Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Khalifa, Badawy; Shawky, Ahmed; Rashed, Mohammed; Naguib, Nader; Abdel-Hameed, Asmaa
Adenoid hypertrophy may play a role in velopharyngeal closure especially in patients with palatal abnormality; adenoidectomy may lead to velopharyngeal insufficiency and hyper nasal speech. Patients with cleft palate even after repair should not undergo adenoidectomy unless absolutely needed, and in such situations, conservative or partial adenoidectomy is performed to avoid the occurrence of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Trans-oral endoscopic adenoidectomy enables the surgeon to inspect the velopharyngeal valve during the procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy on the speech of children with repaired cleft palate. Twenty children with repaired cleft palate underwent transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy to relieve their airway obstruction. The procedure was completely visualized with the use of a 70° 4mm nasal endoscope; the upper part of the adenoid was removed using adenoid curette and St. Claire Thompson forceps, while the lower part was retained to maintain the velopharyngeal competence. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of speech was performed, subjectively by auditory perceptual assessment, and objectively by nasometric assessment. Speech was not adversely affected after surgery. The difference between preoperative and postoperative auditory perceptual assessment and nasalance scores for nasal and oral sentences was insignificant (p=0.231, 0.442, 0.118 respectively). Transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy is a safe method; it does not worsen the speech of repaired cleft palate patients. It enables the surgeon to strictly inspect the velopharyngeal valve during the procedure with better determination of the adenoidal part that may contribute in velopharyngeal closure. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hwang, Na-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hwan; You, Hi-Jin; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Kim, Deok-Woo
In recent years, endoscope-assisted transoral approach for condylar fracture treatment has attracted much attention. However, the surgical approach is technically challenging: the procedure requires specialized instruments and the surgeons experience a steep learning curve. During the transoral endoscopic (TE) approach several instruments are positioned through a narrow oral incision making endoscope maneuvering very difficult. For this reason, the authors changed the entry port of the endoscope from transoral to submandibular area through a small stab incision. The aim of this study is to assess the advantage of using the submandibular endoscopic intraoral approach (SEI).The SEI approach requires intraoral incision for fracture reduction and fixation, and 4 mm size submandibular stab incision for endoscope and traction wires. Fifteen patients with condyle neck and subcondyle fractures were operated under the submandibular approach and 15 patients with the same diagnosis were operated under the standard TE approach.The SEI approach allowed clear visualization of the posterior margin of the ramus and condyle, and the visual axis was parallel to the condyle ramus unit. The TE approach clearly shows the anterior margin of the condyle and the sigmoid notch. The surgical time of the SEI group was 128 minutes and the TE group was 120 minutes (P >0.05). All patients in the TE endoscope group were fixated with the trocar system, but only 2 lower neck fracture patients in the SEI group required a trocar. The other 13 subcondyle fractures were fixated with an angulated screw driver (P <0.05). There were no differences in complication and surgical outcomes.The submandibular endoscopic approach has an advantage of having more space with good visualization, and facilitated the use of an angulated screw driver.
Full Text Available Objectives. The primary objective for this study is to evaluate the advantages, disadvantages, surgical applicability, and outcome of the pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK PlasmaBlade in transoral adenoidectomy under direct visualization using video nasoendoscopy. Patients and Methods. In this series, six cases of adenoid hypertrophy showing varying clinical presentations in relation to its clinical course were surgically treated using a PEAK PlasmaBlade. Before and after surgery, all patients underwent nasal endoscopy to define the grading of hypertrophic adenoids and postoperative outcome. Pure tone audiometry and tympanometry tests were carried out to investigate the change in middle and inner ear functions. Results. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months. Postoperatively, symptoms of otitis media with effusion were all relieved with closure of the air-bone gap (6/6. Other relevant ear complaints like tinnitus were resolved (1/1 and aural fullness disappeared in 87.5% of ears (7/8. Nasal obstruction (2/2 and postnasal drip (2/2 were improved after surgery. Conclusions. Based on this preliminary report of a case series in a limited sample size, we suggest that using the transoral PEAK PlasmaBlade for adenoidectomy guided by video nasoendoscopy is a safe and feasible surgical technique, allowing remarkable outcomes by providing precise tissue removal, effective hemostasis, and painless postoperative recovery.
Full Text Available Upper cervical chordoma (UCC is rare condition and poses unique challenges to surgeons. Even though transoral approach is commonly employed, a minimally invasive technique has not been established. We report a 44-year old Malay lady who presented with a 1 month history of insidious onset of progressive neck pain without neurological symptoms. She was diagnosed to have an axial (C2 chordoma. Intralesional resection of the tumour was performed transorally using the Destandau endoscopic system (Storz, Germany. Satisfactory intralesional excision of the tumour was achieved. She had a posterior fixation of C1-C4 prior to that. Her symptoms improved postoperatively and there were no complications noted. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy to minimize local recurrence. Endoscopic excision of UCC via the transoral approach is a safe option as it provides an excellent magnified view and ease of resection while minimizing the operative morbidity.
Kahramangil, Bora; Mohsin, Khuzema; Alzahrani, Hassan; Bu Ali, Daniah; Tausif, Syed; Kang, Sang-Wook; Kandil, Emad; Berber, Eren
Numerous new approaches have been described over the years to improve the cosmetic outcomes of thyroid surgery. Transoral approach is a new technique that aims to achieve superior cosmetic outcomes by concealing the incision in the oral cavity. Transoral thyroidectomy through vestibular approach was performed in two institutions on cadaveric models. Procedure was performed endoscopically in one institution, while the robotic technique was utilized at the other. Transoral thyroidectomy was successfully performed at both institutions with robotic and endoscopic techniques. All vital structures were identified and preserved. Transoral thyroidectomy has been performed in animal and cadaveric models, as well as in some clinical studies. Our initial experience indicates the feasibility of this approach. More clinical studies are required to elucidate its full utility.
Feng, Hui-Wei; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xue-Mei; Fan, Xian-Liang; Tian, Yu-Dong; Jia, Tao
Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and quality of life (QoL) of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy. Method. A total of 35 OSAHS children (21 males and 14 females with a mean age of 6.81 ± 1.08 years) were included in this study for analyzing the levels of thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and QoL. There were 22 children underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy with bilateral tonsillectomy (BT), while the other 13 children who underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy without bilateral tonsillectomy without BT. Results. Our results revealed no significant difference in serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in OSAHS children before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy (all P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) (92.45 ± 5.88 versus 106.23 ± 7.39, P attention (98.48 ± 8.74 versus 106.87 ± 8.58, P attention, and QoL of OSAHS children may be significantly improved after endoscopic adenoidectomy.
Tan, Sien Hui; Mun, Kein Seong; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Manuel, Anura Michelle; Prepageran, Narayanan; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra
This paper reports an unusual case of a transsphenoidal encephalocele and discusses our experience with a minimally invasive management. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of a combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral approach to a transsphenoidal encephalocele in an infant. A 17-day-old boy, who was referred for further assessment of upper airway obstruction, presented with respiratory distress and feeding difficulties. Bronchoscopy and imaging revealed a transsphenoidal encephalocele. At the age of 48 days, he underwent a combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral excision of the nasal component of the encephalocele. This approach, with the aid of neuronavigation, allows good demarcation of the extra-cranial neck of the transsphenoidal encephalocele. We were able to cauterize and carefully dissect the sac prior to excision. The defect of the neck was clearly visualized, and Valsalva manoeuvre was performed to exclude any CSF leak. As the defect was small, it was allowed to heal by secondary intention. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he tolerated full feeds orally on day 2. Postoperative imaging demonstrated no evidence of recurrence of the nasal encephalocele. Endoscopic follow-up showed good healing of the mucosa and no cerebrospinal fluid leak. The surgical management of transsphenoidal encephalocele in neonates and infants is challenging. We describe a safe technique with low morbidity in managing such a condition. The combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral approach with neuronavigation is a minimally invasive, safe and feasible alternative, even for children below 1 year of age.
