WorldWideScience

Sample records for transparency citizen participation

  1. Transparency, citizen participation, organisation and roles. Report from the third RISCOM-II Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Paeivioe, Josefin

    2003-10-01

    This workshop was the final one in a series of three workshops within the RISCOM II project. It was an event where the RISCOM group of researchers disseminated the results to a wider circle of the nuclear waste management community in Europe with the focus on their own 'peers' in participating countries. However, the aim was not just to present RISCOM II results but also to see them in the context of adjacent projects. Especially, the workshop was set up in cooperation with the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) since this was seen as a good opportunity for exchange of experiences between the two activities. There was also participation by representatives from the EC COWAM Concerted Action and one presentation was devoted to this activity. There was thus an opportunity to discuss the three activities together. A draft of the RISCOM II Final Report had been made available for workshop participants before the meeting. The first part of the workshop entitled Transparency and citizen participation was moderated by Yves Le Bars, FSC chairman, and president of ANDRA. The second part dealt with Outcomes of the RISCOM Project and was moderated by Elizabeth Atherton from UK Nirex. Magnus Westerlind (SKI), the RISCOM-II coordinator, moderated the third part that dealt with Organisation and roles

  2. Transparency, citizen participation, organisation and roles. Report from the third RISCOM-II Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Paeivioe, Josefin [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    This workshop was the final one in a series of three workshops within the RISCOM II project. It was an event where the RISCOM group of researchers disseminated the results to a wider circle of the nuclear waste management community in Europe with the focus on their own 'peers' in participating countries. However, the aim was not just to present RISCOM II results but also to see them in the context of adjacent projects. Especially, the workshop was set up in cooperation with the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) since this was seen as a good opportunity for exchange of experiences between the two activities. There was also participation by representatives from the EC COWAM Concerted Action and one presentation was devoted to this activity. There was thus an opportunity to discuss the three activities together. A draft of the RISCOM II Final Report had been made available for workshop participants before the meeting. The first part of the workshop entitled Transparency and citizen participation was moderated by Yves Le Bars, FSC chairman, and president of ANDRA. The second part dealt with Outcomes of the RISCOM Project and was moderated by Elizabeth Atherton from UK Nirex. Magnus Westerlind (SKI), the RISCOM-II coordinator, moderated the third part that dealt with Organisation and roles.

  3. Citizen participation and citizen initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthoefer, H.

    1977-01-01

    Contents: Social conditions for citizen initiatives - technical change and employment - crisis behaviour - socio-psychological analysis of political planning; legitimation - presentation and criticism - conditions for citizen initiatives coming into being within the field of tension citizen : administration - legal problems of citizen initiatives - environmental protection in the energy discussion; participation; models. (HP) [de

  4. Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen Participation in the ... is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks ... of the population has access to computers, 25.9% of which use the Internet.

  5. Citizen participation in public accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Lewis, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we offer an analytical framework sensitive to the quality of citizen participation, which is measured in terms of transferred power from the governors to the citizens, and in terms of the degree to which citizens have access to accountability measures. We do this by combining...... Arnstein’s (1969) classic ladder of participation with a focus on citizen participation in regard to bureaucratic accountability, centered on efficiency and learning (cf. Bovens et al. 2008)....

  6. Innovative forms of citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyseth, Torill; Ringholm, Toril; Agger, Annika

    in practice. Some scholars claim that a reason is due to rigid and formal procedures and that the ways citizen meetings are structured tend to appeal to a limited amount of the population. At the same time, we are witnessing a proliferation in novel and more experimental ways of how citizens and authorities...... interact within the field of urban governance. This is for example seen in urban regeneration projects in Denmark and planning experiments in Norway where we are witnessing more inclusive and bottom-up initiated interactions between public authorities and local actors. The key question in this paper is......: What characterises the new and innovative forms of citizen participation in urban planning in terms of innovation? And in what ways and to what degree is input from these processes fed into the formal planning processes? Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the concept of: ‘planning...

  7. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  8. Democratic Theory and Citizen Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegelbauer, Peter; Hansen, Janus

    2011-01-01

    Citizen participation in terms of participatory technology assessment (PTA) has caused a lot of debate in science and technology policy. However, there are still many open questions: What is the actual impact of PTA on policy-making? On which normative theory of democracy is the evaluation of PTA...... based and does it make a difference which theory is used? Which framework is appropriate to evaluate the often fuzzy impact of PTA on policy-making? Is PTA actually a central element for policy-making or are other factors much more relevant such as politicians' involvement or the presence of industry...... interests? What is the ‘nature’ of the public in different national and institutional contexts? How are expectations of policy-makers played out in the perceived need for regulation? These issues are addressed in a series of comparative papers in this issue which focus on the regulation...

  9. Direct Citizen Participation: Building a Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Nancy C.

    2003-01-01

    The subject of citizen participation has a long lineage dating back to the Greek city-states. Two questions have been central to its history: Who is a citizen and how should the citizen participate in governance? Responses to these questions have varied depending on the political and administrative theory one champions. Those who value indirect citizenship participation, or representative democracy, cite the dangers, costs, and logistical difficulties of involving all members of a society. Th...

  10. Juno Outreach and Citizen Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, T.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Juno spacecraft to the planet Jupiter was launched August 5, 2011, and went into a polar orbit about Jupiter on July 4, 2016. Besides the science, high level objectives of the Juno mission are outreach and citizen participation, which form the theme of this proposed talk. The outreach component includes a Power Point presentation, "Juno, The Cultural Connection," which briefly unveils the history, literature, music, art and visualization experiences that Juno embodies. This will include relating how its very name ties in profoundly with its scientific mission, through its embodiment of the literature of classical mythology and timeless masterpieces of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In addition to the Power Point presentation, the model of the Juno orbital trajectory at Jupiter will be set up and displayed, configured for the day and time of the talk. The model was effectively displayed during the Fall AGU 2016. Citizen participation includes active involvement of attendees in proposing "Points of Interest" (POIs) on Jupiter for the Juno Camera to record images of. This will be accomplished through the Science in a Fishbowl program set up by Juno staff for this objective. After a brief tutorial on the Program, we will jointly select potential JunoCam POIs on Jupiter from an updated map of Jupiter projected on the screen, name them, and write brief rationales, generally one sentence, for why JunoCam should take pictures of the POIs. We will direct our attention to potential POIs that lie along the longitudes covered by JunoCam during its eleventh passage by Jupiter, referred to as Perijove 11 (PJ11), which will occur February 2, 2018. During a similar program at the International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference (SGEM) 2017 held last summer in Albena, Bulgaria, we identified three POIs, named them, and wrote brief reasons why the selected POIs should be imaged by JunoCam. These named POIs were all in the JunoCam field of view during PJ8, which

  11. Climate change discourses and citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger; Horsbøl, Anders; Bonnen, Kersten

    2011-01-01

    of Denmark. We analyze how central actors are called upon to act, and how citizens are addressed in the call for action in the two sets of data. Paving the way for the empirical analysis, the first part of the article gives a review of contemporary literature on climate change typologies and discourses......Citizen participation is a recurrent and democratically important issue in the ongoing debate about climate change. However, different meanings are ascribed to citizen participation in different contexts and discourses, ranging from top-down involvement to bottom-up engagement. This article...... within different research fields, assessing how citizen participation is articulated within these discourses. Finally, we address some needs for increased citizen participation in the climate change debate....

  12. Citizen Participation: Antagonists or Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.

    1976-01-01

    If participation does not include an openness to the issues that are of real concern to the community and an opportunity to influence policy relating to those issues, it becomes an empty public relations gesture fostering apathy, disinterest, resistance, or counter-organization. (MB)

  13. Citizen Participation in Deliberative Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit

    of the voting and the many recommendations were presented to the decision-makers at the summit as well as to the NGOs and other participants at the alternative forum running at the same time in Copenhagen. Unfortunately, the decision-makers did not listen to the ‘global citizen voice’ and in this way......The global event World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews), initiated by the Danish Board of Technology (DBT), took place on September 26, 2009, and was an attempt to gather a united citizen voice on a global scale. The purpose of WWViews was to pass on the opinions of ordinary citizens...... to political decision-makers at The United Nations Climate Summit, COP 15, in Copenhagen in December 2009. As such the WWViews was an innovative experiment with public engagement in science and technology, aiming to create a ‘global citizen voice’ on climate change. The deliberation took place at 44 different...

  14. Crowdsourcing. A Citizen Participation Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a work in progress on Crowdsourcing. First, its concepts and importance are discussed and then its value for citizenship and urban planning. The motivation for participation and the display of geo-tagged information, as well as its possible applications in dynamic spatial temporal issues are presented, as well as its different approaches and applications. Furthermore, Crowdsourcing is discussed when the “ONVCêVIU”, a VGI case study, is presented, revealing its origin, objective, free platform comparison - to select the proper tool to implement, the project’s main challenges, results so far and further steps to be taken. To conclude a short review of the author’s vision about what is to come in the future research.

  15. The citizens in E-participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2006-01-01

    focus on the citizens. Equal opportunities to express their opinions and an open debate between people are the basic foundation for democracy. Therefore the design of participatory processes must take outset in the citizens and their knowledge and commitment concerning the issue to be debated...

  16. The Open Format and Citizen Participation in Transportation Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in transportation planning and policy indicate that citizen participation and openness may receive less emphasis in the future in favor of more closed methods of decision making and control. Have the merits and drawbacks of citizen participation and openness changed significan......Recent developments in transportation planning and policy indicate that citizen participation and openness may receive less emphasis in the future in favor of more closed methods of decision making and control. Have the merits and drawbacks of citizen participation and openness changed...... with the trend for considering social, environmental, and ethical issues in transportation planning and policy....

  17. Democratic innovations: designing institutions for citizen participation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Graham

    2009-01-01

    At a time when there is growing disillusionment with the institutions of advanced industrial democracies, there is also increasing interest in new ways of involving citizens in the democratic process...

  18. Your Comments Here: Contextualizing Technologies, Seeking Records and Supporting Transparency for Citizen Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Hurley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, governments the world over are opening decision-making processes to citizen engagement as an aspect of open government. Citizen engagement initiatives may range from making information available and seeking feedback, to highly dynamic processes that transfer authority to communities and individuals. As part of these initiatives, governments are actively using digital technologies to gather, analyze, and store citizen input; activities that in turn create an array of records. My paper surveys a range of digital technologies used by Canadian citizen engagement case initiatives. In linking technologies, recordkeeping and citizen engagement, I present the combined frameworks of the IAP2 Spectrum and archival diplomatics as one method of understanding how recordkeeping and citizen engagement frameworks may be joined. I conclude with a discussion on defining and locating the records of citizen engagement initiatives and how records and recordkeeping may support transparency and trust in citizen engagement.

  19. Examining citizen participation: local participatory policymaking and democracy revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.; de Graaf, Laurens

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses developments in citizen participation and its contribution to democracy since the publication of the original article. It evaluates the continued relevance of the use of a normative framework to assess different forms of citizen participation, nuances some of the conclusions

  20. Examining Citizen Participation: Local Participatory Policy Making and Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11124501X; de Graaf, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen participation is usually seen as a vital aspect of democracy. Many theorists claim that citizen participation has positive effects on the quality of democracy. This article examines the probability of these claims for local participatory policymaking projects in two municipalities in the

  1. Examining Citizen Participation : Local participatory Policymaking and Democracy revisted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ank Michels; Laurens de Graaf

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses developments in citizen participation and its contribution to democracy since the publication of the original article. It evaluates the continued relevance of the use of a normative framework to assess different forms of citizen participation, nuances some of the conclusions

  2. Grass-root Mobilisation and Citizen Participation: Issues and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasoo, S.

    1991-01-01

    Mobilization of citizen participation in grassroots organizations can be adversely affected when grassroots leaders perceive a lack of support. Periodic organizational diagnosis can lead to more equitable division of responsibilities and recruitment of more leaders and skilled participants. (SK)

  3. Citizen voices performing public participation in science and environment communication

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Anabela; Doyle, Julie

    2012-01-01

    How is "participation" ascribed meaning and practised in science and environment communication? And how are citizen voices articulated, invoked, heard, marginalised or silenced in those processes? Citizen Voices takes its starting point in the so-called dialogic or participatory turn in scientific and environmental governance in which practices claiming to be based on principles of participation, dialogue and citizen involvement have proliferated. The book goes beyond the buzzword of "participation" in order to give empirically rich, theoretically informed and critical accounts of how citizen participation is understood and enacted in mass mediation and public engagement practices. A diverse series of studies across Europe and the US are presented, providing readers with empirical insights into the articulation of citizen voices in different national, cultural and institutional contexts. Building bridges across media and communication studies, science and technology studies, environmental studies and urban pl...

  4. Cable Television: Citizen Participation After the Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Monroe E.; Botein, Michael

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has incorporated several allowances in its regulations pertaining to cable television. Some of these enable citizen groups and communities to intervene in the cable franchise after the final issuance in order to correct deficiencies in the franchising process and the administration of the franchise.…

  5. The citizens in E-participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2006-01-01

    . The current paper presents the results of a survey among actively involved citizens in Northern Jutland County. Our analysis shows a high degree of involvement among middle-age well-educated males with a higher education and income above average. It seems that contrary to the planner's vision of an open...

  6. The Internet and Increased Citizen Participation in Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Milakovich

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available What roles do communication systems, information technologies and the internet play in fostering citizen participation and influencing the electoral and administrative decisions of government? The internet is simultaneously a world-wide broadcasting network, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic boundaries or time zones. This article describes the origins of participatory democracy, discusses how modern concepts of democracy link to citizen participation, and describes the ways that newly-created spaces on the internet referred to as “polispheres” are being used by political activists and candidates to facilitate wider collaboration and citizen participation. The following questions are addressed: What role does the internet play in fostering and aiding citizen participation in government? Does increased involvement lead to greater trust and confidence in government? What role did the internet play in apparently reversing downward trends in citizen apathy and drawing 8 million new voters to the United States 2008 presidential election? The article suggests that information technology facilitates broader citizen participation and identifies the challenges facing governments in adopting internet-based ICT strategies.

  7. Who are the citizens in public participation GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2006-01-01

    to face discussions between the citizens. Equal opportunities to express their opinions and an open debate between people are the basic foundation for democracy. Therefore the design of participatory processes must take outset in the citizens and their knowledge and commitment concerning the issue...... stakeholders among a broader group of citizens, and ask for their opinion. Especially women and younger generations are much more needed in the participatory process. Therefore the county administration must consider these findings to make the participation tools more targeted in the future....

  8. Quiet living. Challenges of citizen participation in digitized society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    Quiet living. Challenges of citizen participation in digitized society The aim of this paper is to present and address challenges that citizens may encounter in the intersecting questions of democracy, digitization, and participation. Empirically, the paper draws on findings from an extensive study......, and perceptions of citizenship. From 2011 and forwards a new digitization strategy for public systems has been implemented in Denmark. According to the strategy, all interactions between the system and the citizen in its multiple contexts are now by default digital and online. The logic is that Denmark is among...... media and media content from their private sphere as well as from their work or education. Denmark can therefore be characterized as a digital society. The following quotes from the media literacy study illustrate two different situations and experiences with digitization of citizen life: “Before .. You...

  9. Initiating and continuing participation in citizen science for natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Glyn; Geoghegan, Hilary

    2016-07-22

    Natural history has a long tradition in the UK, dating back to before Charles Darwin. Developing from a principally amateur pursuit, natural history continues to attract both amateur and professional involvement. Within the context of citizen science and public engagement, we examine the motivations behind citizen participation in the national survey activities of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme, looking at: people's experiences of the surveys as 'project-based leisure'; their motivations for taking part and barriers to continued participation; where they feature on our continuum of engagement; and whether participation in an OPAL survey facilitated their movement between categories along this continuum. The paper focuses on a less-expected but very significant outcome regarding the participation of already-engaged amateur naturalists in citizen science. Our main findings relate to: first, how committed amateur naturalists (already-engaged) have also enjoyed contributing to OPAL and the need to respect and work with their interest to encourage broader and deeper involvement; and second, how new (previously-unengaged) and relatively new participants (casually-engaged) have gained confidence, renewed their interests, refocussed their activities and/or gained validation from participation in OPAL. Overall, we argue that engagement with and enthusiasm for the scientific process is a motivation shared by citizens who, prior to participating in the OPAL surveys, were previously-unengaged, casually-engaged or already-engaged in natural history activities. Citizen science has largely been written about by professional scientists for professional scientists interested in developing a project of their own. This study offers a qualitative example of how citizen science can be meaningful to participants beyond what might appear to be a public engagement data collection exercise.

  10. How Participation Creates Citizens: Participatory Governance as Performative Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Turnhout

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives. This article takes a critical perspective on participation by discussing how participation may influence the ways in which citizens can become involved. Participation unavoidably involves (1 restrictions about who should be involved and about the space for negotiation, (2 assumptions about what the issue at stake is, and (3 expectations about what the outcome of participation should be and how the participants are expected to behave. This is illustrated by a case study about the Dutch nature area, the Drentsche Aa. The case study demonstrates how the participatory process that took place and the restrictions, assumptions, and expectations that were involved resulted in six forms of citizen involvement, both intended and unintended, which ranged between creativity, passivity, and entrenchment. Based on these findings, the article argues that participation does not merely serve as a neutral place in which citizens are represented, but instead creates different categories of citizens. Recognizing this means reconceiving participation as performative practice. Such a perspective goes beyond overly optimistic views of participation as a technique whose application can be perfected, as well as pessimistic views of participation as repression or domination. Instead, it appreciates both intended and unintended forms of citizen involvement as meaningful and legitimate, and recognizes citizenship as being constituted in interaction in the context of participation.

  11. Citizen science on a smartphone: Participants' motivations and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Devilee, Jeroen L A; Snik, Frans; Buurmeijer, Franka; van den Broek, Jos M

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science provides researchers means to gather or analyse large datasets. At the same time, citizen science projects offer an opportunity for non-scientists to be part of and learn from the scientific process. In the Dutch iSPEX project, a large number of citizens turned their smartphones into actual measurement devices to measure aerosols. This study examined participants' motivation and perceived learning impacts of this unique project. Most respondents joined iSPEX because they wanted to contribute to the scientific goals of the project or because they were interested in the project topics (health and environmental impact of aerosols). In terms of learning impact, respondents reported a gain in knowledge about citizen science and the topics of the project. However, many respondents had an incomplete understanding of the science behind the project, possibly caused by the complexity of the measurements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Citizen participation in local policy making: design and democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11124501X

    2012-01-01

    Embedding democratic innovations that increase and deepen citizen participation in decision making has become a common policy of local governments in many countries. This article focuses on the role of the design of these innovations and seeks to establish the effects of their design on democracy.

  13. eParticipation for Adolescent Citizens (in Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.

  14. Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  15. Assemblies, Referendums or Consultations? Social Representations of Citizen Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ganuza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some studies, Spanish citizens want more participatory processes. There are pro-participatory groups (the young, non-voters, left-wing voters, residents in mid-sized cities, etc., while other groups are less enthusiastic (right-wing voters. In this study we address social representations of participatory democracy and how they are embedded in the political understandings of different groups. The study is based on 16 focus-groups conducted between 2011 and 2013 in Spain. We identify four major visions among the participants: those who prefer a complex deliberative system for citizen participation, those who want more referenda and other expressive channels, those who think it is an unattainable reform, and those who reject these types of political processes.

  16. [Local and citizen participation and representation strategies in Healthcare Administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Serena, Francesc; Grané Alsina, Montserrat; Olivet, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    The public as a whole are the rightful owners and beneficiaries of the public healthcare system in our country. As such, they collaborate in its maintenance and upkeep through payment of taxes. The government is accountable to the public as to how the ever-scarce resources are allocated. When it comes to the area of healthcare, this represents an added factor of complexity and specificity which makes the issue a particularly sensitive one. In the field of healthcare, both the General Health Law and the Law of Catalan Healthcare Code define the actors responsible for the public representation of its citizens. Nevertheless, their inclusion does not necessarily guarantee the perception of participation by its citizens or that of a greater democratic quality. The model must be understood as the intermediary link between a legally regulated framework and the actual debate, which in a globalized world with such an immense volume of information available to citizens and with the current online social networking sites, occurs at the heart of society in general, even though government has no such incorporation channel. The system will need to be developed as new technologies enable this, towards a more direct and more global models for participation. Participation is a flexible concept which, as far as possible, needs to adapt to the different problems as well as the different regions. Legislative regulation must therefore provide the mechanisms and stable frameworks for participation. In turn however, it must also establish dynamic systems capable of adapting to and incorporating the varying demands and methods of participation coming from the public in response to disparate processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3

  18. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2001-01-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  19. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  20. Motivation of Citizen Scientists Participating in Moon Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shanique; Gay, P. L.; Daus, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Zoo is an online citizen science project with the aim of providing detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible. In addition to focusing on craters, volunteers are encouraged to remain vigilant for sightings of atypical features which may lead to new discoveries. Volunteers accomplish these tasks by exploring images captured by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which has a resolution of 50cm per pixel. To be successful, Moon Zoo needs to attract and retain a large population of citizen scientists. In this study, we examine the factors motivating Moon Zoo participants who invest many hours exploring these images. In this, the first of a two-phased study, we conducted a qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews as a means of data collection. A stratified sample of participants was used in an attempt to uncover the driving forces behind decisions to participate from a wide-range of participants. Inquiring and probing questions were asked about factors which led volunteers to Moon Zoo as well as reasons which kept them committed to exploring the Moon's surface through this online portal. Responses were then categorized using a grounded theory approach, and frequency distributions are calculated where appropriate. Aggregate results from these interviews are presented here including the demographics of the sample and motivators as per the content analysis. The information gathered from this phase will be used to guide the development of an online survey to further explore volunteers’ motivation based on the presented classification schemes. The survey will then be used to guide future research and development in the area of citizen science in the field of astronomy. These findings will also be useful in charting new boundaries for future research.

  1. Motivations of Citizen Scientists Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Georgia; Raddick, M. J.; Gay, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy Zoo is an online citizen science project involving over 170,000 volunteers who have classified the morphologies of hundreds of thousands of galaxies. In this study, we examine the motivations of Galaxy Zoo participants - what reasons do they give for offering their time classifying galaxies? Interviews were conducted with randomly-chosen participants, and the transcripts were independently analyzed to discover motivations for participation. A systematic method of classifying the motivations was used independently by each member of the research team. A list of 14 motivation categories was agreed upon by the researchers, and this list is presented here along with illustrative quotes from the interviews. Using similar methods of classification, motivations were also taken from the Galaxy Zoo Forum and compared to the motivations from the interviews. This technique can be generalized to study other populations of new media participants. We find that data from the Forum supports the original classification scheme developed from the interviews, and we present details of a planned survey that will continue this research with a larger sample. Finally, we present some possible implications of these results on other citizen science projects, including upcoming Galaxy Zoo projects, and we outline plans for our own future research in this area.

  2. Data-Driven Participation: Algorithms, Cities, Citizens, and Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tenney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we critically explore the interplay of algorithms and civic participation in visions of a city governed by equation, sensor and tweet. We begin by discussing the rhetoric surrounding techno-enabled paths to participatory democracy. This leads to us interrogating how the city is impacted by a discourse that promises to harness social/human capital through data science. We move to a praxis level and examine the motivations of local planners to adopt and increasingly automate forms of VGI as a form of citizen engagement. We ground theory and praxis with a report on the uneven impacts of algorithmic civic participation underway in the Canadian city of Toronto.

  3. Transparency and public participation in WTO dispute settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlborn, C.S.; Pfitzer, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to offer a comprehensive analysis of transparency and public participation in the WTO dispute settlement system, this memorandum first considers the current participatory practice throughout the various steps of the dispute settlement process. Secondly, the current state of the DSU

  4. From Information to Urban Sustainability through Innovations in Citizen Centered Transparency Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2017-12-01

    Current urban information mechanisms in developing countries operate only through linear exchanges between institutions and users and therefore reinforce hierarchical relationships. Coupled with conflicting interests and perspectives of stakeholders in multilevel climate-governance and absence of grassroots information-networking for adaptation decision-making, there are therefore, existing information gaps. Central to urban sustainability is the need for citizen centered transparency (CCT) mechanisms that encompass and address the needs of the marginalized and vulnerable communities in developing countries especially. The study discloses the existing information gaps through information-needs assessment of stakeholders, and attempts to chart the desired course for responsible action within frame-work of Citizen Centered Transparency (CCT) mechanism. This involved analysis of several urban development projects for Indian metropolitans that mainly involved end-user association, and the parameters considered for breaking complexity for assessment included: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve resource consumption literacy and consequently urban behaviour and sustainable lifestyles(feedback technology, consumption displays, eco-labeling, billing, advisory services, sensor technology), and b. Administrative Traditions and Institutional Policy: Rewarding-punishing to enforce desired action(subsidies, taxation). The research thus answered: 1.Who gets the information whereas who requires it (Equity in Information Distribution)? and 2. How can information translate to responsible action in future (Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that, how, by using the CCT innovations it is practically possible to embed responsibilities in urban development planning, and manifesting environmental goals in municipal policies so that they bear clear potential short-term benefits, short-term costs, and have maximum compliance with the objectives of sustainable urban

  5. Empirical Analysis on CSR Communication in Romania: Transparency and Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Eugenia Iamandi

    2012-01-01

    In the specific field of corporate social responsibility (CSR), the participation of companies in supporting social and environmental issues is mainly analysed and/or measured based on their CSR communication policy; in this way, the transparency of the CSR reporting procedures is one of the most precise challenges for researchers and practitioners in the field. The main research objective of the present paper is to distinguish between different types of CSR participation by identifying the r...

  6. Participation of concerned citizens in site selection decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, D.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution presents preliminary results of two international projects aimed at integrating the general public, or parts thereof, in the decision process of selecting ultimate storage sites. The author participated in these projects and is a former member of the task group for selection of ultimate storage sites (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd). The two projects are: Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, Project 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) of the European Commission. The participants, goals and methods of the two projects were different, but they both presented concrete methods of selecting ultimate storage sites from the view of different actors in the form of case studies. The focus was on the participation of the public and its importance for success. Apart from meeting technical requirements the selection process should also take account of the requirements of democracy and citizens' participation in order to gain wide acceptance for its results. Deficiencies and advantages of the proposed selection processes are analyzed, and general requirements on the decision process in site selection are derived. (orig.) [de

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION UPON CITIZENS SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of citizens considering public services depends on the way the authorities identify and offer solutions to fulfil citizens expectations, which are at least identical or even superior to the services offered in private domain. In addition, the worldwide governments are forced to adapt to the pressure exercised by the changes that appear in the demographic, technologic and economic environment, by the growing expectations of citizens and the necessity of lowering the taxes. As a consequence, the public system is starting to adopt the solutions that the citizens identified for the developing of the public policies, implying and making the community responsible in the act of governing.

  8. Evolution of local citizen participation schemes in the German wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenberger, N.; Fichtner, W.; Rentz, O.

    2003-01-01

    Local citizen participation schemes like the German 'Buergerwindparks' (citizen wind farm) have been an important vehicle to develop the wind energy business to its present state of market maturity. This article discusses ownership as an integrated part of the economic project design for renewable energy projects. Different forms of local citizen participation are differentiated and strategic aspects related to the entrepreneurial decision of involving local citizens are highlighted. Then, the focus will be on a description of different role models for local citizen-financed wind energy projects. The paper also explains the evolution of two new role models: the merger of existing project companies to larger citizen-owned project portfolio companies and the role of closed-end wind funds as a new equity provision approach. Finally, the role of local citizen participation schemes in different market phases is discussed. (author)

  9. Transparency and Public Participation in Radioactive Waste Management. RISCOM II Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Westerling, Magnus; Atherton, Elizabeth

    2003-10-01

    The RISCOM II project was initiated to support the participating organisations in developing transparency in their radioactive waste programmes by developing a greater degree of public participation.The project has clarified how the RISCOM Model can best be used in radioactive waste management programmes, as well as which are the most important areas of further testing an improvement. The methodology used for designing hearings included active involvement of the hearing actors at the preparatory stage - an element that contributed to the fairness of the entire process. We have also seen how the RISCOM Model can support the development of criteria for public participation processes. To enhance transparency, such processes should have the capacity to evaluate claims of fact, legitimacy and authenticity, and they need to have stretching capacity. Above all, in parallel with possible further development and refinement of the RISCOM Model, its theoretical grounds in combination with its already proven applicability make it ready for further use directly in radioactive waste management programmes for the design of decision processes and means for citizen participation. The model can also be used for the analysis of organisational systems ability to provide transparency. One of the cores issues addressed in the study has been how performance assessment can be made more transparent and what needs to be done to make it more accessible to the general public: Arrangements should be made to make visible where values enter the performance assessment and how uncertainties are taken care of. Performance assessment should not be communicated by information departments - the real experts need to engage themselves so that people can see that they are honest, open about uncertainties and address the concerns of ordinary people. Clearly regulatory standards and criteria are one important area where the principles of transparent decision-making should be applied. Successful citizen

  10. Integrating citizen advisory boards in public participation: Lessons from the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    1995-01-01

    Citizen advisory boards have been used successfully, particularly by the chemical industry, as programs for public participation. Now the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has responded to a growing demand for more direct citizen involvement in environmental restoration decision making. The experience of the site-specific advisory board at the department's Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati provides lessons that contribute to the development of a model for the most efficient use of citizen advisory boards

  11. The Community Seismic Network: Enabling Observations Through Citizen Science Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M. D.; Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Bunn, J.; Guy, R.; Massari, A.; Chandy, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network is a dense accelerometer array deployed in the greater Los Angeles area and represents the future of densely instrumented urban cities where localized vibration measurements are collected continuously throughout the free-field and built environment. The hardware takes advantage of developments in the semiconductor industry in the form of inexpensive MEMS accelerometers that are each coupled with a single board computer. The data processing and archival architecture borrows from developments in cloud computing and network connectedness. The ability to deploy densely in the free field and in upper stories of mid/high-rise buildings is enabled by community hosts for sensor locations. To this end, CSN has partnered with the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), the NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and commercial and civic building owners to host sensors. At these sites, site amplification estimates from RMS noise measurements illustrate the lateral variation in amplification over length scales of 100 m or less, that correlate with gradients in the local geology such as sedimentary basins that abut crystalline rock foothills. This is complemented by high-resolution, shallow seismic velocity models obtained using an H/V method. In addition, noise statistics are used to determine the reliability of sites for ShakeMap and earthquake early warning data. The LAUSD and JPL deployments are examples of how situational awareness and centralized warning products such as ShakeMap and ShakeCast are enabled by citizen science participation. Several buildings have been instrumented with at least one triaxial accelerometer per floor, providing measurements for real-time structural health monitoring through local, customized displays. For real-time and post-event evaluation, the free-field and built environment CSN data and products illustrate the feasibility of order-of-magnitude higher spatial resolution mapping compared to what is currently

  12. Changes in Participants' Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs during an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C. Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science projects provide non-scientists with opportunities to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on how participation in citizen science projects may affect their scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers'…

  13. Engagement in smartcities. Design of a framework of Theoretical analysis applied to citizen participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Cortés-Cediel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Engagement can be defined as a psychological state in which an individual focuses all her attention and enjoys the activity she is doing. The literature highlights the importance of improving this in citizen participation by governments and administrations. However, to the best of our knowledge, the literature does not offer clues about how engagement in citizen participation can be improved. This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework of citizen engagement for citizen participation in the context of smart cities. To this end, we first provide a definition of engagement, and describe some of its main characteristics. Next, we present a review of the literature on citizen participation tools in smart cities, analyzing if such tools do influence engagement attributes. The main outcomes of the study are the elaboration of a theoretical framework that integrates characteristic attributes of engagement in the field of citizen participation, and the identification of participation tools analyzing whether they can be designed to increase citizen engagement levels.

  14. Empirical Analysis on CSR Communication in Romania: Transparency and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Eugenia Iamandi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the specific field of corporate social responsibility (CSR, the participation of companies in supporting social and environmental issues is mainly analysed and/or measured based on their CSR communication policy; in this way, the transparency of the CSR reporting procedures is one of the most precise challenges for researchers and practitioners in the field. The main research objective of the present paper is to distinguish between different types of CSR participation by identifying the reasons behind CSR communication for a series of companies acting on the Romanian market. The descriptive analysis – conducted both at integrated and corporate level for the Romanian companies – took into account five main CSR communication related issues: CSR site, CSR report, CSR listing, CSR budget and CSR survey. The results highlight both the declarative/prescriptive and practical/descriptive perspectives of CSR communication in Romania, showing that the Romanian CSR market is reaching its full maturity. In more specific terms, the majority of the investigated companies are already using different types of CSR participation, marking the transition from CSR just for commercial purposes to CSR for long-term strategic use. The achieved results are broadly analysed in the paper and specific conclusions are emphasized.

  15. Transparency and Public Participation in Radioactive Waste Management. RISCOM II Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Westerling, Magnus [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Atherton, Elizabeth [UK Nirex Ltd (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2003-10-01

    The RISCOM II project was initiated to support the participating organisations in developing transparency in their radioactive waste programmes by developing a greater degree of public participation.The project has clarified how the RISCOM Model can best be used in radioactive waste management programmes, as well as which are the most important areas of further testing an improvement. The methodology used for designing hearings included active involvement of the hearing actors at the preparatory stage - an element that contributed to the fairness of the entire process. We have also seen how the RISCOM Model can support the development of criteria for public participation processes. To enhance transparency, such processes should have the capacity to evaluate claims of fact, legitimacy and authenticity, and they need to have stretching capacity. Above all, in parallel with possible further development and refinement of the RISCOM Model, its theoretical grounds in combination with its already proven applicability make it ready for further use directly in radioactive waste management programmes for the design of decision processes and means for citizen participation. The model can also be used for the analysis of organisational systems ability to provide transparency. One of the cores issues addressed in the study has been how performance assessment can be made more transparent and what needs to be done to make it more accessible to the general public: Arrangements should be made to make visible where values enter the performance assessment and how uncertainties are taken care of. Performance assessment should not be communicated by information departments - the real experts need to engage themselves so that people can see that they are honest, open about uncertainties and address the concerns of ordinary people. Clearly regulatory standards and criteria are one important area where the principles of transparent decision-making should be applied. Successful citizen

  16. Transparency and Public Participation in Radioactive Waste Management. RISCOM II Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Westerling, Magnus [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Atherton, Elizabeth [UK Nirex Ltd (United Kingdom); and others

    2003-10-01

    The RISCOM II project was initiated to support the participating organisations in developing transparency in their radioactive waste programmes by developing a greater degree of public participation.The project has clarified how the RISCOM Model can best be used in radioactive waste management programmes, as well as which are the most important areas of further testing an improvement. The methodology used for designing hearings included active involvement of the hearing actors at the preparatory stage - an element that contributed to the fairness of the entire process. We have also seen how the RISCOM Model can support the development of criteria for public participation processes. To enhance transparency, such processes should have the capacity to evaluate claims of fact, legitimacy and authenticity, and they need to have stretching capacity. Above all, in parallel with possible further development and refinement of the RISCOM Model, its theoretical grounds in combination with its already proven applicability make it ready for further use directly in radioactive waste management programmes for the design of decision processes and means for citizen participation. The model can also be used for the analysis of organisational systems ability to provide transparency. One of the cores issues addressed in the study has been how performance assessment can be made more transparent and what needs to be done to make it more accessible to the general public: Arrangements should be made to make visible where values enter the performance assessment and how uncertainties are taken care of. Performance assessment should not be communicated by information departments - the real experts need to engage themselves so that people can see that they are honest, open about uncertainties and address the concerns of ordinary people. Clearly regulatory standards and criteria are one important area where the principles of transparent decision-making should be applied. Successful citizen

  17. The public participation handbook: making better decisions through citizen involvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, James L

    2005-01-01

    "Internationally renowned facilitator and consultant James L. Creighton offers a practical guide to designing and facilitating public participation in environmental and public policy decision making...

  18. How Participation Creates Citizens: Participatory Governance as Performative Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, E.; Bommel, van S.; Aarts, M.N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives.

  19. Participation of the citizen in the approval procedures for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puettner, G.

    1977-01-01

    The author first deals with the causes, and the forms taken, of the trend towards more citizen participation. In detail he then deals with the complaint from an association as the most important cause of disagreement in citizen participation; also discussed are the disquiet under constitutional law concerning control of the administration by associations and courts instead of by the government, problems of the law protection system, and practical considerations. Finally he indicates reasonable possibilities of participation by associations, e.g. in relation to the provision of a particular site. (orig.) [de

  20. Problems raised by participation of foreign citizens in national licensing procedures - aspects of public international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1983-01-01

    In western Europe persons living in border areas increasingly ask for participation in national licensing procedures for nuclear installations to be erected close to the border in neighbouring countries. National practices vary in this matter. Whilst many countries concede rights of participation to foreign citizens in the border areas, the Federal Republic of Germany, e.g., denies foreign citizens direct participation. The paper enquires into the connected problems of public international law and pertinent international treaties and international customary low are examined. (NEA) [fr

  1. The interplay of governance, power and citizen participation in community tourism planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.J. Jordan; C.A. Vogt; Linda Kruger; N. Grewe

    2013-01-01

    This research examines a unique case of tourism planning and explores the relationships between governance, power, and citizen participation in community decision-making. In less than two years, the community of Sitka, Alaska, undertook two separate tourism-planning processes in response to proposed tourism development. The first plan followed a participant-led...

