weaknesses included lack of conflict of interest guidelines and written terms of reference, absence of pharmacoeconomic studies, and inconsistencies in law enforcement. Findings reveal that few functions of Kuwait pharmaceutical sector remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. However, the willingness of Kuwait Ministry of Health to adopt the assessment study and the acknowledgement of the weaknesses of current processes of the pharmaceutical sector may assist to achieve a transparent pharmaceutical system in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an open multilevel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tian; Lu Meiju; Weinstein, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency in a multilevel system is investigated in 173 Yb. The level structure investigated is ''open'' in that the light that gives rise to the transparency also resonantly couples the atoms to excited states which do not exhibit electromagnetically induced transparency. The resulting reduction of transparency is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is found that, while the transparency is poor in certain regimes, it can be made to perform arbitrarily well in the limit of a large intensity imbalance between the optical fields.

  16. Examination of Relationship between Nuclear Transparency and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jee-Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok; Kim, So Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we define the state-level nuclear transparency as a set of the condition that shows how clearly the state's information related to peaceful nuclear power program and nuclear proliferation is revealed to the international community. For conducting expert survey on state-level nuclear transparency, the concept of nuclear transparency should be clearly defined. Based on that concept, the survey was carried out and results show that it tend to score high when nonproliferation activities happen. It means that higher transparency is positively related to nuclear proliferation. Therefore, higher nuclear transparency is positively related to nuclear nonproliferation

  17. Examination of Relationship between Nuclear Transparency and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jee-Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok; Kim, So Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we define the state-level nuclear transparency as a set of the condition that shows how clearly the state's information related to peaceful nuclear power program and nuclear proliferation is revealed to the international community. For conducting expert survey on state-level nuclear transparency, the concept of nuclear transparency should be clearly defined. Based on that concept, the survey was carried out and results show that it tend to score high when nonproliferation activities happen. It means that higher transparency is positively related to nuclear proliferation. Therefore, higher nuclear transparency is positively related to nuclear nonproliferation.

  18. Transparency in public-private partnerships : Not so bad after all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, Anne Marie; Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Scholars' criticism of transparency in public-private partnerships (PPPs) often focuses on 'external' transparency, that is, the extent to which internal information is visible to the outside world. However, to achieve external transparency, internal transparency - the availability and inferability

  19. Explaining transparency in Public-Private Partnerships. Not so bad after all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, A.; Grimmelikhuijsen, S

    2015-01-01

    Scholars' criticism of transparency in public-private partnerships (PPPs) often focuses on 'external' transparency, that is, the extent to which internal information is visible to the outside world. However, to achieve external transparency, internal transparency - the availability and inferability

  20. Two spelling programmes that promote understanding of the alphabetic principle in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Alves Martins & Cristina Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to test two programmes designed to lead preschool children to use conventional letters to spell the initial consonants of words. These programmes differed in terms of the characteristics of the vowels that followed those consonants. The participants were 45 five-year-old Portuguese children whose spelling was pre-syllabic - they used strings of random letters in their spelling, making no attempt to match the oral to the written language. They were divided into two experimental and a control group. Their age, level of intelligence, and phonological awareness were controlled. Their spelling was assessed in a pre- and a post-test. In-between, children from the experimental groups participated in two programmes where they had to think about the relationships between the initial consonant and the corresponding phoneme in different words: In Experimental Group 1, the initial consonants were followed by an open vowel, and in Experimental Group 2, these same consonants were followed by a closed vowel. The control group classified geometric shapes. Experimental Group 1 achieved better results than Experimental Group 2 following open vowels, being more able to generalize the phonological procedures to sounds that were not taught during the programmes. Both experimental groups used conventional letters to represent several phonemes in the post-test whereas the control group continued to produce pre-syllabic spellings.