Liu, Chien-Ying; Chu, Yen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yuan, Hsu-Chia; Ko, Po-Jen; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping
Transoral endoscopic surgery has been shown to be feasible and safe in both humans and animal models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transoral and conventional thoracoscopy for thoracic exploration, surgical lung biopsy, and pericardial window creation. The animals (n = 20) were randomly assigned to the transoral endoscopic approach group (n = 10) or conventional thoracoscopic approach group (n = 10). Transoral thoracoscopy was performed with a flexible bronchoscope via an incision over the vestibulum oris. In conventional thoracoscopy, access to the thoracic cavity was obtained through a thoracic incision. Surgical outcomes (body weight, operating time, operative complications, and time to resumption of normal diet), physiologic parameters (respiratory rate, body temperature), inflammatory parameters [white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and pulmonary parameters (arterial blood gases) were compared for both procedures. The surgical lung biopsy and pericardial window creation were successfully performed in all animals except one animal in the transoral group. There was no significant difference in operating times between the groups. The increase in WBC in the transoral thoracoscopy group was significantly smaller on postoperative day 1 than in the conventional thoracoscopy group (p = 0.0029). The transoral group had an earlier return to preoperative body temperature (p = 0.041) and respiratory rate (p = 0.045) on day 7. With respect to pulmonary parameters, there was no significant difference in blood pH, pCO2, or PaCO2 between the transoral and transthoracic groups. All animals survived without complications 14 days after surgery. This study demonstrated that the transoral approach was comparable to conventional thoracoscopic surgery for lung biopsy and pericardial window creation in terms of safety and efficacy.
Karakas, E; Anuwong, A; Ketwong, K; Kounnamas, A; Schopf, S; Klein, G
More than 10 years ago various research groups in Germany first reported the possibility of transoral surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. These were developed and evaluated within the framework of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). While development of these innovative and new techniques that enabled surgery without visible scars did not become well accepted in Europe and America, it led to an optimized transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA), which was implemented particularly in Asia. We report the preparation, step-by-step implementation, and first promising results for TOETVA of an international surgical cooperation. A Thai-Austrian-German cooperation was started in June 2017. Between June and November 2017 the first 10 TOETVA procedures were performed in female and male patient(s) presenting with single thyroid nodules, sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism and solitary parathyroid adenoma or thyroglossal duct cysts. The TOETVA technique was performed using 3 laparoscopic ports inserted at the oral vestibule and a CO 2 insufflation pressure at 6-8 mm Hg. Each surgery was performed using laparoscopic instruments and ultrasonic or bipolar devices. Surgical outcome, complications and conversions to an open technique were recorded. Of the patients six presented with single thyroid nodules, two patients had multinodular goitre with scintigraphically cold nodules and multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue, one patient suffered from sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism with a left sided parathyroid adenoma and one patient suffered from a thyroglossal duct cyst. No conversion to conventional open surgery was necessary. Average tumor size was 3.1 cm (range 1-4 cm). There was no relevant loss of blood or subsequent bleeding. No temporary or permanent hoarseness or mental nerve injury occurred, while transient hypoparathyroidism was evident after successful parathyroid resection. Of the patients five
Liu, Zhuofu; Yu, Huapeng; Wang, Dehui; Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Xicai; Liu, Juan
Total maxillectomy is sometimes necessary especially for malignant tumors originating from the maxillary sinus. Here we describe a combined transoral and endoscopic approach for total maxillectomy for the treatment of malignant maxillary sinus tumors and evaluate its short-term outcome. This approach was evaluated in terms of the physiological function, aesthetic outcome, and complications. Six patients underwent the above-mentioned approach for resection of malignant maxillary sinus tumors from May 2010 to June 2011. This combined transoral and endoscopic approach includes five basic steps: total sphenoethmoidectomy, sublabial incision, incision of the frontal process of the maxilla, incision of the zygomaticomaxillary fissure, and hard palate osteotomy. All patients with malignant maxillary sinus tumors successfully underwent the planned total endoscopic maxillectomy without the need for facial incision or transfixion of the nasal septum; there were no significant complications. Five patients received preoperative radiation therapy. All patients were well and had no recurrence at follow-up from 13 to 27 months. The combined approach is feasible and can be performed in carefully selected patients. The benefit of the absence of facial incisions or transfixion of the nasal septum, potential improvement in hemostasis, and visual magnification may help to decrease the morbidity of traditional open approaches.
Bhargav, P R K; Sabaretnam, M; Amar, V; Devi, N Vimala
Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders requiring surgical parathyroidectomy for its definitive treatment. Surgical exploration is traditionally performed through conventional open neck approach. A wide range of minimal access and minimally invasive endoscopic techniques (gas less and with gas) have been attempted in the past two decades. In this context, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of an innovative transoral endoscopic parathyroidectomy (EP) technique, which represents a paradigm shift in transluminal endocrine surgery. This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care Endocrine Surgery Department in South India between May 2016 and August 2017. We employed a novel transoral, lower vestibular route for EP. All the clinical, investigative, operative, pathological and post-operative data were collected from our prospectively filled database. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0 version. Under inhalational general anaesthesia, access to the neck was obtained with 3 ports (central frenulotomy and two lateral port sites), dissected in subplatysmal plane and insufflated with 6 mm Hg CO 2 for working space. Rest of surgical steps is similar to conventional open parathyroidectomy. Out of the 38 hyperparathyroidism cases operated during the study, 12 (32%) were operated by this technique. Mean operative time was 112 ± 15 min (95-160). The post-operative course was uneventful with no major morbidity, hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Cure and diagnosis were confirmed by> 50% fall in intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels and histopathology (all were benign solitary adenomas). Through this study, we opine that this novel transoral vestibular route parathyroidectomy is a feasibly applicable approach for primary sporadic hyperparathyroidism, especially with solitary benign adenomas.