  2. Mapping epistemic cultures and learning potential of participants in citizen science projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabh, Priya; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Schudel, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    The ever-widening scope and range of global change and interconnected systemic risks arising from people-environment relationships (social-ecological risks) appears to be increasing concern among, and involvement of, citizens in an increasingly diversified number of citizen science projects responding to these risks. We examined the relationship between epistemic cultures in citizen science projects and learning potential related to matters of concern. We then developed a typology of purposes and a citizen science epistemic-cultures heuristic and mapped 56 projects in southern Africa using this framework. The purpose typology represents the range of knowledge-production purposes, ranging from laboratory science to social learning, whereas the epistemic-cultures typology is a relational representation of scientist and citizen participation and their approach to knowledge production. Results showed an iterative relationship between matters of fact and matters of concern across the projects; the nexus of citizens' engagement in knowledge-production activities varied. The knowledge-production purposes informed and shaped the epistemic cultures of all the sampled citizen science projects, which in turn influenced the potential for learning within each project. Through a historical review of 3 phases in a long-term river health-monitoring project, we found that it is possible to evolve the learning curve of citizen science projects. This evolution involved the development of scientific water monitoring tools, the parallel development of pedagogic practices supporting monitoring activities, and situated engagement around matters of concern within social activism leading to learning-led change. We conclude that such evolutionary processes serve to increase potential for learning and are necessary if citizen science is to contribute to wider restructuring of the epistemic culture of science under conditions of expanding social-ecological risk. © 2016 Society for

  3. The Citizens' Exhibition: A Combination of Socio-scientific, Participative and Artistic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Böhm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Through its incorporation of socio-scientific, participative and artistic elements, the "Citizens' Exhibition" is an example of how applied performative social science can be implemented. The method was created by teaching qualitative methods and community psychology approaches in courses for students of psychology in the 1990's. The Citizens' Exhibition combines qualitative methods, such as interview and text interpretation, with artistic-aesthetic methods, such as photography and film, to form an integrated concept. In the tradition of action research, the practice is applied in the exploration of societal issues. The Citizens' Exhibition supports dialogue and furthering communication processes between the stakeholders through the presentation of diverse perspectives. In this regard, the staging of the exhibition opening has a particular importance. The following article about the Citizens' Exhibition presents the practice's origin and history in the first section and, in the second section, offers an introduction to the individual methodological steps. In the third section, various Citizens' Exhibitions are described as illustrations of the method. The last section discusses the vision of the Citizens' Exhibition, its performative component, strengths and limitations, considers the results of an existing evaluation study and looks at the future uses of the practice. Particular regard should be paid here to a combination of methods that enable a long-term participation effect, the expansion of participatory possibilities for the research subjects, and experimentation with additional artistic methods. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802337

  4. Active Citizens, Good Citizens, and Insouciant Bystanders: The Educational Implications of Chinese University Students' Civic Participation via Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lin; Starkey, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This virtual ethnographic study explores how Chinese university students use social network sites (SNSs) to participate in civic activities. An ideal of "active" citizens is contrasted with good citizens (Crick) and insouciant bystanders. We find that students engage with the civic issues embedded in everyday life; their online civic…

  5. [Promoting citizen participation in healthcare through PyDEsalud.com].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Pérez-Ramos, Jeanette; Abt-Sacks, Analía; Rivero-Santana, Amado; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This project supports the initiative promoted by the Spanish National Health System to provide informational materials, in printed or interactive format, to encourage public participation in decision making and healthcare. We present the newly created PyDEsalud.com, a web platform aimed at people with chronic diseases with a high socioeconomic impact, such as breast cancer, depression, and diabetes. This platform uses scientific methodology and contains three information service modules (Patients' experiences, Shared decision making, and Research needs), aimed at promoting health education for patients and families. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Should the regulator allow citizens to participate in tradable permits markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Since the seminal paper written by Weitzman (1974), the 'prices vs. quantities' debate regarding choice of policy instrument under imperfect information and uncertainty has been an ongoing concern for economists, especially in the field of the environment. In this debate, several papers have recommended that the regulator allow pollution victims (citizens) to participate in tradable permits markets. According to this literature, when pollution victims purchase and withhold (i.e. destroy) emission rights from polluting firms, this means that the overall quota is not efficient and that welfare gains will be realised. In this paper, we present further theoretical results showing that citizen participation in tradable quotas markets may become welfare decreasing. Indeed, citizens can aggravate the first error made by the regulator if they are also under uncertainty about the marginal benefit curve or if they exhibit strong enough risk aversion. Therefore, we recommend that the regulator limit citizen participation to a certain percentage of permits. In doing so, we extend the 'prices versus quantities' debate to simultaneous uncertainty and risk aversion by showing that a marketable permits system offers the regulator an opportunity to control the negative effects of agents' (citizens' and firms') risk aversion on welfare. (author)

  7. Citizen Participation and Engagement in Urban Governance: Perception of Finnish and Polish Local Officials1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radzik-Maruszak Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation has recently received renewed attention in the context of governance. This is especially relevant in countries where democratization and decentralization have led to an increased promotion of citizen involvement into the decision-making process. This article suggests that the current debate on civic engagement would benefit from further reflection on how the concept of participation is implemented in contexts, particularly in the Nordic as well as Central and Eastern European countries, where ideas of local democracy, urban governance and involvement can be understood differently. By exploring citizen participation from the perspective of local officials in two European cities – Lublin, Poland and Tampere, Finland, the article seeks to add significant data to the on-going scholarly discussion. Based on qualitative research, it examines advantages and disadvantages of the provisions of the local citizen-participation frameworks, as perceived by the officials of the selected case cities. In the conclusion, the authors point out that although both cities have different democratic institutional systems as well as commonly accepted notions of citizen participation, their city halls frequently face similar problems related to the use of participatory tools.

  8. Territorial authorities, stakeholders of participative and citizen projects of renewable energy. From support to management: how to do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peullemeulle, Justine; Duval, Joakim; Boumard, Erwan; Leclercq, Michel; Paraiso, Jean-Eric; Foulon, Arno; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Mouhamad, Sakina; Leclercq, Michel; Poize, Noemie; Duffes, Thomas; Billard, Marianne; Leyendecker, Manon; Jourdain, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    This publication aims at being a guide for public actors in the implementation and management of participative and citizen projects of renewable energy. It first outlines context and stakes for territorial authorities and citizen, both considered as actors of a democracy of energy. In the next chapter, and by referring to actual examples, it describes the approach to a citizen-based project, and more precisely how a local authority can support the emergence of projects, as well as citizen initiatives, how it is involved in the development phase, and in the building phase. The next chapter highlights lessons which can be learned from a set of current experiments and situations: how can citizen make authorities participate to a project they initiated, how can authorities can make citizen participate to a project they initiated, which actions to implement when a developer wants to intervene on a territory, case of local authorities supporting the local policy of development of citizen renewable energies

  9. Coproduction as an Approach to Technology-Mediated Citizen Participation in Emergency Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Díaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM. This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants, but also as first responders. This participation could contribute to build resilient communities aware of the risks they are threatened by and able to mobilize their social capital to cope with them and, in turn, decrease the impact of threats and hazards. However for this participation to be possible organizations in charge of EM need to realize that involving citizens does not interfere with their protocols and that citizens are a valuable asset that can contribute to the EM process with specific skills and capabilities. In this paper we discuss the design challenges of using social and mobile computing to move to a more participatory EM process that starts by empowering both citizens and organizations in a coproduction service envisioned as a partnership effort. As an example, we describe a case study of a participatory design approach that involved professional EM workers and decision makers in an effort to understand the challenges of using technology-based solutions to integrate citizen skills and capabilities in their operation protocols. The case study made it possible to identify specific roles that citizens might play in a crisis or disaster and to envision scenarios were technologies could be used to integrate their skills into the EM process. In this way the paper contributes to the roles and the scenarios of theory-building about coproduction in EM services.

  10. Defending Democracy: Citizen Participation in Election Monitoring in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Suryani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the authoritarian regime in 1998 has made Indonesia as one of the most democratic country in Southeast Asia. To ensure the quality of democracy, in particular electoral democracy, supervision and monitoring of elections has a veryimportant role. Although the Badan Pengawas Pemilu (Bawaslu or Election Supervisory Body of Indonesiahas experienced institutional strengthening, this institution has not yet become effective in supervisingand monitoring the elections. Therefore, electionmonitoring conducted by non-state agencies, particularly the citizens become important to complement the performance of Bawaslu. This article aimsto explore how the election monitoring conducted by citizens in the aftermath of post authoritarian era,affect the quality of Indonesian democracy. This article argues that although the citizen participation in monitoring the elections is likely to decline, but thecrowd sourced method that appeared in the 2014election has succeeded in improving the quality of the electoral process as well as defending the democratic regime in Indonesia.

  11. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information...

  12. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Albu, Oana Brindusa

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent research topic in many scholarly disciplines and offers valuable insights for organizational communication. This entry provides an overview of the historical background and identifies some themes that presently inform the transparency literature. The entry...... then outlines the most important dimensions of the concept of transparency by highlighting two paradigmatic positions underpinning contemporary research in this area: namely, informational approaches that focus on the sharing of information and the perceived quality of that information and social process...... orientations that explore the dynamics of transparency in organizational settings. The entry highlights emergent methodological and conceptual insights concerning transparency as a dynamic and paradoxical social process with performative characteristics – an approach that remains underexplored....

  13. The influence of motivational factors on the frequency of participation in citizen science activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tiago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science has become a mainstream approach to collect information and data on many different scientific subjects. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of engagement and meaningful experience of participants in citizen science projects. We use motivational measures calculated from a web survey where respondents answered questions regarding to their motivation to participate in BioDiversity4All, a Portuguese citizen science project. We adapted the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI and considered seven categories of measurement: Interest/Enjoyment, Perceived Competence, Effort/Importance, Perceived Choice, Value/Usefulness, Project Relatedness, and Group Relatedness each of them with statements rated on a seven-point Likert scale. We received 149 survey responses, corresponding to 10.3 % of BioDiversity4All Newsletter’s receivers. We analyzed for possible differences among the categories pertaining to gender, age, level of education and level of participation in the project. Finally, we assessed the different patterns of motivation existing among the users. No statistical differences were found between genders, age classes and levels of education for the averages in any category of analysis. However, IMI categories presented different results for respondents with different levels of participation. The highest value of Interest/Enjoyment and Perceived Competence was obtained by the group of respondents that participate a lot and the lowest by the ones that never participated. Project Relatedness had the highest value for all groups except for the group that never participated. This group had completely different motivations from the other groups, showing the lowest levels in categories such as Perceived Competence, Value/Usefulness, Project Relatedness and Group Relatedness. In conclusion, the results from our work show that working deeply on people’s involvement is fundamental to increase and maintain their participation on

  14. The role to the citizen participation in public policies, under the current scenario of governance: theoretical reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Castillo Cubillos

    2017-09-01

    It is necessary to involve thinking about public policy, as one of the roles in which citizens may or may not make such effective participation. Taking into account, that public policy instruments can encourage and strengthen governance, in scenarios where there is a real participation of citizens. Let us see how true this is.

  15. Management of Innovation in a Flat World: Growing Complexity, Globalisation and Citizen Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, K.F.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation is not what it was in the 20th century; the classic century of R & D based innovation. The nature of innovation is changing, only in part because different technologies dominate innovation. This paper identifies three main societal trends that are of major importance for strategic management of innovation in industry and for government industrial- and technology policies. These trends are: - Growing complexity - Globalisation - Citizen participation As a result, innovation strategy...

  16. Interior Immigration Enforcement and Political Participation of U.S. Citizens in Mixed-Status Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Lopez, Mary J

    2017-12-01

    The 2000s have witnessed an expansion of interior immigration enforcement in the United States. At the same time, the country has experienced a major demographic transformation, with the number of U.S. citizens living in mixed-status households-that is, households where at least one family member is an unauthorized migrant-reaching 16 million. U.S. citizens living in mixed-status households are personally connected to the struggles experienced by their unauthorized family members. For them, immigration policy is likely to shape their current and future voting behavior. Using data from the 2002-2014 Current Population Survey Voting and Registration Supplements, we examine whether intensified immigration enforcement has affected the political engagement of U.S. citizens living in mixed-status households. We find that immigration enforcement has chilled their electoral participation by lowering their propensity to register by 5 %; however, it has not visibly affected their voting propensity among those registered. Importantly, their lower voting registration likelihood does not seem to reflect indifference for community and public matters, given that it has been accompanied by greater involvement in civic forms of political participation, such as volunteering. Understanding how immigration policy affects the political participation of a fast-growing segment of the electorate is imperative because they will inevitably constitute a rapidly rising political force in future elections.

  17. Towards implementation of transparency and participation in radioactive waste management programmes. ARGONA Final Summary Report. Deliverable 23b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Josefin Paeivioe; Andersson, Kjell; Bolado, Ricardo; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran; Kojo, Matti; Meskens, Gaston; Pritrsky, Jozef; Richardson, Phil; Soneryd, Linda; Steinerova, Lucie; Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Wene, Clas-Otto; Vojtechova, Hana

    2010-02-01

    The ARGONA project intended to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in radioactive waste management programmes. Thereby, studies have been done of the institutional and cultural context within which processes of participation and transparency take place in order to understand how the processes can be applied. The project has also included studies of theory in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground, a number of case studies in Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden and UK, as well as implementation in Czech Republic to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. Perhaps the most important conclusion is that there are institutional settings at hand that can be used for the purpose of participation and transparency (PT), although it is also recommended to arrange formally organized transparency arenas as a way to make regular intermediate 'checkups' of the status of factual and value-laden issues as well as of the actors' intentions and interests. For example, EIA ands SEA directives and national legislation give frameworks for information and participation, but they also provide a rather open framework for what can be done in practice and they can be followed with a higher or lesser degree of ambition. In any case, EIA and SEA consultations, as any PT process, must not be approached in such an instrumental way as to seemingly promise participation but without serious intention to actually take stakeholder contributions into account to have an impact on the end result. Such instrumental use of PT processes would seriously increase distrust among citizens and engaged stakeholders. It is also a very important conclusion from the project that in application careful attention must be paid to the local setting, be it a country or a municipality, although at the same time recognising that such local settings are developed over time and within circumstances steered by

  18. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  19. MIRA: internet, democracy and participation. New technologies and re-connection of the citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Johanna Posada Amaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The deficit in the construction and consolidation of the Democratic Participation of citizens and, therefore, its continuos and constant distancing of the politics and politic affairs has led public institutions and political parties to own the tools that the Technologies of Communication offer with the main purpose of re-connecting the electorate with their representatives. The case study of the Movimiento Independiente de Renovación Absoluta (MIRA deals with identifying the type of participation and democracy that has constituted thanks to the tools offered by the Information and Comunication Tecnologies (TIC available in its web page.

  20. Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Mason, M.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency, as information disclosure, is becoming a widely accepted norm and set of practices in global climate governance. Disclosure of climate-related information is mainly seen as a way to monitor and/or reward various actors’ climate mitigation actions, thereby contributing, at least in

  1. Enhancing Transparency and Public Participation through Local Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmans, Anne [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Social and Political Sciences

    2001-07-01

    Collective decision making in a democratic environment essentially is a process of negotiation. This assumption, as well as the failure of the formerly used topdown approach, led to a drastic change in the decision making process for siting a low level nuclear waste repository in Belgium. In two prospective communities, a local partnership was established between NIRAS-ONDRAF, the government organisation responsible for the Belgian nuclear waste, and representatives of the local communities. These partnerships are intended to bring the decision making process closer to the public concerned and to lower the threshold for active participation. The final outcome of this decision making exercise is therefore a mutual project, carried by both experts and local stakeholders, instead of an expert project imposed on an unwilling community.

  2. Enhancing Transparency and Public Participation through Local Partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmans, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Collective decision making in a democratic environment essentially is a process of negotiation. This assumption, as well as the failure of the formerly used topdown approach, led to a drastic change in the decision making process for siting a low level nuclear waste repository in Belgium. In two prospective communities, a local partnership was established between NIRAS-ONDRAF, the government organisation responsible for the Belgian nuclear waste, and representatives of the local communities. These partnerships are intended to bring the decision making process closer to the public concerned and to lower the threshold for active participation. The final outcome of this decision making exercise is therefore a mutual project, carried by both experts and local stakeholders, instead of an expert project imposed on an unwilling community

  3. Openness, transparency and public participation in the governance of uranium mining in Greenland:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cécile; Basse, Ellen Margrethe; Loukacheva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of the principles of openness, transparency and public participation in the decision-making regarding the conditions for uranium mining in Greenland from a legal and political perspective. The time frame covers the period from the exploration for minerals...... before the Second World War to 2016-17 where the current Greenlandic authorities prepared a license for a project of extraction of rare earth elements and uranium in Kvanefjeld. It is shown that the issue of openness, transparency and public participation in Greenland is a long-standing issue...... to it - has impacted the design of governance in Greenland, and that the constraints put today on a full implementation of the legal principles of openness, transparency and public participation in the governance of uranium mining in Greenland, amongst other factors, point to a current hybrid political...

  4. Motivations of Citizen Scientists Participating in Galaxy Zoo: A More Detailed Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Bracey, G. L.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Our ongoing research program is examining the motivations of participants in the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project. At the 2009 AAS summer meeting, we presented preliminary results from a survey taken by more than 10,000 participants of the original Galaxy Zoo. We are continuing to analyze data from this survey. Galaxy Zoo is an online citizen science project in which more than 230,000 participants have classified the morphologies of galaxies. The original Galaxy Zoo, in which participants classified galaxies as elliptical or spiral, has led to more than a dozen science journal papers published or in peer review. In our research, we have found that Galaxy Zoo participants are mostly male and represent a wide range of ages and educations. They are primarily motivated by a desire to contribute to scientific research (40%), interest in astronomy (13%), and looking at beautiful galaxy images (10%). In this poster, we present results from free response data. Each question about motivation included an "Other" response where participants could indicate that their motivation for participating was not included in the survey instrument. By analyzing these "Other" responses, we can ensure that we have a complete list of motivations present in the Galaxy Zoo participant population, and we can also gain insight into what other populations might be recruited to participate in Galaxy Zoo. We have had multiple raters analyze these "Other" responses. We have uncovered new motivations at a very low level in our sample - for example, a "religious/spiritual" motivation that was indicated by 5 of the 205 people who entered text in the "Other" field (from among the 10,000 survey respondents). In this poster, we will present results from this analysis of the "Other" motivations, as well as results from analyzing our full dataset.

  5. Citizen Participation, Access to Environmental Information and Education in Uruguayan Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Iglesias Rossini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country has followed a clear trend towards the recognition of various mechanisms of citizen participation and access to public information regarding environmental issues A few years ago, if, for instance, a person or group of people, concerned about the potential environmental impact caused by the establishment of a factory in their neighborhood, requested information from the Authorities, such request would have most likely been rejected. At present, there is a clear law-making policy towards acknowledging the possibility for a diversity of social players to be involved at different levels. In a State structured under a social rule of law, both community participation and civil society access to information in possession of the State, regarding issues that may affect the environment, are fundamental rights. Both concepts, information and participation, must go hand in hand, as the first operates as a condition to exercise the second. Civil society involvement in an environmental issue could never occur if, for instance, information held by the Government is not made available. In addition to protecting fundamental human rights, these concepts are enshrined in participatory democracy. They also enable civil society to be involved in environmental pollution issues. This paper is intended to provide a detailed research on the different instruments enshrining citizen participation and access to public information about environmental issues.

  6. Focused campaign increases activity among participants in Nature's Notebook, a citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants’ activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a national-scale citizen science program. The campaign that we implemented was designed to answer a compelling scientific question. We invited participants in the phenology-observing program, Nature’s Notebook, to track trees throughout the spring of 2012, to ascertain whether the season arrived as early as the anomalous spring of 2010. Consisting of a series of six electronic newsletters and costing our office slightly more than 1 week of staff resources, our effort was successful; compared with previous years, the number of observations collected in the region where the campaign was run increased by 184%, the number of participants submitting observations increased by 116%, and the number of trees registered increased by 110%. In comparison, these respective metrics grew by 25, 55, and 44%, over previous years, in the southeastern quadrant of the United States, where no such campaign was carried out. The campaign approach we describe here is a model that could be adapted by a wide variety of programs to increase engagement and thereby positively influence participant retention.

  7. Developing a user-friendly photometric software for exoplanets to increase participation in Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokori, A.; Tsiaras, A.

    2017-09-01

    Previous research on Citizen Science projects agree that Citizen Science (CS) would serve as a way of both increasing levels of public understanding of science and public participation in scientific research. Historically, the concept of CS is not new, it dates back to the 20th century when citizens where making skilled observations, particularly in archaeology, ecology, and astronomy. Recently, the idea of CS has been improved due to technological progress and the arrival of Internet. The phrase "astronomy from the chair" that is being used in the literature highlights the extent of the convenience for analysing observational data. Citizen science benefits a variety of communities, such as scientific researchers, volunteers and STEM educators. Participating in CS projects is not only engaging the volunteers with the research goals of a science team, but is also helping them learning more about specialised scientific topics. In the case of astronomy, typical examples of CS projects are gathering observational data or/and analysing them. The Holomon Photometric Software (HOPS) is a user-friendly photometric software for exoplanets, with graphical representations, statistics, models, options are brought together into a single package. It was originally developed to analyse observations of transiting exoplanets obtained from the Holomon Astronomical Station of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Here, we make the case that this software can be used as part of a CS project in analysing transiting exoplanets and producing light-curves. HOPS could contribute to the scientific data analysis but it could be used also as an educational tool for learning and visualizing photometry analyses of transiting exoplanets. Such a tool could be proven very efficient in the context of public participation in the research. In recent successful representative examples such as Galaxy Zoo professional astronomers cooperating with CS discovered a group of rare galaxies by using

  8. Scientific literacy of adult participants in an online citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles Aaron

    Citizen Science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. Scientific results from these projects have been well documented. However, there is limited research about how these projects affect their volunteer participants. In this study, I investigate how participation in an online, collaborative astronomical citizen science project can be associated with the scientific literacy of its participants. Scientific literacy is measured through three elements: attitude towards science, belief in the nature of science and competencies associated with learning science. The first two elements are measured through a pre-test given to 1,385 participants when they join the project and a post-test given six months later to 125 participants. Attitude towards science was measured using nine Likert-items custom designed for this project and beliefs in the nature of science were measured using a modified version of the Nature of Science Knowledge scale. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Competencies are measured through analysis of discourse occurring in online asynchronous discussion forums using the Community of Inquiry framework, which describes three types of presence in the online forums: cognitive, social and teaching. Results show that overall attitudes did not change, p = .225. However, there was significant change towards attitudes about science in the news (positive) and scientific self efficacy (negative), p impact on some aspects of scientific literacy. Using the Rasch Model allowed us to uncover effects that may have otherwise been hidden. Future projects may want to include social interactivity between participants and also make participants specifically aware of how they are contributing to the entire scientific process.

  9. Defining new standards on citizen participation in the Chilean environmental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Moraga Sariego

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Law 19,300 on the General Bases of the Environment (1994 provided the first legal framework for environmental protection in the country, in the context of the Rio Summit held two years earlier. Following the recommendations of OECD to strengthen environmental institutions (2005, the legislator passed Law No. 20,417 introducing environmental reform (2010 and Law No. 20,600 creating the Environmental Tribunals (2012. The first one extends the scope of citizen participation in the environmental impact assessment system, however, it is the jurisprudential work of the Second Environmental Court that will make it possible to understand the real scope of the legislative amendment. This specialized judiciary develops new standards of citizen participation in the framework of the project of the State Railway Company. This is a broad interpretation of the principle with a view to a real and not only formal application of it, which contributes to the strengthening of this institution in relation to the principle of access to information and justice in environmental matters.

  10. Motivations of participants in the citizen science of microbiomics: data from the British Gut Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Savio, Lorenzo; Prainsack, Barbara; Buyx, Alena

    2017-08-01

    The establishment of databases for research in human microbiomics is dependent on the recruitment of sufficient numbers and diversity of participants. Factors that support or impede participant recruitment in studies of this type have not yet been studied. We report the results of a survey aimed at establishing the motivations of participants in the British Gut Project, a research project that relies on volunteers to provide samples and to help fund the project. The two most frequently reported motivations for participation were altruism and solidarity. Low education levels appeared to be a recruitment obstacle. More than half of our 151 respondents said they would participate in further citizen-science projects; 38% said they would not participate in a similar project if it was for-profit or in a project that did not release data sets in repositories accessible to scientists (30%). The desire to take part in research was reported as a key motivation for participation in the British Gut Project (BGP). Such prosocial motivations can be mobilized for the establishment of large data sets for research.Genet Med advance online publication 26 January 2017.

  11. A digitally facilitated citizen-science driven approach accelerates participant recruitment and increases study population diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Milo A; Steinemann, Nina; Kamm, Christian P; Müller, Stephanie; Kuhle, Jens; Kurmann, Roland; Calabrese, Pasquale; Kesselring, Jürg; von Wyl, Viktor; Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry Smsr

    2018-05-16

    Our aim was to assess whether a novel approach of digitally facilitated, citizen-science research, as followed by the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (Swiss MS Registry), leads to accelerated participant recruitment and more diverse study populations compared with traditional research studies where participants are mostly recruited in study centres without the use of digital technology. The Swiss MS Registry is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study covering all Switzerland. Participants actively contribute to the Swiss MS Registry, from defining research questions to providing data (online or on a paper form) and co-authoring papers. We compared the recruitment dynamics over the first 18 months with the a priori defined recruitment goals and assessed whether a priori defined groups were enrolled who are likely to be missed by traditional research studies. The goal to recruit 400 participants in the first year was reached after only 20 days, and by the end of 18 months 1700 participants had enrolled in the Swiss MS Registry, vastly exceeding expectations. Of the a priori defined groups with potential underrepresentation in other studies, 645 participants (46.5%) received care at a private neurology practice, 167 participants (12%) did not report any use of healthcare services in the past 12 months, 32 (2.3%) participants lived in rural mountainous areas, and 20 (2.0% of the 1041 for whom this information was available) lived in a long-term care facility. Having both online and paper options increased diversity of the study population in terms of geographic origin and type and severity of disease, as well as use of health care services. In particular, paper enrolees tended to be older, more frequently affected by progressive MS types and more likely to have accessed healthcare services in the past 12 months. Academic and industry-driven medical research faces substantial challenges in terms of patient involvement, recruitment, relevance and

  12. Is it the duty of every citizen to participate in clinical research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Roland Schramm

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex phenomenon of globalization, considered by many as the main feature of contemporary societies, is not without contradictions and questions of type analítico-conceptual, as well as ethics and policies. At least three kinds of interpretations of the phenomenon can be distinguished in this sense: as a continuity, understood as development and radicalization of the contents of modernity; as a break in relation to it; or as a hybridization between rupture and continuity. It is in this dialectical context in a globalized world, which must become the question of whether or not there is the moral duty of every citizen to participate in a research involving human beings. But to answer argumentativamente satisfactorily, the meaning of these possible new duties of the citizen, required by the world system in rapidly changing and ever should be discussed. This system is at the same time more integrated and more differentiated - and indicated by the polysemic words globalization and citizenship-, considering that this type of duties involve, in principle, the improvement of the State of health and well-being of individuals and populations, but that they can also involve ethically and politically questionable effects, these duties shall be considered as being only duties prima facie.

  13. Participating in a Citizen Science Monitoring Program: Implications for Environmental Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Branchini

    Full Text Available Tourism is of growing economical importance to many nations, in particular for developing countries. Although tourism is an important economic vehicle for the host country, its continued growth has led to on-going concerns about its environmental sustainability. Coastal and marine tourism can directly affect the environment through direct and indirect tourist activities. For these reasons tourism sector needs practical actions of sustainability. Several studies have shown how education minimizes the impact on and is proactive for, preserving the natural resources. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a citizen science program to improve the environmental education of the volunteers, by means of questionnaires provided to participants to a volunteer-based Red Sea coral reef monitoring program (STEproject. Fifteen multiple-choice questions evaluated the level of knowledge on the basic coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness on the impact of human behaviour on the environment. Volunteers filled in questionnaires twice, once at the beginning, before being involved in the project and again at the end of their stay, after several days participation in the program. We found that the participation in STEproject significantly increased both the knowledge of coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness of human behavioural impacts on the environment, but was more effective on the former. We also detected that tourists with a higher education level have a higher initial level of environmental education than less educated people and that the project was more effective on divers than snorkelers. This study has emphasized that citizen science projects have an important and effective educational value and has suggested that tourism and diving stakeholders should increase their commitment and efforts to these programs.

  14. Participating in a Citizen Science Monitoring Program: Implications for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchini, Simone; Meschini, Marta; Covi, Claudia; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is of growing economical importance to many nations, in particular for developing countries. Although tourism is an important economic vehicle for the host country, its continued growth has led to on-going concerns about its environmental sustainability. Coastal and marine tourism can directly affect the environment through direct and indirect tourist activities. For these reasons tourism sector needs practical actions of sustainability. Several studies have shown how education minimizes the impact on and is proactive for, preserving the natural resources. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a citizen science program to improve the environmental education of the volunteers, by means of questionnaires provided to participants to a volunteer-based Red Sea coral reef monitoring program (STEproject). Fifteen multiple-choice questions evaluated the level of knowledge on the basic coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness on the impact of human behaviour on the environment. Volunteers filled in questionnaires twice, once at the beginning, before being involved in the project and again at the end of their stay, after several days participation in the program. We found that the participation in STEproject significantly increased both the knowledge of coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness of human behavioural impacts on the environment, but was more effective on the former. We also detected that tourists with a higher education level have a higher initial level of environmental education than less educated people and that the project was more effective on divers than snorkelers. This study has emphasized that citizen science projects have an important and effective educational value and has suggested that tourism and diving stakeholders should increase their commitment and efforts to these programs PMID:26200660

  15. Participating in a Citizen Science Monitoring Program: Implications for Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchini, Simone; Meschini, Marta; Covi, Claudia; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is of growing economical importance to many nations, in particular for developing countries. Although tourism is an important economic vehicle for the host country, its continued growth has led to on-going concerns about its environmental sustainability. Coastal and marine tourism can directly affect the environment through direct and indirect tourist activities. For these reasons tourism sector needs practical actions of sustainability. Several studies have shown how education minimizes the impact on and is proactive for, preserving the natural resources. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a citizen science program to improve the environmental education of the volunteers, by means of questionnaires provided to participants to a volunteer-based Red Sea coral reef monitoring program (STEproject). Fifteen multiple-choice questions evaluated the level of knowledge on the basic coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness on the impact of human behaviour on the environment. Volunteers filled in questionnaires twice, once at the beginning, before being involved in the project and again at the end of their stay, after several days participation in the program. We found that the participation in STEproject significantly increased both the knowledge of coral reef biology and ecology and the awareness of human behavioural impacts on the environment, but was more effective on the former. We also detected that tourists with a higher education level have a higher initial level of environmental education than less educated people and that the project was more effective on divers than snorkelers. This study has emphasized that citizen science projects have an important and effective educational value and has suggested that tourism and diving stakeholders should increase their commitment and efforts to these programs.

  16. Citizens and EU administration: direct and indirect links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.; Mendes, J.

    2011-01-01

    This briefing note focuses on the legal and non-legal avenues by which transparency and participation have been ensured in EU law and practice. Transparency and participation have produced the main recent changes in the way the EU administration relates to its citizens. We provide an overview of the

  17. Digital Citizen Participation within Schools in the United Kingdom and Indonesia: An Actor–Network Theory (ANT Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen engagement and participation are a key focus for government and government agencies, and with the advent of Internet technologies questions arise about the role and impact of technology on citizen participation. This paper aims to explore the role of technology in citizen participation within schools. This research used in-depth comparative case studies using examples from two different schools and school systems, one in the United Kingdom and one in Indonesia. The wider school systems are complex and dynamic environments with multiple stakeholders, media, and supporting systems, and the schools operate under geopolitical and social influences. This paper provides a framework, based on Actor-Network Theory (ANT, for capturing e-participation in schools, particularly identifying the influence of technology as a conduit for enabling, engaging, and empowering stakeholders.

  18. Towards Distributed Citizen Participation: Lessons from WikiLeaks and the Queensland Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bruns

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the rapid and ad hoc development and interactions of participative citizen communities during acute events, using the examples of the 2011 floods in Queensland, Australia, and the global controversy surrounding Wikileaks and its spokesman, Julian Assange. The self-organising community responses to such events which can be observed in these cases bypass or leapfrog, at least temporarily, most organisational or administrative hurdles which may otherwise frustrate the establishment of online communities; they fast-track the processes of community development and structuration. By understanding them as a form of rapid prototyping, e-democracy initiatives can draw important lessons from observing the community activities around such acute events.

  19. [Citizens' participation in health: education and shared decision-making. SESPAS Report 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Azarola, Ainhoa; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth

    2012-03-01

    In recent decades, citizen's participation has become increasingly important in the field of public health, with the new role of the patient as an active agent, manager and producer of his or her own health, and the paradigm of patient-centered care. These changes have represented some of the most important milestones in the continuous improvement of healthcare. The involvement of patients is a new way of understanding the relationship between patients, health professionals and health systems, not only in terms of knowledge management and patients' control of their own health, individually or collectively, but also in terms of the influence that patients may have in health policy planning. Increased life expectancy and the consequent rise in the prevalence of chronic diseases, which already account for 80% of primary care consultations, is one of the key factors changing the role of patients. The place traditionally occupied by professional consultations given any symptoms or signs of alarm is beginning to be occupied by self-care and information and health education resources within the reach of patients and citizens. Internet access is an inexhaustible source of health information resources aimed at patients and provides participation tools. Social networks are places to exchange information and practical advice among patients, families and health professionals. Patients may be experts in their own illnesses and may thus take a more active role in decisions about their health, such as in shared decision making, as part of initiatives, and as part of evaluation of public health activities and health services. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Suggested Guidelines for Transparency and Participation in Nuclear Waste Management Programmes. Deliverable 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Josefin Paeivioe; Andersson, Kjell; Bolado, Ricardo; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran; Kojo, Matti; Meskens, Gaston; Pritrsky, Jozef; Richardson, Phil; Soneryd, Linda; Steinerova, Lucie; Szerszynski, Bronislaw; Wene, Clas-Otto; Vojtechova, Hana

    2010-02-01

    The ARGONA project intended to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in nuclear waste management programmes. Thereby, studies have been done of the institutional and cultural context within which processes of participation and transparency take place in order to understand how the processes can be applied. The project also included studies of theory in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground, a number of case studies in Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden and UK, as well as implementation in Czech Republic to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. These proposed guidelines are thus the result of observations and conclusions made in these efforts, and should not be regarded as an attempt to give a comprehensive set of guidelines for nuclear waste management or even for the implementation of transparency and participation therein. However, it is the hope among the ARGONA participants that they can give relevant thoughts and stimulation to those involved in the nuclear waste management area, especially organizations that have, or may become, responsible for the implementation of processes of transparency and participation, such as implementing organizations, government agencies, regulators as well as regional and local communities. It should be recognized that some of the proposed guidelines may be more relevant for a certain type of bodies (such as an implementer) than for another type (such as local community) and vice versa. Some of the proposed guidelines are also relevant at broader societal level and for the European Union bodies. It will be up to the respective reader to judge the relevance for her or his organization. The suggested guidelines are followed by more detailed recommendations on how to combine the two basic forms of mediation that have been identified in ARGONA, namely mediation by demonstration and mediation by dialogue in Annex 1

  1. How to reach Members of Parliament? Citizens and Members of Parliament on the effectiveness of political participation repertoires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, M.; Marien, S.

    2014-01-01

    Non-institutionalised forms of political participation are on the rise in Western societies, but thus far, we do not know all that much about their effectiveness. In this article we report on the perceived efficacy of non-institutionalised forms of political participation, among both citizens and

  2. The VALDOC Summer School 2002 - New Ideas for transparency and public participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2003-10-01

    The VALDOC summer school had its first meeting in Borgholm, Sweden, in June 2002. The central theme for the weeklong meeting was 'Transparency and public participation for decision making'. The summer school represented an international and successful merging of academics (seniors and students) from various fields, decision-makers from authorities, business and politics, journalists and consultants. The summer school aimed at reviewing and discussing transparency in the decision process from a multitude of perspectives. Work on biotechnology, the precautionary principle, decision making in parliament, mass media and journalism, values in a complex society, emotions and risk perception are but a few examples. The RISCOM model was used as a basic guiding theoretical tool in the discussions of the presentations and the work shop cases. The paper focus on a) a description and evaluation of the summer school in 2002 and b) what ideas and developments could be covered in the next summer school, planned for 2004. The need, and program, for a continuous discussion on transparency and public participation issues will be outlined. It is suggested that such a discussion can be substantially advanced and refined in the future by the involvement of active decision makers in industrial areas, political and administrative bodies, scientific fields and public interest groups.

  3. The VALDOC Summer School 2002 - New Ideas for transparency and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2003-01-01

    The VALDOC summer school had its first meeting in Borgholm, Sweden, in June 2002. The central theme for the weeklong meeting was 'Transparency and public participation for decision making'. The summer school represented an international and successful merging of academics (seniors and students) from various fields, decision-makers from authorities, business and politics, journalists and consultants. The summer school aimed at reviewing and discussing transparency in the decision process from a multitude of perspectives. Work on biotechnology, the precautionary principle, decision making in parliament, mass media and journalism, values in a complex society, emotions and risk perception are but a few examples. The RISCOM model was used as a basic guiding theoretical tool in the discussions of the presentations and the work shop cases. The paper focus on a) a description and evaluation of the summer school in 2002 and b) what ideas and developments could be covered in the next summer school, planned for 2004. The need, and program, for a continuous discussion on transparency and public participation issues will be outlined. It is suggested that such a discussion can be substantially advanced and refined in the future by the involvement of active decision makers in industrial areas, political and administrative bodies, scientific fields and public interest groups

  4. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, T. S.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-09-01

    As the Web 2.0 world lurches forward, so do intellectual opportunities for students and the general public to meaningfully engage in the scientific enterprise. In an effort to assess the intrinsic motivation afforded by participation in Galaxy Zoo, we have inductively analyzed more than 1,000 contributions in the Galaxy Zoo Forum and coded posts thematically. We find that participants overwhelmingly want to meaningfully contribute to a larger scientific enterprise as well as have seemingly unique access to high quality, professional astronomical data. While other citizen science projects work through large data sets, Galaxy Zoo is unique in its motivations and retention abilities. Many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses, while not compromising the scientific value of the project. From the data emerged several trends of motivation, the primary being the sense of community created within the project that promotes professional-amateur collaboration; fulfilling a dream of being an astronomer, physicist, or astronaut; tapping into a potential well of interest created during the space race era; the spiritual aspect generated when the imagination interacts with Galaxy Zoo; and, uniting them all, the aesthetic appeal of the galaxy images. In addition, a very powerful tool also emerged as a method of retention unique to Galaxy Zoo. This tool, known as variable ratio reinforcement in behavioral psychology, uses the most appealing images as positive reinforcement to maintain classification rates over time.

  5. Study of the effect of political measures on the citizen participation rate in recycling and on the environmental load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaru; Ohsako, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining the cooperation of citizens to participate in separate waste collection is essential to create a recycling-oriented society. In this research, the degree of change in the citizen participation rate, which occurs when the contents of political measures such as the raising of awareness, provision of information, and the conditions of collection services were changed, was estimated together with the effect on the reduction in environmental load. A questionnaire survey was conducted, targeted at residents of Itabashi Ward, while logistic regression analyses were also conducted to create predictive models for recycling behavior, and sensitivity analyses of the models were carried out to estimate the increase in citizen participation rate achievable through the implementation of various political measures. It was found that the effect of 'thorough perception of information' was the largest, followed by 'minimization of evaluation of trouble' and 'thorough perception of efficacy of measures.' The effect of the improvement in the citizen participation rate on the reduction in environmental load was also evaluated quantitatively by life cycle inventory analyses. It was indicated that 'maximization of perception of information' had the greatest effect. However, the reduction effect with 'paper packs' and 'PET bottles' was relatively small compared with that of 'bottles/cans.'

  6. The Nexus of Information Technology and Democracy: Theorizing e-Democracy and Citizen Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchise, Abinwi C.