  1. Transparency and nonproliferation in the Asia-Pacific region. Enhancing transparency, strengthening the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Kazuko

    2008-01-01

    Driven by the prospect of rapid economic growth and the perceived need for energy security, the Asia-Pacific region is destined to increase its nuclear energy use in the coming decades. This projected increase, however, will bring with it nuclear proliferation concerns, fueling fears about the security of nuclear material and creating suspicions about its use. The increasing use of nuclear energy inevitably necessitates supplementary efforts, designed to ensure nuclear security and a legitimate use of nuclear energy, other than the obligation to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Nuclear transparency measures could be useful tools for building confidence that the increasing nuclear energy use does not contribute to nuclear proliferation. These measures could also foster a cooperative tradition that can address rising concerns over nuclear trafficking and terrorism, which require regional coordination to combat. However, moderate progress in implementing transparency measures suggests a lack of political appreciation of this concept. Thus, this paper describes various forms of potential transparency measures to expand the possibilities of the transparency concept and explore areas in which this concept might be applicable. This paper also clarifies some challenges involving transparency projects, and suggests possible ways to address these challenges. (author)

  2. Transparent platinum counter electrode for efficient semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iefanova, Anastasiia; Nepal, Jeevan; Poudel, Prashant; Davoux, Daren; Gautam, Umesh [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Mallam, Venkataiah [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Qiao, Qiquan [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Logue, Brian [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Baroughi, Mahdi Farrokh, E-mail: m.farrokhbaroughi@sdstate.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A method for fabrication of highly transparent platinum counter electrodes (CEs) has been developed based on spray coating of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on hot substrates. This method leads to 86% reduction in Pt consumption reducing the Pt cost per peak watt of counter electrode from $0.79/Wp down to $0.11/Wp compared to the conventional Pt counter electrodes made by sputter deposition. The simplicity and low cost of this method provide a basis for an up-scalable fabrication process. The Pt NP layer is over 88% transparent, leading to overall transparency of 80% when incorporated with indium tin oxide/glass substrates for functional counter electrodes. This counter electrode exhibits a large surface area and high catalytic activity, comparable to that of the conventional opaque CEs. Semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated based on this counter electrode showed 6.17% power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Counter electrode (CE) prepared by spraying nanoparticle (NP) Pt on hot substrate. • Low cost and scalable fabrication process of CE. • The spray deposited CE uses 10 times less Pt compared to the sputtering method. • The CE is 80% transparent and exhibits a large surface and high catalytic activity. • A semitransparent dye-sensitized solar cell with Pt NP CE was 6.17% efficient.

  3. Interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferro, Roberto; Colonna, Daniele; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2013-02-11

    In this paper we analyze the interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells by varying fabrication parameters such as the thickness of the nano-crystalline TiO(2) layer, the dye loading and the dye type. Both transparency and efficiency show a saturation trend when plotted versus dye loading. By introducing the transparency-efficiency plot, we show that the relation between transparency and efficiency is linear and is almost independent on the TiO(2) thickness for a certain thickness range. On the contrary, the relation between transparency and efficiency depends strongly on the type of the dye. Moreover, we show that co-sensitization techniques can be effectively used to access regions of the transparency-efficiency space that are forbidden for single dye sensitization. The relation found between transparency and efficiency (T&E) can be the general guide for optimization of Dye Solar Cells in building integration applications.

  4. A modular architecture for transparent computation in recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmantini, Giovanni S; Beim Graben, Peter; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2017-01-01

    Computation is classically studied in terms of automata, formal languages and algorithms; yet, the relation between neural dynamics and symbolic representations and operations is still unclear in traditional eliminative connectionism. Therefore, we suggest a unique perspective on this central issue, to which we would like to refer as transparent connectionism, by proposing accounts of how symbolic computation can be implemented in neural substrates. In this study we first introduce a new model of dynamics on a symbolic space, the versatile shift, showing that it supports the real-time simulation of a range of automata. We then show that the Gödelization of versatile shifts defines nonlinear dynamical automata, dynamical systems evolving on a vectorial space. Finally, we present a mapping between nonlinear dynamical automata and recurrent artificial neural networks. The mapping defines an architecture characterized by its granular modularity, where data, symbolic operations and their control are not only distinguishable in activation space, but also spatially localizable in the network itself, while maintaining a distributed encoding of symbolic representations. The resulting networks simulate automata in real-time and are programmed directly, in the absence of network training. To discuss the unique characteristics of the architecture and their consequences, we present two examples: (i) the design of a Central Pattern Generator from a finite-state locomotive controller, and (ii) the creation of a network simulating a system of interactive automata that supports the parsing of garden-path sentences as investigated in psycholinguistics experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell (Karita Research AB, Taeby (Sweden)), E-Mail: kjell.andersson@karita.se