Li, Shang-Yi; Hsu, Ching-Hui; Chen, Mu-Kuan
Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare head and neck neoplasms, and most are benign lesions. Complete excision of these tumors is difficult because of the complexity of the surrounding anatomic structures. The algorithm for excision of these tumors is typically based on the tumor's characteristics; excision is performed via approaches such as the trans-oral route, the trans-cervical route, and even a combination of the trans-parotid route and mandibulotomy. However, each of these approaches is associated with some complications. Endoscope-assisted minimally invasive surgery is being increasingly employed for surgeries in the head and neck regions. It has the advantage of leaving no facial scars, and ensures better patient comfort after the operation. Here, we report the use of endoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery for excision of parapharyngeal space tumors. The technique yields an excellent outcome and should be a feasible, safe, and economic method for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guha, A; Hart, L; Polachova, H; Chovanec, M; Schalek, P
Ameloblastoma represents the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. Because of the proximity of the maxillary tumors to the orbit and skull base, it should be managed as radically as possible. Maxillectomy, mainly via the transfacial or transoral approach, represents the most common type of surgical procedure. Drawback of these approaches is limited control of the superiomedial extent of the tumour in the paranasal area. We report the use of a combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach to manage maxillary plexiform ameloblastoma in a 48-year-old male patient. A combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach enabled the radical removal of tumour with a 1.5cm margin of radiographically intact bone with good control from both intrasinusal and intraoral aspects. Adequate visualization of the extent of the lesion (e.g. orbit, infratemporal fossa, anterior cranial base) had been achieved. Non-complicated healing was achieved. This technique of partial maxillectomy led to very good aesthetic and functional results. No recurrence had been noted during review appointments. The combination of endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach for a partial maxillectomy allows sufficient reduction of the defect, thus eliminating the necessity for reconstruction and reducing the morbidity associated with it. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
You, H-J; Moon, K-C; Yoon, E-S; Lee, B-I; Park, S-H
Fractures of the mandibular condyle are one of the most common craniofacial fractures. However, the diagnosis and treatment of these fractures is controversial because of the multiple surgical approaches available. The purposes of this study were to identify surgery-related technical tips for better outcomes and to evaluate the results as well as complications encountered during 7 years of endoscope use to supplement the limited intraoral approach in the treatment of mandibular condylar fractures. Between 2005 and 2012, 50 patients with condylar fractures underwent endoscope-assisted reduction surgery. Postoperative facial bone computed tomography and panoramic radiography demonstrated adequate reduction of the condylar fractures in all patients. No condylar resorption was detected, and most patients displayed a satisfactory functional and structural recovery. There was no facial nerve damage or transitory hypoesthesia, and there were no visible scars after the surgery. Transoral endoscope-assisted treatment is a challenging but reliable method with lower morbidity and a rapid recovery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Menezes, Arnold H
The craniovertebral junction (CVJ), or the craniocervical junction (CCJ) as it is otherwise known, houses the crossroads of the CNS and is composed of the occipital bone that surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas vertebrae, the axis vertebrae, and their associated ligaments and musculature. The musculoskeletal organization of the CVJ is unique and complex, resulting in a wide range of congenital, developmental, and acquired pathology. The refinements of the transoral approach to the CVJ by the senior author (A.H.M.) in the late 1970s revolutionized the treatment of CVJ pathology. At the same time, a physiological approach to CVJ management was adopted at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in 1977 based on the stability and motion dynamics of the CVJ and the site of encroachment, incorporating the transoral approach for irreducible ventral CVJ pathology. Since then, approaches and techniques to treat ventral CVJ lesions have evolved. In the last 40 years at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, multiple approaches to the CVJ have evolved and a better understanding of CVJ pathology has been established. In addition, new reduction strategies that have diminished the need to perform ventral decompressive approaches have been developed and implemented. In this era of surgical subspecialization, to properly treat complex CVJ pathology, the CVJ specialist must be trained in skull base transoral and endoscopic endonasal approaches, pediatric and adult CVJ spine surgery, and must understand and be able to treat the complex CSF dynamics present in CVJ pathology to provide the appropriate, optimal, and tailored treatment strategy for each individual patient, both child and adult. This is a comprehensive review of the history and evolution of the transoral approaches, extended transoral approaches, endoscopie assisted transoral approaches, endoscopie endonasal approaches, and CVJ reduction strategies. Incorporating these advancements, the authors update the
Full Text Available Objective: To compare sleep-related outcomes in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS patients following base of tongue resection via robotic surgery and endoscopic midline glossectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective study. A total of 114 robotic and 37 endoscopic midline glossectomy surgeries were performed between July 2010 and April 2015 as part of single or multilevel surgery. Patients were excluded for indications other than sleep apnea or if complete sleep studies were not obtained. Thus, 45 robotic and 16 endoscopic surgeries were included in the analysis. Results: In the robotic surgery group there were statistically significant improvements in AHI [(44.4Â Â±Â 22.6 events/hâ(14.0Â Â±Â 3.0 events/h, PÂ <Â 0.001] Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.3Â Â±Â 4.6 to 4.5Â Â±Â 2.9, PÂ <Â 0.001, and O2 nadir (82.0%Â Â±Â 6.1% to 85.0%Â Â±Â 5.4%, PÂ <Â 0.001. In the endoscopic group there were also improvements in AHI (48.7Â Â±Â 30.2 to 27.4Â Â±Â 31.9, PÂ =Â 0.06, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.6Â Â±Â 5.5 to 8.3Â Â±Â 4.5, PÂ =Â 0.08, and O2 nadir (80.2%Â Â±Â 8.6% to 82.7%Â Â±Â 6.5%, PÂ =Â 0.4. Surgical success rate was 75.6% and 56.3% in the robotic and endoscopic groups, respectively. Greater volume of tissue removed was predictive of surgical success in the robotic cases (10.3 vs. 8.6Â ml, PÂ =Â 0.02. Conclusions: Both robotic surgery and endoscopic techniques for tongue base reduction improve objective measures of sleep apnea. Greater success rates may be achieved with robotic surgery compared to traditional methods. Keywords: Sleep surgery, Transoral robotic surgery, TORS, Midline glossectomy, Partial glossectomy, Posterior glossectomy
Jitpratoom, Pornpeera; Ketwong, Khwannara; Sasanakietkul, Thanyawat; Anuwong, Angkoon
Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) provides excellent cosmetic results from its potential for scar-free operation. The procedure has been applied successfully for Graves' disease by the authors of this work and compared with the standard open cervical approach to evaluate its safety and outcomes. From January 2014 to November 2016, a total of 97 patients with Graves' disease were reviewed retrospectively. Open thyroidectomy (OT) and TOETVA were performed in 49 patients and 46 patients, respectively. For TOETVA, a three-port technique through the oral vestibule was utilized. The thyroidectomy was done endoscopically using conventional laparoscopic instruments and an ultrasonic device. Patient demographics and surgical variables, including operative time, blood loss, and complications, were investigated and compared. TOETVA was performed successfully in all 45 patients, although conversion to open surgery was deemed necessary in one patient. All patient characteristics for both groups were similar. Operative time was shorter for the OT group compared to the TOETVA group, which totaled 101.97±24.618 and 134.11±31.48 minutes, respectively (PGraves' disease in comparison to the standard open cervical approach. It is considered a viable alternative for patients who have been indicated for surgery with excellent cosmetic results.
Perretta, Silvana; Dallemagne, Bernard; Donatelli, Gianfranco; Diemunsch, Pierre; Marescaux, Jacques
The most effective treatment of achalasia is Heller myotomy. To explore a submucosal endoscopic myotomy technique tailored on esophageal physiology testing and to compare it with the open technique. Prospective acute and survival comparative study in pigs (n = 12; 35 kg). University animal research center. Eight acute-4 open and 4 endoscopic-myotomies followed by 4 survival endoscopic procedures. Preoperative and postoperative manometry; esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility before and after selective division of muscular fibers at the EGJ and after the myotomy was prolonged to a standard length by using the EndoFLIP Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (Crospon, Galway, Ireland). All procedures were successful, with no intraoperative and postoperative complications. In the survival group, the animals recovered promptly from surgery. Postoperative manometry demonstrated a 50% drop in mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESp) in the endoscopic group (mean preoperative LESp, 22.2 ± 3.3 mm Hg; mean postoperative LESp, 11.34 ± 2.7 mm Hg; P open procedure group (mean preoperative LESp, 24.2 ± 3.2 mm Hg; mean postoperative LESp, 7.4 ± 4 mm Hg; P myotomy is feasible and safe. The lack of a significant difference in EGJ distensibility between the open and endoscopic procedure is very appealing. Were it to be perfected in a human population, this endoscopic approach could suggest a new strategy in the treatment of selected achalasia patients. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Objectives. To investigate the causes of persistent, apparently permanent hypernasal speech following adenoidectomy in 10 subjects without overt cleft palates, and to establish a protocol to be followed before this operation is perfonmed. Design. Retrospective and descriptive design. Participants. Ten subjects, fulfilling the ...
Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic-assisted transoral surgery, including transoral robotic surgery for metastatic retropharyngeal lymph node (RPN from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, has been reported to reduce the complications resulting from transcervical and transmandibular approaches. However, the narrow working space and difficulty identifying RPN are problematic. To solve these issues, several studies have used intraoperative ultrasound in endoscopic-assisted transoral surgery. However, the type of ultrasonography suitable for this purpose remains unclear. Case Presentation: A 60-year-old female with thyroid papillary carcinoma (T4aN1bM0 initially underwent total thyroidectomy and paratracheal and selective neck dissections (D2a, with resectional management of recurrent laryngeal nerve, trachea, and esophagus. Three years later, she was diagnosed with left retropharyngeal and upper mediastinal lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery was performed with a combination of ultrasonography with a flexible laparoscopic transducer manipulated with forceps for identifying RPN intraoperatively. Due to the transducer’s small size and thin, flexible cable, the transducer interrupted the procedure in spite of the narrowness of oral cavity. RPN was resected completely without adverse events. Conclusion: We performed intraoperative ultrasound-guided endoscopic transoral surgery for metastatic RPN from papillary thyroid cancer and achieved complete resection as well as preservation of swallowing function.