    2012-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet and mobile phone usage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) within the last decade has created many different platforms for citizens' political participation. This appears to be changing the political landscape of most countries within the region as governments are increasingly held responsible for their actions.…

  7. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when applied

  8. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  9. Information beyond the forum: Motivations, strategies, and impacts of citizen participants seeking information during a consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Delborne, Jason; Kleinman, Daniel Lee

    2013-11-01

    During traditional consensus conferences, organizers control the formal information available to participants-by compiling structured background materials and recruiting expert panelists. Less formally, however, participants are encouraged to bring their own experiences into the deliberations, and in doing so, they often seek outside information. We explore this heretofore understudied phenomenon of information seeking during a deliberative event: the U.S. National Citizens' Technology Forum (2008), which addressed the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science on the potential development of human-enhancement technologies. Through interviews with participants and observation of in-person and online deliberations, we identify outside information-seeking strategies and motivations. Our study demonstrates that conceptualizing models of deliberation as standalone settings of communication exchange ignores the reality of the complex information environment from which deliberative participants draw when making sense of technical issues. Future citizen deliberations must incorporate outside information seeking in the design of the exercises.

  10. Citizen science participation in research in the environmental sciences: key factors related to projects' success and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Davi G F; Marques, Jonatas F; Resende, Juliana C DE; Falco, Patrícia B DE; Souza, Chrislaine M DE; Loiselle, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of citizen science initiatives are increasing across the globe, albeit in an imbalanced manner. In general, there is a strong element of trial and error in most projects, and the comparison of best practices and project structure between different initiatives remains difficult. In Brazil, the participation of volunteers in environmental research is limited. Identifying the factors related to citizen science projects' success and longevity within a global perspective can contribute for consolidating such practices in the country. In this study, we explore past and present projects, including a case study in Brazil, to identify the spatial and temporal trends of citizen science programs as well as their best practices and challenges. We performed a bibliographic search using Google Scholar and considered results from 2005-2014. Although these results are subjective due to the Google Scholar's algorithm and ranking criteria, we highlighted factors to compare projects across geographical and disciplinary areas and identified key matches between project proponents and participants, project goals and local priorities, participant profiles and engagement, scientific methods and funding. This approach is a useful starting point for future citizen science projects, allowing for a systematic analysis of potential inconsistencies and shortcomings in this emerging field.

  11. Participation of concerned citizens in site selection decisions; Einbeziehung der Betroffenen in die Entscheidungen bei Standortauswahlverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, D. [PanGeo - Geowissenschaftliches, Buero (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The contribution presents preliminary results of two international projects aimed at integrating the general public, or parts thereof, in the decision process of selecting ultimate storage sites. The author participated in these projects and is a former member of the task group for selection of ultimate storage sites (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd). The two projects are: Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, Project 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) of the European Commission. The participants, goals and methods of the two projects were different, but they both presented concrete methods of selecting ultimate storage sites from the view of different actors in the form of case studies. The focus was on the participation of the public and its importance for success. Apart from meeting technical requirements the selection process should also take account of the requirements of democracy and citizens' participation in order to gain wide acceptance for its results. Deficiencies and advantages of the proposed selection processes are analyzed, and general requirements on the decision process in site selection are derived. (orig.) [German] Im folgenden wird ueber (vorlaeufige) Ergebnisse zweier internationaler Projekte zur Einbeziehung der Oeffentlichkeit bzw. von Teilen davon in den Entscheidungsprozess bei der Auswahl von Endlagerstandorten berichtet, an denen der Autor im Auftrag des Bundesumweltministers und als (ehemaliges) Mitglied des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd) beteiligt war bzw. ist: - Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) der Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, - Projekt 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) der Europaeischen Kommission (abgeschlossen, Abschlussbericht erscheint in diesem Jahr). Die Zusammensetzung der Teilnehmergruppen beider Projekte, genaue Zielsetzung der Projekte und die Arbeitsweise sind unterschiedlich. In beiden

  12. Evaluating citizen attitudes and participation in solid waste management in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Yavari, Ahmad Reza; Mohammadnejad, Shahin

    2008-12-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the environmental impact of solid waste in Iran. Consequently, solid waste management has become a remarkably important issue. Solid waste comprises a wide range of materials and comes from a variety of sources. Having a population of about 10 million (about 1/7 of Iran's total population), Tehran is among the most populated capitals in the world. With 22 different districts, this city generates approximately 7,000 metric tons of municipal waste per day that culminates in a total of 2.5 million tons annually. If no reduction strategy on the waste stream is implemented, this huge amount of waste will be buried in Kahrizak (the exclusive landfill site of Tehran). Land and underground water resource degradation in the vicinity of the landfill site-as well as disease outbreaks in the area surrounding the site may be considered alarming warnings for further catastrophic consequences of uncontrolled waste dumping. In this study, the composition of Tehran's solid wastes is analyzed. In order to physically analyze waste generated, waste sampling was carried out by trained workers of the Tehran organization of waste recycling and compost in 2004 for 10 successive days in the middle of each of four seasons. As a result of the study, some practical recommendations are made to reduce the waste stream load directed toward the land. Furthermore, this study evaluated people's concern about the fate of the waste they generate. According to the data collected in a survey, citizens' participation is not remarkably high, but even the modest cooperation recorded may cause a great benefit if extrapolated to the whole city. By virtue of sharp decreases in the cost of total waste collection and transport, as well as the benefits of land and underground water resource preservation, separation of wastes at their source by individual households makes economic sense.

  13. Franchise and Electoral Participation of Third Country Citizens Residing in the European Union and of European Union Citizens Residing in Third Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Arrighi, Jean-Thomas; Bauböck, Rainer; Collyer, Michael; Hutecheson, Derek; Moraru, Madalina; Khadar, Lamin; Shaw, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This Study analyses some key trans-border situations in which citizens may finddifficulties in exercising their electoral rights – both to vote in elections, and to stand as candidates. It focuses on the electoral rights of EU citizens when resident outside the state where they are citizens, and on the electoral rights of third country citizens resident in the EU Member States. It also covers several complementary issues by examining the consular representation of EU citizensoutside the terri...

  14. THE DIGITAL ARCHIVING SYSTEM WITH TWITTER FOR LOCAL TRADITIONAL PERFORMING ARTS BY CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiho Yoshida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Local communities in mountainous and coast villages in Japan are facing problems related to aging and depopulation that discourage efforts to keep the traditional performing arts in the local community. The purpose of this study is to design an ―Archive and Community‖ model that creates a relationship between local citizens and non-citizens to keep the traditional performing arts in the local community by combining the traditional archiving system with social media like Twitter. This paper describes the experimental data results and discussions using the ―Archive and Community System‖ prototype.

  15. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E Roy

    Full Text Available Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science.The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp. were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7-11 years old from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant. However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high.Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified.

  16. D3.3: Good practice guidelines for stakeholder and citizen participation in bioeconomy strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, Sara; Ribeiro, Barbara; Millar, Kate; Miller, Stephen; Vironen, Heidi; Charles, David; Griestop, Laura; Hasenheit, Marius; Kiresiewa, Zoritza; Hoes, A.C.; Overbeek, M.M.M.; Bianchini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    This document has been developed as part of Work Package 3 of the BioSTEP project, which has examined current participatory practices, involving both stakeholders and citizens, in bioeconomy strategies in six case studies, namely: Two case studies at national level (Finland and Germany); Four case

  17. Acceptance and citizen participation for renewable energies. Findings from the research of acceptance and participation; Akzeptanz und Buergerbeteiligung fuer Erneuerbare Energien. Erkenntnisse aus Akzeptanz- und Partizipationsforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Clemens

    2012-11-15

    The review under consideration reports on the acceptance and citizen participation in renewable energies. First of all, the authors define the term acceptance and describe the process of how this term is developed. Subsequently, the authors use the results of a representative survey by TNS Infratest (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) in order to describe the peculiarity of the technology-specific acceptance of renewable energies in Germany. The facility-related acceptance of renewable energies is described in conjunction with the question whether there is a so-called NIMBY (Not in my backyard effect). Acceptable solutions for the problems of acceptance are presented based on two best practice examples by means of different procedures of the citizen's participation.

  18. Classic And "Next Generation" Citizen Science: Expanding Data-gathering And Participant Demographics To Better Document Global Environmental Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Long-standing citizen science projects such as Audubon's Christmas Bird Count have generated useful data about species range and population numbers for more than 100 years. Recent IPCC reports and the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) routinely include data about changing ecosystems and enviroments. Today new forms of citizen science are beginning to join such classic examples and broaden the demographics of participants and the kinds of information that can be captured, shared and analyzed. Surfers and scientists are hoping to record near-shore measurements of ocean acidification in Smartfin, through GPS, accelerometers and pH sensors on surfboards. Trout Unlimited is working on "Angler Science", documenting water temperature and stream quality in a changing climate, and using DNA analysis to track invasive species. The West Oakland Environmental Indicators Project is adding community mobilization in the face of sea level rise to its decade-long work on air pollution, particulates and asthma. The National Phenology Network encourages year-long observations using the "-Nature's Notebook" app that extend beyond anything possible using government-funded research alone. Understanding oceans, protecting rivers and identifying long-term patterns can contribute useful data to future NCAs, helping meet the otherwise challenging goal of "continuous assessment." How can we manage what we can't measure, for reasons of limited staff or resources? This presentation will offer one answer: by enlisting more and more citizen scientists--sportsmen and women, hobbyists and outdoor enthusiasts who may not even self identify as "citizen scientists"--pursuing their passions while also contributing valuable GEC data. The presentation will also touch on what kinds of information infrastructure can help assure data quality when traditional citizen science is expanded in these ways.

  19. Citizen participation in patient prioritization policy decisions: an empirical and experimental study on patients' characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Diederich

    Full Text Available Health systems worldwide are grappling with the need to control costs to maintain system viability. With the combination of worsening economic conditions, an aging population and reductions in tax revenues, the pressures to make structural changes are expected to continue growing. Common cost control mechanisms, e.g. curtailment of patient access and treatment prioritization, are likely to be adversely viewed by citizens. It seems therefore wise to include them in the decision making processes that lead up to policy changes. In the context of a multilevel iterative mixed-method design a quantitative survey representative of the German population (N = 2031 was conducted to probe the acceptance of priority setting in medicine and to explore the practicability of direct public involvement. Here we focus on preferences for patients' characteristics (medical aspects, lifestyle and socio-economic status as possible criteria for prioritizing medical services. A questionnaire with closed response options was fielded to gain insight into attitudes toward broad prioritization criteria of patient groups. Furthermore, a discrete choice experiment was used as a rigorous approach to investigate citizens' preferences toward specific criteria level in context of other criteria. Both the questionnaire and the discrete choice experiment were performed with the same sample. The citizens' own health and social situation are included as explanatory variables. Data were evaluated using corresponding analysis, contingency analysis, logistic regression and a multinomial exploded logit model. The results show that some medical criteria are highly accepted for prioritizing patients whereas socio-economic criteria are rejected.

  20. Citizen participation in patient prioritization policy decisions: an empirical and experimental study on patients' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Adele; Swait, Joffre; Wirsik, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Health systems worldwide are grappling with the need to control costs to maintain system viability. With the combination of worsening economic conditions, an aging population and reductions in tax revenues, the pressures to make structural changes are expected to continue growing. Common cost control mechanisms, e.g. curtailment of patient access and treatment prioritization, are likely to be adversely viewed by citizens. It seems therefore wise to include them in the decision making processes that lead up to policy changes. In the context of a multilevel iterative mixed-method design a quantitative survey representative of the German population (N = 2031) was conducted to probe the acceptance of priority setting in medicine and to explore the practicability of direct public involvement. Here we focus on preferences for patients' characteristics (medical aspects, lifestyle and socio-economic status) as possible criteria for prioritizing medical services. A questionnaire with closed response options was fielded to gain insight into attitudes toward broad prioritization criteria of patient groups. Furthermore, a discrete choice experiment was used as a rigorous approach to investigate citizens' preferences toward specific criteria level in context of other criteria. Both the questionnaire and the discrete choice experiment were performed with the same sample. The citizens' own health and social situation are included as explanatory variables. Data were evaluated using corresponding analysis, contingency analysis, logistic regression and a multinomial exploded logit model. The results show that some medical criteria are highly accepted for prioritizing patients whereas socio-economic criteria are rejected.

  1. Citizen participation, indispensable factor in the generation of urban design projects that respond to the needs of users in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Franco Muñoz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between urban design projects with users, it is evident that the importance of public participation in the development of the realization and implementation of these projects; being one of the aspects that aroused the interest in developing the research project "Citizen Participation and rehabilitation of public spaces in the downtown area of Aguascalientes. The cases of Madero and Venustiano Carranza Zaragoza streets" in the which it aims to propose a model for the process of developing an urban design project that incorporates citizen participation effectively, based on the analysis of cases of Madero and Venustiano Carranza Zaragoza streets and analysis theoretical framework of the research project; This research is being done within the Doctorate of Science of the Anthropic Areas, which is being conducted at the Autonomous University of Aguascalientes. The aim expose in this paper is the importance of public participation in a key stage in the process of realization and implementation of a project of urban design, urban planning stage, to substantiate the development stage of the project design city; this proposal derived from the analysis of the knowledge acquired through the research project being conducted within the PhD. The set in our research project to develop the stages in the process of realization and implementation of an urban design project, made up, urban planning, studies to substantiate the project, zoning scheme, the draft, the project executive, project implementation and monitoring, control and evaluation of urban design project realized; allowed to establish the stages where citizen participation is essential, and these stages, identifying the aspects that will be enriched with the knowledge gained from this participation. Considering the participation of citizens from the realization of urban development programs, whether in cities, partial, sectoral or development schemes localities, allow to be

  2. Climate Change, Capitalism, and Citizen Science: Developing a dialectical framework for examining volunteer participation in climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixom, Joshua A.

    This dissertation discusses the complex social relations that link citizen science, scientific literacy, and the dissemination of information to the public. Scientific information is not produced in value-neutral settings by people removed from their social context. Instead, science is a social pursuit and the scientist's social context is embedded in the knowledge produced. Additionally, the dissemination of this information via numerous media outlets is filtered through institutional lenses and subject to journalistic norms. As a result, the general public must be able to recognize the inherent biases in this information. Yet, the rates of scientific literacy in the U.S. are quite low, which suggests that people may not be capable of fully understanding the biases present. Furthermore, people tend to seek out sources that reinforce their values and personal perspectives, thus reinforcing their own biases. Improving scientific literacy allows people to see past these biases and translate media narratives in order to comprehend the facts and evidence presented to them. Citizen science is both an epistemological tool used by scientists to collect and interpret scientific data and a means to improve the scientific literacy of participants. Citizen science programs have the ability to generate real knowledge and improve the critical thinking skills necessary for the general public to interpret scientific information.

  3. Investigating Changes in Student Attitudes and Understanding of Science through Participation in Citizen Science Projects in College Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Carolin; Cobb, Bethany E.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, web-based “citizen science” projects such as the Zooniverse have allowed volunteers and professional scientists to work together for the advancement of science. While much attention has been paid to the benefits to science from these new projects, less attention has been paid to their impact on the participants and, in particular, to the projects’ potential to impact students who might engage in these projects through coursework. We report on a study engaging students in introductory astronomy classes at the George Washington University and Wheelock College in an assignment in which each student individually contributed to a “physics” or “space” citizen science project of their choice, and groups of students worked together to understand and articulate the scientific purpose of a citizen science project to which they all contributed. Over the course of approximately four weeks, the students kept logs of their individual contributions to the project, and recorded a brief reflection on each of their visits (noting, for example, interesting or confusing things they might encounter along the way). The project culminated with each group delivering a creative presentation that demonstrated their understanding of both the science goals of the project and the value of their own contributions to the project. In this talk, we report on the experience of the students with the project and on an assessment of the students’ attitudes toward science and knowledge of the process of science completed before the introduction of the assignment and again at its conclusion.

  4. Developing Knowledge-Based Citizen Participation Platform to Support Smart City Decision Making: The Smarticipate Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizen participation for social innovation and co-creating urban regeneration proposals can be greatly facilitated by innovative IT systems. Such systems can use Open Government Data, visualise urban proposals in 3D models and provide automated feedback on the feasibility of the proposals. Using such a system as a communication platform between citizens and city administrations provides an integrated top-down and bottom-up urban planning and decision-making approach to smart cities. However, generating automated feedback on citizens’ proposals requires modelling domain-specific knowledge i.e., vocabulary and rules, which can be applied on spatial and temporal 3D models. This paper presents the European Commission funded H2020 smarticipate project that aims to achieve the above challenge by applying it on three smart cities: Hamburg, Rome and RBKC-London. Whilst the proposed system architecture indicates various innovative features, a proof of concept of the automated feedback feature for the Hamburg use case ‘planting trees’ is demonstrated. Early results and lessons learned show that it is feasible to provide automated feedback on citizen-initiated proposals on specific topics. However, it is not straightforward to generalise this feature to cover more complex concepts and conditions which require specifying comprehensive domain languages, rules and appropriate tools to process them. This paper also highlights the strengths of the smarticipate platform, discusses challenges to realise its different features and suggests potential solutions.

  5. [Measurement of customer satisfaction and participation of citizens in improving the quality of healthcare services.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrassi, Flori; Sopranzi, Cristina; Leto, Antonella; Amato, Simona; D'Urso, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Managing quality in health care whilst ensuring equity is a fundamental aspect of the provision of services by healthcare organizations. Measuring perceived quality of care is an important tool for evaluating the quality of healthcare delivery in that it allows the implementation of corrective actions to meet the healthcare needs of patients. The Rome B (ASL RMB) local health authority adopted the UNI EN 10006:2006 norms as a management tool, therefore introducing the evaluation of customer satisfaction as an opportunity to involve users in the creation of quality healthcare services with and for the citizens. This paper presents the activities implemented and the results achieved with regards to shared and integrated continuous improvement of services.

  6. In Their Own Words: The Significance of Participant Perceptions in Assessing Entomology Citizen Science Learning Outcomes Using a Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise I; Dauer, Jenny M; Babchuk, Wayne A; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Golick, Doug

    2018-02-06

    A mixed methods study was used to transcend the traditional pre-, post-test approach of citizen science evaluative research by integrating adults' test scores with their perceptions. We assessed how contributory entomology citizen science affects participants' science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects. Pre- and post-test score analyses from citizen scientists ( n = 28) and a control group ( n = 72) were coupled with interviews ( n = 11) about science experiences and entomological interactions during participation. Considering quantitative data alone, no statistically significant changes were evident in adults following participation in citizen science when compared to the control group. Citizen scientists' pre-test scores were significantly higher than the control group for self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects. Interview data reveal a notable discrepancy between measured and perceived changes. In general, citizen scientists had an existing, long-term affinity for the natural world and perceived increases in their science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects. Perceived influences may act independently of test scores. Scale instruments may not show impacts with variances in individual's prior knowledge and experiences. The value of mixed methods on citizen science program evaluation is discussed.

  7. Final repository search together with the citizens. Information, consultation, dialogue, participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Monika C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The documentation on the Loccum meeting 2013 includes contributions on the following topics: Public participation for the final repository search; Lessons learned from the past; Public participation: what is expected? Experiences of repository operators on public participation; The TRIPLEX concept; From Gorleben to the law on final repository search: a long and a short story; Public participation concerning radioactive waste storage; The public has to be informed on the radioactive waste problem and the possible solutions; After consensus is before consensus - German final repository conflict between legislation and simulated public participation; Political concept of public participation; A fast final repository law will not bring about social peace; Good public participation on final repository search - requirements, challenges, questions and approaches.

  8. The Citizen participation as structure of Political Opportunities in the way of the Environmental Conflict in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona M, Sergio Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The central aim of citizen participation within a process of sustainable development focuses on building and nurturing types of social relationships that include all social agents, It is, therefore, crucial to create shared spaces in which processes may be developed which lead to the implementation of agreed actions and to the solution of conflicts. In this article I explore some obstacles to participation in Colombia, which convert the latter into a structure of political opportunities on the road to conflict. This leads us to the following question: should a difference be drawn between the ideas of Environmental Conflict Management and Negotiation of Environmental Conflict? In the first case, conflict is a time possible phenomenon, which can be prevented through a set of actions. In the second, it is the acting as confrontation of interests of the actors, which defines the conflict

  9. In Their Own Words: The Significance of Participant Perceptions in Assessing Entomology Citizen Science Learning Outcomes Using a Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise I.; Dauer, Jenny M.; Babchuk, Wayne A.; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2018-01-01

    A mixed methods study was used to transcend the traditional pre-, post-test approach of citizen science evaluative research by integrating adults’ test scores with their perceptions. We assessed how contributory entomology citizen science affects participants’ science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects. Pre- and post-test score analyses from citizen scientists (n = 28) and a control group (n = 72) were coupled with interviews (n = 11) about science experiences and entomological interactions during participation. Considering quantitative data alone, no statistically significant changes were evident in adults following participation in citizen science when compared to the control group. Citizen scientists’ pre-test scores were significantly higher than the control group for self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects. Interview data reveal a notable discrepancy between measured and perceived changes. In general, citizen scientists had an existing, long-term affinity for the natural world and perceived increases in their science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects. Perceived influences may act independently of test scores. Scale instruments may not show impacts with variances in individual’s prior knowledge and experiences. The value of mixed methods on citizen science program evaluation is discussed. PMID:29415522

  10. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  11. Lessons learnt from the DECI project on different processes for public participation and transparency in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    2000-01-01

    This study emanates from the work in Oskarshamn to build a process for public participation related to the site selection for a nuclear waste repository (the 'Oskarshamn model'). The idea was to see how these experiences could be useful in a broader context of decision making in complex issues, especially considering issues of common interest in the Baltic Sea Region. A pre-study for a 'Decision Institute', DECI, was initiated to describe problems in today's society that DECI would address, explore methods for the enhancement of transparency and public participation, and to suggest approaches for research and application. The study was financed by Swebaltcop (a EU Baltic Sea Co-operation Programme), the Regional Council in Kalmar County, and the Municipality of Oskarshamn. It was conducted by an interdisciplinary research group from Karinta-Konsult, the Royal Institute of Technology and the University of Gothenburg. Besides the work in Oskarshamn, results from the RISCOM Pilot project and current developments in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) were in particular taken into account. This presentation: - Addresses problems with decisions on complex issues. - Discusses reasons for public participation. - Gives a framework for transparency. - Describes a number procedures aimed at public participation and transparency. - Gives a framework for how procedures can be structured. - Gives some conclusions with regard to present status and future work. (author)

  12. A cost-effective method of achieving meaningful citizen participation in public roadway pipeline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Many proponents of gas pipeline studies using the public roadway for their facilities have trouble encouraging public participation. Problems resulting from a lack of public involvement are documented. A public participation process designed to gather meaningful public input is presented through a case study of a public roadway pipeline study in southern Ontario. Techniques are outlined to effectively stimulate public interest and document the public involvement process. Recommendations are made as to the transferability of this process to other jurisdictions.

  13. Republic of Macedonia and Citizens Participation in the Digital Age: Where Do We Stand?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanova, Ganka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates citizens’ participation in e-democracy processes in the Republic of Macedonia i.e. e-participation. It reflects upon the availability of digital tools and availability of online platforms set up by the institutions on their official webpages in order to enable active citizens’ participation. Methodological approach used in this research relies on analysis of the obtained answers from an online questionnaire that explores citizens’ awareness of the possibility to use digital tools in the democratic process, their participation via usage of digital tools and their attitudes towards e-democracy process. The questionnaire was distributed via social networks Facebook and LinkedIn in the period from November 2015 to February 2016. The empirical findings in this study research enhance our understanding of citizens’ awareness of the possibility to use digital tools in the democratic process, their participation via usage of digital tools and their attitudes towards e-democracy process in the Republic of Macedonia. As findings suggest, there is stillroom for improvement of the factors that determine citizens’ participation in digital age.

  14. Tools for virtual citizen participation and its development in the websites of the Andalusia Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ángel Calvo-Calvo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to identify web tools leading to virtual citizen participation in health, to find out what tools exist and their degree of development in the websites of the Andalusia Public Health System. It identified 42 website tools that can facilitate information for, and interactivity with, citizenry. A descriptive and transversal study was then conducted to find out what participatory tools appear on six websites of the Andalusia Public Health System. Of the tools proposed, 33 were present in the analyzed webs. The participatory resources that were most developed by the organizations studied were the presence in social networks and Web 2.0 and 1.0 applications for informing the citizenry. 2.0 tools for web-user interaction and publishing contents created by users were developed to a lesser degree. Finally, online applications for interaction and collaboration among users had not been developed on the websites studied.

  15. Development of citizen participation in Central and Eastern Europe after the EU enlargement and economic crises

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guasti, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2016), s. 219-231 ISSN 0967-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04885S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Civil society * Civic participation * Democratization Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016

  16. School-Based Management and Citizen Participation: Lessons for Public Education from Local Educational Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santizo Rodall, Claudia A.; Martin, Christopher James

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses changes that have occurred in the elementary education system in Mexico since 1992 when an administrative de-concentration process took place. This process was accompanied by legal modifications that created opportunities for social participation in public elementary schools affairs. As a result, some school communities in…

  17. Transparency and public accessibility of clinical trial information in Croatia: how it affects patient participation in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolić, Ivana; Stipčić, Ana; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    Despite increased visibility of clinical trials through international trial registries, patients often remain uninformed of their existence, especially if they do not have access to adequate information about clinical research, including the language of the information. The aim of this study was to describe the context for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia in relation to countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and to assess how informed Croatian patients are about clinical trials and their accessibility. We assessed the transparency of clinical trials from the data available in the public domain. We also conducted an anonymous survey on a convenience sample of 257 patients visiting two family medicine offices or an oncology department in south Croatia, and members of national patients' associations. Despite legal provisions for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, they are still not sufficiently visible in the public domain. Among countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has the fewest number of registered trials in the EU Clinical Trials Registry. 66% of the patients in the survey were aware of the existence of clinical trials but only 15% were informed about possibilities of participating in a trial. Although 58% of the respondents were willing to try new treatments, only 6% actually participated in a clinical trial. Only 2% of the respondents were aware of publicly available trial registries. Our study demonstrates that there is low transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, and that Croatian patients are not fully aware of clinical trials and the possibilities of participating in them, despite reported availability of Internet resources and good communication with their physicians. There is a need for active policy measures to increase the awareness of and access to clinical trials to patients in Croatia, particularly in their own language.

  18. Community Psychology as a Process of Citizen Participation in Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Danny

    2018-01-01

    This brief commentary discusses a recent paper by Speed and Mannion that explores "The Rise of post truth populism in liberal democracies: challenges for health policy." It considers their assertion that through meaningful democratic engagement in health policy, some of the risks brought about by an exclusionary populist politics can be mediated. With an overview of what participation means in modern healthcare policy and implementation, the field of community psychology is presented as one way to engage marginalized groups at risk of exploitation or exclusion by nativist populist policy. PMID:29524941

  19. The Role of environmental non-governmental organizations in citizens participation for environmental conservation in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrainy, H.; Amini, F.

    2001-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of the environmental non-governmental organizations in Iran and also the evaluation of their performance in achieving public participation to protect environment. Findings of this research reveal that so far these organizations have lacked the ability to prepare the context for people involvement in environmental conservation, which is due to several major constraints. Political, legal, and judiciary factors have been the major obstacles against the establishment and smooth activities of these organizations. A few organizations which have overcome the difficulties and began their activities, have not been able to make significant impact on protecting the environment. Lack of experience, both in organization and people, were another factor in limiting the success of these organizations in Iran. To be successful, the environmental non-governmental organization in Iran, require proper political, legal, social and economic settings, as well as the knowledge and skill of running these kind of organizations

  20. Strategic Factors of Household Solid Waste Segregation at Source Program, Awareness and Participation of Citizens of the 3 Municipality District of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasem Ghanbari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Solving the problems caused by household solid waste and its management without the continuous cooperation of the citizens as the main producers of household solid waste is impossible. The aims of this study were to define strategic factors of Household Solid Waste Segregation at Source Program and the level of awareness and participation of citizens in the program.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study we interviewed 640 citizens of the 3 Municipality District of Tehran. Internal Factor Evaluation and External Factor Evaluation matrices were used to assess the strategic factors of the program.Results: Of 640 participants, 517 (80.8% were aware of the program, and 383 (59.9% participated in the program. Among participants 628 (98.1% were well-informed about the correlation between implementation of the program and environmental health promotion. People between 35 to 45 years showed the most participation rate.Conclusion: This study showed that citizens showed acceptable awareness of the program and evaluation of internal and external factors indicated high potential to increase public participation in the program.

  1. An overview of future EU health systems. An insight into governance, primary care, data collection and citizens' participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Figueras, Josep; Mantoan, Domenico; Dawood, Amr; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Costongs, Caroline; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2018-03-26

    Health systems in the European Union (EU) are being questioned over their effectiveness and sustainability. In pursuing both goals, they have to conciliate coexisting, not always aligned, realities. This paper originated from a workshop entitled 'Health systems for the future' held at the European Parliament. Experts and decision makers were asked to discuss measures that may increase the effectiveness and sustainability of health systems, namely: (i) increasing citizens' participation; (ii) the importance of primary care in providing integrated services; (iii) improving the governance and (iv) fostering better data collection and information channels to support the decision making process. In the parliamentary debate, was discussed the concept that, in the near future, health systems' effectiveness and sustainability will very much depend on effective access to integrated services where primary care is pivotal, a clearer shift from care-oriented systems to health promotion and prevention, a profound commitment to good governance, particularly to stakeholders participation, and a systematic reuse of data meant to build health data-driven learning systems. Many health issues, such as future health systems in the EU, are potentially transformative and hence an intense political issue. It is policy-making leadership that will mostly determine how well EU health systems are prepared to face future challenges.

  2. Environmental and economic benefits resulting from citizens' participation in CO2 emissions trading: An efficient alternative solution to the voluntary compensation of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few months in the emerging and lucrative carbon project market, a growing number of organizations have proposed to offset citizens' greenhouse gas emissions. The target of these carbon-offset initiatives is to satisfy the increasing demand of individuals wishing to take part in the fight against climate change. In this paper, we review and criticize these carbon-offsetting programs in general terms. We then propose an alternative that, in our opinion, should prove to be a better solution for citizens who are willing to pay for protecting the environment. This alternative is to organize citizens' participation in carbon emissions trading on a large scale in order to purchase and retire (destroy) CO 2 permits. To do so, a benevolent Regulator or non-governmental organization must correct certain CO 2 emissions market failures; this particularly concerns the high transaction costs, which represent an entry barrier and prevent citizens from purchasing and withholding permits. Based on theoretical findings, we demonstrate that implementing citizens' participation in emissions trading is an economically efficient and a morally preferable option. (author)

  3. Citizens Integrity Pledge ######################### I believe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    I believe that all stakeholders such as governrnent , citizens and the private sector need to work together to eradicate corruption. I realise that ... maintaining highest standards of integrity, transparency and good governance in all aspects of our.

  4. The contradictory effects in efficiency and citizens' participation when employing geo-ICT apps within local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurniawan, M.; de Vries, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of web-based mapping applications, inter-mediation between public planning agencies and citizens is changing. This article investigates how one form of inter-mediation, geo-ICT-enabled apps (applications on mobile phones and/or internet that use maps or locations as basic

  5. E-participation and Climate Change in Europe: An analysis of local government practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Yetano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Citizens are demanding greater transparency and accountability from their governments, and seek to participate in shaping the policies that affect their lives. The diffusion of the Internet has raised expectations that electronic tools may increase citizen participation in government decision-making and stop the decline of trust in political institutions. This paper brings together two relevant topics, e-participation and climate change, analyzing the websites of the environment departments of European local governments that have signed the Aalborg+10 commitments, in order to establish to what extent European local governments are making use of the Internet to promote e-participation and environmentally-friendly behaviors among their citizens. Our results show that the developments on e-participation are higher in transparency than interactivity. The Internet as a tool to revitalize the public sphere is still limited to those countries with higher levels of transparency, and penetration of ICTs and a culture of citizen engagement.

  6. THE DECISIONAL TRANSPARENCY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIA MARIA CILIBIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decisional transparency is one of the principles of good administration, fundamental principles of public administration and it is enshrined in the law of many European Union member states, including our country. In their work the public authorities must show transparency reflected by the active involvement of citizens in administrative decision as its primary beneficiary. The citizen information, consultation and his stimulation to participate actively in the elaboration of draft normative acts for their preparation and before that by bringing them to public knowledge, are tasks of the public authorities which exceed the limit of the obligations imposed by internal rules and are significant efforts to modernize the public administration and rallying to the administrative structures.

  7. NASA Citizen Science for Earth Systems Program: fusing public participation and remote sensing to improve our understanding of the planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, A.; Murphy, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of the NASA Citizen Science for Earth Systems Program (CSESP) include both the evaluation of using citizen science data in NASA Earth science related research and engaging the public in Earth systems science. Announced in 2016, 16 projects were funded for a one year prototype phase, with the possibility of renewal for 3 years pending a competitive evaluation. The current projects fall into the categories of atmospheric composition (5), biodiversity and conservation (5), and surface hydrology/water and energy cycle (6). Out of the 16, 8 of the projects include the development and/or implementation of low cost sensors to facilitate data collection. This presentation provides an overview of the NASA CSESP program to both highlight the diversity of innovative projects being funded and to share information with future program applicants.

  8. Human resources of local governments as motivators of participation of businesses and citizens in protecting of environment

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLIĆ N.; GAJOVIĆ A.; PAUNOVIĆ V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of human resources of local governments in the motivation of businesses and citizens in protecting the environment. The inability to absorb current problems caused by inadequate and incomplete arrangement of utilization of human resources of the local government of Lučani caused the redefining of strategic priorities of environmental protection. The motivational power of human resources of local governments expressed through interaction with the population ...

  9. Who are the active citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    group. This article argues that there are no `ordinary´ citizens, and claims that citizens are very different and participate in various ways. A criticism raised in relation to participatory processes is that these often tend to favour certain modes of communication based on an implicit ideal...... of the citizen as being resourceful, mastering political skills and know-how and time. However, many citizens do not `fit´ this stereotype, and thus there is a risk that many citizens are biased by the way the institutional settings for participation are designed. A characterization of active citizens...

  10. Immersive participation: Smartphone-Apps and Virtual Reality - tools for knowledge transfer, citizen science and interactive collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus

    2017-04-01

    In the last few years, the use of smartphone-apps has become a daily routine in our life. However, only a few approaches have been undertaken to use apps for transferring scientific knowledge to the public audience. The development of learning apps or serious games requires large efforts and several levels of simplification which is different to traditional text books or learning webpages. Current approaches often lack a connection to the real life and/or innovative gamification concepts. Another almost untapped potential is the use of Virtual Reality, a fast growing technology which replicates a virtual environment in order to simulate physical experiences in artificial or real worlds. Hence, smartphone-apps and VR provides new opportunities for capacity building, knowledge transfer, citizen science or interactive engagement in the realm of environmental sciences. This presentation will show some examples and discuss the advantages of these immersive approaches to improve the knowledge transfer between scientists and citizens and to stimulate actions in the real world.

  11. The 'Umweltanwalt' as a means of 'indirect citizens participation' - A survey of possibilities of the representation of environmental interests in administrative procedures in Austrian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnedl, G.

    1990-11-01

    The central topic of this study is how environmental protection can be ensured within the framework of administrative procedures in Austria. Environmental law in Austria faces two major problems. One is the inadequacy of statutory law; the other a lack of execution. The reasons for the latter are examined in part I. The main part of the study discusses various ways of representing environmental protection interests in administrative procedures, such as licensing. As there are certain limits to citizen's individual rights the study focusses on the participation of groups of citizens and associations as well as ' indirect participation' through an institutionalized representative of environmental interests (a so called 'Umweltanwalt'). Part II gives a comparative analysis of the legal implementation of the 'Umweltanwalt' and similar institutions in Austria's 'Laender' (federal states); it also deals with the pros and cons of creating an 'Umweltanwalt' on the federal level. Part III is dedicated to a proposed amendment of the rules of administrative procedure providing for the participation of the public in environmental decision making. Part IV deals with the question if this procedural approach can be the basis of an appropriate environmental impact assessment. The final part summarizes the positive and negative aspects of the various instruments and pleads for their combination as a solution for the problem of underrepresentation of environmental interests in agency decision making. (author)

  12. Combining biodiversity, climate adaptation and citizen engagement – the case of public participation in an urban park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Stage, Carsten

    habitats for flora and fauna. Instead, nutrient rich soil and grass are placed on the adaptation, corresponding to a biological desert. In this paper we present the project Permeable Green City Aarhus, which seeks to investigate the potential role that citizens can play in conjunction with scientists...... in developing green infrastructures that equally integrate habitats for biodiversity and sustainable urban drainage (SUD) that help adapt to climate change. The project focuses on transforming one urban park in a suburban town north of Aarhus (Lystrup), and the paper deals with our conceptualisation and design......Managing climate induced excesses of rainwater in urban areas calls for nature-based solutions in urban parks, i.e. creating rainbeds, artificial lakes, building dikes and digging ditches. Traditionally, such blue-green climate adaptation measures do not integrate efforts to create more rich...

  13. Final repository search together with the citizens. Information, consultation, dialogue, participation; Endlagersuche - gemeinsam mit den Buergern. Information, Konsultation, Dialog, Beteiligung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Monika C.M. (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    The documentation on the Loccum meeting 2013 includes contributions on the following topics: Public participation for the final repository search; Lessons learned from the past; Public participation: what is expected? Experiences of repository operators on public participation; The TRIPLEX concept; From Gorleben to the law on final repository search: a long and a short story; Public participation concerning radioactive waste storage; The public has to be informed on the radioactive waste problem and the possible solutions; After consensus is before consensus - German final repository conflict between legislation and simulated public participation; Political concept of public participation; A fast final repository law will not bring about social peace; Good public participation on final repository search - requirements, challenges, questions and approaches.

  14. Use of social media and online tools for participative space education and citizen science in India: Perspectives of future space leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aafaque; Sridhar, Apoorva

    2012-07-01

    The previous decade saw the emergence of internet in the new avatar popularly known as Web 2.0. After its inception, Internet (also known as Web 1.0) remained centralized and propriety controlled; the information was displayed in form of static pages and users could only browse through these pages connected via URLs (Unique Resource Locator), links and search engines. Web 2.0, on the other hand, has features and tools that allow users to engage in dialogue, interact and contribute to the content on the World Wide Web. As a Result, Social Media has become the most widely accepted medium of interactive and participative dialogue around the world. Social Media is not just limited to Social Networking; it extends from podcasts, webcasts, blogs, micro-blogs, wikis, forums to crowd sourcing, cloud storage, cloud computing and Voice over Internet Protocol. World over, there is a rising trend of using Social Media for Space Education and Outreach. Governments, Space Agencies, Universities, Industry and Organizations have realized the power of Social Media to communicate advancement of space science and technology, updates on space missions and their findings to the common man as well as to the researchers, scientists and experts around the world. In this paper, the authors intend to discuss, the perspectives, of young students and professionals in the space industry on various present and future possibilities of using Social Media in space outreach and citizen science, especially in India and other developing countries. The authors share a vision for developing Social Media platforms to communicate space science and technology, along innovative ideas on participative citizen science projects for various space based applications such as earth observation and space science. Opinions of various young students and professionals in the space industry from different parts of the world are collected and reflected through a comprehensive survey. Besides, a detailed study and

  15. Introducing citizen inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Herodotou, Christothea; Sharples, Mike; Scanlon, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘citizen inquiry’ was coined to describe ways that members of the public can learn by initiating or joining shared inquiry-led scientific investigations (Sharples et al., 2013). It merges learning through scientific investigation with mass collaborative participation exemplified in citizen science activities, altering the relationship most people have with research from being passive recipients to becoming actively engaged, and the relationship between scholarship and public understa...