    2009-12-15

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  6. The Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste. A Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2009-12-01

    In this paper the activities of the Transparency Programme of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste have been explored. Comparisons have been made with other activities using the same transparency approach and observations made from different reports that deal with the programme or parts of it have been taken into account. Obviously, to make firm conclusions to what extent the aims of the Transparency Programme have been achieved a formal review should be done. It seems evident however that the programme has vitalized the overall dialogue about the Swedish nuclear waste management programme and that the hearings held have raised the awareness about issues that have been dealt with such as value-laden aspects of disposals methods, feasibility of certain alternatives, the need for clarification of how regulatory criteria can be applied and the use of research on governance processes. Stakeholders seem to have appreciated the overall organization and the stretching that took place during the hearings held. For possible future activities, the observations made about the antagonism between certain parties which has existed since a long time ago and the common language and culture need to be taken into account. The core problem, however, is to reach out to the political decision makers at the national level, especially since the time distance between hearings held so far and critical government decisions is at least six years which put a high demand on the reporting system. Taking the experiences from other transparency projects into account, the Council might consider the possibility to establish a reference group with participation from different stakeholders and politicians who could have a role for conveying results to wider groups. One observer has concluded that the reporting from the Transparency Programme should be open in the sense that it should not make conclusions on the issues as such (e.g. if a certain disposal method is to prefer or not). Instead

  7. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan, E-mail: huyongsheng@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2016-08-08

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and 0.027 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  8. Transparency in Economic and Political Decision-Making: The Identification of Sunshine Rules for Transparent Lobbying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laboutková Šárka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying transparency seems to have been a challenging topic for nearly a decade. For the purposes of the article, the authors focus on a contextual analysis of rules and measures that offers both a broad as well as comprehensive view of the required transparency of lobbying activities and the environment in which decisions are made. In this regard, focusing on the sunshine principles/sunshine rules (not purely limited to laws provides a grasp of the whole issue in a broader context. From a methodological point of view, the exploratory approach was chosen and the coding procedure is mostly dichotomous. As a result, seven key areas with 70 indicators have been identified in terms of transparency of lobbying and decision-making.

  9. Clinical trials transparency and the Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Ilana

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. E-LEARNING TURKISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GEORGALAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.

  11. A general design strategy for block copolymer directed self-assembly patterning of integrated circuits contact holes using an alphabet approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, He; Bao, Xin-Yu; Tiberio, Richard; Wong, H-S Philip

    2015-02-11

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising lithography candidate for technology nodes beyond 14 nm. Researchers have shown contact hole patterning for random logic circuits using DSA with small physical templates. This paper introduces an alphabet approach that uses a minimal set of small physical templates to pattern all contacts configurations on integrated circuits. We illustrate, through experiments, a general and scalable template design strategy that links the DSA material properties to the technology node requirements.

  12. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced......The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...

  13. Universal Visual Features Might Be Necessary for Fluent Reading. A Longitudinal Study of Visual Reading in Braille and Cyrillic Alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Radziun, Dominika; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Sowa, Joanna E; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that efficient reading is possible because all reading scripts have been matched, through cultural evolution, to the natural capabilities of the visual cortex. This matching has resulted in all scripts being made of line-junctions, such as T, X, or L. Our aim was to test a critical prediction of this hypothesis: visual reading in an atypical script that is devoid of line-junctions (such as the Braille alphabet read visually) should be much less efficient than reading in a "normal" script (e.g., Cyrillic). Using a lexical decision task, we examined Visual Braille reading speed and efficiency in sighted Braille teachers. As a control, we tested learners of a natural visual script, Cyrillic. Both groups participated in a two semester course of either visual Braille or Russian while their reading speed and accuracy was tested at regular intervals. The results show that visual Braille reading is slow, prone to errors and highly serial, even in Braille readers with years of prior reading experience. Although subjects showed some improvements in their visual Braille reading accuracy and speed following the course, the effect of word length on reading speed (typically observed in beginning readers) was remained very sizeable through all testing sessions. These results are in stark contrast to Cyrillic, a natural script, where only 3 months of learning were sufficient to achieve relative proficiency. Taken together, these results suggest that visual features such as line junctions and their combinations might be necessary for efficient reading.