Witteman, Bart P. L.; Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Snijders, Gitte; Koek, Ger H.; Conchillo, José M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.
Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF), a novel endoscopic procedure for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), currently is under evaluation. In case of treatment failure, subsequent revisional laparoscopic antireflux surgery (rLARS) may be required. This study aimed to evaluate the
Witteman, B.P.; Conchillo, J.M.; Rinsma, N.F.; Betzel, B; Peeters, A.; Koek, G.H.; Stassen, L.P.; Bouvy, N.D.
OBJECTIVES: Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) was developed in an attempt to create a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure that mimics antireflux surgery. The objective of this trial was to evaluate effectiveness of TIF compared with proton pump inhibition in a population consisting of
Wielen, van der Nikkie; Paulus, Givan; Avesaat, van Mark; Masclee, Ad; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Bouvy, Nicole
Background: Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention strategy in obesity, resulting in sustained weight loss and a reduction of comorbidities. Gastroplication, using the articulating circular endoscopic stapler, was recently introduced as a transoral bariatric technique. This procedure reduces
Funk, Emily; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav
Current management of laryngeal malignancies is associated with significant morbidity. Application of minimally invasive transoral techniques may reduce the morbidity associated with traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the utility of a novel flexible robotic system for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. Transoral total laryngectomy and transoral supraglottic laryngectomy were performed in cadaveric specimens using the Flex Robotic System (Medrobotics, Raynham, MA). All procedures were completed successfully in the cadaveric models. The articulated endoscope allowed for access to the desired surgical site. Flexible instruments enabled an atraumatic approach and allowed for precise surgical technique. Access to deep anatomic structures remains problematic using current minimally invasive robotic approaches. Improvements in visualization and access to the laryngopharyngeal complex offered by this system may improve surgical applications to the larynx. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility using the Flex Robotic System for transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1218-1225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pizzi, Nicolino J.; Kapoor, Sandhya; Gerrard, Jon M.
The purpose of this expert system is to assess a predisposition to bleeding in a patient undergoing a tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy as may occur with patients who have certain blood conditions such as hemophilia and von Willebrand's disease. This goal is achieved by establishing a correlation between the patients' responses to a medical questionnaire and the relative quantities of blood lost during the operation.
Also the mean change in VAS before and after surgery in adenotonsillectomy adenoidectomy was significant (p.>0.5. In this study, reduction of clinical signs and symptoms of rhinosinusitis after adenoidectomy surgery was 100%, but the improvement of Waters X-ray findings was 53%. Reduction of signs and symptoms of rhinosinusitis after adenotonsillectomy surgery was 100%, but recovery process of waters radiographic of rhinosinusitis findings was 80%. Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy and adenoidectomy surgery were effective in improving of the process of sign and symptoms and radiologic findings in children with chronic rhinosinusitis moreover adenotonsillectomy surgery was more effective in improving symptoms and waters radiological findings. Key words: Adenoidectomy, Adenotonsillectomy, Rhinosinusitis
Tomifuji, Masayuki; Araki, Koji; Yamashita, Taku; Shiotani, Akihiro
We proposed transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) as a laryngeal preservation strategy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. By using a distending laryngoscope and rigid laryngeal endoscope, a large field of view and working space could be obtained which enabled us to resect tumors in en-bloc fashion. The indications for this surgery are oro-hypopharyngeal and supraglottic cancer in superficial, T1, T2 and selected T3 categories. TOVS can also be used for selected cases with recurrent tumor after radiation therapy. For resectable nodal metastasis, neck dissection can be performed simultaneously or 1-2 weeks later. In cases with more than a 1-year observation period (n=42), 5-year crude survival, disease-specific survival, and laryngeal preservation rate were 74%, 85% and 89%, respectively. A second advantage of TOVS is thorough evaluation of primary cancer lesion. Evaluation of tumor invasion depth is a promising way for optimizing the indication for neck dissection for clinically node negative cases. (author)
Transient bacteremia is induced by adenoidectomy when the integrity of the nasopharyngeal membrane is broken. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteremia in patients undergoing adenoidectomy, to identify the causative organisms, and to compare the incidences of bacteremia between the two techniques suction diathermy and curettage.
Jan 24, 2018 ... Plate Fixation for the Management of Mandibular Angle Fractures. MM Omezli, F Ayranci, ...  To reduce complications and generate immediate function, an ... procedure exposes the fracture site completely, it provides an excellent .... plate exposure, infection, and plate removal was higher in the transoral.
Kayhan, Fatma Tülin; Güneş, Selçuk; Koç, Arzu Karaman; Yiğider, Ayşe Pelin; Kaya, Kamil Hakan
Laryngoceles are air-filled sacs which communicate with the laryngeal lumen. When filled with mucus or pus, they are called laryngomucoceles and laryngopyoceles, respectively. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is a new and remarkable technique that expands its usefullness in otorhinolaryngology. Conventional treatments for laryngoceles were previously performed using external approaches, with aesthetically unfavorable and less function-sparing results. Transoral laser microsurgical approaches for laryngoceles were seldom reported. It is aimed to present authors' clinical experience on laryngocele management with TORS which is a rather new technique. A retrospective patient serial. Patients were evaluated for demographic data, type of lesion, reasons for hospital admittance, complaint duration, and previous surgery. Robotic surgery panel including anesthesia time, duration of surgery, need for tracheotomy, postoperative care, follow-up, and recurrence rates were also summarized. Six men (mean age 51.7 years; range 41-62) with laryngoceles underwent successful TORS. Dyspnea and hoarseness were the main complaints. Two patients had undergone previous laryngeal surgery due to laryngeal cancer, with no recurrence of malignancy at admittance for laryngocele. Three had simple laryngocele, 2 had laryngomucocele, and 1 had laryngopyocele. No laryngoceles recurred and no complication such as dysphonia or prolonged dysphagia occurred. Transoral robotic surgery was found superior in safety, technical feasibility and curative effectiveness, when compared with classical methods, especially due to absence of skin incisions. Surgical modalities for laryngocele excision should be directed toward a curative target including cosmetic and functional success, technical achievability, and surgically curative methods. Transoral robotic surgery provided all these features.
Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya
Transoral robotic surgery, performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), is a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view and ability to see and work around curves or angles. However, the current da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. This is problematic because the potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury and mandibular fracture. To assess the potential for intraoperative injuries, we measured the load of the endoscope and the instrument of the da Vinci Si surgical system. We pressed the endoscope and instrument of the da Vinci Si against Load cell six times each and measured the dynamic load and the time-to-maximum load. We also struck the da Vinci Si endoscope and instrument against the Load cell six times each and measured the impact load. The maximum dynamic load was 7.27 ± 1.31 kg for the endoscope and 1.90 ± 0.72 for the instrument. The corresponding time-to-maximum loads were 1.72 ± 0.22 and 1.29 ± 0.34 s, but the impact loads were significantly lower than the dynamic load. It remains possible that a major load is exerted on adjacent structures by continuous contact with the endoscope and instrument of da Vinci Si. However, there is a minor delay in reaching the maximum load. Careful monitoring by an on-site assistant may, therefore, help prevent contiguous injury.