  16. Effect of personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) on older adults' health and social participation: study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Filliatrault, Johanne; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Tourigny, André; Levert, Marie-Josée; Gabaude, Catherine; Lefebvre, Hélène; Berger, Valérie; Eymard, Chantal

    2018-03-31

    The challenges of global ageing and the growing burden of chronic diseases require innovative interventions acting on health determinants like social participation. Many older adults do not have equitable opportunities to achieve full social participation, and interventions might underempower their personal and environmental resources and only reach a minority. To optimise current practices, the Accompagnement-citoyen Personnalisé d'Intégration Communautaire (APIC), an intervention demonstrated as being feasible and having positive impacts, needs further evaluation. A pragmatic multicentre, prospective, two-armed, randomised controlled trial will evaluate: (1) the short-term and long-term effects of the APIC on older adults' health, social participation, life satisfaction and healthcare services utilisation and (2) its cost-effectiveness. A total of 376 participants restricted in at least one instrumental activity of daily living and living in three large cities in the province of Quebec, Canada, will be randomly assigned to the experimental or control group using a centralised computer-generated random number sequence procedure. The experimental group will receive weekly 3-hour personalised stimulation sessions given by a trained volunteer over the first 12 months. Sessions will encourage empowerment, gradual mobilisation of personal and environmental resources and community integration. The control group will receive the publicly funded universal healthcare services available to all Quebecers. Over 2 years (baseline and 12, 18 and 24 months later), self-administered questionnaires will assess physical and mental health (primary outcome; version 2 of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, converted to SF-6D utility scores for quality-adjusted life years), social participation (Social Participation Scale) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Index-Z). Healthcare services utilisation will be recorded and costs of each intervention calculated. The Research

  17. The V in VGI: Citizens or Civic Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthee Sangiambut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI, delivered via mobile and web apps, offers new potentials for civic engagement. If framed in the context of open, transparent and accountable governance then presumably VGI should advance dialogue and consultation between citizen and government. If governments perceive citizens as consumers of services then arguably such democratic intent elide when municipalities use VGI. Our empirical research shows how assumptions embedded in VGI drive the interaction between citizens and government. We created a typology that operationalises VGI as a potential act of citizenship and an instance of consumption. We then selected civic apps from Canadian cities that appeared to invoke these VGI types. We conducted interviews with developers of the apps; they were from government, private sector, and civil society. Results from qualitative semi-structured interviews indicate a blurring of consumer and citizen-centric orientations among respondents, which depended on motivations for data use, engagement and communication objectives, and sector of the respondent. Citizen engagement, an analogue for citizenship, was interpreted multiple ways. Overall, we found that government and developers may increase choice by creating consumer-friendly apps but this does not ensure VGI offers an act of civic participation. The burden is placed on the contributor to make it so. Apps and VGI could potentially further a data-driven and neoliberal government. Planners should be mindful of the dominance of a consumer-centric view even as they assume VGI invariably improves democratic participation.

  18. Cooperativism in the social economy and instrument of citizen participation: the need for insertion in the Ecuadorian banana production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Domínguez Junco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecuadorian cooperative legislation dates from 1937, but it was in the fifties to sixties that took real presence at the national level, with the creation of most of cooperative organizations. The research presented addressed the importance of cooperatives in the social economy, being an instrument of civic participation and an example of teamwork, focusing the study on the need to incorporate the organization in banana production, especially of small and medium producer, being an export line highlighted in the country and especially in the province of El Oro, "called the capital of bananas". A documentary investigation was conducted and the empirical method of interviewing producers was used to understand the vision regarding the effectiveness of the work collective in banana production under the principles of cooperation.

  19. The BdV screen of memory and Ciutat d'Asunción boulevard at the Baró de Viver neighborhood (Barcelona: (rethinking citizens' participation in urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeu Vidal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of citizen participation to design some public spaces in Baró de Viver, a neighbourhood of the city of Barcelona. Our aim is to reflect on the ways to understand citizen participation in political and academic agenda, the role of different actors (citizens, professionals, politicians... and strategies and methods used in participatory urban planning. The experience showed in this paper is located in a scale of urban design very close and well known to the people. We begin with a brief historical overview of the neighborhood where the project arose. Then we give an account of the stages of the participatory process, showing the main milestones, features and methods. Finally we propose some ideas to rethink the conceptual and methodological aspects of the intervention and urban research in environmental psychology and people-environment studies.

  20. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (p<0.01) and psychological (p=0.03) quality of life improved. Older adults thought APIC helped them resume, maintain, explore and experiment with significant social activities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Consideraciones sociojurídicas sobre participación ciudadana y 'democracia abierta': especial referencia a las nuevas perspectivas de profundización democrática en Canarias (Socio-Legal Considerations on Citizen Participation and 'Open Democracy'...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Rodríguez-Drincourt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha intensificado en España el desarrollo legislativo y las experiencias reales que pretenden promover la participación de los ciudadanos en la cosa pública. Se trata de propuestas que parten, según los casos, de teóricos, de organizaciones no gubernamentales, foros ciudadanos, asociaciones y evidentemente de los gobiernos, parlamentos y administraciones públicas. Muchas de estas propuestas impulsan una “democracia abierta” como concepto amplio que liga la profundización democrática a nuevas vías de participación ciudadana, transparencia y acceso a la información. Se hace una especial referencia a la Comunidad Autónoma de Canarias que constituye, en lo que toca a su calidad democrática, un caso singular en el universo autonómico. No hay otro caso comparable de déficit democrático. En Canarias el Estatuto de autonomía articuló un sistema electoral injusto y supuestamente transitorio que aún hoy pervive. El artículo refiere los cambios socio-jurídicos que se aprecian en la última década.In recent years the legislation on political participation and transparency was developed and the real experiences that aim to promote the participation of citizens in public affairs. It is proposed to start, as appropriate, theoretical, non-governmental organizations, citizens' forums, associations and obviously governments, parliaments and governments. Many of these proposals drive an "open democracy" as a broad concept that link the democratic deepening to new avenues for citizen participation, transparency and access to information. Additionally, Education and the educational transmission process play a decisive role in the construction of an advanced democracy. Special reference to the Canary Islands that is, in what touches to its democratic quality, a unique case in the Spanish regional universe. There is no other comparable case of democratic deficit. In the Canary Islands, the Statute of Autonomy

  2. Citizen's Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The fiscal year (FY) 2008 Citizen's Report is a summary of performance and financial results for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). OPM chose to produce...

  3. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    2015-01-01

    organizational effectiveness and widened democratic practice. Yet, with its most common operationalization, as information, transparency reinstalls a 'purified' notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy, and (mis)representation. We apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model......The current emphasis on organizational transparency signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, accountability, and participation. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustworthy knowledge about organizations, the transparency pursuit has great potential for enhanced...... of communication and critiquing its obliviousness to the representative nature of transparency-related messages and the attendant complexities of motivation. This critique interrogates the ambiguities and ambivalence of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how the goals of organizational transparency...

  4. Citizen science for water quality monitoring: Data implications of citizen perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, Ashlee; Haines, Morgan J; Satterfield, Terre; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-09-15

    Citizen science, where citizens play an active role in the scientific process, is increasingly used to expand the reach and scope of scientific research while also achieving engagement and educational goals. Despite the emergence of studies exploring data outcomes of citizen science, the process and experience of engaging with citizens and citizen-lead groups through participatory science is less explored. This includes how citizen perspectives alter data outcomes, a critical upshot given prevalent mistrust of citizen versus scientist data. This study uses a citizen science campaign investigating watershed impacts on water quality to interrogate the nature and implications of citizen involvement in producing scientifically and societally relevant data. Data representing scientific outcomes are presented alongside a series of vignettes that offer context regarding how, why, and where citizens engaged with the project. From these vignettes, six specific lessons are examined towards understanding how integration of citizen participation alters data outcomes relative to 'professional' science. In particular, elements of participant social identity (e.g., their motivation for participation), and contextual knowledge (e.g., of the research program itself) can shape participation and resulting data outcomes. Such scientific outcomes are particularly relevant given continued concerns regarding the quality of citizen data, which could hinder scientific acceptance of citizen sciences. Importantly, the potential for meaningful engagement with citizen and participants within citizen groups - given significant capacity within the community - represents a substantial and under-realized opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. No More Broken Promises: Challenges and Opportunities for Key Populations in Demanding More Transparency, Accountability, and Participation in the Global Response Against the HIV and AIDS Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Pico, Tomás A; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Hoffmann, Julia; Mungala, Lucy

    2017-12-01

    The global fight against HIV/AIDS continues to pose challenges: infection rates are on the rise in many settings, stigma and discrimination remain rampant, and the global response is under increasing financial pressure. There is a high risk of losing what has been achieved so far in the fight against HIV and AIDS, but also the momentum to meet the so-called Fast Track targets for 2030. In light of these trends, it is fundamental to focus on the human rights of key populations (KPs)-especially to health, non-discrimination, access to information, and to equal and meaningful participation in political and public affairs-by placing them at the center of the global HIV response. Such rights, and the demand for more transparency, accountability, and participation (TAP), have been recognized as both a necessary social justice imperative, and as a way to build more responsive, inclusive, and sustainable health systems. This article will argue that embracing TAP as key guiding principles of the global HIV response (especially in low- and middle-income countries) could have the potential to create the conditions for KPs to have their human rights fulfilled, and to expand their participation in the decision-making processes that guide the efforts against the epidemic. It will then propose a number of avenues for further engagement between different communities of practice in terms of research, agendas, and policy and practices that could be beneficial in maximizing the impact of the global efforts to end HIV/AIDS.

  7. "We the People... The Citizen and the Constitution": Knowledge of and Support for Democratic Institutions and Processes by Participating Students. National Finals 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Suzanne

    The "We the People... The Citizen and the Constitution" program is an instructional program on the history and principles of U.S. constitutional democracy for elementary, middle, and high school students. The program is based on curricular materials developed by the Center for Civic Education. At the high school level, classes may choose…

  8. We the People...The Citizen and the Constitution: Knowledge of and Support for Democratic Institutions and Processes by Participating Students. National Finals, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Suzanne

    The "We the People...The Citizen and the Constitution" program is an instructional program on the history and principles of U.S. constitutional democracy for elementary, middle school, and high school students. At the high school level, classes may choose to enter a formal competition, advancing from congressional district and state…

  9. Citizen Science: Data Sharing For, By, and With the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Data sharing in citizen science is just as challenging as it is for any other type of science, except that there are more parties involved, with more diverse needs and interests. This talk provides an overview of the challenges and current efforts to advance data sharing in citizen science, and suggests refocusing data management activities on supporting the needs of multiple audiences. Early work on data sharing in citizen science advocated applying the standards and practices of academia, which can only address the needs of one of several audiences for citizen science data, and academics are not always the primary audience. Practitioners still need guidance on how to better share data other key parties, such as participants and policymakers, and which data management practices to prioritize for addressing the needs of multiple audiences. The benefits to the project of investing scarce resources into data products and dissemination strategies for each target audience still remain variable, unclear, or unpredictable. And as projects mature and change, the importance of data sharing activities and audiences are likely to change as well. This combination of multiple diverse audiences, shifting priorities, limited resources, and unclear benefits creates a perfect storm of conditions to suppress data sharing. Nonetheless, many citizen science projects make the effort, with exemplars showing substantial returns on data stewardship investments, and international initiatives are underway to bolster the data sharing capacity of the field. To improve the state of data sharing in citizen science, strategic use of limited resources suggests prioritizing data management activities that support the needs of multiple audiences. These may include better transparency about data access and usage, and standardized reporting of broader impacts from secondary data users, to both reward projects and incentivize further data sharing.

  10. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    and trustworthy knowledge about contemporary organizations, the transparency discourse has significant democratic potential. Yet, its most common operationalization – as information availability – reinstalls a “purified” notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy and misrepresentation. In this paper......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  11. Towards a Danish Spatial Information Infrastructure - what can the Danish Authorities offer the citizens today?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    and greater transparency (e-democracy/participation democracy). The e-government initiatives are rapidly changing the spatial data/spatial information area too. Investigations indicate that about 80% of the information needed for e-government can be related to a location on the Earth. The paper presents five...... is to use the potentials of the Internet to structure the public sector in a more flexible and efficient way (e-government) and, as they say, with higher quality for the citizens. At the same time the citizens are increasingly demanding better service from the public sector by way of more information...... map- and spatial information services available for the citizens via the Internet. The services can be described as building blocks to a Danish Spatial Information Infrastructure...

  12. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing...... associations; NGO´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that intermediary actors have the potential to facilitate new platforms for citizens’ participation in urban sustainable transition due to their particular role in between public authorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...

  13. Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    with the sharing of information and the perceived quality of the information shared. This narrow focus on information and quality, however, overlooks the dynamics of organizational transparency. To provide a more structured conceptualization of organizational transparency, this article unpacks the assumptions......Transparency is an increasingly prominent area of research that offers valuable insights for organizational studies. However, conceptualizations of transparency are rarely subject to critical scrutiny and thus their relevance remains unclear. In most accounts, transparency is associated...... that shape the extant literature, with a focus on three dimensions: conceptualizations, conditions, and consequences. The contribution of the study is twofold: (a) On a conceptual level, we provide a framework that articulates two paradigmatic positions underpinning discussions of transparency, verifiability...

  14. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  15. Depressão e envelhecimento: estudo nos participantes do Programa Universidade Aberta à Terceira Idade Depression and aging: study comprising participants of the "Senior Citizens Open University"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Moura Moreira Leite

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a presença de depressão em idosos que freqüentaram o Programa Universidade Aberta à Terceira Idade, da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, considerando variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: estudo epidemiológico, descritivo e de corte transversal. Foi realizado um censo com os 358 idosos sendo 312 mulheres e 46 homens (>60 anos, utilizando o questionário "Brasil Old Age Schedule" (BOAS, do qual foi selecionada a seção de saúde mental, quanto à depressão, verificando a freqüência das variáveis solidão, tristeza, pouca disposição, pessimismo em relação ao futuro, irritação, auto-acusação, idéias suicidas, dor de cabeça, insatisfação, distúrbios do sono e do apetite. RESULTADOS: foi encontrado um percentual importante de depressão (24,02% na população estudada, cuja maioria está classificada em depressão menor, entre a faixa etária de 70-79 anos, do sexo feminino e separados. Foi observada associação significante entre baixa escolaridade e depressão. Os casos de depressão apresentam relevante relação com as variáveis preocupação, dor de cabeça, pouca disposição, irritação, tristeza e insatisfação. CONCLUSÕES: a presença de depressão na população estudada aponta para a importância do planejamento, por parte do Programa, de ações direcionadas à saúde de seus participantes, em particular, os transtornos mentais relativos à depressão.OBJECTIVES: to identify depression in the elderly enrolled at the Senior Citizens Open University, a program of the Federal University of Pernambuco, considering demographic, social and economic variables. METHODS: epidemiological, descriptive, cross sectional cohort study. A census comprising 358 elderly subjects being 312 women and 46 men (>60 yr through the Brasil Old Age Schedule (BOAS was completed from which the section related to mental health was selected focusing on depression variables such as loneliness, sadness

  16. Project Citizen: Promoting Action-Oriented Citizen Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carie; Medina-Jerez, William

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, citizen science projects have emerged as a means to involve students in scientific inquiry, particularly in the fields of ecology and environmental science. A citizen scientist is "a volunteer who collects and/or processes data as part of a scientific inquiry" (Silverton 2009, p. 467). Participation in citizen science…

  17. The impact of records management system in transparency of public administrations: Transparency by design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustí Cerrillo Martínez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Records management system has a great impact in the improvement of transparency in public administration. Transparency by design refers to the inclusion of transparency duties stated by legislation in force in the records’ life cycle in a way that it guarantees citizens effective access to public information. In this paper, the changes that public administrations have to propel in their records management systems to improve public transparency and to make easy access to information are analysed. In particular, as a case study, provisions made by Law 19/2014, of December 29, on Transparency, Access to Public Information and Good Governance of Catalonia are explored.

  18. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  19. Documento Oficial - 1a Conferência Nacional sobre Transparência e Controle Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Controladoria Geral da União

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How it all began ...In September 2009, the Comptroller General of the Union (GTU held1st National Seminar on Social Control. The event over500 participants, featured presentations by several experimentssuccess in the practice of social control. At the end of the event,participants handed in a petition to the Chief Minister CGU, requesting the convening of a national conference on transparency and social control.On December 8, 2010, the President signed the Decree of Convocation of the 1st National Conference on Transparency and Social Control in meeting the demand of society to governments, citizens, businesses and organizations civil society could think and establish jointly guidelines for the effective promotion of public transparency and social control.

  20. Topical issues of transparency in implementing public control in municipalentities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Stepanovich Mikheyev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to investigate the mechanisms of citizens and public institutions participation in public control in the municipalities. According to the author the monitoring process should involve the greatest possible range of subjects and the controlling measures are to be taken in a transparent and open manner. Therefore forms of citizen participation in public control should be investigated from the standpoint of the principle of openness of local government. Methods the universal dialectic method which was applied to the analysis of norms of the Federal law quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot which is the legal base for the implementation of the institution of public control. When studying the problem of adequate legal regulation of the control institution the formal legal method was also used. Other methods were used for evaluation of the acquired knowledge in particular comparative legal and systemicstructural methods. Results on the basis of legal norms analysis based on the legal nature of the local government institution as the level of public authorities which is closest to the citizens the conclusion was made about the lack of legal regulation relating to the public control subjects in municipalities. The numerous public organizations operating in local communities were not fixed by legislative norms as subjects of public control. Scientific novelty the author has grounded the proposals for amending the abovementioned Federal law the legislation of Federation subjects and the municipal regulations by adding a number of new subjects of public control inherent to the municipal level. Practical value the conclusions and suggestions formulated in the study will contribute to the active implementation of public control in the municipalities will enhance the ability of citizens and civil society institutions to monitor the authorities and will have a positive impact on transparency of local selfgovernment. The

  1. Advertising Citizen Science: A Trailer for the Citizen Sky Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Ryan; Price, A.

    2012-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright and mysterious variable star epsilon Aurigae. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component, introducing participants to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. As a means of generating interest in the project, the California Academy of Sciences produced a six-minute "trailer” formatted for both traditional and fulldome planetariums as well as HD and web applications. This talk will review the production process for the trailer as well as the methods of distribution via planetariums, social media, and other venues_along with an update on the Citizen Sky Project as a whole. We will show how to use a small, professionally-produced planetarium trailer to help spread word on a citizen science project. We will also show preliminary results on a study about how participation level/type in the project affects science learning.

  2. New Media, New Citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    as for different age groups, the thesis shows that digital and especially social media use can be a strong driver of citizen participation. Besides looking at immediate mobilizing effects, the book sheds light on how digital media use may shape participation patterns through a long-term change in citizenship......The use of news media is regarded as a driver for citizens’ engagement with society and their political participation. But as news media use increasingly shifts to digital platforms, it is crucial to understand the interplay between a changing media environment and recent patterns of political...... participation. Against the background of citizens’ diverse possibilities for receiving political information and being politically active nowadays, the book focuses on the impact of digital media on political participation in Denmark. By examining this relationship in election- and non-election times as well...

  3. Citizen Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Gilles, Sébastien; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In science, projects which involve volunteers for observations, measurements, computation are grouped under the term, Citizen Science. They range from bird or planet census to distributing computing on volonteers's computer. Over the last five years, the EMSC has been developing tools and strategy to collect information on earthquake's impact from the first persons to be informed, i.e. the witnesses. By extension, it is named Citizen Seismology. The European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC), a scientific not-for-profit NGO, benefits from the high visibility of its rapid earthquake information services (www.emsc-csem.org) which attract an average of more than half a million visits a month from 160 countries. Witnesses converge to its site within a couple of minutes of earthquake's occurrence to find out information about the cause of the shaking they have just been through. The convergence generates brutal increases of hit rate which can be automatically detected. They are often the first indication about the occurrence of a felt event. Witnesses' locations are determined from their IP addresses. Localities exhibiting statistically significant increase of traffic are mapped to produce the "felt map". This map available within 5 to 8 minutes of the earthquake's occurrence represents the area where the event was felt. It is the fastest way to collect in-situ information on the consequences of an earthquake. Widespread damage region are expected to be mapped through a significant lack or absence of visitors. A second tool involving the visitors is an online macroseismic questionnaire available in 21 languages. It complements the felt maps as it can describes the level of shaking or damage, but is only available in 90 to 120 minutes. Witnesses can also share their pictures of damage. They used it also to provide us exceptional pictures of transient phenomena. With the University of Edinburgh, we are finalising a prototype named ShakemApple, linking Apple

  4. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  5. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  6. Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana en la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori (Environmental education and citizen participation at Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Stella Manosalva Corredor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Frente al deterioro de las condiciones ambientales, el equipo ambiental de la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori de Bogotá y el “Colectivo Acción Ciudadana” convocan a instituciones gubernamentales locales y “ciudadanos habitantes de calle” a un diálogo de saberes para encontrar soluciones concertadas a la problemática ambiental. En el mismo sentido, el proyecto Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana: estrategias de una política de desarrollo sustentable de la ENSDMM trabaja en la propuesta del Plan Institucional de Gestión Ambiental, por lo que realiza una evaluación estratégica ambiental y señala que la educación ambiental y la participación ciudadana son posibles si logran vincular educación y gestión en la definición de los procesos, actividades y actuaciones, con principios de una ética de responsabilidad social, para alcanzar las metas ambientales sustentables.Abstract: With the aim of facing up to the deterioration of the environmental condition, the environmental team of Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori and “the Collective Citizen Action” convoke the local government institutions and “the citizen street inhabitants” to have a dialogue of knowledge to find concerted solutions for the current environmental problems. In the same sense, the project Environmental Education and Citizen Participation: Strategies for a policy of sustainable development at ENSDMM works on the proposal of the Environmental Management Institutional Plan. It helps to develop a strategic environmental evaluation and points out that the environmental education and citizen participation are possible if education and management are involved in the processes, activities and actions based on principles of social responsibility ethics to achieve the sustainable environmental goals.

  7. The citizen as datasupplier in E-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette; Schrøder, Anne Lise; Staunstrup, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an ongoing study of how to mobilise and utilize the citizen as data supplier in e-government. The role of the citizen is seen in the context of public participation, and a number of possible application areas for online tools where the citizen can serve the public administra......This paper reports on an ongoing study of how to mobilise and utilize the citizen as data supplier in e-government. The role of the citizen is seen in the context of public participation, and a number of possible application areas for online tools where the citizen can serve the public...

  8. global turbulence and nigeria's citizen diplomacy: 2007-2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategic diplomatic post as Nigeria's High ... envisaged to participate in the formulation and practice of 'citizen .... spread of epidemic diseases, financial instability, organized crime .... chapter of his book Nigeria's Citizen Diplomacy: ... Page 7 ...

  9. CITIZEN’S PARTICIPATION IN THE PROCESS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOTESCU VASILE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The author reveals, in the article, the importance of transparency in the process of public administration. In the centre of attention is the citizen, who has the right to access information, the right to make his opinion known, and the right to take part in the decisional process. The citizen’s participation supposes the realization of four requirements: transparency of administra­tion, passing on the information, reception of information and the involvement of the citizen in the decisional act. Further is analysed the normative act: «The Law regarding transparency in the decisionalprocess» no 239-XV approved on 13.11.2008. The author suggests ways of improving it. There are revealed some of the recommendations mentioned in « The white Book of Good Governing» elaborated by the European Commission, where are discussed the basic principles, which should be respected by the public authorities, as well as the procedures of public consultation within the European Union. In conclusion the author considers that the Government of the Republic of Moldova has undertaken a series of complex activities regarding institutional transparency, but we cannot yet speak about a productive dialogue between the public autho­rities and citizens.

  10. Creating Global Citizens through Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Carol; Weinberg, Adam

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for a student today is how to live as a responsible citizen in a globalizing world. Today's interconnected world cannot afford bystanders or passive participants. It demands confident, skilled citizens who will make responsible choices that take into consideration how educators allocate resources and what impact…

  11. Monitoring of insects with public participation (MIPP; EU LIFE project 11 NAT/IT/000252: overview on a citizen science initiative and a monitoring programme (Insecta: Coleoptera; Lepidoptera; Orthoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mason

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The LIFE project “MIPP” - Monitoring of Insects with Public Participation (11 NAT/IT/000252 is focused on selected insect species (five Coleoptera, three Lepidoptera, one Orthoptera, all included in the annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive (HD 92/43/EEC. One important aim is a citizen science initiative where every person may become a citizen scientist and collect faunistic data on the above species throughout Italy. Another objective of the project MIPP is the development of standard methods for monitoring the conserva- tion status of the five target beetle species. One innovative method employed is a sniffer-dog (“Osmodog”, trained to find the rare and endangered hermit beetle, Osmoderma eremita, which lives in veteran, hollow trees. The dog detects the strong smell of mature peach produced by adult males and an odor produced by the larvae. Another objective of the project MIPP is the dissemination of topics such as HD, Natura 2000, importance of dead-wood, Life projects, insect monitoring and conservation.

  12. THE CITIZEN CLIENT PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Bueno Vieira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In our experience and work in the Medical Clinic at the Federal University of Goiás Clinical Hospital (HC/UFG, we observe that in despite of the most patients get orientations about their pathology by the health team, they don’t accomplish these orientations. For the continuous self-care promotion was implanted project "Citizen Client", with intention to contribute to patient citizenship rescue, guiding and strengthening its rights and duties while carrying on pathology. This article is an experience related by a qualitative approach with a group of patients interned in the Medical Clinic of the HC/UFG that rambles, their familiars and that ones who participates in the project Citizen Client during their internment in the year of 2003. On the meeting we work with lectures, workshops and groups by the multi-professional team and coordinated by a Nurse. The subjects had been diverse, approaching some pathology and its cares, social and spiritual assistance. The client participation in its recovery has extreme importance and, so that this occurs, it is necessary health education understood in its extended form, recognizing the client’s life reality, their day-by-day, providing mechanisms for them to become an asset subject with autonomy to act in favor of own health. KEYWORDS: Health Education; Self Care; Quality of Life.

  13. Public Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kep...

  14. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  15. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  16. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  17. Nuclear risk and citizen information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.

    1999-01-01

    This issue studies the citizen information relative to the nuclear risk. If the regulation about the information and the participation of the citizen on the nuclear risk is relatively complete, the industrial and administrative practice is marked by the habits of information retention. The official caution has for motive the fact to provoke the unjustified anxiety of the populations. An opposite strategy is actually experimented with the operators of nuclear industry in informing the public opinion with the slightest technical incidents. (N.C.)

  18. Academics and Citizens Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally Academics and citizens have contributed to each other lives but friction has always existed between the two. When there is a hostile relationship between community members and Academics, the collection of data suffers, which in returns hurts the potential solutions to community problems. Combining Community Based Participatory Research and the BISCO Community Organizing Model, {Listens, Identify, Research, offer solution}, these frictions can be limited, creating better working environments, and producing better data. Helping create and participating in workgroups, including NGO's, Academics and Citizens leaders, have produce better working environments. Using these methods within the work groups I observed, relationships being form between Academics and Citizens. Some of the relationships were both public and private. The workgroups that created space for professional and personal stories telling produced the most relationships. Listening and understand each other, before research have proven to be successful in producing trust between Academics and Citizens. When Academics and Citizens developed trust between themselves, each party respects the other limitation. Knowing each limitation is perhaps the most key element in working together, which eliminates over promises and culture hindrance within the community. It's amazing like getting the answers to the test before you take it. The project becomes richer in design, when there is trust in the process before it begins. Working together to eliminating potential road blocks ahead of time, enhance the project chances to produce, richer data.Academics cannot produce good data if citizens withhold information and citizens cannot solve their social ills if they do not have good data, in short we need each other.

  19. El laberinto de la participación juvenil: estrategias de implicación ciudadana en la juventud (The labyrinth of youth participation: strategies for citizen involvement in the youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francés García, Francisco José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El estudio de la participación juvenil supone un reto investigador, por cuanto las prácticas colectivas de los jóvenes se contextualizan en el marco de la participación ciudadana adulta, pero presentando elementos y potencialidades propias del a condición juvenil. El artículo pretende asumir el vínculo entre reproducción del orden social y producción de nuevos órdenes en las prácticas sociales de los jóvenes, para cuestionar los enfoques teóricos que plantean una desafección pública de la juventud contemporánea. Para ello se exponen las limitaciones y disfuncionalidades del modelo participativo actual y se proponen elementos que configurarían las condiciones neecsarias para la implicación ciudadana de los jóvenes, a través del avance en tres dimensiones básicas de los procesos participativos innovadores: inclusividad, intensidad e influencia.Abstract: The study of youth participation is a challenge, because the collective practices of young people are contextualized within the framework of adult citizen participation, but submitting own elements and potentials of youth condition. This article attempts to assume the link between reproduction of social order and production of new orders in the social practices of youth, questioning theoretical approaches that pose a public disaffection of contemporary youth. So we will expose the limitations and dysfunctions of the current participatory model and propose elements that shape the necessary conditions for citizen involvement of young people, using three basic dimensions of participatory processes: inclusiveness, intensity and influence.

  20. Citizen involvement in green transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    a deficit model of public communication towards participatory ambitions of engaging citizens in more open-ended decision making (Lassen et al. 2011, Phillips et. al, 2012). However, there is often a tension between the participatory ambitions on the one hand and predetermined environmental goal...... consumption, replacement of oil-fired boilers, higher distribution of electric cars, and installation of solar panels. These goals all affect private decisions of individual citizens or families, where the municipality has no legislative competence. In a series of 4 two-day workshops in 2016, representatives...... and discussions. The current paper will focus on the process of developing a common framework and will pay particular attention to the tension between the predetermined environmental goals and the ambition of citizen participation. Applying an emic discourse perspective and drawing on Critical Discourse Analysis...

  1. Helping Citizens Help Themselves : Neighborhood Improvement Programs and the Impact of Social Networks, Trust, and Norms on Neighborhood-Oriented Forms of Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveldt, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between social capital and neighborhood-oriented forms of participation within the context of an innovative Dutch neighborhood improvement program. On the basis of a survey among 307 residents, the author studies the link between three dimensions of social

  2. Using Transformative Learning Theory to Explore the Mechanisms of Citizen Participation for Environmental Education on the Removal of Invasive Species: The Case of Green Island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ren-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the process of participation in the transformative learning process for invasive species by community volunteers and voluntourists. The results show that children play an important role in motivating adults to accept new ideas, and for both community volunteers and voluntourists, "dialogue" has…

  3. Telemedicine in Greenland: Citizens' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse O; Krebs, Hans J; Albert, Nancy M; Anderson, Nick; Catz, Sheryl; Hale, Timothy M; Hansen, John; Hounsgaard, Lise; Kim, Tae Youn; Lindeman, David; Spindler, Helle; Marcin, James P; Nesbitt, Thomas; Young, Heather M; Dinesen, Birthe

    2017-05-01

    Telemedicine may have the possibility to provide better access to healthcare delivery for the citizens. Telemedicine in arctic remote areas must be tailored according to the needs of the local population. Therefore, we need more knowledge about their needs and their view of telemedicine. The aim of this study has been to explore how citizens living in the Greenlandic settlements experience the possibilities and challenges of telemedicine when receiving healthcare delivery in everyday life. Case study design was chosen as the overall research design. Qualitative interviews (n = 14) were performed and participant observations (n = 80 h) carried out in the local healthcare center in the settlements and towns. A logbook was kept and updated each day during the field research in Greenland. Observations were made of activities in the settlements. Data collected on citizens' views about the possibilities of using telemedicine in Greenland revealed the following findings: Greenlandic citizens are positive toward telemedicine, and telemedicine can help facilitate improved access to healthcare for residents in these Greenlandic settlements. Regarding challenges in using telemedicine in Greenland, the geographical and cultural context hinders accessibility to the Greenlandic healthcare system, and telemedicine equipment is not sufficiently mobile. Greenlandic citizens are positive toward telemedicine and regard telemedicine as a facilitator for improved access for healthcare in the Greenlandic settlements. We have identified challenges, such as geographical and cultural context, that hinder accessibility to the Greenlandic healthcare system.

  4. Involving the citizens. Radioactive waste management and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been often criticized for its democratic deficit, which has been studied in the academic literature at multiple levels: in the polity (macro-level), the institutions (meso-level) and the policies (micro-level) of the EU. The paper presents counterarguments in favour of the democratic nature of the EU and focuses on the micro-level, particularly the process of implementation of EU policies. Policy implementation and the democratic involvement of citizens are discussed with regard to radioactive waste management and the Directive 2011/70/EURATOM. The Directive's clause on transparency and the recent development of a centre of knowledge for public participation in energy policy implementation by the European Commission (EC) are expression of the democratic nature of the EU and provide further counterarguments to the claim of democratic deficit.

  5. Involving the citizens. Radioactive waste management and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been often criticized for its democratic deficit, which has been studied in the academic literature at multiple levels: in the polity (macro-level), the institutions (meso-level) and the policies (micro-level) of the EU. The paper presents counter-arguments in favour of the democratic nature of the EU and focuses on the micro-level, particularly the process of implementation of EU policies. Policy implementation and the democratic involvement of citizens are discussed with regard to radioactive waste management and the Directive 2011/70/EURATOM. The Directive's clause on transparency and the recent development of a centre of knowledge for public participation in energy policy implementation by the European Commission (EC) are expression of the democratic nature of the EU and provide further counter-arguments to the claim of democratic deficit. (authors)

  6. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries

  7. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Gardiner, L. S.; Ward, D.; Gram, W.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of "human sensors." As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include "citizens" or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was

  8. Políticas sociais locais e os desafios da participação citadina Local social policies and the challenges of citizens participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Jacobi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é aprofundar a reflexão em torno das dimensões da participação e das possibilidades de ampliação da cidadania. O tema articulador é a participação popular na gestão pública e as transformações qualitativas na relação Estado/Sociedade civil. O desafio que nos propomos é o de analisar, de um lado, os impactos de práticas participativas que apontam, a partir da manifestação do coletivo, para uma nova qualidade de cidadania que institui o cidadão como criador de direitos para abrir novos espaços de participação sociopolítica; e, de outro, os aspectos que configuram as barreiras que precisam ser superadas para multiplicar iniciativas de gestão que articulam eficazmente a complexidade com a democracia. A análise se centra no fortalecimento do espaço público e na abertura da gestão pública à participação da sociedade civil na elaboração de suas políticas públicas; e na sempre complexa e contraditória institucionalização de práticas participativas inovadoras que marcam rupturas com a dinâmica predominante, ultrapassando as ações de caráter utilitarista e clientelista.This text presents an analysis on the dimensions of participation and the possibilities of enlargement of citizenship, having as reference public policies of education, health and environment at the local level. The articulating theme is popular participation in public administration and the qualitative transformations in the relationship between State and civil society, as a reference of a turning point and strengthening of public policies centered that emphasize active citizenship. Our challenge is to analyze, on one side, the impacts of participatory practices that point out to new configurations of the quality of citizenship, and, on the other side, the characterization of those barriers that have to be overcome to enable the multiplication of management experiences that articulate efficiently complexity and democracy

  9. 3 CFR - Transparency and Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy... public. Government should be participatory. Public engagement enhances the Government's effectiveness and...

  10. Community Psychology as a Process of Citizen Participation in Health Policy Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Danny

    2017-06-25

    This brief commentary discusses a recent paper by Speed and Mannion that explores "The Rise of post truth populism in liberal democracies: challenges for health policy." It considers their assertion that through meaningful democratic engagement in health policy, some of the risks brought about by an exclusionary populist politics can be mediated. With an overview of what participation means in modern healthcare policy and implementation, the field of community psychology is presented as one way to engage marginalized groups at risk of exploitation or exclusion by nativist populist policy. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Child participation: Dimensional concept in pro autonomy citizen La participación infantil: Concepto dimensional en pro de la autonomía ciudadana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Novella Cámara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 170 970 Universidad de Salamanca 8 1 1191 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES;} Child participation is, at present, a key element in the environment of citizenship and education. It is based in solid legislative bases that recognize child participation, defend it, and promote it. But, it is imperative to turn from rhetoric into a reality that is part of everyday life where children reach the maximum self-governing exercise of their citizenship. To achieve this maximum, we must expand the concept of child participation and to recognize its complexity, by identifying the dimensions that feed each other and give meaning to the systematization of the responsible and autonomous practice of citizenship. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main dimensions of the concept of child participation that reinforce their meaning and its concretization in everyday life, emphasizing the promotion and improvement of autonomous citizenship. To achieve this, we analyze the concept of participation by integrating its multiple dimensions: as a democratic value, educational content, methodology of work, educational experience, developmental principle, civic responsibility, political exercise, representing children, and finally as emotion and passion. Normal.dotm 0 0 1 180 1031 Universidad de Salamanca 8 2 1266 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false

  12. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL BUDGETS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central researched element in our paper is the local budgets, the basic component of local public finances. Local budgets, like any other budgets, are the most important tool for the management (of local governments planning, forecasting, implementing and monitoring the results of administrative-territorial units activity, also being an appropriate tool for enhancing performance. A budget is the government's plan regarding the use of public resources to meet the citizens' needs. The aim of this paper is to realize a research on budget transparency in local governments from the Nord-West Region of Romania, regarding the availability of the budget information on the websites of the county councils and the county residences. The key element of good governance in today global economic environment is transparency that can be defined as the openness of public authorities (central and local regarding their policy intention, formulation and implementation. For local governments budget transparency is an important issue, due to the growing role of administrative-territorial units, confirmed over time by the economic reality. The importance of local budgets has increased in recent years due to the need to improve management efficiency and accounting al the level of local governments. Not only policy makers but also the citizens need information regarding local government current activities, expenditures, development projects and policies. In this context of a growing need for information, the transparency of local budgets is a mandatory condition for any local government. The combination of budget transparency and public participation in budget processes has the potential to combat corruption, foster public accountability of government agencies and contribute to judicious use of public funds. In this context, budget transparency represents the mean through which ordinary citizens and civil society organizations can access information about the

  13. How deliberation makes better citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from a Danish national Deliberative Poll on the single European currency. A representative sample of 364 Danish citizens assembled to deliberate on Denmark's participation in the single currency. As a quasi-experiment, the Deliberative Poll is an example of deliberat...... emphasizes the need for further elaboration of the theory of deliberative democracy so that it better reflects these features of ‘real-life' politics....