  14. Analysis of the HIV-2 protease's adaptation to various ligands: characterization of backbone asymmetry using a structural alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Dhoha; Cano Contreras, Mario Enrique; Flatters, Delphine; Visseaux, Benoit; Descamps, Diane; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Regad, Leslie

    2018-01-15

    The HIV-2 protease (PR2) is a homodimer of 99 residues with asymmetric assembly and binding various ligands. We propose an exhaustive study of the local structural asymmetry between the two monomers of all available PR2 structures complexed with various inhibitors using a structural alphabet approach. On average, PR2 exhibits asymmetry in 31% of its positions-i.e., exhibiting different backbone local conformations in the two monomers. This asymmetry was observed all along its structure, particularly in the elbow and flap regions. We first differentiated structural asymmetry conserved in most PR2 structures from the one specific to some PR2. Then, we explored the origin of the detected asymmetry in PR2. We localized asymmetry that could be induced by PR2's flexibility, allowing transition from the semi-open to closed conformations and the asymmetry potentially induced by ligand binding. This latter could be important for the PR2's adaptation to diverse ligands. Our results highlighted some differences between asymmetry of PR2 bound to darunavir and amprenavir that could explain their differences of affinity. This knowledge is critical for a better description of PR2's recognition and adaptation to various ligands and for a better understanding of the resistance of PR2 to most PR2 inhibitors, a major antiretroviral class.

  15. Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Diaz, Alicia; Artiles, Ceferino

    This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado ("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs. good) across the grades. Results demonstrated that fluency in writing the alphabet and selecting allographs mediated the differences in spelling between good and poor keyboarders in the free-writing task. Execution in the allograph selection task and writing alphabet from memory had different degrees of predictability in each of the groups in explaining the level of fluency and spelling in the free-writing task sentences, depending on the grade. These results suggest that early assessment of writing by means of the computer keyboard can provide clues and guidelines for intervention and training to strengthen specific skills to improve writing performance in the early primary grades in transcription skills by keyboarding.

  16. Printed optically transparent graphene cellulose electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas; Andrushchenko, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    Optically transparent electrodes are a key component in variety of products including bioelectronics, touch screens, flexible displays, low emissivity windows, and photovoltaic cells. Although highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are often used in these electrode applications, the raw material is very expensive and the electrodes often fracture when mechanically stressed. An alternative low-cost material for inkjet printing transparent electrodes on glass and flexible polymer substrates is described in this paper. The water based ink is created by using a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to help suspend the naturally hydrophobic graphene (G) sheets in a solvent composed of 70% DI water and 30% 2-butoxyethanol. The CMC chain has hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional sites which allow adsorption on G sheets and, therefore, permit the graphene to be stabilized in water by electrostatic and steric forces. Once deposited on the functionalized substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed films can be "tuned" by decomposing the cellulose stabilizer using thermal reduction. The entire electrode can be thermally reduced in an oven or portions of the electrode thermally modified using a laser annealing process. The thermal process can reduce the sheet resistance of G-CMC films to < 100 Ω/sq. Experimental studies show that the optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the G-CMC conductive electrode is a dependent on the film thickness (ie. superimposed printed layers). The printed electrodes have also been doped with AuCl3 to increase electrical conductivity without significantly increasing film thickness and, thereby, maintain high optical transparency.