Aardweg, M.T. van den; Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Open randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 11 general hospitals and two academic centres. PARTICIPANTS: 111 children aged 1-6 with recurrent upper respiratory tract
Leonardis, Rachel L; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Mehta, Deepak
To assess the feasibility of performing robotic-assisted laryngeal cleft repair in the pediatric population. Retrospective chart review at a tertiary academic children's hospital. All patients underwent transoral robotic-assisted laryngeal cleft repair from March 2011 to June 2013. Demographics, robotic docking time, operative time, and postoperative course and swallowing function were collected and analyzed. Five children, three male and two female, underwent successful transoral robotic-assisted laryngeal cleft repair for closure of a type I laryngeal cleft. Mean age at time of surgery was 21.6 months (standard deviation 6.1 months; range, 15-29 months). From case 1 to case 5, robotic docking time (18-10 minutes), robotic operative time (102-36 minutes), and total operating room time (173-105 minutes) decreased. There were no complications with time until extubation (range, 2-3 days), length of intensive care unit stay (range, 3-4 days), and total hospital stay (range, 3-5 days) within acceptable range following laryngeal cleft repair. Modified barium swallow (two patients) or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (three patients) was performed postoperatively, with all patients showing complete resolution of penetration and aspiration. In addition, all patients experienced subjective resolution of dysphagia and/or choking with feeds postoperatively. Transoral robotic-assisted laryngeal cleft repair may offer specific advantages over a traditional endoscopic approach. In our experience, the procedure was well tolerated and associated with definitive surgical cure in all patients. The scope of robotic technology continually expands and should be considered a feasible tool at an institution-based level. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
M. A. Georgiyants
Full Text Available It is known that pharyngalgia is very common after tonsillectomy. It should be emphasized that the intensity of pain after adenoidectomy in children is not less important than after adenotonsillectomy. Despite the availability of standardized pain assessment scales and existing postoperative analgesia recommendations, unresolved postoperative pain still occurs in children. The research included 117 children with an average age of 7.5 ± 0.4 years, who underwent adenoidectomy at the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care of "Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital" of Kharkov city in 2014. Depending on the method of general anesthesia, patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (n = 41 those who received propofol in combination with fentanyl; group II (n = 40 those who received sevoflurane in combination with fentanyl; group III (n = 36 those who received thiopental sodium combined with fentanyl. We monitored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, BIS-index, heart rate variability, respiration rate, and SpO2. We determined the levels of cortisol and insulin in the blood serum, glucose level, the ratio of cortisol/insulin was calculated. Assessment of the efficiency of postoperative analgesia was performed using the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Scale («Faces» and the Oucher Scale. The result of analysis of the intensity of postoperative pain determined that at the 1st hour after the operation by the «Faces» and Oucher scales, it was significantly higher in patients of group II compared with the patients of group I and group III. The morning after the operation there was no significant difference in the pain scales, and the number of scale points showed that children from all groups did not have pain. According to the data of ANOVA it was determined that only the patients in group I with indicator ΔBIS-index «intubation – traumatic moment of operation» experienced postoperative pain
Schiel, Sebastian; Mayer, Peter; Probst, Florian; Otto, Sven; Cornelius, Carl-Peter
To evaluate the possible benefits of open surgery, endoscopically assisted reduction and fixation using a transoral route was used in a selected series of pediatric patients with displaced condylar base and neck fractures. A cohort of 6 patients (1 male and 5 female; age range, 7 to 15 yr; mean, 13.4 yr) with displaced condylar base and neck fractures (n = 9) were included. Inclusion criteria were age younger than 16 years, fracture of the condylar base or neck, and displacement of the fracture by at least 45°. Fractures were classified using conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, or computed tomography. Patients underwent transoral endoscopically assisted open reduction and fixation using miniplate osteosynthesis. Postoperatively, patients were followed clinically and radiographically for 18 months. Complete follow-up varied from 18 to 35 months (median, 24.5 months). All patients showed normal occlusion and pain-free unrestricted function of the temporomandibular joint at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. There were no signs of incomplete remodeling or deformation of the condyles. Transoral endoscopically assisted surgical treatment of severely displaced condylar base and neck fractures in children and young teenagers offers a reliable solution to preclude the sequelae of closed treatment, such as altered morphology and functional disturbances, eliminates visible scars, and lowers the risk of facial nerve damage compared with open reduction using an extraoral approach. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Tonsillectomy is the intervention to take out the palatine tonsils either whole or sub capsular, while adenoidectomy is the intervention of extraction of the adenoid gland which is commonly done with curettage method. Both interventions are done to eliminate repeated infections and also obstructions due to inflammation and hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids. This study was conducted to examine the indications of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in the Departement of Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in the period of January 2009–December 2011. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in October–November of 2012 using 207 medical records of patients who had tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy executed in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of January 2009–December 2011. Data collected were age, gender, main complaint, tonsil size, history of repeated infections, history of snoring as well as of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS. The indication for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy such as infection, obstruction and neoplasia was selected. Results: The indications of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were infection at 106 (51.2% patients, obstruction at 100 (48.3% patients, and neoplasia at 1 (0.05% patient. Conclusions: The most numerous indications for tonsillectomy and tonsilloadenoidectomy in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital were infection.
José Alberto Landeiro
Full Text Available The transoral approach provides a safe exposure to lesions in the midline and the ventral side of the craniovertebral junction. The advantages of the transoral approach are 1 the impinging bony pathology and granulation tissue are accessible only via the ventral route; 2 the head is placed in the extended position, thus decreasing the angulation of the brainstem during the surgery; and 3 surgery is done through the avascular median pharyngeal raphe and clivus. We analyzed the clinical effects of odontoidectomy after treating 38 patients with basilar invagination. The anterior transoral operation to treat irreducible ventral compression in patients with basilar invagination was performed in 38 patients. The patients’ ages ranged from 34 to 67 years. Fourteen patients had associated Chiari malformation and eight had previously undergone posterior decompressive surgery. The main indication for surgery was significant neurological deterioration. Symptoms and signs included neck pain, myelopathy, lower cranial nerve dysfunction, nystagmus and gait disturbance. Extended exposure was performed in 24 patients. The surgery was beneficial to the majority of patients. There was one death within 10 days of surgery, due to pulmonary embolism. Postoperative complications included two cases of pneumonia, three cases of oronasal fistula with regurgitation and one cerebrospinal fluid leak. In patients with marked ventral compression, the transoral approach provides direct access to the anterior face of the craniovertebral junction and effective means for odontoidectomy.O acesso transoral é uma via direta e segura às lesões situadas na linha média e na face anterior da junção craniocervical. As vantagens do acesso transoral são as seguintes:1 a compressão óssea e o tecido de granulação localizam-se anteriormente e são accessíveis pela via anterior; 2 a cabeça do paciente é colocada em extensão, diminuindo a angulação do tronco cerebral durante
Full Text Available Background: Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical prcedures in childhood. Acute pain after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy can be treated with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Our hypothesis stated that tramadol iv after induction of anaesthesia has superior analgesic effect compared to acetaminophen.Methods: In a prospective, randomised study we compared analgesic efficacy of tramadol (group T: 2 mg/kgBW iv and acetaminophen (group A: elixir 15 mg/kgBW before op. procedure in a group of 108 children (age 3-7 years. Exclusion critheria: allergy, liver or kidney failure, epilepsy, febrile convulsions. A standard anaesthetic technique was used: propofol, alfentanil, vecuronium, positive pressure ventilation with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. After the procedure each child received acetaminophen suppositories (10 mg/kgBW/4-6h and combined suppositories. Monitoring: vital signs during and after op. procedure, pain intensity on the ward (facial pain score. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in age distribution (mean age 5,2 years, ASA physical status, body weight, operative procedure, pain scores (VAS 6h after operative procedure; group T: 4,21±1,45; group A: 4,06±1,33, oxygen saturation, pulse frequency and the consumption of acetaminophen suppositories. Significant difference was in the consumption of combined suppositories (group T: 1,85±0,79; group A: 1,43±0,69, p=0,003. Conclusion: Our study has shown, that tramadol is not a superior analgesic for the relief of posttonsillectomy pain in children compared to acetaminophen.