  14. Legal and institutional frameworks for government relations with citizens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caddy, J.

    2000-01-01

    Unacceptably low or declining confidence in public institutions in OECD Member countries has led governments to view the issue of government-citizen relations with growing concern and to take initiatives to strengthen this fundamental relationship. Governments have begun to realize that they can better anticipate citizens' evolving and multiple needs by pro-actively involving them in the policy-making process in order to develop solutions to issues as they first appear, and not when they become pressing problems. When government succeeds in anticipating citizens' needs and aspirations, it earns currency in the form of trust. The price of failure is a loss of legitimacy. The conditions for trust in government include a well-educated citizenry, transparent processes and accountability. Government needs to establish a 'level playing field' so that citizens can see that their interests are being treated fairly. Citizens, for their part, need to learn to value fairness in government over special favours for well-connected groups. Transparency in government helps to assure citizens that they are being treated fairly. Accountability helps ensure that government failures are corrected and that public services meet expectations. Governments increasingly realize that they will not be able to conduct and effectively implement policies, as good as they may be, if their citizens do not support them. (author)

  15. Citizens' actions and environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.

    1975-01-01

    Above all, two kinds of citizens' participation in environmental decisions are to be considered: on the one hand the suit for damages and compensation for the purpose of internalization of external effects, and on the other hand the actions with the aim to influence character and content of public final decision cases. This is where cooperation and contributions towards state activities with more concern for the environment come into it. This sphere is investigated. Combined are the possibility of judicially arranged citizens' participation and a modern instrument of public decision: environmental impact statements. At the moment these appear to become exclusively an instrument for internal administration management. However, it is possible - this can be confirmed in comparative law - to couple this for the purpose of administration created instrument of technology assessment with citizens' actions. Therefore, the article aims to point to a solution how modern administration management through judicial mediation can orientate itself according to citizens' interests. (orig./LN) [de

  16. Public hearings as a transparency measure: The Valproate case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllebæk, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In line with increasing calls of transparency initiatives across European institutions, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will on September 26th 2017 host its first public hearing on the regulatory of a drug, namely Valproate. According to the EMA website, the public hearing is intended...... to “increase transparency by opening up the scientific evaluation process” and “[give citizens] a voice in the evaluation of medicines.” This conference paper will present the preliminary results from a rhetorical analysis of the public hearing as a transparency measure. What kind transparency does a public...

  17. Citizen Astronomy in China: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Citizen astronomers have benefited from technological advancements in the recent decades as they fill the scientific gaps left by professional astronomers, in the areas such as time domain observations, visual classification and data mining. Here I present an overview of the current status of citizen astronomy in China. Chinese citizen astronomers have made a visible contribution in the discoveries of new objects; however, comparing to their counterparts in the western world, they appear to be less interested in researches that do not involve making new discovery, such as visual classification, long-term monitoring of objects, and data mining. From a questionnaire survey that aimed to investigate the motivation of Chinese citizen astronomers, we find that this population is predominantly male (92%) who mostly reside in economically developed provinces. A large fraction (69%) of the respondents are students and young professionals younger than the age of 25, which differs significantly from the occupation and age distribution of typical Chinese Internet users as well as the user distribution of large international citizen science projects such as the Galaxy Zoo. This suggests that youth generation in China is more willing to participate citizen astronomy research than average generation. Additionally, we find that interests in astronomy, desire to learn new knowledges, have a fun experience and meet new friends in the community are all important driving factors for Chinese citizen astronomers to participate research. This also differs from their counterparts in western countries. With a large youth population that is interested in astronomy as well as a number of large astronomical facilities that are being planned or built, we believe that citizen astronomy in China has a vast potential. Timely and proper guidance from the professionals will be essential to help citizen astronomers to fulfill this potential.

  18. Making the decision-making basis for nuclear waste management transparent - A pre-study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2007-04-01

    The pre-study report proposes that KASAM (Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, an independent committee attached to the Swedish Ministry of Environment) uses the RISCOM Model to support the transparency programme. Recurrent elements in the programme would then be: A clear description of background for the issue being addressed; Knowledge building activities; A hearing where the KASAM committee members and staff stretch the stakeholders. The transparency programme can combine the RISCOM Model with other approaches to citizen participation at occasions when this is deemed suitable. For example, focus groups, other forms of working groups and consensus conferences could be organized and linked to a 'RISCOM hearing'. Therefore, the pre-study report contains an overview section about methods for public participation. At this stage of the Swedish programme for nuclear waste management it is believed that KASAM can provide an arena for transparency which other stakeholders can trust not having hidden agendas or vested interested in the results. During the pre-study a number of stakeholders were approached to give their views about the format and contents of the transparency programme. The consultations showed great expectations on the programme and a large number of issues were raised that could be included in transparency creating activities. A typical activity will be relatively resource demanding, especially with respect to the time available for key stakeholders. Therefore, issues to be addressed must be critically prioritised. The pre-study report contains nine issues proposed for special efforts by KASAM: Deep bore holes as a possible alternative method for final disposal; Citizen participation and democracy; The roles of responsible authorities; Decommissioning of nuclear reactors; Site selection - on what basis?; Socioeconomic issues; Local environmental issues and regional environmental goals; Long term storage of spent nuclear fuel; Critical assumptions

  19. Science experiences of citizen scientists in entomology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise I.

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular collaboration between members of the public and the scientific community to pursue current research questions. In addition to providing researchers with much needed volunteer support, it is a unique and promising form of informal science education that can counter declining public science literacy, including attitudes towards and understanding of science. However, the impacts of citizen science programs on participants' science literacy remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to balance the top-down approach to citizen science research by exploring how adult citizen scientists participate in entomology research based on their perceptions and pioneer mixed methods research to investigate and explain the impacts of citizen science programs. Transference, in which citizen scientists transfer program impacts to people around them, was uncovered in a grounded theory study focused on adults in a collaborative bumble bee research program. Most of the citizen scientists involved in entomology research shared their science experiences and knowledge with people around them. In certain cases, expertise was attributed to the individual by others. Citizen scientists then have the opportunity to acquire the role of expert to those around them and influence knowledge, attitudinal and behavioral changes in others. An intervention explanatory sequential mixed methods design assessed how entomology-based contributory citizen science affects science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects in adults. However, no statistically significant impacts were evident. A qualitative follow-up uncovered a discrepancy between statistically measured changes and perceived influences reported by citizen scientists. The results have important implications for understanding how citizen scientists learn, the role of citizen scientists in entomology research, the broader program impacts and

  20. Empowering Citizens with Open Data by Urban Hackathons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concilio, Grazia; Molinari, Francesco; Morelli, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Empowering citizens to make meaningful use of open data is a challenge somehow less central than others to public sector information disclosure policies. The latter are typically focused on promoting business innovations and economic activities in general (first goal) or increasing transparency...

  1. CITIZEN JOURNALISM MELAWAN MAINSTREAM MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senja Yustitia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of mass media tend to described as the fourth pillar of a nation, that represents democration, after the existence of nation sets of government forces. In line with teori agenda setting thesis emphasize media force to influence society agenda, and in the end will brought particular change towards. Post-reformation, media tend to isolate themselves from society needs although society is their biggest and the most loyal audiences. Thus called mainstream media consider economic importance as the most important aspect, this fact encouraging media to deviate from their main purpose as the provider of idea and knowledge, whether to give out information or to accomodate various needs and interest. This condition known as ”the end of media”, related with this condition the emergence an alternate known as citizen journalism really needed to balance out information current. The existence of citizen journalism encourage audience to participate as subject and object to control journalistic mechanism.

  2. Aerospace Transparency Research Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ... (ARRL), located at Wright-Patterson AFB OH, has advanced aerospace transparency technology through the investigative research of numerous optical and visual parameters inherent in aerospace transparencies...

  3. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, W.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of “human sensors.” As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include “citizens” or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process

  4. Citizen participation in Europe: A comparative analysis from the sociopolitical contexts (La participación ciudadana en Europa: un análisis comparado desde los contextos sociopolíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ganuza Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questioning the social spiral deriving from participation has flared up the debate regarding the place it occupies in contemporary democracies. It does not seem possible to deny the evidence that many studies have pointed to regarding the political attitudes associated with institutionalised participation (associations. But we question in this study the fact that the whole participation phenomenon is equated with that type of participation. Our paper compares different ways of participation in a sample of European countries to, first, analyse the activities that can be linked to each form of participation and whether it can be held that they are different from the point of view of the individual. Second, we analyse the attitudes that lead individuals to choose one option over the other. We conclude that for individuals the different forms of participation are different forms of political engagement. Our study shows an evolution in non-institutional forms of participation over time that is difficult to ignore, from being expressions bordering illegality to taking them as normalised tools for citizens. We could now start to consider them from the point of view of the implications they have for democracy as a different way to exercise political influence. | El cuestionamiento de la espiral social derivada de la participación ha intensificado el debate sobre el lugar que ocupa este fenómeno en las democracias contemporáneas. No es posible negar la evidencia que muchos estudios han señalado acerca de la importancia de las actitudes políticas asociadas a la participación institucionalizada. Pero en este estudio nos preguntamos si todo el fenómeno de la participación se equipara con ese tipo de participación. En nuestro trabajo se comparan diferentes formas de participación con una lógica comparativa en una muestra de países europeos con un doble objetivo. En primer lugar, analizar las actividades que se pueden vincular a cada forma de

  5. The Citizen Science Landscape: From Volunteers to Citizen Sensors and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Catlin-Groves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within conservation and ecology, volunteer participation has always been an important component of research. Within the past two decades, this use of volunteers in research has proliferated and evolved into “citizen science.” Technologies are evolving rapidly. Mobile phone technologies and the emergence and uptake of high-speed Web-capable smart phones with GPS and data upload capabilities can allow instant collection and transmission of data. This is frequently used within everyday life particularly on social networking sites. Embedded sensors allow researchers to validate GPS and image data and are now affordable and regularly used by citizens. With the “perfect storm” of technology, data upload, and social networks, citizen science represents a powerful tool. This paper establishes the current state of citizen science within scientific literature, examines underlying themes, explores further possibilities for utilising citizen science within ecology, biodiversity, and biology, and identifies possible directions for further research. The paper highlights (1 lack of trust in the scientific community about the reliability of citizen science data, (2 the move from standardised data collection methods to data mining available datasets, and (3 the blurring of the line between citizen science and citizen sensors and the need to further explore online social networks for data collection.

  6. Transparency in the Council of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    with information and thereby act as day-to-day facilitators of transparency of the Council’s activities. Although these communicators see themselves as contributing substantially to the transparency of the Council’s work and thereby as enabling the media to provide EU citizens with information about one......The Council of the European Union is often described as the least transparent of the three big EU institutions although steps have been taken to improve the transparency of its activities during the last couple of decades. This article focuses on the Council’s press officers who provide journalists...... of the most powerful political forums in Europe, transparency in the Council has its limits. This study explores institutional factors which hinder Council press officers from being as transparent as journalists would like them to be. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with Council press officers...

  7. DEVELOPING CITIZEN SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VRABIE Catalin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to involve citizens in the process of increasing public safety? Police used, even from its beginnings, the help of citizens, otherwise they would encounter problems in performing its duty - many of its successes were due to the unification of Police forces with the citizens. How citizens get involved? (1 They may be directly asked by the Police officers (a time consuming method because many police officers needs to go on the field to speak with the potential witnesses or (2 by using the mass-media channels (television can address to a large number of potential witnesses in a very short time. We still can see on TV portraits of missing persons, or some other kind of images with which the Police is trying to solve some of its cases (thieves, robbers or burglars surprised by surveillance cameras – why not Internet software application?!

  8. Shark Citizen Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, academic science has used graduate students to collect data in many cases, but community science, the term by which citizen science is also known, has revolutionized the process by which large amounts of data can be collected accurately by large numbers of non-scientists under the training and mentorship of scientists. There has been some discussion in the scientific community about whether the data collected by citizen scientists is as scientifically valid as data collected by...

  9. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Bingham, Alpheus

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africa’s most successful mobile network operators, will talk about “Mobile phones and Africa: a success story”. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves indus...

  10. 78 FR 57409 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    .... Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Public Outreach AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) candidacy application. By this notice, Interior is providing the...' commitment to participate in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. EITI is a signature...

  11. Involvement. Senior citizens' recreational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, U B

    1992-06-01

    During the last 18 years, senior citizens in Viborg, Denmark, have participated in study circles based on the theory of impression pedagogy and socially relevant activities. They arrange excursions at home and abroad and make films about the trips. They teach schoolchildren, students at folk high schools, and nurses, as well as occupational therapists and physiotherapists. They publish poems and books, write role plays, stage musicals, sing in choirs, and function as tour guides in town. They set up educational color slide programmes on preventing bone fractures, dealing with the problem of reduced hearing, and the importance of healthy food and exercise. They travel abroad and talk about Denmark and the conditions for senior citizens in our country. With the support of the Danish Ministry for Social Affairs, they produce videos about their activities as a source of inspiration to others. The use of drugs by the participants in the study circles has declined, while the level of activities has increased, and none of the participants has ever had to enter residential care.

  12. Transparency as an element of public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    regulatory activities. It may further prevent open and frank discussion. Careful consideration should be given when publicizing certain information which affects specific and identifiable people or areas. Fifth, transparency should be understood and discussed in terms of 'Risk Governance' as it is related to stakeholders' participation. Understanding transparency as one element for confidence in regulator and considering its adverse aspects, transparency strategy should be devised and carefully implemented. (author)

  13. Citizen-science, Geoethics and Human Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2017-04-01

    researching know-how and deploying it, i.e. needs 'citizen geo-scientists' to maintain the human niche. (B) Regarding knowledge-based societies: The rapidly increasing human knowledge base accelerates the scientific-technical revolution. Its industrial-societal implementation confronts societies with numerous change processes. Their speed and scope is a risk as well as the mutual interferences of different change processes that often only get obvious within everyday societal doings. This vigour of change requires robust two-way linkages between research and technological development on one side and societal activities on the other side. Research and development undertaken in cooperation with citizen scientists would improve such linkages, e.g. through increased transparency of research and development or strengthening the sense of belonging of people for their environments. Citizen scientists are a resource, because they are complementary partner to the professional researcher. On one side citizen scientists provide experiences that are rooted in everyday practices and on the other side they facilitate uptake of new practices. Both features are needed in societies that face anthropogenic global change. Summarizing, geoethics affiliates geosciences and 'citizen science' in a particular relationship, i.e. 'citizen geo-science', which is beneficial for knowledge-based societies that are functioning under conditions of anthropogenic global change. [1] http://www.geoethics.org/ (accessed: 8th November 2016) Disclaimer: The views expressed engage the author only, not the employer.

  14. Citizen Sky, An Update on the AAVSO's New Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Henden, A.; Stencel, R.; Kloppenborg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF-funded, citizen science project focusing on the bright variable star, epsilon Aurigae. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. The first year of the project, 2009-10, was dedicated to developing project infrastructure, educating participants about epsilon Aurigae, and training these participants to observe the star and report their data. Looking forward, years two and three of the project will focus on assembling teams of participants to work on their own analysis and research. Results will be published in a special issue of the peer-reviewed Journal of the AAVSO. This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  15. Innovation in Public Service Delivery: Civic Participation in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata M. Merickova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation as such is connected with political, social and civic dimensions. Through participation, citizens can directly or indirectly help to make the public process become more transparent and more efficient. It allows citizens “to see" into a decision-making process, to understand it, as well as contribute and be able to control it. In practice, civic participation has various forms; it includes both formal civic associations and informal groups of citizens that develop activities in order to solve local problems. In this paper we focus on civic participation in the innovation in the provision of public services, i.e. co-creation. Our objective is to map the best practices of co-creation in social innovations at the local government level in Slovakia. The main findings of our analysis are that co-created innovations are mostly initiated by non-governmental actors. Our study uses a qualitative approach and is based on original survey data from our own research, conducted mainly within the LIPSE research project.

  16. Workability of the norms of transparency and accountability against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the workability of the existing norms of transparency and accountability in the battle against corruption in Nigeria. Incontrovertibly, high level corruption pervades every nook and cranny of the country to the detriment of its citizens. Although anti-corruption norms exist in the Nigerian legal order, high ...

  17. Risk factors for falls of older citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, C.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fall prevention is a major issue in the ageing society. This study provides an overview of all risk factors for falls of older citizens. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or

  18. Transparency and product variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study long run effects of transparency on the consumer side in a differentiated market. Only some consumers know prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and firm entry. This improves welfare and, in most cases, average consumer utility....

  19. Researcher or Fellow Citizen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alex Young; Caviglia, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The idea of a team of researchers working at advancing knowledge represents a strong role model for STEM education. The article suggests that an alternative role model – a community of fellow citizens engaged in solving problems of how to better live together – can be an equally compelling model...... for the Humanities. Mode 1 knowledge building rooted in learning within the disciplines is compared with a mode 2 focusing on context-specific knowledge, transdisciplinarity and collaborative rationality as essential ingredients of a new role model for the humanities: The fellow citizen. Two cases – a collaborative...

  20. Open data for citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Morelli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    A large quantity of open data is now available to institutions, business and citizens. The potential of such new resource, though, has not been explored yet, also because of a lack of perspectives and scenarios on how open data can be used. The workshop aims at broadening the perspectives...... on the use of open data by investigating new scenarios for a wide use of open data, where citizens without any IT skills can be involved in a co-design session with the relevant stakeholders....

  1. Competition for transparency as a carrier of competition. Transparency needs in the European wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Hanneke de; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses different transparency aspects regarding European wholesale electricity markets and discusses transparency issues to be solved. In Europe, currently some progress has been made with respect to market transparency but transparency issues related to transmission, system operation and regulation have received little attention so far. Transmission system operators (TSOs) and regulatory authorities need certain market information in order to secure efficient competition. However, TSOs and regulatory authorities need to communicate themselves in order to facilitate competition and decrease uncertainty among market participants. Furthermore, considering ongoing market integration both TSOs and regulatory authorities must exchange information amongst themselves in order to facilitate coordination and monitoring activities. The effect of a higher level of transparency on effective competition is depended on two categories of transparency aspects: aspects that are related to transparency in the sense of open and adequate communication (perspicuity) and aspects that are related to the easiness to understand (clarity). Transparency includes both aspects. Pursuing overall harmonization of the European transparency level is important to fully profit from a higher level of (international) harmonization. Effective harmonization requires harmonization on all communication aspects. For Europe, with its many immature markets, the dilemma remains whether it is preferable to have less transparency with a high level of harmonization or to have a higher level of transparency but a lower level of harmonization. (Author)

  2. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  3. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  4. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  5. Transparency and Product Variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    We study the long run e¤ects of transparency in a circular town model of a differentiated market. The market is not fully transparent on the consumer side: A fraction of consumers are uninformed about prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and entry of firms. This i...

  6. Transparency in Health Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Transparency is an important tool for good governance, helping to expose abusive practices including fraud, patronage, corruption, and other abuses of power. Increasing transparency can also enhance accountability by providing performance management information and exposing policies and procedures to oversight. This U4 Brief discusses the role of transparency in preventing corruption in the health sector.

  7. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    voluntarism. I argue that transparency to factual questions occurs in practical deliberation in ways parallel to transparency in doxastic deliberation. I argue that this should make us reconsider the appeal to transparency in arguments against doxastic voluntarism, and the wider issue of distinguishing...... theoretical from practical rationality....

  8. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  9. Assessing Motivations and Use of Online Citizen Science Astronomy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nona Bakerman, Maya; Buxner, Sanlyn; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    The exponential proliferation of astronomy data has resulted in the need to develop new ways to analyze data. Recent efforts to engage the public in the discussion of the importance of science has led to projects that are aimed at letting them have hands-on experiences. Citizen science in astronomy, which has followed the model of citizen science in other scientific fields, has increased in the number and type of projects in the last few years and poses captivating ways to engage the public in science.The primary feature of this study was citizen science users’ motivations and activities related to engaging in astronomy citizen science projects. We report on participants’ interview responses related to their motivations, length and frequency of engagement, and reasons for leaving the project. From May to October 2014, 32 adults were interviewed to assess their motivations and experiences with citizen science. In particular, we looked at if and how motivations have changed for those who have engaged in the projects in order to develop support for and understandparticipants of citizen science. The predominant reasons participants took part in citizen science were: interest, helping, learning or teaching, and being part of science. Everyone interviewed demonstrated an intrinsic motivation to do citizen science projects.Participants’ reasons for ending their engagement on any given day were: having to do other things, physical effects of the computer, scheduled event that ended, attention span or tired, computer or program issues. A small fraction of the participants also indicated experiencing negative feedback. Out of the participants who no longer took part in citizen science projects, some indicated that receiving negative feedback was their primary reason and others reported the program to be frustrating.Our work is helping us to understand participants who engage in online citizen science projects so that researchers can better design projects to meet their

  10. Transparency in Europe: A Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, Frederic; Way, Dominic; Löfstedt, Ragnar; Evensen, Darrick

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, European pharmaceutical regulators have increasingly committed to heightening access to raw safety-related data as part of a wave of transparency initiatives (e.g., providing public Internet-mediated access to clinical trials data). Yet, the regulators--who are under significant pressure--have not yet benefited from a systematic review of this new policy. In seeking to inject much needed evidence, this article explores the effects of new transparency policies designed to promote meaningful communication of risks and benefits to patients. Results of a cross-national European survey with respondents from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, France, Germany, and Sweden (N = 5,648) shed light on how patients and the public are likely to react to the regulators' new transparency policies. The findings demonstrate clear national variations in how European citizens are likely to react and emphasize the need to develop evidence-based, reasoned transparency policies that integrate benefit-risk communication. The authors conclude by providing six specific recommendations, informed by the study, that seek to improve the European transparency model both within the medical field and across health, safety, and environmental policy domains. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPARENCY:A CONCEPTUAL DISSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andreea SÎNTEJUDEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transparency has increasingly attracted the attention of academic, political and business areas. Many studies have demonstrated the need for adopting this corporate governance principle also in the public sector, a phenomenon that has become widespread at international level. The academic study field defines transparency as the ability to look clearly through the window of an institution. Starting from this statement, the research focuses on the importance of transparency in public governance and on the framework for identifying and assessing this concept. Furthermore, this paper also analysis the limits of this notion in order to maintain its significance and effectiveness. Thus, based on the literature review, this study summarizes the opinions and arguments of various authors in the field regarding the notion of transparency in the public sector. At the same time, it analysis the conclusions of empirical studies on this topic. The results of the study reveal the importance and necessity of information disclosure among different users for increasing citizens' trust in government and achieving good governance. However, the positive aspects of transparency tend to be overestimated and considering the ambiguity of this concept it should be carefully handled.

  12. Participar sin pertenecer. La participación política de los ciudadanos no nacionales en dos áreas urbanas: Alicante y Florencia (Take part without belonging. The political participation of non-national citizens in two urban areas: Alicante and Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Santoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio sobre el activismo político y la participación de los ciudadanos no nacionales se considera un tema estratégico para muchas investigaciones a nivel local e internacional. Recientemente, aparece una nueva perspectiva de estudio en diferentes autores que pone el enfoque en la participación en un nivel más amplio que el de la Unión Europea. Hay numerosos estudios que tratan el tema de la participación política de los ciudadanos no comunitarios y también de los residentes comunitarios. Sin embargo, faltan estudios que pongan sistemáticamente en comparación los tres diferentes estatus de ciudadanía que se manifiestan en el contexto de la Unión Europea. Este artículo se centra en tres categorías de individuos, que se diferencian en base a la dimensión formal y sustancial de la ciudadanía: ciudadanos comunitarios, neo-comunitarios y no comunitarios. Este trabajo se centra en dos contextos urbanos de la eurozona mediterránea, Alicante (España y Florencia (Italia que se pueden considerar most similar systems por la historia migratoria. | The study of political activism and participation of non-national citizens has been treated as a crucial theme in many studies concerning the local and national level; recently, however, a new perspective has been considered by scholars, focusing on the participation of non-national people in the broader context of the European Union. There are several researches dealing with the political participation of non-communitarian citizens, as well as studies regarding the political participation of EU citizens. However, what seems necessary is a systematic analysis, comparing at one time the three different possible statuses a citizen could have in the context of the European Union. This article focuses on three categories of people, differing on the formal and substantial status of citizenship: communitarian, neo-communitarian and non-communitarian citizens. The analysis has been conducted in two

  13. Citizens and Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stanley B., Jr.

    In a speech delivered at the National Easter Seal Society's Annual Convention (1974), the author discusses progress toward full citizenship for the handicapped focusing on the roles of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) and the Office for the Handicapped, Constitutional guarantees of equal rights for all citizens, and national…

  14. Revolutionising citizen journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Nina Grønlykke

    Citizen journalism has played a crucial role in the Egyptian revolution by providing documentation of events journalists were unable to document and by challenging and influencing the mainstream media. One of the most prominent examples of this is Rassd News Network (RNN). RNN is until now entirely...

  15. CitizenAID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    CitizenAID is an easy-to-use app that informs users how to provide care in mass casualty situations, including shootings, knife attacks and bomb incidents. The authors are well known and respected specialists in trauma care and disaster management.

  16. Inspiring Glocal Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    In an era when overlapping, intersecting national and cultural identities are a reality for many K-12 students in the United States, it is schools' responsibility to nurture skills and attitudes that help students feel empowered as citizens of their local area or country as well as of other cultural groups they identify with--and of the world.…

  17. Citizens' action group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andritzky, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the first empirical study of citizens' action groups 331 such groups were consulted. Important information was collected on the following aspects of these groups: their self-image, areas and forms of activities, objectives and their extent, how long the group has existed, successes and failures and their forms of organisation. (orig.) [de

  18. Masked or Informed Citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of social media is having profound impacts on the relationship between government and citizens in many areas of government service provision. In the area of healthcare the emergence of new venues of interaction between patients and between patients and doctors is challenging the gov....... In the conclusion, we suggest venues of future research on this emerging trend....

  19. Educating Digital Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Digital citizenship is how educators, citizens, and parents can teach where the lines of cyber safety and ethics are in the interconnected online world their students will inhabit. Aside from keeping technology users safe, digital citizenship also prepares students to survive and thrive in an environment embedded with information, communication,…

  20. Tocqueville's Christian Citizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Tocqueville's Christian Citizen Marinus Ossewaarde Introduction Alexis De Tocqueville is well known for his critique of democracy. A French statesman, he was left with the legacy of the French Revolution that had torn his fatherland and had changed the course of human history for good. Tocqueville,

  1. Citizen advisory groups: Improving their effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1990-01-01

    In an age of citizen distrust of government and intense not-in-my-backyard activity when waste management facilities are proposed, the potential of citizen advisory groups (CAGS) to aid the decision-making process is worth exploring. This paper reviews findings from case studies by the author and others to assess the various purposes, pitfalls, advantages and outcomes of CAGs in influencing decisions about controversial waste management actions and facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the CAG are evaluated as one of several public participation mechanisms. The paper outlines ways in which CAGs can aid the waste management decision process and develop minimum requirements for the successful functioning of citizen advisory groups in decision processes with significant technical components, such as those involving nuclear and hazardous wastes

  2. Citizen advisory groups: Improving their effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.

    1990-01-01

    In an age of citizen distrust of government and intense NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) activity when waste management facilities are proposed, the potential of citizen advisory groups (CAGs) to aid the decision-making process is worth exploring. This paper reviews findings from case studies by the author and others to assess the various purposes, pitfalls, advantages and outcomes of CAGs in influencing decisions about controversial waste management actions and facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the CAG are evaluated as one of several public participation mechanisms. We outline ways in which CAGs can aid the waste management decision process and develop minimum requirements for the successful functioning of citizen advisory groups in decision processes with significant technical components, such as those involving nuclear and hazardous wastes. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  3. The art of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  4. Crowdsourcing Scientific Work: A Comparative Study of Technologies, Processes, and Outcomes in Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects involve the public with scientists in collaborative research. Information and communication technologies for citizen science can enable massive virtual collaborations based on voluntary contributions by diverse participants. As the popularity of citizen science increases, scientists need a more thorough understanding of…

  5. Mobilizing Senior Citizens in Co-design Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmborg, Lone; Werner, Katharina; Gronvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses methodological considerations of participation in design for ageing. Based on the notions of design culture, communities of everyday practice and situated elderliness we present accounts from two settings and discuss methodological issues related to mobilizing senior citizens...

  6. Video Liveness for Citizen Journalism: Attacks and Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Azimpourkivi, Mozhgan; Topkara, Umut; Carbunar, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of citizen journalism raises important video integrity and credibility issues. In this article, we introduce Vamos, the first user transparent video "liveness" verification solution based on video motion, that accommodates the full range of camera movements, and supports videos of arbitrary length. Vamos uses the agreement between video motion and camera movement to corroborate the video authenticity. Vamos can be integrated into any mobile video capture application without requiri...

  7. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  8. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  9. A natural user interface to integrate citizen science and physical exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, Eduardo; Laut, Jeffrey; Nov, Oded; Cappa, Paolo; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science enables volunteers to contribute to scientific projects, where massive data collection and analysis are often required. Volunteers participate in citizen science activities online from their homes or in the field and are motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we investigated the possibility of integrating citizen science tasks within physical exercises envisaged as part of a potential rehabilitation therapy session. The citizen science activity entailed envir...

  10. Citizen (Dis)satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the importance of equivalence framing for understanding how satisfaction measures affect citizens’ evaluation of public services. Does a 90 percent satisfaction rate have a different effect than a logically equivalent 10 percent dissatisfaction rate? Two experiments were...... conducted on citizens’ evaluations of hospital services in a large, nationally representative sample of Danish citizens. Both experiments found that exposing citizens to a patient dissatisfaction measure led to more negative views of public service than exposing them to a logically equivalent satisfaction...... metric. There is some support for part of the shift in evaluations being caused by a negativity bias: dissatisfaction has a larger negative impact than satisfaction has a positive impact. Both professional experience at a hospital and prior exposure to satisfaction rates reduced the negative response...

  11. Citizen Journalism & Public Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Strøbech, Kristian; Bang, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    of views or plain information dissemination. Form the media institution’s point of view the goal was to create a platform for hyper local journalism as a source for journalistic coverage in commercial media. The group investigating civic communication within the Digital Urban Living project...... followed the upstart of Dinby.dk in 2008 and has returned to the experiment in 2010. Our main interest is to explore the condition in which it is possible to create hyper local citizens produced digital content. And, furthermore, to understand which incitements are needed to make local actors or groups act...... as digital providers of their own activities. In the paper we present our findings and reflect them in relation to the design of the web-portal and the profile of the users. Finally we discuss the further perspectives of this form of user/citizens involvement in public communication....

  12. Why Citizen Science Without Usability Testing Will Underperform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C.; Gay, P.; Owens, R.; Burlea, G.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen science projects must undergo usability testing and optimization if they are to meet their stated goals. This presentation will include video of usability tests conducted upon citizen science websites. Usability testing is essential to the success of online interaction, however, citizen science projects have just begun to include this critical activity. Interaction standards in citizen science lag behind those of commercial interests, and published research on this topic is limited. Since online citizen science is by definition, an exchange of information, a clear understanding of how users experience an online project is essential to informed decision-making. Usability testing provides that insight. Usability testing collects data via direct observation of a person while she interacts with a digital product, such as a citizen science website. The test participant verbalizes her thoughts while using the website or application; the moderator follows the participant and captures quantitative measurement of the participant's confidence of success as she advances through the citizen science project. Over 15 years of usability testing, we have observed that users who do not report a consistent sense of progress are likely to abandon a website after as few as three unrewarding interactions. Since citizen science is also a voluntary activity, ensuring seamless interaction for users is mandatory. Usability studies conducted on citizen science websites demonstrate that project teams frequently underestimate a user's need for context and ease of use. Without usability testing, risks to online citizen science projects include high bounce rate (users leave the website without taking any action), abandonment (of the website, tutorials, registration), misunderstanding instructions (causing disorientation and erroneous conclusions), and ultimately, underperforming projects.

  13. Safeguards for informed citizens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, Bernard

    1980-01-01

    The author runs through the regulations and procedures to which the construction of nuclear facilities are subjected in France. Concurrently with this technical and administrative control, an 'evident and difficult' objective must be achieved, namely that of informing the citizens. After discussing the difficulties lying in the path of such an undertaking, the author considers the major operations and approaches undertaken in this respect [fr

  14. FRIENDSHIP OF CITIZENS

    OpenAIRE

    Ottmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The author advocates a modernization of the antique doctrine of friendship. Friendship understood in the political sense is the friendship of citizens, as a regulative idea of ideal political community. Such friendship is above justice, it implies a permanent and stable mutual benevolence, living together, harmony, mutuality and equality, involvement and compassion, mutual openness in words and deeds, a culture of voluntary cooperation and a spirit of selfaware and self-resp...

  15. Citizen Candidates Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Eguia, Jon X.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we make two contributions to the growing literature on "citizen-candidate" models of representative democracy. First, we add uncertainty about the total vote count. We show that in a society with a large electorate, where the outcome of the election is uncertain and where winning candidates receive a large reward from holding office, there will be a two-candidate equilibrium and no equilibria with a single candidate. Second, we introduce a new concept of equilibrium, which we te...

  16. Senior citizens retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The Seniors' Residential Retrofitting Project was Yukon's most ambitious CREDA, funded demonstration with a total cost of $460,000. The project undertook to demonstrate energy-efficient retrofitting techniques in 38 homes and two apartment complexes for senior citizens. At the same time, the project strove to train Yukon tradesmen in retrofitting techniques, thus creating a local industry and employment within this industry. To this end, two training courses were given for local tradesmen and contractors, the first of their kind in Canada. The training part of the project was given equal importance as the actual demonstration part. Three levels of retrofit work were done on the homes of senior citizens. Level one included caulking, weatherstripping, furnace servicing, and installation of water flow restrictors, water heater blankets and timers. The level two retrofit included the treatment in level one, plus upgrading windows and the insulation levels in walls and ceilings. A level three retrofit involved a total rewrap of the building shell with some of the features in levels one and two incorporated. The demonstration program included the following steps: initial contact with senior citizens; energy audit on each house; determination of level of retrofit work based on individual audit results; contract packages drawn up and put to tender; monitoring of fuel records and air-tightness tests both before and after retrofit; and tabulation of data and information transfer. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  18. Transparency views by media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation, various problems surrounding the issues of transparency, such as 'What exactly should be transparent?' 'Is all that we want amounting only to transparency?' 'Is it possible to thoroughly implement transparency', etc., are discussed with due consideration for the viewpoints of the wide range of parties concerned involving areas of politics, administration, enterprises, media, individuals, and so on. First of all, the explanation is focused on how the transparency is recognised, as well as how it is regarded as important, for the public at large and the media. Then, based on the concept that transparency is required for what cannot be justified to be secret, we will contemplate what should be transparent in the areas of politics, administration and enterprises, using the case of nuclear issues as example. Next, the discussion will proceed to the point whether the achievement of transparency itself should be the ultimate goal, in the light of taking into consideration the standpoints of individuals and the receivers of the information, in addition to that of the administration, politics, and enterprises. In closing, we will discuss what the necessary measures will be to materialize the complete transparency on the basis of the discussions made thus far. (author)

  19. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  20. Politician2.0 on Facebook: Information Behavior and Dissemination on Social Networking Sites – Gaps and Best-Practice. Evaluation Results of a novel eParticipation toolbox to let politicians engage with citizens online.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Wandhoefer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers our findings on information behavior and dissemination of parliamentary decision-makers in terms of using Social Networking Sites like Facebook. The article investigates why politicians use those technologies and integrate them more and more in their everyday workflow. In addition to the purpose of social network usage, the focus of our paper is also on best practices and how to deal with challenges like authenticity of politicians’ online profiles. The results presented within the remit of this paper are the outcome of 16 semi-structured interviews that took place as part of an evaluation effort within the EU research project WeGov [1]. The overall aim of the project is to develop a toolbox that enriches the dialogue between citizens and politicians on the web.

  1. Transparency demonstration of underground radiation and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, Barry D.; Hofer, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    One of the legacies of the nuclear weapon and nuclear power cycles has been the generation of large quantities of nuclear waste and fissile materials. As citizens of this planet, it is everyone's responsibility to provide for safe, secure, transparent, disposal of these waste nuclear materials. The Sandia Cooperative Monitoring Center sponsored a Transparency Monitoring Workshop where the use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was identified as a possible transparency demonstration test bed. Three experiments were conceived as jumpstart activities to showcase the effective use of the WIPP infrastructure as a Transparency Demonstration Test Bed. The three experiments were successfully completed and demonstrated at the International Atomic Energy Association sponsored International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver Colorado November 1999. The design and coordination of these efforts is the subject of this paper

  2. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  3. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  4. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  5. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  6. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  7. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  8. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  9. Advice on Admissions Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Admissions transparency means that prospective domestic undergraduate students can easily find good quality admissions information that allows them to compare courses and providers and make informed study choices. In October 2016 the Higher Education Standards Panel (HESP) made recommendations to achieve greater transparency in higher education…

  10. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  11. Health data cooperatives - citizen empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, E; Kossmann, D; Brand, A

    2014-01-01

    functional Health Data Cooperatives exist yet. The relative success of health data repositories such as 23andme and PatientsLikeMe indicates that citizens are willing to participate in research even if - and in contrast to the cooperative model - the commercial value of these data does not go back to the collective of users. In the Health Data Cooperative model, the citizens with their data would take the center stage in the healthcare system and society would benefit from the health-related and financial benefits that aggregation of these data brings.

  12. Energy policy - dialogue with the citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillessen, H.

    1977-01-01

    The attempt made by the Federal government to enter a dialogne with the citizen on prerequisites and objectives of energy policy has met with a conflicting response. On the one hand a lot of citizens have welcomed the fact that the sector of energy policy being socially as relevant as that is being discussed in detail and in public. On the other hand, especially representatives of citizens' initiatives fear that the dialogne will be degradaded to a mere hearing unless it leads to a bitter participation of the citizen in the process of will formation concerning decisions being socially obligatory. The confrontations on energy policy have clearly shown that new forms of the formation of political will are being demanded with an increasing emphasis. In the meantime risks involved in industrial civilization are being recognized as being dangerous to their lives by many people, and doubts concerning the ability of traditional institutions and procedures to meet present and future challenges are increasing. Simultaneously there is resistance against bureaucratic patronizing as well as against party dependence being too strong and dependent interest of the state. Many of those who are affected by a faulty development and by unbearable things - due to the way in which governmental and private economic problems are tackled - demand new forms of will formation concerning the mediation of social needs and political responsibilities. (orig.) [de

  13. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Citizen Sky, IYA 2009 and What's To Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright and mysterious variable star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky is going beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. During IYA 2009 the Citizen Sky team was fully assembled, the website was developed and put online, and the first of two participant workshops was held. However, Citizen Sky does not stop or even slow down with the conclusion of IYA 2009. The project will continue to grow in the coming years. New participants are being recruited and trained as the observing phase of the project continues, a second participant workshop is planned for 2010, and the data analysis phase of the project will begin in earnest.