  17. Administrative Transparency and the Access to Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Paulo Petersen Andreazza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the various forms and application ranges of the State secret throughout history, from its origins in classical political culture, to the evanescence of its intensity, when the right to information and the principles of good administration, advertising, transparency and democracy gain strength. In this scenario, in Brazil, the constitutional principle of transparency is highlighted, which transforms the notion of advertising, being no longer just an administrator option, to demand a public space in which the free movement of ideas and information starts to have potential to influence the scope and the action strategies of the State, providing certainty to State conducts and security to the administered. In the wake of this principle, comes the Access to Information Act, in order to print effectiveness in access to  administrative  information,  producing  intense  practical  effects  to  the  legal  and administrative relationship established between the Public Administration and administered and subjecting the power to control people, presenting a notorious identity with democracy. However, some points of this law provoked discussions regarding the possible conflict between individual and collective fundamental rights, as well as between the constitutional principles of transparency and publicity with the intimacy and privacy, as well as any collision with the infra-constitutional norms derived from the latter, as the confidentiality of financial data, bank secrecy and tax secrecy. The intention presented in this study is to establish the ownership of the reach of the Access to Information Act before the particular issue of disclosure in nominal compensation of state agents.

  18. Contour junctions defined by dynamic image deformations enhance perceptual transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2017-11-01

    The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone. When contour junctions were not formed at the dynamic-static boundaries, however, the impression of a transparent layer was not facilitated by the presence of static surrounding areas. The effect of the deformation-defined junctions was attenuated when the spatial pattern of luminance contrast at the junctions was inconsistent with the perceived transparency related to luminance contrast, while the effect did not change when the spatial luminance pattern was consistent with it. In addition, the results showed that contour completions across the junctions were required for the perception of a transparent layer. These results indicate that deformation-defined junctions that involve contour completion between deforming and nondeforming regions enhance the perception of a transparent layer, and that the deformation-based perceptual transparency can be promoted by the simultaneous presence of appropriately configured luminance and contrast-other features that can also by themselves produce the sensation of perceiving transparency.

  19. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  20. Transparent Seismic Mitigation for Community Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, C. D.; Pekelnicky, R.

    2008-12-01

    Healthy communities continuously grow by leveraging their intellectual capital to drive economic development while protecting their cultural heritage. Success, in part, depends on the support of a healthy built environment that is rooted in contemporary urban planning, sustainability and disaster resilience. Planners and policy makers are deeply concerned with all aspects of their communities, including its seismic safety. Their reluctance to implement the latest plans for achieving seismic safety is rooted in a misunderstanding of the hazard they face and the risk it poses to their built environment. Probabilistic lingo and public debate about how big the "big one" will be drives them to resort to their own experience and intuition. There is a fundamental lack of transparency related to what is expected to happen, and it is partially blocking the policy changes that are needed. The solution: craft the message in broad based, usable terms that name the hazard, defines performance, and establishes a set of performance goals that represent the resiliency needed to drive a community's natural ability to rebound from a major seismic event. By using transparent goals and measures with an intuitive vocabulary for both performance and hazard, earthquake professionals, working with the San Francisco Urban Planning and Research Association (SPUR), have defined a level of resiliency that needs to be achieved by the City of San Francisco to assure their response to an event will be manageable and full recovery achievable within three years. Five performance measures for buildings and three for lifeline systems have been defined. Each declares whether people will be safe inside, whether the building will be able to be repaired and whether they will be usable during repairs. Lifeline systems are further defined in terms of the time intervals to restore 90%, 95%, and full service. These transparent categories are used in conjunction with the expected earthquake level to describe

  1. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  2. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Per Baltzer; Møllgaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In the economics literature, various views on the likely (efficiency) effects of information exchange,communication between firms and market transparency present themselves. Often these views oninformation flows are highly conflicting. On the one hand, it is argued that increased...... informationdissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including customers) and/or allowspotential customers to make the right decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, theliterature also suggests that increased information dissemination can have significant coordinating orcollusive......, where informational issues have played a significant role....

  3. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Burkhard, George F.; McGehee, Michael D.; Peumans, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simplexity, languages and human languaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Building on a distributed perspective, the Special Issue develops Alain Berthoz's concept of simplexity. By so doing, neurophysiology is used to reach beyond observable and, specifically, 1st-order languaging. While simplexity clarifies how language uses perception/action, a community's ‘lexicon......’ (a linguistic 2nd order) also shapes human powers. People use global constraints to make and construe wordings and bring a social/individual duality to human living. Within a field of perception-action-language, the phenomenology of ‘words’ and ‘things’ drives people to sustain their own experience....... Simplex tricks used in building bodies co-function with action that grants humans access to en-natured culture where, together, they build human knowing....