Dias, Fernando L; Walder, Fernando; Leonhardt, Fernando Danelon
The rising incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), in large part as a result of the human papillomavirus (HPV), has driven a movement for the change in the management strategies. Renewed interest in minimally invasive approaches of endoscopic head and neck surgery led to introduction of transoral surgery, including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Several recent studies, based on large multi-institutional studies and systematic reviews of the literature, have shown excellent oncologic and functional outcomes with TORS for OPSCC. Also, a growing amount of clinical evidence supports the use of TORS in the management of carcinoma of unknown primary site and in selected patients with recurrent OPSCC with acceptable oncologic and better functional outcomes in comparison with traditional surgical approaches. Comparative studies with other therapeutic modalities (conventional surgical and nonsurgical) showed that TORS can be used to treat OPSCC, reducing morbidity and treatment costs, while providing equivalent oncologic results. Large and robust data available in the literature supports the role of TORS within the multidisciplinary treatment paradigm for the management of OPSCC. Information from ongoing randomized clinical trials comparing TORS with and without dose-reduced radiotherapy or with and without intensified adjuvant treatment for high-risk OPSCC patients is necessary to determine the role of de-escalation of therapy in the era of HPV and OPSCC.
Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S
The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures.
Kassem, F; Ebner, Y; Nageris, B; Watted, N; DeRowe, A; Nachmani, A
To characterise the craniofacial structure by cephalometry, especially the skull base and nasopharyngeal space, in children who underwent adenoidectomy and developed persistent velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Retrospective study. Speech and swallowing clinic of a single academic hospital. Thirty-nine children with persistent VPD following adenoidectomy (mean age 8.0±3.6 years) and a control group of 80 healthy children. Cephalometric landmarks were chosen; craniofacial linear and angular dimensions were measured and analysed. The linear dimensions of the nasopharyngeal area were shorter in the VPD group, S-Ba (41.6±4.2 mm, P<.05) and S-Ptm (42.4±5.1 mm, P<.05). The anterior skull base, N-S, was similar (68.1 mm±6.8). The velum length, Ptm-P was significantly shorter in the VPD group (27.8±4.3 mm, P<.001). The Ba-S-Ptm angle was significantly larger in the VPD group (63.5±5.6°, P<.001). There was no significant difference in cranial base angle (CBA), Ba-S-N, between the two groups. Cephalometry may provide information regarding persistent postoperative VPD. The nasopharyngeal space angle and velar length appear to be risk factors for persistent VPD after adenoidectomy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Kanda, Tomoko; Watanabe, Yoshiki; Mori, Yusuke; Tsujimura, Takashi
We report the case of a patient with pyogenic spondylodiscitis after transoral surgery for oropharyngeal cancer. The patient was a 66-year-old man with a history of hepatic cell carcinoma, alcoholic cirrhosis, and chronic pancreatitis. The tumor was resected via a transoral approach with concurrent bilateral elective neck dissections. Although the initial postoperative course was uneventful, the patient experienced severe cervical pain because of which he revisited the hospital. The patient was diagnosed with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, according to the results of magnetic resonance imaging. Continuous treatment with parenteral antibiotics and a cervical brace was required for 2 months before all his symptoms and signs diminished. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pyogenic spondylodiscitis as a complication of transoral resection for head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mendelsohn, Abie H
Preliminary case series have reported clinical feasibility and safety of a transoral minimally invasive technique to approach parapharyngeal space masses. With the assistance of the surgical robotic system, tumors within the parapharyngeal space can now be excised safely without neck incisions. A detailed technical description is included. After developing compressive symptoms from a parapharyngeal space lipomatous tumor, the patient was referred by his primary otolaryngologist because of poor open surgical access to the nasopharyngeal component of the tumor. Transoral robotic assisted resection of a 54- × 46-mm parapharyngeal space mass was performed, utilizing 97 minutes of robotic surgical time. Pictorial demonstration of the robotic resection is provided. Parapharyngeal space tumors have traditionally been approached via transcervical skin incisions, typically including blunt dissection from tactile feedback. The transoral robotic approach offers magnified 3D visualization of the parapharyngeal space that allows for complete and safe resection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Testoni, Pier Alberto; Mazzoleni, Giorgia; Testoni, Sabrina Gloria Giulia
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder that results primarily from the loss of an effective antireflux barrier, which forms a mechanical obstacle to the retrograde movement of gastric content. GERD can be currently treated by medical therapy, surgical or endoscopic transoral intervention. Medical therapy is the most common approach, though concerns have been increasingly raised in recent years about the potential side effects of continuous long-term medication, drug intolerance or unresponsiveness, and the need for high dosages for long periods to treat symptoms or prevent recurrences. Surgery too may in some cases have consequences such as long-lasting dysphagia, flatulence, inability to belch or vomit, diarrhea, or functional dyspepsia related to delayed gastric emptying. In the last few years, transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) has proved an effective and promising therapeutic option as an alternative to medical and surgical therapy. This review describes the steps of the TIF technique, using the EsophyX(®) device and the MUSE(TM) system. Complications and their management are described in detail, and the recent literature regarding the outcomes is reviewed. TIF reconfigures the tissue to obtain a full-thickness gastro-esophageal valve from inside the stomach, by serosa-to-serosa plications which include the muscle layers. To date the procedure has achieved lasting improvement of GERD symptoms (up to six years), cessation or reduction of proton pump inhibitor medication in about 75% of patients, and improvement of functional findings, measured by either pH or impedance monitoring.
Elif Ersoy Callıoglu
Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented.
Full Text Available There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy.Prospective multi-institutional study.Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C or without cauterization (PAA-C due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated.A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1 CA (n = 116; (2 PAA+C (n = 153; and (3 PAA-C (n = 119. Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001 and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001 compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016.This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding.
Topf, Michael C; Vo, Amanda; Tassone, Patrick; Shumrick, Christopher; Luginbuhl, Adam; Cognetti, David M; Curry, Joseph M
To determine the rate of unplanned readmission after transoral robotic surgery (TORS), and to determine which patient or surgical factors increase the likelihood of readmission. Retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent TORS for squamous cell carcinoma at our institution from March 2010 through July 2016. Primary outcome was unplanned readmission to the hospital within 30 days of discharge. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to identify risk factors for unplanned readmission. 297 patients met eligibility criteria. 23 patients (7.7%) had unplanned readmissions within 30 days. Most common reasons for readmission were oropharyngeal bleed (n = 13) and pain/dehydration (n = 10). Average time to unplanned readmission was 6.52 days (range 0-25 days). Discharge on clopidogrel was the only variable independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day unplanned readmission on multivariable analysis with an OR = 6.85 (95% CI 1.59-26.36). Unplanned return to the operating room during initial hospitalization (OR = 7.55, 95% CI 1.26-38.50) and discharge on clopidogrel (OR = 10.45, 95% CI 1.06-82.69) were associated with increased risk of postoperative bleeding. Bilateral neck dissection (OR = 5.17, 95% CI 1.15-23.08) was associated with significantly increased odds of unplanned readmission secondary to pain and dehydration. Unplanned readmission following TORS occurs in a small but significant number of patients. Oropharyngeal bleeding and dehydration were the most common reasons for unplanned readmission following TORS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boonacker, Chantal W B; Rovers, Maroeska M; Browning, George G; Hoes, Arno W; Schilder, Anne G M; Burton, Martin J
Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of medical consultations, antibiotic prescription and surgery in children. The surgical procedures offered to children with recurrent or persistent OM are insertion of grommets, adenoidectomy or a combination of the two. There is clear National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for the use of grommets in subgroups of children with persistent OM with effusion (OME), but similar guidance is not available for adenoidectomy, either in persistent OME or in recurrent acute OM (AOM). (1) To develop a model to predict the risk of children referred for adenoidectomy having a prolonged duration of their OM. Then, (2a) to evaluate the overall effect of adenoidectomy, with or without grommets, on OM using individual patient data (IPD) and (2b) to identify those subgroups of children who are most likely to benefit from adenoidectomy with or without grommets. A number of electronic databases were searched from their inception including the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), metaRegister of Current Controlled Trials (mRCT), ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalStudyResults.org and Google. Studies eligible for inclusion in this IPD meta-analysis were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children up to 12 years of age diagnosed with recurrent AOM and/or persistent OME in which adenoidectomy (with or without grommets) was compared with non-surgical treatment or grommets alone. The final selection of eligible studies and the quality assessment were carried out according to standard methods and disagreement was resolved by discussion. A total of 503 articles were identified of which 10 trials were included in the meta-analysis; eight of these were at a low risk of bias and two were at moderate risk. The
Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Browning, G.G.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M; Burton, M.J.
BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of medical consultations, antibiotic prescription and surgery in children. The surgical procedures offered to children with recurrent or persistent OM are insertion of grommets, adenoidectomy or a combination of the two. There is clear National
Full Text Available A tonsila faríngea quando aumentada, pode causar obstrução nas vias aéreas superiores e levar à respiração bucal de suplência¹. Em alguns casos adenoidectomia e/ou adenoamigdalectomia são indicadas para remoção do fator obstrutivo, possibilitando a respiração nasal. Temos observado que algumas crianças mesmo sem apresentar queixas e/ou alterações vocais no período pré-operatório, desenvolvem uma qualidade vocal hipernasal após adenoidectomia12. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever um caso de hipernasalidade após adenoidectomia e relatar o tratamento fonoaudiológico, bem como, os possíveis riscos e seqüelas após o procedimento cirúrgico.Hipertrophic adenoid is a frequent cause of obstruction of the upper respiratory tract and may lead to a mouth breathing condition. in some cases, surgical procedures such as adenoidectomy and or tonsillectomy are necessary to reestablish the nasal breathing. We have observed that following adenoidectomy, many children present with vocal hipernasality, even when there is no previous history or complains. In this paper, the authors describe a case of severe hipernasality following adenoidectomy, as well as detailed steps of the speech therapy approach. The risks and sequelae of this vocal condition related to adenoidectomy are also discussed.
Mogi, Chisato; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Fujii, Natsumi; Tsuruta, Tomoyuki; Morita, Naruhiko; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Teshima, Masanori; Kanzawa, Maki; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-Ichi
Carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid is an extremely rare entity accounting for only 1% of all reported ectopic thyroids. Here, we report a case of carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid, which has been successfully managed by transoral resection and bilateral neck dissections. A lingual mass 4-cm in diameter with calcification was incidentally detected by computed tomography at medical check-up. No thyroid tissue was observed in normal position. Ultrasound examination showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies. Fine needle aspiration biopsy from lymph node in his right neck was diagnosed as Class III and thyroglobulin level of the specimen was 459ng/ml. Due to the difficulty in performing FNA of the lingual masses, right neck dissection was performed in advance for diagnostic purpose. Pathological examination showed existence of large and small follicular thyroid tissues in several lymph nodes, suggesting lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. Two months after the initial surgery, video-assisted transoral resection of lingual thyroid with simultaneous left neck dissection was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Papillary carcinoma was found in the lingual thyroid and thyroid tissues were also found in left cervical lymph nodes. Video-assisted transoral resection was useful for the treatment of thyroid cancer arising in lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Casiano, R R; Numa, W A; Nurko, Y J
The efficacy and safety of intraluminal Wallstent Endoprosthesis (Boston Scientific/ Medi-Tech, Quincy, MA) placement to restore airway patency in patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia are unknown. Retrospective review in setting of tertiary, referral, and academic center. A retrospective review of 13 consecutive patients over a 2-year period who underwent transoral resection of tracheal stenosis and immediate transoral Wallstent placement. One patient had tracheomalacia. All of the patients were considered at high risk for transcervical surgery or had failed prior traditional open procedures. The average patient age was 54.2 years, with nine male and four female patients. All had Cotton/Myer stenoses (grades II to IV) with moderate to severe degrees of inspiratory stridor. Four patients were tracheotomy dependent. The length of stenosis varied from 1 to 4 cm. One patient had a 10-cm segment of tracheomalacia. At the time of writing, none of the patients has had a problem with significant migration or extrusion and most of the patients have incorporated the stent well without any short-term obstructive granulation tissue. After a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 4-24 mo). 10 of the 12 patients with stenosis (83%) have remained free of any inspiratory noise during breathing. The one patient with tracheomalacia also has remained free of symptoms. Transoral Wallstents appear to be safe and may be a reasonable alternative in the restoration of airway patency in select patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia.
Buchanan, M A; Riffat, F; Palme, C E
To describe a useful technique for infiltrating a bulking agent using a butterfly needle, as part of a transoral endoscopic vocal fold medialisation procedure. This paper describes the procedure of grasping the needle with phonosurgery forceps and administering the injectate to the vocal fold through careful application of the syringe plunger via a length of rubber tubing from outside the mouth. This procedure is performed routinely in our institution without complication. The advantages of this technique are discussed. This is a safe and easy method of injecting into a vocal fold.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the anesthetic management strategy in children undergoing adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy using low-temperature plasma technology. Methods Sixty ASA status I children scheduled for adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with plasma technology in the First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA from September to December of 2013 were enrolled in this study. After induction with propofol, sufentanil and cisatracurium, the children were randomly divided into combined inhalation and intravenous anesthesia group (CIIA group, n=30 and total intravenous anesthesia group (TIVA group, n=30. In CIIA group, anesthesia was maintained with continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil combined with sevoflurane inhalation during the surgery. In TIVA group, anesthesia was maintained only with continuous infusion of propofol and remifentanil. The hemodynamic changes and time for extubation and leaving operating room were recorded, and the emergence agitation was assessed using Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scale. Results There was no significant difference in hemodynamic changes between the two groups (P>0.05. The total dosages of propofol and remifentanil in TIVA group [10.5±3.4 mg/(kg.h and 16.1±5.3μg/(kg.h, respectively] were significantly higher than those of CIIA group [6.6±2.8 mg/(kg.h, 10.4±4.2 μg/(kg.h, P<0.05]. The times for extubation and leaving operating room were significantly shorter in TIVA group (8.8±3.7min, 6.2±2.9min than in CIIA group (19.8±4.3 min, 13.7±5.2 min, P<0.05, and the rate of emergence agitation during the recovery period in TIVA group (1/30 was significantly less than that in CIIA group (9/30, P<0.05. Conclusion Total intravenous anesthesia with tracheal intubation could shorten the recovery time and lessen the emergence agitation during the recovery period, and it may be used as a safe, feasible and convenient anesthetic strategy for adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy with
An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...
Full Text Available The contents of the retropharyngeal space are limited to fat and retropharyngeal nodes. Primary tumors originating from the retropharyngeal space are rare. More than 25% of schwannomas are found in the head and neck region, and they are rarely found in the retropharyngeal space. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old woman with a schwannoma confined to the left retropharyngeal space, who presented with snoring and a mild lump in the throat sensation. Physical examination revealed anterior bulging of the left oropharyngeal wall, with intact mucosa. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, encapsulated tumor in the left retropharyngeal space with bright signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which was strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration. The tumor was removed through a transoral approach, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time without complications. The pathologic diagnosis was schwannoma. The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 2 years. From anatomic and physiologic viewpoints, excision through a transoral approach is a good choice for a confined retropharyngeal schwannoma.