  15. Can citizen science enhance public understanding of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Rick; Phillips, Tina B; Ballard, Heidi L; Enck, Jody W

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, thousands of citizen science projects engaging millions of participants in collecting and/or processing data have sprung up around the world. Here we review documented outcomes from four categories of citizen science projects which are defined by the nature of the activities in which their participants engage - Data Collection, Data Processing, Curriculum-based, and Community Science. We find strong evidence that scientific outcomes of citizen science are well documented, particularly for Data Collection and Data Processing projects. We find limited but growing evidence that citizen science projects achieve participant gains in knowledge about science knowledge and process, increase public awareness of the diversity of scientific research, and provide deeper meaning to participants' hobbies. We also find some evidence that citizen science can contribute positively to social well-being by influencing the questions that are being addressed and by giving people a voice in local environmental decision making. While not all citizen science projects are intended to achieve a greater degree of public understanding of science, social change, or improved science -society relationships, those projects that do require effort and resources in four main categories: (1) project design, (2) outcomes measurement, (3) engagement of new audiences, and (4) new directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Citizen Journalism as Conceptual Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    itizen Journalism as Conceptual Practice provides a conceptualization of citizen journalism as a political practice developed through analyses of an historical and postcolonial case. Arguing that citizen journalism is first and foremost situated, embodied and political rather than networked...... and formulates a critical reading of citizens’ and subjects’ mediated political engagements then as well as now. The book discusses current approaches to citizen journalism before turning to The Herald, which is then read against the grain in an attempt to show the embodied politics of colonial history...... and cultural forms of citizen engagement as these politics evolve in this particular case of journalism...

  17. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  18. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  19. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; Hu, L.; Wu, H.; Lee, S. W.; Cui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent

  20. Active audiencies and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, Pere; Guallar, Javier; Peralta, Miquel; Ruiz-Caballero, Carlos; Suau, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC), appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information...

  1. Active audiences and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, Pere; Guallar, Javier; Peralta, Miquel; Ruiz, Carles; Suau, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC), appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information...

  2. THE DETERMINANTS OF E-GOVERNMENT RELATIONAL MODELS CONSTRUCTION: INTERACTION, COMMUNICATION, PARTICIPATION AND COLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Neamtu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the integrating approach of new information and communication technologies in the public sector grew faster. Worldwide, most states have made and still make substantiate efforts towards the coherent strategies implementation in order to favor the complex process of integrating the new information and communication technologies. Regardless of the objectives - maximizing efficiency, increase transparency in the decision process, improve service quality or citizen participation in decision making - what we call today e-Government has become an essential mechanism in administrative reforms, independent of aggregation level. The article presents an analysis of the factors that define the outline of the e-government relational model.

  3. Experience with citizens panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, J.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999, 200 delegates attended a four-day UK Consensus Conference on radioactive waste management, which was organised by the UK Centre for Economic and Environmental Development (UK CEED) and supported by the government, industry and environmental groups. The event brought together a Citizens' Panel of fifteen people, randomly selected to represent a cross section of the British public, together with the major players in the debate. The four-day conference saw the panel cross-examine expert witnesses from organisations such as NIREX, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, the Ministry of Defence, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. The findings of their investigations were put together in a report containing detailed recommendations for government and industry and presented to the Minister on the final day. (author)

  4. Citizen centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Mulder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today architecture has to design for rapidly changing futures, in a citizen-centered way. That is, architecture needs to embrace meaningful design. Societal challenges ask for a new paradigm in city-making, which combines top-down public management with bottom-up social innovation to reach meaningful design. The biggest challenge is indeed to embrace a new collaborative attitude, a participatory approach, and to have the proper infrastructure that supports this social fabric. Participatory design and transition management are future-oriented, address people and institutions. Only through understanding people in context and the corresponding dynamics, one is able to design for liveable and sustainable urban environments, embracing the human scale.

  5. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  6. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  7. A Dictionary for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  8. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  9. The diversity and evolution of ecological and environmental citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science-the involvement of volunteers in data collection, analysis and interpretation-simultaneously supports research and public engagement with science, and its profile is rapidly rising. Citizen science represents a diverse range of approaches, but until now this diversity has not been quantitatively explored. We conducted a systematic internet search and discovered 509 environmental and ecological citizen science projects. We scored each project for 32 attributes based on publicly obtainable information and used multiple factor analysis to summarise this variation to assess citizen science approaches. We found that projects varied according to their methodological approach from 'mass participation' (e.g. easy participation by anyone anywhere to 'systematic monitoring' (e.g. trained volunteers repeatedly sampling at specific locations. They also varied in complexity from approaches that are 'simple' to those that are 'elaborate' (e.g. provide lots of support to gather rich, detailed datasets. There was a separate cluster of entirely computer-based projects but, in general, we found that the range of citizen science projects in ecology and the environment showed continuous variation and cannot be neatly categorised into distinct types of activity. While the diversity of projects begun in each time period (pre 1990, 1990-99, 2000-09 and 2010-13 has not increased, we found that projects tended to have become increasingly different from each other as time progressed (possibly due to changing opportunities, including technological innovation. Most projects were still active so consequently we found that the overall diversity of active projects (available for participation increased as time progressed. Overall, understanding the landscape of citizen science in ecology and the environment (and its change over time is valuable because it informs the comparative evaluation of the 'success' of different citizen science approaches. Comparative

  10. Facebooking Citizen Science with the Zooniverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joseph; Gay, P. L.; Hogan, K.; Lintott, C.; Impey, C.; Watson, C.

    2011-01-01

    While fully online citizen science projects like Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo are able to garner participation by tens to hundreds of thousands of people, this success pales next to the number of people who use Facebook. With a population well over half a billion, Facebook is, at the time of this writing, the largest single online community. As an experiment in social science-engagement, we have created Facebook fan pages for Zooniverse science tasks, social-sharing apps for Moon Zoo and Galaxy Zoo, and a novel galaxy-related citizen science project all within Facebook. In this poster we present early analysis on how these engagements attract both old and new users, and how users choose to share and interact through these pages.

  11. Citizen Environmental Science in Support of Educatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D. M.; Cavalier, D.; Potter, S.; Wagner, R.; Wegner, K.; Hammonds, J.

    2016-12-01

    Through two grants, a partnership among SciStarter, ECO-Schools, the GLOBE Program, and Youth Learning as Citizen Environmental Scientists has recruited, trained, and equipped over 100 US schools, youth groups and other citizen scientists to take several environmental measurements - surface soil moisture and temperature, precipitation, and clouds. Implementation by some has begun but many more will start implementation in the fall. These local measurements may be compared with data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and other satellite missions. The measurement protocols of GLOBE specify how these data are collected so as to produce reliable data that are intercomparable across space and time. GLOBE also provides the information infrastructure for storing these data and making them openly available. This presentation will examine the initial results of this effort in terms of participation, student and professional data use, and educational benefits.

  12. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  13. Legal rights, efficiency and citizen involvement in the administration of social security cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Hielmcrone, Nina

    2010-01-01

    for the accretion of new special rules. They merely have to be coded into the system. The government’s modernisation programme has been carried out at the expense of transparency and the legal rights of the citizens. This article deals with Danish legislation; the mechanisms in question are common not only......The Danish social security legislation has been distinguished in recent years by an intense growth in rules and regulations. Numerous laws and ordinances have been promulgated, which make it extremely difficult for both citizens and authorities to come to grips with the laws, much less to gain...... to a vast growth in very detailed and complex rules and thereby lack of transparency for citizens and social workers. The fact that benefits are administered with the aid of computers means that neither administrators nor politicians find the abundance of rules to be a problem, and no limits are thereby set...

  14. Citizen Science Initiatives: Engaging the Public and Demystifying Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Van Vliet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and smart phone technologies have opened up new avenues for collaboration among scientists around the world. These technologies have also expanded citizen science opportunities and public participation in scientific research (PPSR. Here we discuss citizen science, what it is, who does it, and the variety of projects and methods used to increase scientific knowledge and scientific literacy. We describe a number of different types of citizen-science projects. These greatly increase the number of people involved, helping to speed the pace of data analysis and allowing science to advance more rapidly. As a result of the numerous advantages of citizen-science projects, these opportunities are likely to expand in the future and increase the rate of novel discoveries.

  15. User interaction in smart ambient environment targeted for senior citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulli, Petri; Hyry, Jaakko; Pouke, Matti; Yamamoto, Goshiro

    2012-11-01

    Many countries are facing a problem when the age-structure of the society is changing. The numbers of senior citizen are rising rapidly, and caretaking personnel numbers cannot match the problems and needs of these citizens. Using smart, ubiquitous technologies can offer ways in coping with the need of more nursing staff and the rising costs of taking care of senior citizens for the society. Helping senior citizens with a novel, easy to use interface that guides and helps, could improve their quality of living and make them participate more in daily activities. This paper presents a projection-based display system for elderly people with memory impairments and the proposed user interface for the system. The user's process recognition based on a sensor network is also described. Elderly people wearing the system can interact the projected user interface by tapping physical surfaces (such as walls, tables, or doors) using them as a natural, haptic feedback input surface.

  16. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't.

  17. Mobilizing Senior Citizens in Co-Design of Mobile Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmborg, Lone; Gronvall, Erik; Messeter, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    . Based on the notions of design culture, communities of everyday practice and situated elderliness we present accounts from two European countries, and discuss methodological issues related to mobilizing senior citizens in co-design work as they have manifested themselves and influenced the Give......This paper disseminates work from the European Give&Take project, which aims at co-designing service sharing among senior citizens based on a mobile and distributed platform. With this project as a frame, our paper addresses methodological considerations of participation in co-design for ageing......&Take project. Challenges for mobilization are identified, based on an analysis of attitudes and values among design researchers and senior citizens. This analysis lead us to identify and discuss three strategies for mobilizing senior citizens in co-design of mobile technology: 1) Understanding being ‘elderly...

  18. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  19. Benefits and challenges of incorporating citizen science into university education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicola; Triska, Maggie; Liberatore, Andrea; Ashcroft, Linden; Weatherill, Richard; Longnecker, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    A common feature of many citizen science projects is the collection of data by unpaid contributors with the expectation that the data will be used in research. Here we report a teaching strategy that combined citizen science with inquiry-based learning to offer first year university students an authentic research experience. A six-year partnership with the Australian phenology citizen science program ClimateWatch has enabled biology students from the University of Western Australia to contribute phenological data on plants and animals, and to conduct the first research on unvalidated species datasets contributed by public and university participants. Students wrote scientific articles on their findings, peer-reviewed each other's work and the best articles were published online in a student journal. Surveys of more than 1500 students showed that their environmental engagement increased significantly after participating in data collection and data analysis. However, only 31% of students agreed with the statement that "data collected by citizen scientists are reliable" at the end of the project, whereas the rate of agreement was initially 79%. This change in perception was likely due to students discovering erroneous records when they mapped data points and analysed submitted photographs. A positive consequence was that students subsequently reported being more careful to avoid errors in their own data collection, and making greater efforts to contribute records that were useful for future scientific research. Evaluation of our project has shown that by embedding a research process within citizen science participation, university students are given cause to improve their contributions to environmental datasets. If true for citizen scientists in general, enabling participants as well as scientists to analyse data could enhance data quality, and so address a key constraint of broad-scale citizen science programs.

  20. Limits of transparency of transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is essential for further progress in materials and applications. These materials have a sufficiently large band gap, so that direct optical transitions do not lead to absorption of light within the visible spectrum. Since the presence of free carriers is essential for conductivity and thus for device applications, this introduces the possibility of additional absorption processes. In particular, indirect processes are possible, and these will constitute a fundamental limit of the material. The Drude theory is widely used to describe free-carrier absorption, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. We will present calculations of phonon- and defect-assisted free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We will focus in detail on SnO2, but the methodology is general and we will also compare the results obtained for other TCO materials such as In2O3. These calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. This work was performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle and was supported by ARO and NSF.

  1. Conference: photovoltaic energy - local authorities - Citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, Daniel; Witte, Sonja; Simonet, Luc; Waldmann, Lars; Fouquet, Doerte; Dupassieux, Henri; Longo, Fabio; Brunel, Arnaud; Kruppert, Andreas; Vachette, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the role of photovoltaic energy, local authorities and Citizens as pillars of the energy transition. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 100 participants exchanged views on the role of local authorities and Citizens in the implementation of the energy transition. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Solar photovoltaics, local communities and citizens - Cornerstones of the energy revolution. Franco-German viewpoints (Daniel Belon); 2 - Structure and management of the distribution system operators in Germany. efficient, innovative and reliable: Local public enterprises in Germany (Sonja Witte); 3 - Photovoltaic energy: technical challenges for power grids - A distribution network operator's (DNO) point-of-view (Luc Simonet); 4 - The sun and the grid - challenges of the energy transition (Lars Waldmann); 5 - The role of local public authorities in the networks management: legal situation in France, Germany and in the EU (Doerte Fouquet); 6 - Towards energy transition: challenges for renewable energies - Urban solar planning tools (Henri Dupassieux); 7 - The local energy supply as a municipal task - solar land-use planning in practice in Germany (Fabio Longo); 8 - Supporting and facilitating the financing of photovoltaic projects at a community level (Arnaud Brunel); 9 - Photovoltaics in the municipality VG Arzfeld (Andreas Kruppert); 10 - For the energy revolution to be a success: Invest into renewable energy. Local, controllable and renewable 'shared energy' that is grassroots (Philippe Vachette)

  2. Supporting Transparency between Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    The paper presents the results of a case study that explores the potentials of weblogs and social bookmarking to support transparency in a university course. In the course, groups of students used weblogs and social bookmarking in their work. The objective of the case was to empower students...... by providing them with tools that would be visible to the other students in the course, thus, making students’ ideas, thoughts and questions visible to the other students in the course. The paper concludes that use of digital media for transparency can support empowerment of students and inspiration among...... students in a course, but that the challenge is to create a balance between personal tools and tools for collaborative group work that are also suitable for transparency between students....

  3. International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By offering a common format and central repository, the IATI improves the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of international aid. It is used ... organizations. IDRC is one of almost 400 participants who publish project titles and descriptions, country and geographic area, aid type, dates, and budget information.

  4. Taking control: how citizens can hold industry to account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma; Schwarte, Christoph; Cotula, Lorenzo; Garside, Ben; Siegele, Linda

    2009-01-15

    The oil, gas and mining industries look set to remain major players in global development, despite urgent efforts to end the world's fossil fuel dependency and diversify energy sources. The activities of the extractive industries often impinge directly, and sometimes harshly, on communities and the environment. But local people are rising to the challenge. From Azerbaijan to Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Mali and Mongolia, citizens are working to promote transparency, accountability and responsible practice in these industries. A lack of skills and resources can impede crucial progress – so knowing the tools that work to make industry accountable is key.

  5. Visual truths of citizen reportage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Stuart; Peters, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In striving to better understand issues associated with citizen contributions to newsmaking in crisis situations, this article identifies and elaborates four specific research problematics – bearing witness, technologies of truth-telling, mediating visualities and affectivities of othering...... – in order to recast more familiar modes of enquiry. Specifically, it provides an alternative heuristic to theorize the journalistic mediation of citizen imagery, and the myriad ways this process of negotiation maintains, repairs and at times disrupts the interstices of professional–amateur boundaries...

  6. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic voluntar......It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic...

  7. #BritainBreathing: Codesigned citizen science to map seasonal allergy symptoms across the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiece Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Citizen science can be more than simply crowdsourcing data. We demonstrated that paper prototyping was a feasible and useful technique for codesigning an application with members of the public. Furthermore, workshop feedback indicated a high level of support for citizen science, provided users gained simple, personalised feedback. Further research is required to determine how codesign processes influence subsequent participant recruitment and engagement in citizen science projects.

  8. Challenges of citizen science contributions to modelling hydrodynamics of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Thaine Herman; Popescu, Ioana; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2017-04-01

    Citizen science is an established mechanism in many fields of science, including ecology, biology and astronomy. Citizen participation ranges from collecting and interpreting data towards designing experiments with scientists and cooperating with water management authorities. In the environmental sciences, its potential has begun to be explored in the past decades and many studies on the applicability to water resources have emerged. Citizen Observatories are at the core of several EU-funded projects such as WeSenseIt, GroundTruth, GroundTruth 2.0 and SCENT (Smart Toolbox for Engaging Citizens into a People-Centric Observation Web) that already resulted in valuable contributions to the field. Buytaert et al. (2014) has already reviewed the role of citizen science in hydrology. The work presented here aims to complement it, reporting and discussing the use of citizen science for modelling the hydrodynamics of floods in a variety of studies. Additionally, it highlights the challenges that lie ahead to utilize more fully the citizen science potential contribution. In this work, focus is given to each component of hydrodynamic models: water level, velocity, flood extent, roughness and topography. It is addressed how citizens have been contributing to each aspect, mainly considering citizens as sensors and citizens as data interpreters. We consider to which kind of model (1D or 2D) the discussed approaches contribute and what their limitations and potential uses are. We found that although certain mechanisms are well established (e.g. the use of Volunteer Geographic Information for soft validation of land-cover and land-use maps), the applications in a modelling context are rather modest. Also, most studies involving models are limited to replacing traditional data with citizen data. We recommend that citizen science continue to be explored in modelling frameworks, in different case studies, taking advantage of the discussed mechanisms and of new sensor technologies

  9. Potencialidades e desafios da participação em instâncias colegiadas dos sistemas de saúde: os casos de Itália, Inglaterra e Brasil Strengths and challenges of citizens' participation in local health councils: the cases of Italy, England, and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Serapioni

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta três modelos de participação em saúde ­ os Comitês Consultivos Mistos da Itália, os Conselhos Comunitários de Saúde da Inglaterra e os Conselhos Municipais de Saúde do Brasil ­ evidenciando as potencialidades, os aspectos organizacionais e as debilidades de cada um. Sucessivamente, faz-se uma análise comparativa das três experiências, destacando regularidade e variações em relação às principais características da participação em saúde. Os resultados da pesquisa apontam para a discussão de algumas categorias teóricas presentes na literatura especializada no campo da participação em saúde. Precisamente, analisam-se as seguintes dimensões da participação: (a organização e composição dos fóruns de participação; (b papel desempenhado pelos representantes dos cidadãos (consultivo, deliberativo ou de controle; (c tipo de aproximação (individual ou coletiva de participação em saúde. Finalmente, o artigo enfoca dois pontos críticos surgidos nas três experiências de participação e, precisamente, o problema da representatividade das instâncias colegiadas e a dificuldade dos porta-vozes dos cidadãos de exercerem sua influência nos processos de tomada de decisões dos gestores.This paper focuses on three models for citizens' participation in health (Italy, Great Britain, and Brazil. After discussing the strengths and weakness of the three experiences, the study presents a comparative analysis, highlighting convergences and variations in relation to the main characteristics of social participation in the health sector: (a organization and composition of health councils; (b functions played by citizens' representatives (decision-making, advisory, or social control or oversight; and (c approaches to community participation. The paper then focuses on two critical points emerging from the analysis of experiences with community participation: the issue of representativeness and the difficulty

  10. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...... and budget imbalance, also appear to affect the level of transparency...

  11. Innovative technologies (DIY instruments and data sonification) for engaging volunteers to participate in marine environmental monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piera, J.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years the promotion of marine observations based on volunteer participation, known as Citizen Science, has provided environmental data with unprecedented resolution and coverage. The Citizen Science based approach has the additional advantage to engage people by raising awareness and knowledge of marine environmental problems. The technological advances in embedded systems and sensors, enables citizens to create their own devices (known as DIY, Do-It-Yourself, technologies) for monitoring the marine environment. Within the context of the CITCLOPS project (www.citclops.eu), a DIY instrument was developed to monitor changes on water transparency as a water quality indicator. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on quasi-digital sensors controlled by an open-hardware (Arduino) board. The sensors measure light irradiance at different depth and the instrument automatically calculates the light diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient to quantify the water transparency. The buoy construction is an ideal activity for creative STEM programming. Several workshops in high schools were done to show to the students how to construct their own buoy. Some of them used the buoy to develop their own scientific experiments. In order to engage students more motivated in artistic disciplines, the research group developed also a sonification system that allows creating music and graphics using KdUINO measurements as input data.

  12. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  13. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  14. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  15. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  16. Preconditions for Citizen Journalism: A Sociological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley Watson

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the citizen journalist and increased attention to this phenomenon requires a sociological assessment that seeks to develop an understanding of how citizen journalism has emerged in contemporary society. This article makes a distinction between two different subcategories of citizen journalism, that is independent and dependent citizen journalism. The purpose of this article is to present four preconditions for citizen journalism to emerge in contemporary society: advanced technolo...

  17. The Management of the Citizen Oriented Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ion IVAN; Bogdan VINTILĂ

    2010-01-01

    The context of the knowledge based society is presented. The new user requirements in the context of the new society are analyzed. Basic concepts regarding the citizen oriented applications are presented. Issues specific to the citizen oriented applications are presented. The development cycle of the citizen oriented applications is analyzed. The particular elements for developing citizen oriented applications are described. The quality concept for the citizen oriented applications is defined...

  18. Design processes of a citizen inquiry community

    OpenAIRE

    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike

    2017-01-01

    As with other online communities, it is important to design elements of citizen inquiry projects that will attract and engage members. This chapter describes the process of designing an online community for citizen inquiry. It builds on design principles of inquiry learning, citizen inquiry and other online communities. The ‘Weather-it’ citizen inquiry community is intended to engage and support people in initiating and joining sustainable citizen-led investigations. The findings indicate som...

  19. Colloquium / Preparation for nuclear post-accident. Citizens and local authorities involvement in major risks governance - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Michel; Villers, Anita; Sene, Monique; Godin, Francois; Quilichini, Jean-Michel; Rollinger, Francois; Delalonde, Jean-Claude; Mehl-Auget, Isabelle; Autret, Jean-Claude; Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles; Petitfrere, Michael; Lochard, Jacques; Demet, Michel; Boucherie, Jean-Claude; Calafat, Alexis; Sommade, Christian; Villain, Alain; Ragazzo, Romeo; Rengot, Marielle; Sename, Jean; Thellier, Yvette; Tremelet, David; Olszewski, Richard; Fournier, Nicolas

    2009-12-01

    During 40 years, France has chosen nuclear energy as main energy source for power generation. Today, nuclear energy covers 80% of the French electricity needs. For this reason, in France, each inhabitant lives at less than 200 km of a nuclear power plant. The September 11, 2001 terror attack has led to reconsider the nuclear risk in terms of security. In 2005, the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has been entrusted with the preparation of a nuclear post-accident management study. This study has been mainly based on the experience feedback of the Chernobyl accident and on the dialogue with different actors of the French territory: the local authorities, the habitants, the associations and the health, environment and education actors. This colloquium represents the opening act of the joint elaboration of the management of a potential nuclear accident at the region scale. The colloquium was organized around 5 round tables: 1 - Did the nuclear safety transparency law change the situation?; 2 - Examples of pluralistic dialogues: the long-term management of a nuclear accident; 3 - How to encourage the necessary skills development of citizens? 4 - Regional development strategies in terms of nuclear risks management (incidents, effluents, wastes, transports..); 5 - New territory liabilities and citizens' legitimate aspiration in terms of health/environment: building something together. This document is the proceedings of this colloquium. It reports the exchanges between the participants

  20. Active audiences and journalism: Involved citizens or motivated consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Masip

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience participation, in any of its forms and names (public journalism, citizen journalism, participatory journalism, UGC, appears to revitalise democracy, thanks to the opportunities for public debate opened up by information and communications technology. On the other hand, however, there are many authors who question whether interactive technologies really encourage democracy or the market, empower the citizen or strengthen the consumer. In this context, we still have little information on the motivations that drive citizens to actively participate through the mechanisms that the media make available to them on their own websites or through social networks. There is a similar lack of information on the role that users attribute to their involvement in the functioning of the media and whether it contributes to improving their democratic function. This article aims to shed some light on this subject.

  1. [Citizens' veillance on environmental health through ICT and Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Biggeri, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade three different phenomena have merged: the widespread use of ICT devices to collect and potentially share personal and scientific data, and to build networked communities; biobanking for genomics, namely the organized storage of human biological samples and information; and the collaboration between scientists and citizens in creating knowledge, namely peer-production of knowledge, for shared social goals. These different forms of knowledge, technical tools, and skills have merged in community based scientific and social, as well as legal, initiatives, where scientists and citizens use genetic information and ICT as powerful ways to gain more control over their health and the environment. These activities can no longer be simply qualified as epidemiological research and surveillance. Instead, they can be framed as new forms of citizens' participatory "veillance:" an attitude of cognitive proactive alertness towards the protection of common goods. This paper illustrates two Italian case-studies where citizens and scientists, by making use of both ICT and biobanking, have joined with the goal of protecting environmental health in highly polluted contexts. The statute of these initiatives still needs to be defined as to both the validity of the underlying citizen science and the lack of adequate legal tools for structuring them. However, as to their scientific quality and use of sophisticated technologies, these activities cannot be compared to previous experiences, such as those inspired by so-called popular epidemiology. Moreover, the deep awareness towards the data to be transparent, reliable, and accessible, as well as towards funding mechanisms to be crowdsourced, allows these experiences to go beyond the mere confrontation with institutional knowledge, and to represent a potential model for knowledge production for institutional implementation.

  2. Public participation, Good Environmental Governance and fulfilment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public participation, Good Environmental Governance and fulfilment of Environmental rights. ... international developments the role that public participation is expected to play in state governments\\' fulfilment of citizens\\' environmental rights.

  3. File: nuclear safety and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.; Etchegoyen, A.; Jeandron, C.

    2001-01-01

    Several experiences of nuclear safety and transparency are related in this file. Public information, access to documents, transparency in nuclear regulation are such subjects developed in this debate. (N.C.)

  4. Transparent Armor Cost Benefit Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prokurat Franks, Lisa; Holm, David; Barnak, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...; the increase in demand for transparent gun shields in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and early versions of jerry-rigged shields used in OIF, including Pope glass and Transparent Armored Gun Shields (TAGS...

  5. 2000 Physical Acoustics Summer School (PASS 00). Volume II: Transparencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Henry

    2001-01-01

    .... Volume II of these proceedings contains copies of the transparencies used by the lecturers and Volume III contains background materials that were sent to student and discussion leader participants...

  6. Governing Citizen Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger; Horsbøl, Anders

    2016-01-01

    in the sense of how the conduct of groups and individuals is influenced by other forces and how groups and individuals influence the conduct of others through participation and involvement. This implies that governmentality is analysed as emerging in concrete, situated practices. Simultaneously, we investigate...

  7. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  8. Unveiling the Effects of Citizen Journalism Practice on College Students' Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Seungahn; Namkoong, Kang; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Record, Rachael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of citizen journalism practices on social capital concerning nonprofit and voluntary organizations (i.e., satisfaction, trust, and engagement). Through a quasi-experimental design, the analyses revealed that students in the treatment group, in which participants engaged in citizen journalism practice, had greater…

  9. Citizen science in hydrology and waterresources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buytaert, W.; Zulkafi, Z.; Grainger, S.; Acosta, L.; Alemie, T.C.; Bastiaensen, J.; Bièvre, de B.; Bhusal, J.; Clark, J.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Foggin, M.; Hannah, D.M.; Hergarten, C.; Isaeva, A.; Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Pandeya, B.; Paudel, D.; Sharma, K.; Steenhuis, T.S.; Tilahun, S.; Hecken, van G.; Zhumanova, M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of the general public in the research design, data collection and interpretation process together with scientists is often referred to as citizen science. While citizen science itself has existed since the start of scientific practice, developments in sensing technology, data

  10. Butterflies & Wild Bees: Biology Teachers' PCK Development through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuch, Martin; Panhuber, Tanja; Winter, Silvia; Kelemen-Finan, Julia; Bardy-Durchhalter, Manfred; Kapelari, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Citizen science is a rapidly growing emerging field in science and it is gaining importance in education. Therefore, this study was conducted to document the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of biology teachers who participated in a citizen science project involving observation of wild bees and identification of butterflies. In this paper,…

  11. Associations - Communities - Residents. Building together a citizen-based project of renewable energies - Methodological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramard, Dominique; Fleury, Laurianne; Peyret, Albert; Ghesquiere, Christine; Kauber, Markus; Jourdain, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    This guide first outlines the challenges and stakes of citizen-based renewable energies: example of a necessary energy transition in Brittany, interest of a local production of renewable energies, examples in other European countries, and emergence of a citizen-based energy movement in France. The second part presents the four main phases of such a project (diagnosis, development, construction, and exploitation), the main issues to be addressed, and the main steps of a citizen-based renewable energy project (technical, legal and financial, and citizen-related aspects during the different phases). The third part describes how to elaborate a citizen-based project: by addressing the project dimensions, by defining a legal specification, by performing a provisional business model, by choosing an appropriate legal structure, by creating a project company, and by mobilizing local actors). The last part addresses how to finance the project: by building up own funds, by asking banks for support, and by citizen participation to investment

  12. Citizen's Charter in a primary health-care setting of Nepal: An accountability tool or a "mere wall poster"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Gagan; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Derrett, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    Despite some empirical findings on the usefulness of citizen's charters on awareness of rights and services, there is a dearth of literature about charter implementation and impact on health service delivery in low-income settings. To gauge the level of awareness of the Charter within Nepal's primary health-care (PHC) system, perceived impact and factors affecting Charter implementation. Using a case study design, a quantitative survey was administered to 400 participants from 22 of 39 PHC facilities in the Dang District to gauge awareness of the Charter. Additionally, qualitative interviews with 39 key informants were conducted to explore the perceived impact of the Charter and factors affecting its implementation. Few service users (15%) were aware of the existence of the Charter. Among these, a greater proportion were literate, and there were also differences according to ethnicity and occupational group. The Charter was usually not properly displayed and had been implemented with no prior public consultation. It contained information that provided awareness of health facility services, particularly the more educated public, but had limited potential for increasing transparency and holding service providers accountable to citizens. Proper display, consultation with stakeholders, orientation or training and educational factors, follow-up and monitoring, and provision of sanctions were all lacking, negatively influencing the implementation of the Charter. Poor implementation and low public awareness of the Charter limit its usefulness. Provision of sanctions and consultation with citizens in Charter development are needed to expand the scope of Charters from information brochures to tools for accountability. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fiscal State-citizen Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 crisis ended the growth bubble of the 2000s, which Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) governments facilitated through the normative/political-regulatory promotion of household indebtedness. Historically contextualizing this state-citizen relationship, this arti......The 2008 crisis ended the growth bubble of the 2000s, which Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) governments facilitated through the normative/political-regulatory promotion of household indebtedness. Historically contextualizing this state-citizen relationship...... fiscal attentiveness to ordinary consumer-citizens. By uncovering the sociohistorical conditions governing the dominant precrisis regime, it not only nuances our understanding of the crisis but also of neoliberalism and suggests the implausibility of returning to “Golden Age” democratic capitalism....

  14. 77 FR 40893 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR [Docket No. ONRR-2012-0003] U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) implementation process. On July 11... United States' commitment to participate in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. EITI is a...

  15. 77 FR 26315 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR [Docket No. ONRR-2012-0003] U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... assessment as part of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) implementation process...' commitment to participate in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. EITI is a signature...

  16. Political Will and Strategic Use of YouTube to Advancing Government Transparency: An Analysis of Jakarta Government-Generated YouTube Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Chatfield , Akemi ,; Brajawidagda , Uuf

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Open Government Data and Transparency; International audience; Government transparency is critical to cut government bureaucracy and corruption, which diminish political accountability and legitimacy, erode trust in government, and hinder citizen engagement and government performance. Previously, Jakarta’s local governments lacked government transparency, holding high-level meetings under a close-door policy, sustaining a critical and fundamental flaw in policy-making and fueling gove...

  17. Stakeholder involvement activities in Slovakia. NRA's Commitment to Transparent Regulatory Process. Stakeholder Involvement in the French Regulatory Process - From Public Information to Public Participation. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear decision making in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, Marta Chairperson; Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; Nuclear Regulation Authority - NRA; Ferapontov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Session 2 focused on the regulatory perspectives related to stakeholder involvement in the regulatory decision-making process. Presentations provided the audience with information regarding the international and national legal framework implemented in the Slovak Republic, in France, in Japan and in Russia. Examples of stakeholder involvement, as well as some tools used for this purpose, were presented and discussed. The value of consistency and complementarity between international and national requirements was highlighted. Presentations and discussion confirmed the very close tie between the way the stakeholder involvement process is conducted and the public confidence and perception of reliability the regulatory body may gain, or lose. The four presentations confirmed that stakeholder involvement is a key challenge for maintaining regulatory body credibility, independence and legitimacy. All countries confirmed their commitment to trying to make their stakeholder involvement processes as open, visible, transparent and comprehensive as possible. Involvement represents a long and permanent process which requires investment of time, human resources and money, as well as the ability to reach out, to listen, to share, and to take input into account, while keeping in view the goal of delivering decisions that are as rational and objective as possible. Involving stakeholders is more than informing or communicating. The earlier the stakeholders are involved in the decision-making process, the greater the chance of success. If losing credibility is easy, all regulatory bodies agreed on the long process needed to recover it

  18. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  19. Imprezy biegowe na obszarach wiejskich w Polsce a poziom uczestnictwa Polaków w kulturze fizycznej = Running events in rural areas in Poland and the level of citizen participation in physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Poczta

    2016-12-01

      STRESZCZENIE   Celem artykułu jest wykazanie potencjału obszarów wiejskich do aktywności sportowo-rekreacyjnej w Polsce. Zagospodarowanie tego potencjału może natomiast wypełnić niszę i mieć utylitarny wpływ na kształtowanie postaw wobec zdrowia i kultury fizycznej jej uczestników, a także mieszkańców obszarów recepcji turystycznej. W artykule wskazano, że polityka zdrowotna w coraz większym zakresie koncentruje się na promowaniu prozdrowotnego modelu zachowań, który wspiera osiąganie dobrego stanu zdrowia ogółu populacji oraz, że interwencje z zakresu promocji zdrowia poprzez aktywność fizyczną są coraz częściej ukierunkowywane na zmiany w stylu życia i dotyczą również czasu wolnego                        i turystyki, w ostatnim czasie coraz częściej także na obszarach wiejskich w kraju.   Słowa kluczowe: wydarzenia sportowe, imprezy biegowe, turystyka sportowa, obszary wiejskie, promocja zdrowia, kultura fizyczna.       ABSTRACT   The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential of rural areas for sports and recreation activities in Poland. Development of this potential may, however, fill a niche and have a utilitarian influence on attitudes towards health and physical culture of the participants, as well as residents of reception areas. The article indicated that health policy increasingly focused on promoting healthy behavior model, which supports the achievement of a good state of health of the general population and that interventions in health promotion through physical activity are increasingly being channeled to changes in lifestyle and also concern leisure and tourism, recently increasingly also in rural areas in the country.   Key words: sporting events, running events, sports tourism, rural areas, health promotion, physical culture.

  20. Citizen science regarding invasive lionfish in Dutch Caribbean MPAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo-Cárdenas, Eira C.; Tobi, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers and barriers to participation in citizen science initiatives for conservation is important if long-term involvement from volunteers is expected. This study investigates the motivations of individuals from five marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Dutch Caribbean to (not)

  1. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  2. Transparency -- Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.

    1994-01-01

    The increasingly popular term transparency has been used throughout the IAEA Safeguards Symposium to mean many things to many people. It has rather little utility as a catch-all term or buzz word. A precise definition of transparency is in order. In this paper, transparency is the provision to the IAEA of additional information for which the IAEA has an identified use and includes any associated increased IAEA access to sue the information. In 1993, the IAEA Board endorsed very specific proposals for provision to the IAEA of additional information on international nuclear transfers. It also made specific decisions on verification in the context of tis earlier confirmation of the very sweeping access rights for special inspections outlined by the director general. Additional information to the IAEA has two potential practical uses. First, it could help identify inconsistencies within the entirety of the information available to the IAEA, including information from inspections. These inconsistencies could be an indication of some violation of safeguards undertakings. Second, a declaration of the Member State could facilitate IAEA interpretation of analyses of other information or facilitate resolution of ambiguities. In these respects, additional information is not different from currently used information. When considering seeking specific additional information, the IAEA must balance the potential contribution of the information and its expected costs

  3. Dreamers, Poets, Citizens, and Scientists: Motivations for Engaging in GalaxyZoo Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.; Mankowski, T.; Slater, T. F.; CenterAstronomy; Physics Education Research Caper Team

    2010-12-01

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). To everyone’s surprise, the unexpectedly large participation in the website has caused the data set, numbering over a million images, to be classified multiple times, quicker than the project leader anticipated, and continues to boast a high hit count on the website (15 classifications per second). Within 24 hours of launch, the site was receiving 70,000 classifications an hour, and more than 50 million classifications were received by the project during its first year, from almost 150,000 people. In a parallel effort, the Galaxy Zoo forum was created to handle the flood of emails that occurred alongside the flood of classifications, the team hoping that it would encourage the participants to handle each others' questions. By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other models of citizen science might be purposefully formulated to take advantage of the success exhibited in Galaxy Zoo. In addition, we want to understand the reasons people engage in science in informal settings in order to better enhance teaching methods in formal settings. Although in the past citizen science has primarily been used as a data collection method, there are many new opportunities contained in citizen science motivations and methods that we can use in future applications. This new and innovative method of online citizen science creates data for researchers of galaxies, but there is a parallel set of underlying data that has not yet been deeply analyzed: the motivations and underlying themes within the population of citizen scientists that could lead us to improve future citizen science projects. To address this, we pursued an investigation of the underlying reasons for the success of Galaxy Zoo

  4. Drought Information Supported by Citizen Scientists (DISCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Maskey, M.; Hain, C.; Meyer, P.; Nair, U. S.; Handyside, C. T.; White, K.; Amin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, drought impacts various regions of the United States on time scales of weeks, months, seasons, or years, which in turn leads to a need to document these impacts and inform key decisions on land management, use of water resources, and disaster response. Mapping impacts allows decision-makers to understand potential damage to agriculture and loss of production, to communicate and document drought impacts on crop yields, and to inform water management decisions. Current efforts to collect this information includes parsing of media reports, collaborations with local extension offices, and partnerships with the National Weather Service cooperative observer network. As part of a NASA Citizen Science for Earth Systems proposal award, a research and applications team from Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and collaborators within the NWS have developed a prototype smartphone application focused on the collection of citizen science observations of crop health and drought impacts, along with development of innovative low-cost soil moisture sensors to supplement subjective assessments of local soil moisture conditions. Observations provided by citizen scientists include crop type and health, phase of growth, soil moisture conditions, irrigation status, along with an optional photo and comment to provide visual confirmation and other details. In exchange for their participation, users of the app also have access to unique land surface modeling data sets produced at MSFC such as the NASA Land Information System soil moisture and climatology/percentile products from the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, assessments of vegetation health and stress from NASA and NOAA remote sensing platforms (e.g. MODIS/VIIRS), outputs from a crop stress model developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, recent rainfall estimates from the NOAA/NWS network of ground-based weather radars, and other observations made

  5. 76 FR 1180 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Transparency Initiative, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry.'' The...