  6. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  7. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  8. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  9. The implementation of language policy: The case of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossío, Consuelo Yánez

    1991-03-01

    Ecuador is implementing a programme of indigenous bilingual intercultural education. Work began systematically in 1978 through a research centre of the Catholic University, and throughout the 1980s the government has become increasingly committed to the principle of indigenous education. In 1980 agreement was reached on a common alphabet for all indigenous languages. In the same year the government accepted that vernacular languages might be used for education, and the "Macac" educational model was devised by the Catholic University's research centre. By 1984 there were 300 bilingual primary schools, but the government then suspended its experiment. This was restored four years later, with the addition of secondary education and teacher training colleges. What is stressed by NGOs active in promoting indigenous education is not only its use of vernacular languages, but the need for intercultural exchange, recognizing in a modified curriculum the cultural values of the indigenous population and their socioeconomic reality. This change has not been understood by all government agencies, although a new Directorate for Bilingual Intercultural Education was established in 1988 to provide education for people of all ages in indigenous communities. The traditional Spanish-language formal education system has exercised a restricting influence on innovation, and the response of the dominant Spanish-speaking majority has generally been indifference.

  10. Double transparent conducting layers for Si photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@incheon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Chang [Measurement and Analysis Division, National Nanofab Center (NNFC), Daejeon 305806 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang-Jin [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Anderson, Wayne A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Double transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film-embedded Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated. An intentional doping was not applied for heterojunction solar cells due to the spontaneous Schottky junction formation between TCO films and an n-type Si substrate. Three different TCO coatings were formed by sputtering method for an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film, an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film and double stacks of ITO/AZO films. An improved crystalline ITO film was grown on an AZO template upon hetero-epitaxial growth. This double TCO films-embedded Si (ITO/AZO/Si) heterojunction solar cell provided significantly enhanced efficiency of 9.23 % as compared to the single TCO/Si (ITO/Si or AZO/Si) devices due to the optical and the electrical benefits. The effective arrangement of TCO films (ITO/AZO) provides benefits of a lower front contact resistance and a smaller band offset to Si leading enhanced photovoltaic performances. This demonstrates a potential scheme for an effective TCO film-embedded heterojunction Si solar cell. - Highlights: • Double transparent conducting oxide films form a heterojunction to Si. • A quality indium-tin-oxide film was grown above an Al-doped zinc oxide template. • Heterojunction Si solar cell was made without an intentional doping process.

  11. [Corneal transparency: anatomical basis and evaluation methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Narbut, M N

    Being just a relatively small part of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball, the cornea is, nevertheless, unique in terms of the variety of its functions. Because the cornea differs significantly from other protective frames in its structure, it provides the possibility of light transmission and strong refraction that largely contributes to the total refraction of the eye. The development of ophthalmology is impossible without improving methods of adequate anatomical and functional assessment of the eye not only as a whole, but also as a collection of interacting structures.In this regard, examination methods of the cornea have undergone significant advances in recent years. So far, the level of corneal transparency has been judged by biomicroscopy findings or indirect characteristics (thickness, structure, etc.). Confocal microscopy of the cornea and wave-based examinations involving one of the available laser interferometers (OCT or HRT) are also used. However, the data obtained with these methods resembles that of layer-specific reflectometry, i.e. the magnitude of directed reflection of the light beam from corneal corpuscles, which does not completely agree with the classical idea of transparency.