  6. La participación ciudadana en las políticas públicas de lucha contra la corrupción: respondiendo a la lógica de gobernanza Citizen Participation in Anti-Corruption Public Policies: Responding Governance Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Cano Blandón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina ha crecido la preocupación por la corrupción y, de manera especial, por encontrar fórmulas institucionales que permitan combatirla. La corrupción ha sido considerada como un importante obstáculo al desarrollo económico, un impedimento para la erradicación de la pobreza y el principal motivo de pérdida de legitimidad gubernamental, por tanto, una amenaza para la democracia. Dentro de las políticas públicas que se han planteado en la región para el control de la corrupción, la participación de los ciudadanos se ha convertido en un elemento indispensable, el cual, en términos generales, se encuentra inserto dentro de una lógica de acción pública que en años recientes asumió la denominación de gobernanza, esto es, la necesidad de comprender el gobierno como un proceso y no como un sujeto directivo, lo cual implica una multiplicidad de actores y de centros de decisión difusos. En este sentido, en el texto se plantean las formas en que los ciudadanos pueden participar en las políticas públicas que buscan luchar contra la corrupción bajo la perspectiva de la nueva gestión pública y la nueva gobernanza democrática.In the past fifteen years has been growing concern about corruption and, especially, to find ways that allow reduce it. In Latin America, corruption has been considered a major obstacle to economic development, an impediment to poverty eradication and the main reason for the loss of governmental legitimacy, therefore, a threat to democracy. Within public policies to control corruption that have arisen in the region, citizen participation has become an essential element that, generally, is into a logic of public action that in recent years assumed the name of governance, referred to the need to understand the government as a process rather than as an individual manager, hence it brings multiplicity of actors and decision-making centers, The text show possible ways of citizen participation in the

  7. Learning and the transformative potential of citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bela, Györgyi; Peltola, Taru; Young, Juliette C; Balázs, Bálint; Arpin, Isabelle; Pataki, György; Hauck, Jennifer; Kelemen, Eszter; Kopperoinen, Leena; Van Herzele, Ann; Keune, Hans; Hecker, Susanne; Suškevičs, Monika; Roy, Helen E; Itkonen, Pekka; Külvik, Mart; László, Miklós; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Bonn, Aletta

    2016-10-01

    The number of collaborative initiatives between scientists and volunteers (i.e., citizen science) is increasing across many research fields. The promise of societal transformation together with scientific breakthroughs contributes to the current popularity of citizen science (CS) in the policy domain. We examined the transformative capacity of citizen science in particular learning through environmental CS as conservation tool. We reviewed the CS and social-learning literature and examined 14 conservation projects across Europe that involved collaborative CS. We also developed a template that can be used to explore learning arrangements (i.e., learning events and materials) in CS projects and to explain how the desired outcomes can be achieved through CS learning. We found that recent studies aiming to define CS for analytical purposes often fail to improve the conceptual clarity of CS; CS programs may have transformative potential, especially for the development of individual skills, but such transformation is not necessarily occurring at the organizational and institutional levels; empirical evidence on simple learning outcomes, but the assertion of transformative effects of CS learning is often based on assumptions rather than empirical observation; and it is unanimous that learning in CS is considered important, but in practice it often goes unreported or unevaluated. In conclusion, we point to the need for reliable and transparent measurement of transformative effects for democratization of knowledge production. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Citizen Science International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrenwend, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Like Tokyo, other cities, both small and large, typically have numerous universities with dedicated faculties of scientists. By using portals such as Citizen Science and SciStarter, teachers can reach beyond the four walls of their classroom. The incredible experience of forging a relationship with a local scientist can easily begin via a cordial…

  9. The Fabrication of Qualified Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    a rhizomatic analytical move, a historization of the present is deployed to map the fabrication of the desired qualified citizen in Chile. The analysis evidences the (re)production of dominant narratives about the “qualified citizen” are and have been entangled with the functioning of school geometry...

  10. How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshon, B.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach (Epo) Team

    2010-12-01

    How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science In the film The Last Starfighter, an alien civilization grooms their future champion—a kid on Earth—using a video game. As he gains proficiency in the game, he masters the skills he needs to pilot a starship and save their civilization. The NASA MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team is using the same tactic to train citizen scientists to help the Science Team explore the planet Mercury. We are building a new series of games that appear to be designed primarily for fun, but that guide players through a knowledge and skill set that they will need for future science missions in support of MESSENGER mission scientists. As players score points, they gain expertise. Once they achieve a sufficiently high score, they will be invited to become participants in Mercury Zoo, a new program being designed by Zooniverse. Zooniverse created Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo, programs that allow interested citizens to participate in the exploration and interpretation of galaxy and lunar data. Scientists use the citizen interpretations to further refine their exploration of the same data, thereby narrowing their focus and saving precious time. Mercury Zoo will be designed with input from the MESSENGER Science Team. This project will not only support the MESSENGER mission, but it will also add to the growing cadre of informed members of the public available to help with other citizen science projects—building on the concept that engaged, informed citizens can help scientists make new discoveries. The MESSENGER EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for Educational Resources (CERES) at Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman; National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL); National Air and Space Museum (NASM); Science

  11. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  12. EU citizen participation, openness and the European citizens initiative: the TTIP legacy / James Organ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Organ, James

    2017-01-01

    Avalikkuse põhimõttest, läbipaistvusest ja kodanike võimalusest ELi välissuhete poliitika kujundamisel osaleda ELi ja Ameerika Ühendriikide vahelise Atlandi-ülese kaubandus- ja investeerimispartnerluse (TTIP) läbirääkimisprotsessi näitel

  13. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  14. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Illusionary Transparency? Oil Revenues, Information Disclosure, and Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori, Jerome Jeffison; Lujala, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    xperience shows that discovery of valuable natural resources can become a curse rather than a blessing, and transparency has been identified as key to better resource governance because it can limit opportunities for corruption and mismanagement. This article shows that information disclosure, in which many governments and donor institutions engage, does not automatically translate into transparency. Ghana has embedded transparency as one of its key principles in oil management. However, fiel...

  16. 36 CFR 72.46 - Citizen participation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... B), but is not required in the process of preparing a local Recovery Action Program grant... requirements. 72.46 Section 72.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Grants for Recovery Action Program Development...

  17. Assessing the Impacts of Citizen Participation in Science Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus; Allansdottir, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    factors are decisive for policy outcomes. Contrary to our expectations that PTAs would contribute to restrictive policy outcomes, we find that this is not the case and that a combination of politicisation and public vigilance is pivotal to explaining policy outcomes. Further, our analysis was symmetrical...

  18. Developing Citizen Leaders through Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This is an account of a programmer utilizing the application of action learning to the development of capacities of citizens. The Citizen Leadership for Democratic Governance is designed to equip citizens with the skills to get involved and handle the difficult tasks of governance in their communities in South Africa. After a history of apartheid…

  19. The Development of Citizen Oriented Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the concept of citizen-oriented computer application. Quality characteristics are set for computer applications developed in the conditions of citizen-oriented computing and outline the development cycle for these applications. It defines the conditions of existence for citizen-oriented applications. Average and long-term strategies are elaborated.

  20. A Coastal Citizen Science Project - How to run an international Citizen Science Project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, K.; Knickmeier, K.; Thiel, M.; Gatta, M.

    2016-02-01

    "Searching for plastic garbage" is an international Citizen Science project that aims to participate school students in the public discussion on the topic "plastic pollution in the ocean". For this, young people apply various research methods, evaluate their data, communicate and publish their results and investigate solutions solving this problem. The project will be carried out in Chile and Germany at the same time, which allows the participating students to share and compare their results and discuss their ideas with an international partner. This takes place on the website www.save-ocean.org. The project promotes intercultural and scientific skills of the students. They get insights into scientific research, get into another culture and experiences plastic pollution as an important global problem. Since May 2015, 450 pupils aged 10 to 15 years and 20 teachers in Germany and Chile have explored the plastic garbage on beaches. Where are the largest plastic garbage deposits? Which items of plastic are mostly found in Germany and Chile? Or where does this garbage comes from? These and other research questions are being answered by an international network between students, teachers and scientists. After completing the first Citizen Science pilot study successfully in summer 2015, the entire German and Chilean coast will be explored in spring 2016 by around 2500 participating school students. The project "Searching for plastic garbage" is the first international Citizen Science project that is a cooperation between the ocean:lab of Kiel Science Factory and the "Cientificos de la Basura", a project of the department of marine biology at University Catolica del Norte in Coquimbo, Chile. The project is supported by the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", the Leibniz Institute for Science Education and Mathematics (IPN), the Ministry of School and Professional Education of Land Schleswig-Holstein and the University Catolica del Norte in Coquimbo, Chile

  1. Realizing the Value of Citizen Science Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.

    2015-12-01

    Typical data sources for both basic and mission-focused environmental research include satellite sensors, in situ observations made by scientists, and data from well established and often government-sponsored networks. While these data sources enable substantial advances in understanding our environment, they are not always complete in the picture they present. By incorporating citizen science into our portfolio of observations, we gain a powerful complement to these traditional data sources, drawing on the enthusiasm and commitment of volunteer observers. While such data can be more difficult to calibrate or quality check, these challenges can be overcome by clear and simple protocols and consistent instrumentation. One such example is the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in which thousands of volunteers in the United States and Canada use low-cost equipment to make point-measurements of rain, hail and snowfall near their homes or workplaces. All participants in CoCoRaHS make these measurements with the same $30 rain gauges and follow a well-established protocol in which they are trained. These observations feed into National Weather Service forecast models, sometimes directly influencing the issuing of alerts and warnings, and are used to both validate and improve these models. In other cases, observations can be more subjective, such as Buddhist monks in the Catskills documenting leaf fall, or the Audubon Society's Christmas Bird Count in which birds are surveyed annually as their habitats change. The uncertainty associated with such subjective measurements is far outweighed by the value of the data, and it can be reduced by increasing the numbers of observers and encouraging participation by the same observers year after year for consistent inputs. These citizen science efforts, and many others like them, provide tremendous scientific opportunities for complementing big-picture science with local variability, resulting in a more

  2. The transparency trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Ethan

    2014-10-01

    To promote accountability, productivity, and shared learning, many organizations create open work environments and gather reams of data on how individuals spend their time. A few years ago, HBS professor Ethan Bernstein set out to find empirical evidence that such approaches improve organizational performance. What he discovered is that this kind of transparency often has an unintended consequence: It can leave employees feeling vulnerable and exposed. When that happens, they conceal any conduct that deviates from the norm so that they won't have to explain it. Unrehearsed, experimental behaviors sometimes stop altogether. But Bernstein also discovered organizations that had established zones of privacy within open environments by setting four types of boundaries: around teams, between feedback and evaluation, between decision rights and improvement rights, and around periods of experimentation. Moreover, across several studies, the companies that had done all this were the ones that consistently got the most creative, efficient, and thoughtful work from their employees. Bernstein's conclusion? By balancing transparency and privacy, organizations can capture the benefits of both, and encourage just the right amount of "positive deviance" needed to increase innovation and productivity.

  3. Corneal structure and transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  4. Lattice Transparency of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O

    2017-03-08

    Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.

  5. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  6. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  7. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  8. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  9. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  10. Budget transparency in local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Perona, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This work will study the socio-demographic determinants, political, budgetary and economic, that affect the transparency of local entities. To perform the study, we have chosen the transparency index data for the 110 largest municipalities of Spain, in 2012 has been chosen from the information offered by the website of the organization Transparency International Spain. The results indica...

  11. Clinical trials transparency and the Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Ilana

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  13. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  14. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  15. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  16. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  17. Memory training with senior citizens

    OpenAIRE

    CHOVANCOVÁ, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This is a theoretical work. It deals with the topics of senior citizens and the aging process in an abbreviated conception, periodization of old age, and active life of seniors. It describes forms of social work with seniors in medical facilities, home environments and communities, and in old people's homes. Further, it describes memory: its definition, types of memory, memory loss, reasons why people forget, work with memory and advice on memory improvement from the medical point of view. Th...

  18. Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  19. Citizen empowerment in the domestic waste policy development in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiukynas, Andrius; Survila, Arvydas; Smalskys, Vainius

    2017-04-01

    Lithuania offers an interesting case of lagging in terms of domestic waste recycling in the European context. Despite the adoption of all relevant EU regulation, including a pricing system, which is designed to be more conducive for recycling. One important group of policy instruments which in the application of which Lithuania needs to improve, is public participation in environmental governance. The objective of this study is to relate the means of public participation and the decision-making on waste management and recycling outcomes. The study consisted of two stages. Stage one: key decision-making public agencies responsible for policy formulation and implementation of domestic waste management were identified. Later, an analysis of public available documentation covering decision-making in these institutions was conducted with the aim to measure the level of citizen engagement. Stage two: agency managers and staff responsible for citizen engagement were interviewed with the goal of evaluating their attitudes. Attitudes of officials are a crucial for a successful citizen engagement. The results showed that officials recognized very little the value of citizen engagement. They perceived contribution as an the creation of additional challenges to be tackled with, rather than help to lower service delivery costs and improve policy effectiveness. This renders the government with a depleted number of options of improving domestic waste management to "top-down" measures and imposition of financial incentives or costs.

  20. Ignoring Ignorance: Notes on Pedagogical Relationships in Citizen Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scroggins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, this article seeks to broaden the conceptualization of ignorance within STS by drawing on a line of theory developed in the philosophy and anthropology of education to argue that ignorance can be productively conceptualized as a state of possibility and that doing so can enable more democratic forms of citizen science. In contrast to conceptualizations of ignorance as a lack, lag, or manufactured product, ignorance is developed here as both the opening move in scientific inquiry and the common ground over which that inquiry proceeds. Empirically, the argument is developed through an ethnographic description of Scroggins' participation in a failed citizen science project at a DIYbio laboratory. Supporting the empirical case are a review of the STS literature on expertise and a critical examination of the structures of participation within two canonical citizen science projects. Though onerous, through close attention to how people transform one another during inquiry, increasingly democratic forms of citizen science, grounded in the commonness of ignorance, can be put into practice.

  1. KOMODIFIKASI WARGA DALAM RUANG CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulli Nasrullah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The citizen journalism has been inuenced not only by organization culture of media and news criteria, but also the position of citizens. This entire time citizens are merely a consumers and their position is passive to information produced by traditional media. With the emergence of citizen journalism, now the citizens not only become news consumers but also act as news producers and consumers at the same time (produsage. The commodication of citizen journalism is a phenomenon of counter commidication done by the companies of traditional media. This shown that there are symptoms of attracting each other in the room (market of citizen journalism that the citizens do not always react passively to the exposure of media and become a commodity by traditional media companies or the advertiser, but they also commodify anything as whatever they want to reach. Thus, this research is a rebutting the denition of citizen journalism popularized by Curt Chandler and Jesse Hicks from Penn State University who said that citizen journalism is citizens activities in publishing a content because of their interest to a case without economic motive or personal gain.

  2. For a citizen energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geze, Patrick; Bernon, Francoise; Alphandery, Claude; Albizzati, Amandine; Ballandras, Marc; Berland, Olivier; Peullemeulle, Justine; Causse, Laurent; Olivier, Dominique; Damerval, Francois; Lepage, Corinne; Dughera, Jacques; Bouchart, Christiane; Duracka, Nicolas; Ferrari, Albert; Noe, Julien; Soulias, Emmanuel; Gaspard, Albane; Greenwood, Marianne; Guy, Lionel; Kretzschmar, Cyril; Lalu, Delphine; Naett, Caroline; Raguet, Alex; Rouchon, Jean-Philippe; Ruedinger, Andreas; Sautter, Christian; Tudor, Ivan; Vaquie, Pierre-Francois; Vernier, Christophe; Youinou, Jean-Michel; Verny, Emmanuel; Claustre, Raphael; Leclercq, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This publication by a think tank specialised in social and solidarity economy first outlines that energy transition means a transition from the present energy model to a new model based on three pillars: a drastic reduction of energy consumption through sobriety (energy saving, struggle against wastage), an improvement of energy efficiency, and an energy mix based on renewable and sustainable resources. A first part proposes a discussion of what 'citizen' energy transition can be: general framework of energy transition, pioneering examples in Europe, citizen empowerment, importance of a decentralised model which is anchored in territories, general interest as a priority. Each of these issues and aspects is illustrated by examples. Then, as this evolution towards a citizen-based model requires a change of scale, the authors discuss how to involve public authorities and to adapt regulation, how to develop financing tools, how to support the emergence and development of projects, and how to be part of international dynamics. The author then discuss what their think tank can do to accelerate energy transition. Proposals made in the different chapters are then summarized

  3. Citizen Sensing for Improved Urban Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is increasingly being used in diverse research domains. With the emergence and rapid development of sensor technologies, citizens potentially have more powerful tools to collect data and generate information to understand their living environment. Although sensor technologies are developing fast, citizen sensing has not been widely implemented yet and published studies are only a few. In this paper, we analyse the practical experiences from an implementation of citizen sensing for urban environment monitoring. A bottom-up model in which citizens develop and use sensors for environmental monitoring is described and assessed. The paper focuses on a case study of Amsterdam Smart Citizens Lab using NO2 sensors for air quality monitoring. We found that the bottom-up citizen sensing is still challenging but can be successful with open cooperation and effective use of online and offline facilities. Based on the assessment, suggestions are proposed for further implementations and research.

  4. Citizen Satisfaction: Political Voice and Cognitive Biases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Hjortskov

    in the first place? Do irrelevant influences affect the citizens’ evaluations of performance? Can we raise the representativeness of citizen satisfaction surveys by engaging citizens in the production of the public services? The dissertation addresses these questions using a wide range of experimental......Citizen satisfaction is increasingly being used as a measure of public service performance. It offers a performance measure that potentially encompasses many of the important attributes of the services that public managers would like to evaluate, some of which are not easily captured by other...... performance measures. At the same time, citizen satisfaction represents a citizen-centered approach to public management. But is citizen satisfaction in fact strongly related to performance and are satisfaction surveys representative of the citizens? By drawing on theories from classic public administration...

  5. Transparency through the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haginoya, Tohru [Inst. of Nuclear Materials Management, Japan Chapter, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  6. Transparency through the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    Many countries, especially developed countries have their 'Home Pages' and disclose their activities openly including nuclear activities. These information give, to some extent, the transparency of countries. The annual report of the IAEA can be found in its home page, reports describe its safeguards activities including facilities under its safeguards together with the status of 'subsidiary arrangements'. The Atomic Energy White Papers of the STA home pages show its nuclear activities and nuclear material. Details of safeguards related information are obtained by analyzing these home pages and find some information inconsistent each other. In connection with Strengthened Safeguards system' , non-nuclear items such as zirconium, heavy water or their manufacturing organizations which are subject to the safeguards system would be retrieved by using 'search engines' through the internet. (author)

  7. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  8. Transparency and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having outlined some lessons learnt after the Chernobyl accident, notably the facts that risk assessment and management were not separated, that radioactivity measurements have suffered from a lack of means and of preparedness, and that there has been few information exchanged between the different concerned countries, this document presents the four international conventions which have been negotiated after this accident (they concern the notification, assistance, safety, safety of fuel management and of radioactive wastes). It discusses the lessons learnt in France, the credibility of information and the confidence in authorities, the evolution of transparency and information in France and in the rest of the World, the transposition of the Arhus Convention in the communautary and national law, the innovating European approaches, and the evolutions in France

  9. Online citizen panels as an advance in research and consultation – A Review of pilot results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sharp

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a new model for local government consultation and research. The model involves a local government partnering with a university to establish an online panel of citizens that is then used for consultations and research on a range of local government issues over time. The model was evaluated across an 18-month pilot involving three metropolitan councils in South Australia, each running its own panel. This paper details the rationale behind the panels, steps involved in their establishment, and what the most effective recruitment methods were to build panel membership. The model’s ability to recruit a wide audience of citizens as members, including those who would not normally participate in local government matters, is examined, as well as citizen expectations of the panel and satisfaction with being a member. Finally, key learnings from the pilot are identified. The pilot results demonstrate that such an online panel model can be used effectively in the local government context. The panels achieved citizen membership wider than that historically seen in local government consultation and research, and were sustainable in terms of continued participation and high levels of citizen satisfaction. Since the pilot, the project has grown to include seven councils and almost 2500 citizens. This is further evidence that this model offers a way forward for enhanced citizen participation in local government decision-making and policy development.

  10. Networked Water Citizen Organisations in Spain: Potential for Transformation of Existing Power Structures in Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Hernández-Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from hierarchical-administrative water management toward more transparent, multi-level and participated governance approaches has brought about a shifting geography of players, scales of action, and means of influencing decisions and outcomes. In Spain, where the hydraulic paradigm has dominated since the early 1920s, participation in decisions over water has traditionally been limited to a closed water policy community, made up of economic water users, primarily irrigator associations and hydropower generators, civil engineering corps and large public works companies. The river basin planning process under the Water Framework Directive of the European Union presented a promise of transformation, giving access to non-economic water users, environmental concerns and the wider public to water-related information on planning and decision-making. This process coincided with the consolidation of the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs by the water administration, with the associated potential for information and data generation and dissemination. ICTs are also increasingly used by citizen groups and other interested parties as a way to communicate, network and challenge existing paradigms and official discourses over water, in the broader context of the emergence of 'technopolitics'. This paper investigates if and in what way ICTs may be providing new avenues for participated water resources management and contributing to alter the dominating power balance. We critically analyse several examples where networking possibilities provided by ICTs have enabled the articulation of interest groups and social agents that have, with different degrees of success, questioned the existing hegemonic view over water. The critical review of these cases sheds light on the opportunities and limitations of ICTs, and their relation with traditional modes of social mobilisation in creating new means of societal involvement in water

  11. A Science Products Inventory for Citizen-Science Planning and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Andrea; Bonney, Rick; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Parrish, Julia K; Weltzin, Jake F

    2018-06-01

    Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. The SPI includes a collection of items for tracking the production of science outputs and data practices, which are described and illustrated with examples. Several opportunities for further development of the initial inventory are highlighted, as well as potential for using the inventory as a tool to guide project management, funding, and research on citizen science.

  12. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Council

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects.

  13. A science products inventory for citizen-science planning and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Andrea; Bonney, Rick; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Parrish, Julia K.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-01-01

    Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. The SPI includes a collection of items for tracking the production of science outputs and data practices, which are described and illustrated with examples. Several opportunities for further development of the initial inventory are highlighted, as well as potential for using the inventory as a tool to guide project management, funding, and research on citizen science.

  14. A Science Products Inventory for Citizen-Science Planning and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Andrea; Bonney, Rick; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Parrish, Julia K; Weltzin, Jake F

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity. The SPI includes a collection of items for tracking the production of science outputs and data practices, which are described and illustrated with examples. Several opportunities for further development of the initial inventory are highlighted, as well as potential for using the inventory as a tool to guide project management, funding, and research on citizen science. PMID:29867254

  15. Planning and participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is trying to give a vast survey of the political and administrative system. It is to demonstrate the relations between its secular development trends, the necessity and the limits of political planning under the present conditions and, finally, the increasing demands for participation as expressed especially by citizens' initiatives. These stages, however, are certainly not presented in a smooth manner. Yet the author claims to have kept a certain continuity and inner logic of presentation and argumentation. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  17. Student Perceptions of Teaching Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alecia D.; Hunt, Andrea N.; Powell, Rachel E.; Dollar, Cindy Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the relationship between teaching transparency and active learning through the perspectives of their students. Active learning directly engages students in the learning process while transparency involves the instructor's divulgence of logic regarding course organization and activity choices. After utilizing these teaching…

  18. Transparency as an ethical safeguard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spagnolli, Anna; Frank, Lily E.; Haselager, Pim; Kirsh, David; Ham, Jaap; Spagnolli, Anna; Blankertz, Benjamin; Gamberini, Luciano; Jacucci, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Transparency seems to represent a solution to many ethic issues generated by systems that collect implicit data from users to model the user themselves based on programmed criteria. However, making such systems transparent -- besides being a major technical challenge - risks raising more issues than

  19. La participación directa del ciudadano en el Parlamento. Una visión desde el ordenamiento constitucional español (The Direct Participation of the Citizen in the Parliament. An Approach from the Spanish Constitutional Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Expósito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La forma actual de entender el ejercicio de la representación está siendo ‘respondida’ por la institución parlamentaria; en especial, por las Asambleas de las Comunidades Autónomas. A pesar de que no es un proceso generalizado, muchas de ellas ya han aprobado importantes reformas en sus Reglamentos de organización y funcionamiento que institucionalizan canales de diálogo directo y bidireccional entre los representantes y los representados, a la vez que potencian la participación directa de los ciudadanos en el ejercicio de las funciones que constitucional o estatutariamente se les encomiendan. El aspecto positivo es que su regulación permite quebrar con la imagen de un Parlamento ‘blindado’ a las demandas sociales. Tienen como propósito regenerar el vínculo entre representantes y representados y, desde esta perspectiva, se presentan como un instrumento al servicio de la democracia representativa. The way to understand the representation is currently being contested from parliaments, especially by the Regional Assemblies. Actually, this is not a generalized dynamics, but many of them have adopted important reforms in its regulations, institutionalizing channels direct and two-way dialogue between representatives and represented. At the same time, is promoted the direct participation of citizens in the exercise of constitutional or statutory functions entrusted to them. This regulation is positive because break with the image of a Parliament armored against social demands. These measures are intended to regenerate the link between representatives and represented; as an instrument at the service of representative democracy. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3070311

  20. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  1. Phenomenal transparency in achromatic checkerboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, S C

    1999-04-01

    The study explored the luminance relations that determine the occurrence of achromatic transparency in phenomenal surfaces on complex backgrounds. Let the luminances of the left and right parts of a transparent surface on a bipartite background and those of the left and right parts of the bipartite background be p and q and m and n, respectively. Metelli proposed that this surface looks transparent when the rule p q if m > n) is satisfied, and Masin and Fukuda that it looks transparent when the inclusion rule is satisfied, that is, when p epsilon (m, q) or q epsilon (p, n). These rules also apply to achromatic checkerboards formed by one checkerboard enclosed in another checkerboard. This study shows that only the inclusion rule correctly predicted the occurrence of transparency in these checkerboards.

  2. Activating social strategies: Face-to-face interaction in technology-mediated citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Francesco; Laut, Jeffrey; Nov, Oded; Giustiniano, Luca; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    The use of crowds in research activities by public and private organizations is growing under different forms. Citizen science is a popular means of engaging the general public in research activities led by professional scientists. By involving a large number of amateur scientists, citizen science enables distributed data collection and analysis on a scale that would be otherwise difficult and costly to achieve. While advancements in information technology in the past few decades have fostered the growth of citizen science through online participation, several projects continue to fail due to limited participation. Such web-based projects may isolate the citizen scientists from the researchers. By adopting the perspective of social strategy, we investigate within a measure-manipulate-measure experiment if motivations to participate in a citizen science project can be positively influenced by a face-to-face interaction with the scientists leading the project. Such an interaction provides the participants with the possibility of asking questions on the spot and obtaining a detailed explanation of the citizen science project, its scientific merit, and environmental relevance. Social and cultural factors that moderate the effect brought about by face-to-face interactions on the motivations are also dissected and analyzed. Our findings provide an exploratory insight into a means for motivating crowds to participate in online environmental monitoring projects, also offering possible selection criteria of target audience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Management of the Citizen Oriented Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The context of the knowledge based society is presented. The new user requirements in the context of the new society are analyzed. Basic concepts regarding the citizen oriented applications are presented. Issues specific to the citizen oriented applications are presented. The development cycle of the citizen oriented applications is analyzed. The particular elements for developing citizen oriented applications are described. The quality concept for the citizen oriented applications is defined. Quality characteristics and the costs of quality are defined and analyzed. A system of indicators for the quantification of the quality of the citizen oriented applications is developed. Ways of increasing the quality of the applications are analyzed. Issues as improving the users’ training level, implementing new development techniques, advanced testing techniques and the requirement of audit are approached. The concept of optimization is defined. Optimum criteria are defined and analyzed. Ways of optimizing applications are described. Security requirements are enumerated and described. The particularities of the security requirements for the citizen oriented applications are analyzed. Measures for ensuring the security of the citizen oriented applications are described. A citizen oriented application for the analysis of the structured entities is developed. The application collects data regarding the behavior of the users. The collected data are used for verifying the hypotheses regarding the quality characteristics if the citizen oriented informatics applications.

  4. Citizen CATE: Evaluating Outcomes of a Solar Eclipse Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, M. J.; Haden, C.

    2017-12-01

    On August 21, 2017, a total solar eclipse will be visible along a path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina. The Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse Experiment (CATE) will use scientists, students and volunteers to take images of the solar corona using 68 identical telescopes, software and instrument packages along the 2,500-mile path of totality. CATE partners include National Solar Observatory scientists, university faculty and students, high school students, and professional and amateur astronomers. NASA funded CATE educational components including training undergraduates and volunteers on solar imaging software and equipment. The National Science Foundation and corporations including DayStar, MathWorks, Celestron and ColorMaker funded equipment. Undergraduates participated in summer research experiences to build their capacity for gathering eclipse data, and subsequently trained volunteers across the U.S. Aligned to NASA education goals, CATE goals range from providing an authentic research experience for students and lifelong learners, to making state-of-the-art solar coronal observations, to increasing scientific literacy of the public. While project investigators are examining the wealth of scientific data that will come from CATE, evaluators are examining impacts on participants. Through mixed methods, evaluators are examining outcomes related to changes in volunteers' knowledge, skills and attitudes. Additionally, the study will examine how citizen science astronomy using CATE equipment will continue after the eclipse to sustain project impacts. Preliminary findings for undergraduates indicate that they are gaining knowledge and skills related to studying solar coronal phenomena, conducting rigorous scientific research, and interfacing with the public to conduct outreach. Preliminary findings for citizen scientists indicate a high level of engagement in the research, and that they are gaining new knowledge and skills related to solar

  5. Using citizen science butterfly counts to predict species population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily B; Morgan, Byron J T; Brereton, Tom M; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compared population estimates for 18 widespread butterfly species derived from the first 4 years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count [BBC]) with those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme [UKBMS]). BBC data are gathered during an annual 3-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over 6 months each year. An initial comparison with UKBMS data restricted to the 3-week BBC period revealed that species population changes were significantly correlated between the 2 sources. The short-duration sampling season rendered BBC counts susceptible to bias caused by interannual phenological variation in the timing of species' flight periods. The BBC counts were positively related to butterfly phenology and sampling effort. Annual estimates of species abundance and population trends predicted from models including BBC data and weather covariates as a proxy for phenology correlated significantly with those derived from UKBMS data. Overall, citizen science data obtained using a simple sampling protocol produced comparable estimates of butterfly species abundance to data collected through standardized monitoring methods. Although caution is urged in extrapolating from this U.K. study of a small number of common, conspicuous insects, we found that mass-participation citizen science can simultaneously contribute to public engagement and biodiversity monitoring. Mass-participation citizen science is not an adequate replacement for standardized biodiversity monitoring but may extend and complement it (e.g., through sampling different land-use types), as well as serving to reconnect an increasingly urban human population with nature. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  6. Aurorasaurus: Citizen Scientists Experiencing Extremes of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E.; Hall, M.; Tapia, A.

    2013-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is a new citizen science mapping platform to nowcast the visibility of the Northern Lights for the public in the current solar maximum, the first with social media. As a recently funded NSF INSPIRE program, we have joint goals among three research disciplines: space weather forecasting, the study of human-computer interactions, and informal science education. We will highlight results from the prototype www.aurorasaurus.org and outline future efforts to motivate online participants and crowdsource viable data. Our citizen science effort is unique among space programs as it includes both reporting observations and data analysis activities to engage the broadest participant network possible. In addition, our efforts to improve space weather nowcasting by including real-time mapping of ground truth observers for rare, sporadic events are a first in the field.

  7. Risk Communication and Citizen Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Despite the last few decades’ devotion to deliberative methods in risk communication, many studies point to how important challenges arise when citizens are engaged in public dialogue. Since the era of enlightenment public dialogue has occupied a position as a normative ideal for political...... governance. But ideals are social constructions that have a tendency to direct attention away from underlying conflicts. The concept of dialogue is no exception, and exemplified by the Danish solution to dealing with public scepticism in relation to technological controversies, the internationally acclaimed...

  8. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  9. Elementary School Children Contribute to Environmental Research as Citizen Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Miczajka, Victoria L.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Pufal, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Research benefits increasingly from valuable contributions by citizen scientists. Mostly, participating adults investigate specific species, ecosystems or phenology to address conservation issues, but ecosystem functions supporting ecosystem health are rarely addressed and other demographic groups rarely involved. As part of a project investigating seed predation and dispersal as ecosystem functions along an urban-rural gradient, we tested whether elementary school children can contribute to ...

  10. Amateur knowledge: public art and citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The science studies literatures on amateurs and citizen science have remained largely unconnected despite similarities between the two categories. The essay connects amateur knowledge and citizen science through examples from public art. Through an analysis of the use of the term "amateur" by contemporary artists working to engage the public in critiques of science, connections in the ideals of democratic knowledge making by amateurs and citizen scientists are further explored.

  11. Strengthening the Idea of “By Citizens, for Citizens” in the Context of the European Citizens' Initiative - Brief Analysis of Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana - Măriuca Petrescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation (EU No. 211 of 16 February 2011 on the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI, as one of the major innovations of the Treaty of Lisbon, represents the first supranational instrument of direct democracy that took effect on April 1, 2012, creating the direct legal link between the European Union citizens and the European institutions. Within the present paper we will give a general overview of the European Citizens’ Initiative instrument, trying also to analyse briefly certain citizens’ initiatives that have been already registered on the European Commission’s website where the online collection of a million signatures is still running, bearing in mind the important role of the citizens as “co-authors” of the law within the European decision-making process. From our point of view this participation will increase the responsibility of the citizens to be more active and to use their new right in the best conditions and without any obstacles.

  12. Nuclear deterrence: which environmental transparency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the field of nuclear geopolitics. The author discusses the tensions between the principle of transparency regarding environmental issues on the one hand, and the protection of nuclear deterrence as instrument of power on the other hand. According to the French law, the preservation of nuclear power instruments means the acknowledgement of a legal regime which is specific to national defence requirements in terms of secret and right to information. Thus, the author discusses the constitutional limitations of the environmental transparency obligation for the protection of Nation's fundamental interests. Then, by commenting the Rainbow Warrior affair, the author highlights the exceptional limitations of the transparency requirement regarding nuclear issues

  13. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  14. SciStarter 2.0: A Digital Platform to Foster and Study Sustained Engagement in Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, C.

    2016-12-01

    SciStarter is a popular online hotspot for citizen science. As a Match.com meets Amazon for citizen science projects, we connect the millions of citizen scientists to thousands of projects and events, and to the resources they need to participate. These opportunities represent ways for the general public from kids to adults to get involved in scientific research. Recently, SciStarter developed a new digital infrastructure to support sustained engagement in citizen science, and research into the behaviors and motivations of participants. The new digital infrastructure of SciStarter includes contribution tracking tools to make it easier to participate in multiple projects, enhanced GIS information to promote locally relevant projects, an online personal dashboard to keep track of contributions, and the use of these tools (contribution tracking, GIS, dashboard) by project owners and researchers to better understand and respond to the needs and interests of citizen science participants. We will provide an overview of these tools and the research behind their development. We will then explore how these new tools advance citizen science towards a future with more pathways to participatory policymaking, expanded access to informal STEM experiences, and lowered barriers to citizen science. Finally, we will present the research questions that can and will be answered through the site by practitioners in the diverse science and citizen science fields.

  15. Multidirectional Networks of Government Transparency: A Preliminary Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Subhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some literature in theoretical level regarding two concepts: governance network and government transparency, in order to search for theoretical linkages and to build an alternative framework that can support the implementation of public disclosure. Transparency agenda has been implemented in various forms at international, national, and local level. Transparency application was also followed by Indonesia with the implementation of Public Information Disclosure Law since 2008. This enthusiasm is quite reasonable because transparency is believed to be one of the human rights principles; as well as a key to better governance, that can help democracy consolidation, prevent corruption, strengthen the legitimacy and improve efficiency. In order to maximize transparency, the government can use a network approach because of some changes at this time, such as democratization, decentralization, and liberalization has placed the government in a position where there is not one actor who manages the state power without stakeholder’s participation. In this context, the government needs to build synergies with other institutions in a reciprocal relationship with all stakeholders. Therefore, adopting the theory of government networks can be one of the strategies to strengthen government transparency. The findings of this article indicate that the government transparency application needs to develop networks in all directions: intragovernmental, intergovernmental and collaborative networks. These three types of network in contrast with the popular belief that government transparency is interpreted only as a procedural activity to outside parties. A preliminary model in this article gives an overview about the arena of government transparency with multi-directional networks more comprehensively.

  16. eParticipation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an update of the existing eParticipation research state of the art, and a longitudinal analysis of the development of the eParticipation field based on a shared framework of analysis. Drawing on a literature search covering the period from April 2006 to March 2011 included, 123......, sometimes in counterintuitive directions. Drawing on the analysis, the conclusion section provides inputs for a research agenda. These include the need to move beyond a technological perspective, and encouraging the ongoing shift of research focus from government to citizens and other stakeholders....

  17. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where available and appropriate, EPA will use peer-reviewed information, standardized test methods, consistent data evaluation procedures, and good laboratory practices to ensure transparent, understandable, and reproducible scientific assessments.