  12. Accelerating Biomedical Discoveries through Rigor and Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judith A; Brown, Liliana L; Murphy, Stephanie J; Grieder, Franziska; Silberberg, Shai D

    2017-07-01

    Difficulties in reproducing published research findings have garnered a lot of press in recent years. As a funder of biomedical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken measures to address underlying causes of low reproducibility. Extensive deliberations resulted in a policy, released in 2015, to enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. We briefly explain what led to the policy, describe its elements, provide examples and resources for the biomedical research community, and discuss the potential impact of the policy on translatability with a focus on research using animal models. Importantly, while increased attention to rigor and transparency may lead to an increase in the number of laboratory animals used in the near term, it will lead to more efficient and productive use of such resources in the long run. The translational value of animal studies will be improved through more rigorous assessment of experimental variables and data, leading to better assessments of the translational potential of animal models, for the benefit of the research community and society. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Triboelectric-Based Transparent Secret Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuqing; Du, Xinyu; Li, Nianwu; Yin, Yingying; Cao, Ran; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhao, Shuyu; Niu, Huidan; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Zhong Lin; Li, Congju

    2018-04-01

    Private and security information for personal identification requires an encrypted tool to extend communication channels between human and machine through a convenient and secure method. Here, a triboelectric-based transparent secret code (TSC) that enables self-powered sensing and information identification simultaneously in a rapid process method is reported. The transparent and hydrophobic TSC can be conformed to any cambered surface due to its high flexibility, which extends the application scenarios greatly. Independent of the power source, the TSC can induce obvious electric signals only by surface contact. This TSC is velocity-dependent and capable of achieving a peak voltage of ≈4 V at a resistance load of 10 MΩ and a sliding speed of 0.1 m s -1 , according to a 2 mm × 20 mm rectangular stripe. The fabricated TSC can maintain its performance after reciprocating rolling for about 5000 times. The applications of TSC as a self-powered code device are demonstrated, and the ordered signals can be recognized through the height of the electric peaks, which can be further transferred into specific information by the processing program. The designed TSC has great potential in personal identification, commodity circulation, valuables management, and security defense applications.

  14. Reproducing Epidemiologic Research and Ensuring Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2017-08-15

    Measures for ensuring that epidemiologic studies are reproducible include making data sets and software available to other researchers so they can verify published findings, conduct alternative analyses of the data, and check for statistical errors or programming errors. Recent developments related to the reproducibility and transparency of epidemiologic studies include the creation of a global platform for sharing data from clinical trials and the anticipated future extension of the global platform to non-clinical trial data. Government agencies and departments such as the US Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program have also enhanced their data repositories and data sharing resources. The Institute of Medicine and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors released guidance on sharing clinical trial data. The US National Institutes of Health has updated their data-sharing policies. In this issue of the Journal, Shepherd et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186:387-392) outline a pragmatic approach for reproducible research with sensitive data for studies for which data cannot be shared because of legal or ethical restrictions. Their proposed quasi-reproducible approach facilitates the dissemination of statistical methods and codes to independent researchers. Both reproducibility and quasi-reproducibility can increase transparency for critical evaluation, further dissemination of study methods, and expedite the exchange of ideas among researchers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Chronic imaging through "transparent skull" in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Steinzeig

    Full Text Available Growing interest in long-term visualization of cortical structure and function requires methods that allow observation of an intact cortex in longitudinal imaging studies. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the "transparent skull" (TS preparation based on skull clearing with cyanoacrylate, which is applicable for long-term imaging through the intact skull in mice. We characterized the properties of the TS in imaging of intrinsic optical signals and compared them with the more conventional cranial window preparation. Our results show that TS is less invasive, maintains stabile transparency for at least two months, and compares favorably to data obtained from the conventional cranial window. We applied this method to experiments showing that a four-week treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine combined with one week of monocular deprivation induced a shift in ocular dominance in the mouse visual cortex, confirming that fluoxetine treatment restores critical-period-like plasticity. Our results demonstrate that the TS preparation could become a useful method for long-term visualization of the living mouse brain.

  16. Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar Ali, Abu; Ziauddin

    2018-02-01

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is revisited via the input probe field intensity. A strongly interacting Rydberg atomic medium ensemble is considered in a cavity, where atoms behave as superatoms (SAs) under the dipole blockade mechanism. Each atom in the strongly interacting Rydberg atomic medium (87 Rb) follows a three-level cascade atomic configuration. A strong control and weak probe field are employed in the cavity with the ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The features of the reflected and transmitted probe light are studied under the influence of the input probe field intensity. A transparency peak (cavity EIT) is revealed at a resonance condition for small values of input probe field intensity. The manipulation of the cavity EIT is reported by tuning the strength of the input probe field intensity. Further, the phase and group delay of the transmitted and reflected probe light are studied. It is found that group delay and phase in the reflected light are negative, while for the transmitted light they are positive. The magnitude control of group delay in the transmitted and reflected light is investigated via the input probe field intensity.