  19. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  20. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Yang, P. K.; Lee, C. P.; Tsai, M. L.; Kang, C. F.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance

  1. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  2. Recommendations for citizen-oriented risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of recommendations for citizen-oriented risk communication should be to provide ''banisters'' which leave the players their freedom of action and allow them to adapt communicative structures to the situation at hand. Uncertainty and controversial issues at the levels of information, participation and assessment are identified as potential stumbling blocks in risk communication. The experiences gained in Hamburg shed a light on a diversity of processes in risk communication, which the present paper proceeds to evaluate. One of its essential recommendations is to have dialogic processes develop into forms of participation. A guide on risk communication which was formulated in the USA has been adapted to conditions as they prevail in Germany. The adapted version is more practically oriented than the rules of the EPA or the more recent CDC recommendations. Suitable success criteria include a fair procedure, a common baseline of what is known and not known, the acceptance of different assessment criteria, and the exchange of the pros and cons of different options

  3. Do citizens have minimum medical knowledge? A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steurer-Stey Claudia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experts defined a "minimum medical knowledge" (MMK that people need for understanding typical signs and/or risk factors of four relevant clinical conditions: myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and HIV/AIDS. We tested to what degree Swiss adult citizens satisfy this criterion for MMK and whether people with medical experience have acquired better knowledge than those without. Methods Questionnaire interview in a Swiss urban area with 185 Swiss citizens (median age 29 years, interquartile range 23 to 49, 52% male. We obtained context information on age, gender, highest educational level, (paramedical background and specific health experience with one of the conditions in the social surrounding. We calculated the proportion of MMK and examined whether citizens with medical background (personal or professional would perform better compared to other groups. Results No single citizen reached the full MMK (100%. The mean MMK was as low as 32% and the range was 0 -72%. Surprisingly, multivariable analysis showed that participants with a university degree (n = 84; β (95% CI +3.7% MMK (0.4–7.1 p = 0.03, (paramedical background (n = 34; +6.2% MMK (2.0–10.4, p = 0.004 and personal illness experience (n = 96; +4.9% MMK (1.5–8.2, p = 0.004 had only a moderately higher MMK than those without, while age and sex had no effect on the level of MMK. Interaction between university degree and clinical experience (personal or professional showed no effect suggesting that higher education lacks synergistic effect. Conclusion This sample of Swiss citizens did not know more than a third of the MMK. We found little difference within groups with medical experience (personal or professional, suggesting that there is a consistent and dramatic lack of knowledge in the general public about the typical signs and risk factors of relevant clinical conditions.

  4. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  5. Mapping eParticipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    The emerging research area of eParticipation can be characterized as the study of technology-facilitated citizen participation in (democratic) deliberation and decision-making. Using conventional literature study techniques, we identify 105 articles that are considered to be highly relevant to e......Participation. We develop a definitional schema that suggests different ways of understanding an emerging socio-technical research area and use this schema to map the research contributions identified. This allows us make an initial sketch of the scientific character of the area and its central concerns, theories......, and methods. We extend the analysis to define four central research challenges for the field: understanding technology and participation; the strategic challenge; the design challenge; and the evaluation challenge. This article thus contributes to a developing account of eParticipation, which will help future...

  6. A Concise Dictionary of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Misun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an essay collection by Marek Bieńczyk, Przeźroczystość [Transparency]. The concept, placed in various context, shows various aspects and is seen in various shades. The author does not put forward a statement, but rather proposes a work to be done: to determine the modality of transparency. The concept initially seems to be mainly epistemological: the cognizant subject would like to make the world transparent, to discover all possible mysteries. Before that, however, the subject must know itself, and here the dream of trans­parency also plays the key role. Lack of epistemological transparency is the main cause of melancholy and its reverse — hysteria. The concept turns out to be important in the domain of love — the loer thinks that (she knows the desired person more better anybody else, that (she has entirely penetrated the subjectivity of the Other. Ultimately, however, the dream of transparency goes down to a slow demise of the subject: as self-discovery progresses, there is less and less of the discoverer. In conclusion of this work, the border of modality of the concept turns out to be horrifyingly obvious. The desire for transparency consequently searches not for knowledge, but for an escape whose name is death.

  7. Semi-transparent solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  8. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  10. Choosing to Participate: Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Phyllis; Strom, Adam

    2009-01-01

    "Choosing to Participate" focuses on civic choices--the decisions people make about themselves and others in their community, nation, and world. The choices people make, both large and small, may not seem important at the time, but little by little they shape them as individuals and responsible global citizens. "Choosing to…

  11. The BdV screen of memory and Ciutat d'Asunción boulevard at the Baró de Viver neighborhood (Barcelona: (rethinking citizens' participation in urban design El mural de la memoria y la Rambla Ciutat d’Asunción del barrio de Baró de Viver (Barcelona: repensado la participación ciudadana en el diseño urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeu Vidal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    We present a case of citizen participation to design some public spaces in Baró de Viver, a neighbourhood of the city of Barcelona. Our aim is to reflect on the ways to understand citizen participation in political and academic agenda, the role of different actors (citizens, professionals, politicians... and strategies and methods used in participatory urban planning. The experience showed in this paper is located in a scale of urban design very close and well known to the people. We begin with a brief historical overview of the neighborhood where the project arose. Then we give an account of the stages of the participatory process, showing the main milestones, features and methods. Finally we propose some ideas to rethink the conceptual and methodological aspects of the intervention and urban research in environmental psychology and people-environment studies.

    En este artículo presentamos una experiencia de participación ciudadana para diseñar varios espacios públicos del barrio de Baró de Viver, en Barcelona. El objetivo es reflexionar en torno a la manera de entender la participación ciudadana en las agendas política y académica, el papel de los diferentes actores (ciudadanos, técnicos, políticos… y las estrategias y métodos utilizados en las decisiones sobre el espacio de la ciudad. La experiencia se sitúa en la escala de diseño urbano que, por su cotidianeidad, suele provocar más implicación entre la ciudadanía. Empezamos con una breve descripción histórica y social del barrio donde surge el proyecto, para luego dar cuenta de las etapas del proceso participativo, describiendo sus principales hitos, características y métodos desarrollados. Concluimos con algunos elementos de reflexión en torno a los objetivos planteados, con el fin de repensar los fundamentos conceptuales y metodológicos de la intervención y la investigación urbanas en la psicología ambiental y disciplinas afines.

  12. Participación social y calidad en los servicios de salud: la experiencia del aval ciudadano en México Participação social e qualidade nos serviços de saúde: a experiência do aval ciudadano no México Social participation and quality of health care: the experience of citizens' health representatives in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H Nigenda-López

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la experiencia del aval ciudadano en el sistema de salud mexicano en la mejora de los servicios de salud. METODOS: Estudio de corte cualitativo en ocho estados de México en 2008. Se evaluaron diferentes aspectos del programa nacional para mejorar la calidad de los servicios de salud. Se compara la estrategia de México con otras experiencias en América Latina. RESULTADOS: Se exponen los avances y problemas del funcionamiento del aval ciudadano, figura que promueve la participación social en salud de la población. CONCLUSIONES: El aval ciudadano es una figura con gran potencial para representar a los usuarios en los servicios de salud y transmitir sus demandas de mejora de la calidad de la atención médica.OBJETIVO: Analisar a experiência do aval ciudadano (reforço cidadão no sistema de saúde mexicano na melhora dos serviços de saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte qualitativo em oito estados mexicanos, em 2008. Foram avaliados diferentes aspectos do programa nacional para melhora de qualidade nos serviços de saúde. Compara-se a estratégia no México com outras experiências na América Latina. RESULTADOS: Foram expostos os avanços e problemas de funcionamento do aval ciudadano (reforço cidadão, figura que promove a participação social na saúde da população. CONCLUSÕES: O aval ciudadano (reforço cidadão é uma figura com grande potencial para representar os usuários dos serviços de saúde e transmitir suas exigências de melhorias na qualidade da atenção médica.OBJECTIVE: This article describes the experience of the aval ciudadano "Citizens' Representative" (CR in improving the Mexican health care system. METHODS: This is a qualitative study which took place in eight Mexican states in 2008. It evaluates different aspects of a nationwide program to increase the quality of health care services (National Crusade for Quality in Health Services. The Mexican strategy is compared with experiences in other

  13. A natural user interface to integrate citizen science and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Eduardo; Laut, Jeffrey; Nov, Oded; Cappa, Paolo; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science enables volunteers to contribute to scientific projects, where massive data collection and analysis are often required. Volunteers participate in citizen science activities online from their homes or in the field and are motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we investigated the possibility of integrating citizen science tasks within physical exercises envisaged as part of a potential rehabilitation therapy session. The citizen science activity entailed environmental mapping of a polluted body of water using a miniature instrumented boat, which was remotely controlled by the participants through their physical gesture tracked by a low-cost markerless motion capture system. Our findings demonstrate that the natural user interface offers an engaging and effective means for performing environmental monitoring tasks. At the same time, the citizen science activity increases the commitment of the participants, leading to a better motion performance, quantified through an array of objective indices. The study constitutes a first and necessary step toward rehabilitative treatments of the upper limb through citizen science and low-cost markerless optical systems.

  14. A natural user interface to integrate citizen science and physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Palermo

    Full Text Available Citizen science enables volunteers to contribute to scientific projects, where massive data collection and analysis are often required. Volunteers participate in citizen science activities online from their homes or in the field and are motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we investigated the possibility of integrating citizen science tasks within physical exercises envisaged as part of a potential rehabilitation therapy session. The citizen science activity entailed environmental mapping of a polluted body of water using a miniature instrumented boat, which was remotely controlled by the participants through their physical gesture tracked by a low-cost markerless motion capture system. Our findings demonstrate that the natural user interface offers an engaging and effective means for performing environmental monitoring tasks. At the same time, the citizen science activity increases the commitment of the participants, leading to a better motion performance, quantified through an array of objective indices. The study constitutes a first and necessary step toward rehabilitative treatments of the upper limb through citizen science and low-cost markerless optical systems.

  15. Open government: collaboration, transparency, and participation in practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lathrop, Daniel; Ruma, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    ... 7: Lead by Example Practical Steps for Government Agencies About the Author BY THE PEOPLE by Carl Malamud About the Author THE SINGLE POINT OF FAILURE by Beth Simone Noveck The Closed Model of Decision Making New Technologies and Civic Life Participatory Democratic Theory in the Age of Networks About the Author ENGINEERING GOOD GOVERNMENT by Ho...

  16. Public Participation: What has the Constitutional Court given the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public Participation: What has the Constitutional Court given the public? ... Linda Nyati explores the duty to facilitate public participation in legislative processes in terms of ... This issue, the article demonstrates, is highly pertinent to citizens in ...

  17. Citizen's dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemic, Gladys [Naperville, IL; Bailey, Paul [Chicago, IL; Breheny, Cecilia [Yonkers, NY

    2008-09-02

    The present invention relates to a citizen's dosimeter. More specifically, the invention relates to a small, portable, personal dosimetry device designed to be used in the wake of a event involving a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND), or other event resulting in the contamination of large area with radioactive material or where on site personal dosimetry is required. The card sized dosimeter generally comprises: a lower card layer, the lower card body having an inner and outer side; a upper card layer, the layer card having an inner and outer side; an optically stimulated luminescent material (OSLM), wherein the OSLM is sandwiched between the inner side of the lower card layer and the inner side of the upper card layer during dosimeter radiation recording, a shutter means for exposing at least one side of the OSLM for dosimeter readout; and an energy compensation filter attached to the outer sides of the lower and upper card layers.

  18. The making of citizen science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser

    This dissertation is the result of a PhD project entitled The Making of Citizen Science – Network Alliances between Science Shops and CSOs Engaging in Science and Air Pollution. The PhD project was carried out at Department of Management Engineering, Section for Innovation and Sustainability...... of effects: effects on the CSOs’ original problems, and/or other forms of effects. It is interesting to note that these other forms of effects can result in both cases that affected the CSOs’ original problems as well as cases that failed to do so. It can be concluded that CSOs can influence such actors...... as industry and local authorities and their practices through alliances with Science Shops and scientists. It is further concluded that the Science Shops’ role can have decisive impact on whether networks succeed in influencing the problems experienced by the CSOs. When the Science Shops apply an impact...

  19. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  20. Digital citizens Digital nations: the next agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. (Bert) Mulder; M.W. (Martijn) Hartog

    2015-01-01

    DIGITAL CITIZENS CREATE A DIGITAL NATION Citizens will play the lead role as they – in the next phase of the information society – collectively create a digital nation. Personal adoption of information and communication technology will create a digital infrastructure that supports individual and

  1. Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitzel, M.V.; Cappadonna, Jessica L.; Santos-Lang, Chris; Duerr, Ruth Ellen; Virapongse, Arika; West, Sarah Elizabeth; Kyba, Christopher Conrad Maximillian; Bowser, Anne; Cooper, Caren Beth; Sforzi, Andrea; Metcalfe, Anya Nova; Harris, Edward S.; Thiel, Martin; Haklay, Mordechai; Ponciano, Lesandro; Roche, Joseph; Ceccaroni, Luigi; Shilling, Fraser Mark; Dörler, Daniel; Heigl, Florian; Kiessling, Tim; Davis, Brittany Y.; Jiang, Qijun

    2017-01-01

    Much can be at stake depending on the choice of words used to describe citizen science, because terminology impacts how knowledge is developed. Citizen science is a quickly evolving field that is mobilizing people’s involvement in information development, social action and justice, and large-scale

  2. 21st-Century Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Jill; Smith, Walter; Cook, Linda; Bell, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    With rapidly evolving technology, the world is more connected than ever, and citizens around the globe can contribute to science like never before (Dickinson and Bonney 2012). Reflecting the growing capacity of citizen science, this article presents a science education continuum that moves from global awareness to global contribution. At each…

  3. Design principles for engaging and retaining virtual citizen scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Longo, Justin; Dobell, A R

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science initiatives encourage volunteer participants to collect and interpret data and contribute to formal scientific projects. The growth of virtual citizen science (VCS), facilitated through websites and mobile applications since the mid-2000s, has been driven by a combination of software innovations and mobile technologies, growing scientific data flows without commensurate increases in resources to handle them, and the desire of internet-connected participants to contribute to collective outputs. However, the increasing availability of internet-based activities requires individual VCS projects to compete for the attention of volunteers and promote their long-term retention. We examined program and platform design principles that might allow VCS initiatives to compete more effectively for volunteers, increase productivity of project participants, and retain contributors over time. We surveyed key personnel engaged in managing a sample of VCS projects to identify the principles and practices they pursued for these purposes and led a team in a heuristic evaluation of volunteer engagement, website or application usability, and participant retention. We received 40 completed survey responses (33% response rate) and completed a heuristic evaluation of 20 VCS program sites. The majority of the VCS programs focused on scientific outcomes, whereas the educational and social benefits of program participation, variables that are consistently ranked as important for volunteer engagement and retention, were incidental. Evaluators indicated usability, across most of the VCS program sites, was higher and less variable than the ratings for participant engagement and retention. In the context of growing competition for the attention of internet volunteers, increased attention to the motivations of virtual citizen scientists may help VCS programs sustain the necessary engagement and retention of their volunteers. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Mongolia; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in Mongolia against the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency. This paper analyzes the government's participation in the financial and nonfinancial sectors of the economy. Executive Directors appreciated the achievements, and stressed the need for improvements in the areas of fiscal transparency. They emphasized the need for addressing weaknesses of fiscal data, maintaining a legal framework fo...

  5. Legal framework related to access to information and public participation on nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, M. C.; Bernaldez, A.L.; Ghiggeri, M.; Tula, C.

    2011-01-01

    The right of access to information by citizens about activities related to scientific and technological development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, has evolved over time. Governments began to perceive the necessity and the benefits of informing the community, who manifested certain prejudices about nuclear activity as a consequence of the propelling of nuclear bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. With the advent of environmental law and the influence of its principles, the idea of transparency of information in the nuclear field was imposed, and also the importance of both the inhabitants of countries with nuclear developments and neighbouring countries who may be affected by the bordering effects of ionizing radiation, could have access to information and to participate actively. The access to information and citizen participation has been institutionalized and reflected in international regulations through international conventions subscribed by our country and nationally through the National Constitution, the Provincials Constitutions, the City of Buenos Aires Constitution, Laws No. 25.675, 25.831 and PEN Decree No. 1172/03, among others. The present work aims to make an overview of the legal framework related to access to information on nuclear activity. (authors) [es

  6. The Wisdom of the People: a Framework for Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Raul

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is an extension of work done in the context of the RISCOM Project. Its aim is elaborating communications requirements between citizens, experts and politicians in order to increase the transparency of decision processes. In RISCOM transparency was defined in the following terms: In a given policy area, transparency is the outcome of an ongoing process which increases the stakeholders' appreciation of related issues and provides them with channels to stretch the implementer to meet their requirements for technical explanations, proof of authenticity, and legitimacy of actions. Transparency requires a regulator to act as guardian of process integrity. This definition was tentatively applied to the Swedish Nuclear System, with particular emphasis in nuclear waste management. This paper elaborates further some of the components of the above definition, in particular it explores the factors which influence the boundary judgments for the policy area under consideration, the resources and communications required to increase the stakeholders' appreciation of this policy area, the design of channel capacity to stretch the implementer and the resources and organisational processes required to increase the quality of the interactions between experts and policy makers. Underpinning all the above elaborations is the consideration that transparency requires resources to support the self-regulation and self-organisation of stakeholders and experts in a context that clarifies and enforces the ethical concerns of society. In this paper I first discuss a set of key concepts that are used to elaborate the idea of transparency. Next I discuss the idea of a policy issue as an organisation involved in the social articulation of its meanings. In particular 1 explore means to influence the boundaries of these meanings based on wide social debates rather than exclusively on expert debates. The argument is grounded in the need to bootstrap the production of these meanings

  7. The Wisdom of the People: a Framework for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo, Raul [Univ. of Lincolnshire and Humberside (United Kingdom). Lincoln School of Management

    2001-07-01

    This contribution is an extension of work done in the context of the RISCOM Project. Its aim is elaborating communications requirements between citizens, experts and politicians in order to increase the transparency of decision processes. In RISCOM transparency was defined in the following terms: In a given policy area, transparency is the outcome of an ongoing process which increases the stakeholders' appreciation of related issues and provides them with channels to stretch the implementer to meet their requirements for technical explanations, proof of authenticity, and legitimacy of actions. Transparency requires a regulator to act as guardian of process integrity. This definition was tentatively applied to the Swedish Nuclear System, with particular emphasis in nuclear waste management. This paper elaborates further some of the components of the above definition, in particular it explores the factors which influence the boundary judgments for the policy area under consideration, the resources and communications required to increase the stakeholders' appreciation of this policy area, the design of channel capacity to stretch the implementer and the resources and organisational processes required to increase the quality of the interactions between experts and policy makers. Underpinning all the above elaborations is the consideration that transparency requires resources to support the self-regulation and self-organisation of stakeholders and experts in a context that clarifies and enforces the ethical concerns of society. In this paper I first discuss a set of key concepts that are used to elaborate the idea of transparency. Next I discuss the idea of a policy issue as an organisation involved in the social articulation of its meanings. In particular 1 explore means to influence the boundaries of these meanings based on wide social debates rather than exclusively on expert debates. The argument is grounded in the need to bootstrap the production of these

  8. Citizen Expectations and Satisfaction Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Expectations are thought to affect how citizens form their attitudes and behavior toward public services. Such attitudes may include citizen satisfaction, where expectations play a fundamental role, and relevant behaviors include choice of services and the decision to voice opinions about them....... However, there are few investigations into what drives citizen expectations and even fewer that consider these relationships across time. This article tests whether prior expectations, perceived performance, and citizen satisfaction influence future expectations, using a unique dataset that follows...... individual citizens across two subsequent school satisfaction surveys from 2011 and 2013. The results show that prior expectations have a large and consistent influence on future expectations, as predicted by the literature, whereas the influence from prior perceived performance seems less consistent. Prior...

  9. Interaction between social influence and payoff transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xie, Wenwen; Ye, Maolin

    2014-02-01

    Social influence and payoff transparency interact with each other to influence decision making. Social influence masks payoff transparency, and lacking transparency drives people to seek social influence. Moreover, our survey supports our claim by showing that social influence and payoff transparency correlate with each other (r(53) = -.71). Bentley et al.'s model can be revised to accommodate the covariance.

  10. ICTs, Openness and Citizen Perceptions of Government: How Civic Technologies Can Facilitate External Citizen Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rumbul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines whether civic technologies deliver an effective technique for developing the political efficacy of citizens and altering their perceived accountability of governments. Employing a survey-based methodology, a quantitative analysis was performed on the users of civic technology sites in the USA, UK, Kenya and South Africa. The primary question posed is whether the specific citizen monitoring actions facilitated by these sites cause a related effect in altering the extent to which citizens believe that governments are responsive to citizen-audit. The results indicate an enhancement in citizen efficacy and perceptions of government accountability. Notable differences detected in the user demographics between the countries studied demonstrate a wide spectrum of citizen usage; however, with common confidence displayed by respondents in the efficacy of the ICT. The findings indicate that the publication and citizen-audit of government information through civic technologies in developed and developing countries increases feelings of external efficacy and perceived government accountability.

  11. How do marine and coastal citizen science experiences foster environmental engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Church, Emma K; Loder, Jenn; Fielding, Kelly S; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2018-05-01

    Citizen science programs enable community involvement in scientific research. In addition to fostering greater science literacy, some citizen science programs aim to foster engagement in environmental issues. However, few data are available to indicate whether and how citizen science programs can achieve greater environmental engagement. We survey individuals choosing to attend one of seventeen reef citizen science events and examine the extent to which attendees reported three indicators of greater environmental engagement: (i) willingness to share information, (ii) increased support for marine conservation and citizen science, and (iii) intentions to adopt a new behavior. Most participants reported being willing to share information about reef conservation (91%) and described increased support for marine science and conservation (87%). Half of participants (51%) reported intentions to adopt a new conservation behavior. We found that key elements of the citizen science experience associated with these outcomes were learning about actions to protect reefs and coasts (procedural learning), experiencing surprise, and experiencing negative emotions about environmental problems. Excitement was also associated with positive outcomes, but only in participants who were less likely to see themselves as environmental, or were less frequent visitors to reefs and coasts. Importantly, the association between factual learning and environmental engagement outcomes was limited or negative. These findings suggest that the way citizen science experiences make people feel, may be more important for fostering future environmental engagement than factual-based learning. When designing citizen science programs for community members, these findings provide a reminder to not focus on provision of factual information alone, but to highlight environmental impacts while providing meaningful experiences and building environmental skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Active Role of Citizens on the Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrlec, D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfil climate and energy goals that EU has set for the period until 2030 and also after 2050, an engagement of the entire society is necessary. The energy sector is entering a transition towards a so called 4D model: decarbonization, decentralisation, distribution and democratisation. Citizens' engagement and responsibility in this transition requires active consumption management, energy generation and application of energy efficiency measures. To be competitive on the energy market, various forms of collective citizen collaborations are needed and to encourage people to participate in those, they have to be further educated so that the energy sector transition can succeed. The expected road transportation electrification posts further challenges on the energy sector. Horizontal connection of more EU policies, climate-energy, circular economy, digital agenda shows that a holistic approach is needed for the transition into a new, resource and energy more efficient, society.(author).

  13. Electrical lighting for improved wellbeing of elderly citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Agnes Sander, Birgit; Kessel, Line

    2015-01-01

    Healthy elderly citizens living in their own homes may benefit from having replaced their existing indoor lighting with a lighting being superior in stimulating their circadian rhythm to improve sleep and general wellbeing. This was hypothesised in the presented study. We replaced the existing...... indoor lighting in the main living room of elderly citizens in 20 uniform private houses in a suburb of Copenhagen. In a randomized cross-over design 29 healthy participants over 65 years were exposed over 3 weeks to blue-enriched and 3 weeks to blue-deprived light with similar corneal photopic...... illuminances from 8 am to 13 pm. The two light epochs were separated by one week neutral indoor light. Daylight factors were measured for each of the houses. The pre-experimental lighting conditions were documented by pictures and the experimental light was measured on location using portable photometers...

  14. The experience of others and becoming a senior citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Machado Andrade

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the perception of seniors on the exercise of citizenship in the light of the thought of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, based on the notion of the sexed body and the other's body. Discloses was from the participation of 13 elderly, members of acquaintance groups in the city of Jequié/BA, which produced experiential descriptions in three focus group meetings, during the month of April in 2012. Such descriptions were submitted to ambiguity analytics, a technique that consists in suspending the theories and notice the ambiguities inherent in them. From this analysis, two categories have emerged: being an elderly citizen in the expression of the sexed body and being an elderly citizen in the expression of the other's body. The reflections have shown that the inclusion of elderly women in acquaintance groups and their desire to exercise citizenship occur, primarily, by the need to be accepted in society and recognized as subjects of law.

  15. Greater Transparency Needed

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Melino; Michael Parkin

    2010-01-01

    Financial market participants would benefit from a better understanding of how the Bank of Canada sets the overnight interest rate in response to economic developments. More accurate forecasts of the Bank’s future policy choices would lead to better financial decisions and better price and wage-setting decisions, making it easier for the Bank to hit its 2 percent inflation target. Currently, the Bank’s internal model predicts a path for the overnight rate that is inconsistent with the expecta...

  16. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (∼15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27911774

  17. A conceptual approach to a citizens' observatory--supporting community-based environmental governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-12-12

    In recent years there has been a trend to view the Citizens' Observatory as an increasingly essential tool that provides an approach for better observing, understanding, protecting and enhancing our environment. However, there is no consensus on how to develop such a system, nor is there any agreement on what a Citizens' Observatory is and what results it could produce. The increase in the prevalence of Citizens' Observatories globally has been mirrored by an increase in the number of variables that are monitored, the number of monitoring locations and the types of participating citizens. This calls for a more integrated approach to handle the emerging complexities involved in this field, but before this can be achieved, it is essential to establish a common foundation for Citizens' Observatories and their usage. There are many aspects to a Citizens' Observatory. One view is that its essence is a process that involves environmental monitoring, information gathering, data management and analysis, assessment and reporting systems. Hence, it requires the development of novel monitoring technologies and of advanced data management strategies to capture, analyse and survey the data, thus facilitating their exploitation for policy and society. Practically, there are many challenges in implementing the Citizens' Observatory approach, such as ensuring effective citizens' participation, dealing with data privacy, accounting for ethical and security requirements, and taking into account data standards, quality and reliability. These concerns all need to be addressed in a concerted way to provide a stable, reliable and scalable Citizens' Observatory programme. On the other hand, the Citizens' Observatory approach carries the promise of increasing the public's awareness to risks in their environment, which has a corollary economic value, and enhancing data acquisition at low or no cost. In this paper, we first propose a conceptual framework for a Citizens' Observatory

  18. Enhancing Teacher and Student Engagement and Understanding of Marine Science Through Classroom Citizen Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    Overview This paper presentation shares findings from a granted funded project that sought to expand teacher content knowledge and pedagogy within the fields of marine science and coastal resource management through the implementation of classroom citizen science projects. A secondary goal was to increase middle and high school student interest and participation in marine science and natural resources research. Background A local science & engineering fair has seen a rapid decline in secondary student participants in the past four years. Research has demonstrated that when students are a part of a system of knowledge production (citizen science) they become much more aware, involved and conscious of scientific concepts compared to traditional school laboratory and nature of science activities. This project's primary objectives were to: (a) enhance teacher content expertise in marine science, (b) enrich teacher professional learning, (c) support citizen science classroom projects and inspire student activism and marine science engagement. Methods Project goals were addressed through classroom and meaningful outdoor educational experiences that put content knowledge into field based practices. Teachers learned to apply thier expanded content knowlege through classroom citizen science projects that focus on marine resource conservation issues such as fisheries management, water quality, turtle nesting and biodiversity of coastal ecosystems. These projects would eventually become potential topics of citizen science research topics for their students to pursue. Upon completion of their professional development, participants were urged to establish student Marine Science clubs with the goal of mentoring student submissions into the local science fair. Supplemental awards were possible for the students of project participants. Findings Based on project measures participants significantly increased their knowledge and awareness of presented material marine science and

  19. Theoreticаl basis of sociocultural dіmension modern process of self-identification citizens of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vedeneyev

    2014-05-01

    It is underlined that, although etnonational culture and remain sufficiently substantial soil for the modern stage of socialization citizens of Ukraine, but already a tendency becomes more noticeable forming of new man – participant of cultural­creating process.

  20. Safari Science: Assessing the reliability of citizen science data for wildlife surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Cara; Butt, Bilal; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2017-01-01

    Protected areas are the cornerstone of global conservation, yet financial support for basic monitoring infrastructure is lacking in 60% of them. Citizen science holds potential to address these shortcomings in wildlife monitoring, particularly for resource-limited conservation initiatives in developing countries – if we can account for the reliability of data produced by volunteer citizen scientists (VCS).This study tests the reliability of VCS data vs. data produced by trained ecologists, presenting a hierarchical framework for integrating diverse datasets to assess extra variability from VCS data.Our results show that while VCS data are likely to be overdispersed for our system, the overdispersion varies widely by species. We contend that citizen science methods, within the context of East African drylands, may be more appropriate for species with large body sizes, which are relatively rare, or those that form small herds. VCS perceptions of the charisma of a species may also influence their enthusiasm for recording it.Tailored programme design (such as incentives for VCS) may mitigate the biases in citizen science data and improve overall participation. However, the cost of designing and implementing high-quality citizen science programmes may be prohibitive for the small protected areas that would most benefit from these approaches.Synthesis and applications. As citizen science methods continue to gain momentum, it is critical that managers remain cautious in their implementation of these programmes while working to ensure methods match data purpose. Context-specific tests of citizen science data quality can improve programme implementation, and separate data models should be used when volunteer citizen scientists' variability differs from trained ecologists' data. Partnerships across protected areas and between protected areas and other conservation institutions could help to cover the costs of citizen science programme design and implementation.

  1. Innovation in Citizen Science – Perspectives on Science-Policy Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is growing as a field of research with contributions from diverse disciplines, promoting innovation in science, society, and policy. Inter- and transdisciplinary discussions and critical analyses are needed to use the current momentum to evaluate, demonstrate, and build on the advances that have been made in the past few years. This paper synthesizes results of discussions at the first international citizen science conference of the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA in 2016 in Berlin, Germany, and distills major points of the discourse into key recommendations. To enhance innovation in science, citizen science needs to clearly demonstrate its scientific benefit, branch out across disciplines, and foster active networking and new formats of collaboration, including true co-design with participants. For fostering policy advances, it is important to embrace opportunities for policy-relevant monitoring and policy development and to work with science funders to find adequate avenues and evaluation tools to support citizen science. From a society angle it is crucial to engage with societal actors in various formats that suit participants and to evaluate two-way learning outcomes as well as to develop the transformative role of science communication. We hope that these key perspectives will promote citizen science progress at the science-society-policy interface.

  2. Embedded Assessment as an Essential Method for Understanding Public Engagement in Citizen Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Becker-Klein

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an important way of engaging a broad range of audiences in science inquiry by participating in research that asks novel questions and unearths new knowledge and new questioning. Though citizen science projects are quite diverse in their scientific pursuits, all projects share the common element of involving volunteers directly in some aspect of science inquiry. Thus, it is essential for citizen science projects to determine their participants’ capacity to learn and successfully perform science inquiry skills, such as making scientific observations, collecting and analyzing data, and sharing findings. Such skill gains are essential to (a ensure high quality data that can be used in meaningful scientific research, and (b achieve broader goals such as developing a participant’s identity as a contributor to science. However, we do not yet fully understand how improvement in participants’ inquiry skills through citizen science advances our knowledge of public engagement with science. In this essay, we offer embedded assessment as an effective method to capture participant skill gains, and encourage citizen science leaders, evaluators, and researchers to develop authentic methods that address the complexities of measuring skill development within the context of citizen science.

  3. Evaluating public participation exercises - PUMA findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergez, Christian; )

    2003-01-01

    A programme of work was undertaken under the auspices of the PUMA (Public Management Project) Working Group on Strengthening Government-Citizen Connections during 1999-2000. Two comparative surveys were conducted among 23 OECD member countries and the European Union, and eight in-depth country cases were performed; the results were discussed in five meetings and published as 'OECD PUMA, 2001'. While the benefits of engaging citizens in policy-making may be considerable, governments should not underestimate the risks associated with poorly designed and inadequate measures for information, consultation and active participation. They may seek to inform, consult and encourage active participation by citizens in order to enhance the quality, credibility and legitimacy of their policy decisions. However the opposite effect may be achieved if citizens discover that their efforts to be informed, provide feedback and actively participate are ignored or have no impact at all on the decisions reached. To reduce the risk of rapid disillusionment and further erosion of citizens' trust, governments must ensure that: - information is complete, objective, reliable, relevant, easy to find and understand; - consultation is conducted with clear goals and according to unambiguous rules which clearly state the limits of the exercise and government's obligation to account for the use made of citizens' input; - participation provides sufficient time and flexibility to allow for the emergence of new ideas and proposals on the part of citizens and a mechanism for their integration into government's policy-making process. Yet the comparative study performed by PUMA found that evaluation was often overlooked. There is a striking imbalance between the amount of time, money and energy which OECD Member countries invest in strengthening government-citizen connections and their efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures and their impact on public policy-making

  4. CULTURAL IDENTITY TRANSMITTED BY THE AUTONOMOUS CITY OF MELILLA TO CITIZENS THROUGH THEIR CULTURAL OFFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia González-Gijón

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the results of an empirical study directed to knowing the opinion of the inhabitants of Melilla about the role that the Autonomous City of Melilla plays as the cultural local identity transmitter to its citizens, across the activities that are organized from the Council of Culture of the City. The instrument to gather information was elaborated ad hoc from the information found in an exploratory study on the activities that the above mentioned Council realized for the citizens in the last five years. The participants were from 16 to 85 year-old-citizens of Melilla. In total a sample of 143 citizens chosen as informers have been a part of our research.

  5. Percentage of vestibular dysfunction in 361 elderly citizens responding to a newspaper advertisement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Michael Smærup; Grönvall, Erik; Mørch, Marianne Metz

    Percentage of Vestibular Dysfunction in 361 Elderly Citizens Responding to a Newspaper Advertisement. Brandt M, Grönvall E, Henriksen JJ, Larsen SB, Læssøe U, Mørch MM, Damsgaard EM Introduction Elderly patients with vestibular dysfunction have an eight-fold increased risk of falling compared...... advertisement. Method To recruit elderly citizens with dizziness we advertised in a local newspaper. A telephone interview with the respondents was done by a physiotherapist (PT). If the PT concluded that the reason for the dizziness could be vestibular dysfunction the citizen was invited to further...... Department, Aarhus University Hospital. Results 361 elderly citizens responded to the advertisement. 8 patients had alcohol problems, 14 had significantly impaired vision, 42 had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, 49 didn’t want to participate, 50 had evidence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV...

  6. CosmoQuest Year 1.5: Citizen Scientist Behaviors and Site Usage Across Multiple Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Gay, P. L.; Bracey, G.; CosmoQuest Team

    2013-06-01

    CosmoQuest launched as a citizen science portal in January 2012 and has since expanded to include three projects in planetary surface mapping, one completed project searching for KBOs, and several more on the way with various astrophysical science goals. We take a close look at how our users move through the site, how much time they spend on various tasks, project retention rate, and how many use multiple projects on the site. We are also piloting a citizen science motivation survey given to random site users to find out why citizen scientists join new projects and continue to participate. This is part of a larger project using online and real-life interactions to study citizen scientist behaviors, motivations, and learning with a goal of building better community with researchers, volunteers, educators, and developers.

  7. Summary report and strategy recommendations for EU citizen science gateway for biodiversity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljo Runnel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an approach of public participation in scientific research which has gained significant momentum in recent years. This is particularly evident in biology and environmental sciences where input from citizen scientists has greatly increased the number of publicly available observation data. However, there are still challenges in effective networking, data sharing and securing data quality. EU BON project has analyzed the citizen science landscape in Europe with regards to biodiversity research and proposes several policy recommendations. One of the recommendations is a Pan-European citizen science gateway for biodiversity data with dedicated tools for data collection and management. The prototypes of the gateway components are part of the EU BON biodiversity portal and described in current report.

  8. Participation in “Smart Cities” : a user-centric evaluation of the smart city-concept

    OpenAIRE

    André, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is addressing the smart city concept through identifying citizen participation as an essential part of the framework. Several smart city examples were analyzed and a high variety, not only in terms of affected areas, but also concerning the multiple ways how individual programs integrate citizens, was recognized. Three ways to participate in a smart city were identified: 1. Citizens help the government collecting data 2. Citizens being involved in using the...

  9. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.

    2017-03-14

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 1011 to 1015 cm-2. These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  10. Issues in Canadian board transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparency is considered one of the principles of good corporate governance. But what does it mean – in practice – especially when it comes to Board transparency – i.e. the ability of shareholders to gain knowledge about an organization’s corporate governance practices in order to make an informed assessment of Directors’ individual and collective roles and performance. In a preliminary investigation of Board transparency practices in Canadian listed firms (using data from 2003-2004, it was found that there were wide variations in the nature and quantity of corporate governance practices disclosed. The reasons for these variations are discussed and a number of recommendations for improved disclosure are presented.

  11. Transparency of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk. A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context. (authors)

  12. High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: Annual activity report (January 2010 - December 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a description of the operation of the French 'High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety' (HCTISN), of its missions, its organisation and its means, the progress report presents the High Committee activity for 2010 with summaries of its report on the transparency of nuclear material and waste management, its meetings, its work groups, its visits and participations to other events

  13. Contractor selection: a quantitative, consensus-friendly, transparent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article offers a method for selecting contractors in an objective, transparent and participative way. The use of the Decision Analysis System (DAS), also referred to as decision-making by objectives, makes it possible that a large number of objectives can be taken into account to select the best amongst a wide range of ...

  14. SUPPORTING SENIOR CITIZENS TO LEARN IT SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Yokoi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital divide owing to age has become a major concern around the world, even in developed country, Japan. To combat the digital divide, a project named “e-namokun” aiming to help senior citizens use the Internet was started in Nagoya, Japan, which was a national first joint project run through government, universities, and NPO cooperation. In the project, nearly 2000 senior citizens have taken course of the software we developed. In relation with this project, we have been developing useful tools to support senior IT beginners. In the paper, we introduce the outline of the project and explain developed tools for senior citizens.

  15. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  16. Does doxastic transparency support evidentialism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate.......Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate....

  17. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  18. The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Crowe, Olivia; Regan, Eugenie; Begley, Sinead; Caffarra, Amelia

    2014-08-01

    Citizen science is proving to be an effective tool in tracking the rapid pace at which our environment is changing over large geographic areas. It is becoming increasingly popular, in places such as North America and some European countries, to engage members of the general public and school pupils in the collection of scientific data to support long-term environmental monitoring. Participants in such schemes are generally volunteers and are referred to as citizen scientists. The Christmas bird count in the US is one of the worlds longest running citizen science projects whereby volunteers have been collecting data on birds on a specific day since 1900. Similar volunteer networks in Ireland have been in existence since the 1960s and were established to monitor the number and diversity of birds throughout the country. More recently, initiatives such as Greenwave (2006) and Nature Watch (2009) invite school children and members of the general public respectively, to record phenology data from a range of common species of plant, insect and bird. In addition, the Irish butterfly and bumblebee monitoring schemes engage volunteers to record data on sightings of these species. The primary purpose of all of these networks is to collect data by which to monitor changes in wildlife development and diversity, and in the case of Greenwave to involve children in hands-on, inquiry-based science. Together these various networks help raise awareness of key environmental issues, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, while at the same time promote development of scientific skills among the general population. In addition, they provide valuable scientific data by which to track environmental change. Here we examine the role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland and conclude that some of the data collected in these networks can be used to fulfil Ireland's statutory obligations for nature conservation. In addition, a bee thought previously to be extinct

  19. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  20. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.