  17. Ethical Information Transparency and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Shared decision making is intended to help protect patient autonomy while satisfying the demands of beneficence. In shared decision making, information is shared between health care professional and patient. The sharing of information presents new and practical problems about how much information to share and how transparent that information should be. Sharing information also allows for subtle paternalistic strategies to be employed to "nudge" the patient in a desired direction. These problems are illustrated in two experiments. Experiment 1 (N = 146) suggested that positively framed messages increased the strength of judgments about whether a patient with HIV should designate a surrogate compared to a negatively framed message. A simple decision aid did not reliably reduce this effect. Experiment 2 (N = 492) replicated these effects. In addition, Experiment 2 suggested that providing some additional information (e.g., about surrogate decision making accuracy) can reduce tendencies to think that one with AIDS should designate a surrogate. These results indicate that in some circumstances, nudges (e.g., framing) influence judgments in ways that non-nudging interventions (e.g., simple graphs) do not. While non-nudging interventions are generally preferable, careful thought is required for determining the relative benefits and costs associated with information transparency and persuasion.

  18. Double transparent conducting layers for Si photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong; Park, Yun Chang; Moon, Sang-Jin; Anderson, Wayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Double transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film-embedded Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated. An intentional doping was not applied for heterojunction solar cells due to the spontaneous Schottky junction formation between TCO films and an n-type Si substrate. Three different TCO coatings were formed by sputtering method for an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film, an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film and double stacks of ITO/AZO films. An improved crystalline ITO film was grown on an AZO template upon hetero-epitaxial growth. This double TCO films-embedded Si (ITO/AZO/Si) heterojunction solar cell provided significantly enhanced efficiency of 9.23 % as compared to the single TCO/Si (ITO/Si or AZO/Si) devices due to the optical and the electrical benefits. The effective arrangement of TCO films (ITO/AZO) provides benefits of a lower front contact resistance and a smaller band offset to Si leading enhanced photovoltaic performances. This demonstrates a potential scheme for an effective TCO film-embedded heterojunction Si solar cell. - Highlights: • Double transparent conducting oxide films form a heterojunction to Si. • A quality indium-tin-oxide film was grown above an Al-doped zinc oxide template. • Heterojunction Si solar cell was made without an intentional doping process

  19. Transparency in Nuclear Regulation: Trends and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Seong Ho

    2007-01-01

    Recently, improving transparency (or openness) has been one of important issues related to nuclear safety worldwide. As for the transparency in nuclear regulatory activities in Korea, openness has been declared as one of five principles of the nuclear regulation in the 'nuclear safety policy statement' announced in 1994. Transparency has been discussed and emphasized in various international meetings such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, OECD/NEA meetings, etc. For example, Working Group on Public Communication of nuclear regulatory organizations (WGPC) of the OECD/NEA/CNRA held a workshop on 'the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities' in May 2007 in Tokyo, Japan. In this paper, definition of transparency and its international trends ranging from a general administration to nuclear safety activities are discussed based on the results of meetings and workshops held so far. Measures for improvement associated with transparency are also proposed

  20. Transparency in the Council of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    with information and thereby act as day-to-day facilitators of transparency of the Council’s activities. Although these communicators see themselves as contributing substantially to the transparency of the Council’s work and thereby as enabling the media to provide EU citizens with information about one......The Council of the European Union is often described as the least transparent of the three big EU institutions although steps have been taken to improve the transparency of its activities during the last couple of decades. This article focuses on the Council’s press officers who provide journalists...... of the most powerful political forums in Europe, transparency in the Council has its limits. This study explores institutional factors which hinder Council press officers from being as transparent as journalists would like them to be. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with Council press officers...