Full Text Available Actuality: A thorough sanation of the nasopharynx is essential for successful treatment of the exudative otitis media (EOM. The literature describes in detail the state of the nasopharynx after different types of adenoidectomy. The classifications of the location of the remnants of lymphoid tissue and the extent of scarring in the nasopharynx are given.The subject of this work is to trace the relationship of postoperative nasopharyngeal changes with recurrent EOM. Objective: To study the immediate and long-term results of different methods of surgical treatment of hypertrophy of the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue in children with exudative otitis media. Materials and Methods: This paper presents information on the results of treatment of 62 children of 5–7 years suffering from exudative otitis media. Observations were carried out in two groups of patients. The first group included 28 children previously undergone adenoidectomy, with the signs of recurrent exudative otitis. The second group included 34 children with exudative otitis previously untreated surgically. The task of the investigation is to study the effectiveness of endonasal and extranasal methods of surgical removal of nasopharengeal lymphoid tissue with a minimum probability of scar obliteration of the mouth of the Eustachian tube. Results and discussion: The priority method in nasopharengeal surgery in children is extranasal access with shaver technology in conjunction with cold plasma surgery. The using of these methods gives a clear visualization of the operating field under conditions of moderately bleeding wound. On the other hand, endonasal approach is associated with traumatization of the nasal mucosa with incomplete volume visualization of the surgical field. This combination can result in a longer healing of the surgical wound, the formation of adhesions of the nasal cavity and scarring in the nasopharynx. Complete visualization of the operating field significantly
Tiruchy Narayanan Janakiram
Full Text Available Background. Surgical approaches to the parapharyngeal space (PPS are challenging by virtue of deep location and neurovascular content. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA is a formidable hypervascular tumor that involves multiple compartments with increase in size. In tumors with extension to parapharyngeal space, the endonasal approach was observed to be inadequate. Combined Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches and Endoscopic Transoral Surgery (EEA-ETOS approach has provided a customized alternative of multicorridor approach to access JNA for its safe and efficient resection. Methods. The study demonstrates a case series of patients of JNA with prestyloid parapharyngeal space extension operated by endoscopic endonasal and endoscopic transoral approach for tumor excision. Results. The multiport EEA-ETOS approach was used to provide wide exposure to access JNA in parapharyngeal space. No major complications were observed. No conversion to external approach was required. Postoperative morbidity was low and postoperative scans showed no residual tumor. A one-year follow-up was maintained and there was no evidence of disease recurrence. Conclusion. Although preliminary, our experience demonstrates safety and efficacy of multiport approach in providing access to multiple compartments, facilitating total excision of JNA in selected cases.
Stromeyer Frederick W
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the management of bilateral oral ranulas with the use of the da Vinci Si Surgical System and discuss advantages and disadvantages over traditional transoral resection. Study Design Case Report and Review of Literature. Results A 47 year old woman presented to our service with an obvious right floor of mouth swelling. Clinical evaluation and computerized tomography scan confirmed a large floor of mouth ranula on the right and an incidental asymptomatic early ranula of the left sublingual gland. After obtaining an informed consent, the patient underwent a right transoral robotic-assisted transoral excision of the ranula and sublingual gland with identification and dissection of the submandibular duct and lingual nerve. The patient had an excellent outcome with no evidence of lingual nerve paresis and a return to oral intake on the first postoperative day. Subsequently, the patient underwent an elective transoral robotic-assisted excision of the incidental ranula on the left sublingual gland. Conclusion We describe the first robotic-assisted excision of bilateral oral ranulas in current literature. The use of the da Vinci system provides excellent visualization, magnification, and dexterity for transoral surgical management of ranulas with preservation of the lingual nerve and Wharton's duct with good functional outcomes. However, the use of the robotic system for anterior floor of mouth surgery in terms of improved surgical outcomes as compared to traditional transoral surgery, long-term recurrence rates, and cost effectiveness needs further validation.
Costa, D L; Lehmann, J R; Harold, W M; Drew, R T
A fiberoptic laryngoscope which allows direct visualization of the deep pharynx and epiglottis has been developed for transoral tracheal intubation of small laboratory mammals. The device has been employed in the intubation and instillation of a variety of substances into the lungs of rats, and with minor modification, has had similar application in mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs. The simplicity and ease of handling of the laryngoscope permits one person to intubate large numbers of enflurane anesthetized animals either on an open counter top or in a glove-box, as may be required for administration of carcinogenic materials. Instillation of 7Be-labeled carbon particles into the lungs of mice, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs resulted in reasonably consistent interlobal distribution of particles for each test animal species with minimal tracheal deposition. However, actual lung tissue doses of carbon exhibited some species dependence.
Zorron, R; Bothe, C; Junghans, T; Pratschke, J; Benzing, C; Krenzien, F
The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the therapy of choice in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding are showing higher rates of treatment failure, reducing obesity-associated morbidity and body weight insufficiently. Moreover, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can occur refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to RYGB can be reasonable as long as specific conditions are fulfilled.Endoscopic procedures are currently being applied to revise bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20 % of cases. Transoral outlet reduction is the minimally invasive method of choice to reduce gastrojejunal anastomosis of the alimentary limb. The diameter of a gastric sleeve can be unwantedly enlarged as well; that can be reduced by placement of a longitudinal full-thickness suture.Severe hypoglycemic episodes can be present in patients following RYGB. Hypoglycemic episodes have to be diagnosed first and can be treated conventionally. Alternatively, a laparoscopic approach according to Branco-Zorron can be used for non-responders. Hypoglycemic episodes can thus be prevented and body weight reduction can be assured.Conversional and endoscopic procedures can be used in patients with treatment failure following bariatric surgery. Note that non-invasive approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional procedure is performed.
Marchi, Filippo; Piazza, Cesare; Ravanelli, Marco; Gaggero, Giovanna; Parrinello, Giampiero; Paderno, Alberto; Perotti, Pietro; Filauro, Marta; Maroldi, Roberto; Peretti, Giorgio
An unblinded retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was carried out on 138 patients affected by glottic pT2 and selected pT3 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) treated by transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). The entire cohort was divided into two groups: Group A included 78 "high-risk" patients (pT2 with impaired vocal cord mobility, pT3 for anterior paraglottic and/or pre-epiglottic space invasion, presence of angioembolization, perineural spread, and positive lymph nodes in the neck) who underwent postoperative surveillance by endoscopy and imaging (CT or MR), while Group B included 60 "low-risk" patients (pT2 with absence of the above-mentioned features) who underwent endoscopic follow-up alone. Aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic gain in performing combined endoscopic and radiologic surveillance in the "high-risk" group compared to endoscopy alone in the "low-risk" one. There was no significant difference in terms of overall and disease-specific survivals between the two follow-up policies in spite of their different risk profiles. The same was true for organ preservation rate, which was 81% in the "high-risk" and 89% in the "low-risk" group. In contrast, the cumulative probability of disease-free survival was 54% for Group A and 65% for Group B (p = 0.0023). Therefore, our combined endoscopy and imaging surveillance protocol allowed increasing the submucosal recurrence detection rate in "high-risk" pT2-pT3 glottic SCC to 43%. An earlier detection of submucosal recurrences made salvage surgery by TLM feasible in at least half of cases, thus closing the gap between oncologic outcomes obtained in "high-"- vs. "low-risk" patients and leading to organ preservation rates that are favorably comparable to those obtained with open-neck partial laryngectomies and non-surgical organ preservation protocols.
Full Text Available Objective To introduce the surgical techniques of image-guided endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomy to treat basilar invagination with congenital osseous malformations and describe several advantages compared to the traditional transoral procedure. Methods From September 2009 to February 2010, two cases with basilar invagination, of which the etiology was congenital osseous malformations, underwent endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomy. Case 2 also received occipitocervical fixation and bone fusion during the same surgical episode to ensure stability. The clinical symptoms of the two cases were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score for the evaluation of cervical myelopathy. Results Both patients were extubated after recovery from anesthesia and allowed oral food intake the next day. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea was found in the second case and cured by continuous lumber drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. No infection was noted. The average follow?up time was more than 24 months. Remarkable neurological recovery was observed at postoperation in both patients. The JOA scores elevated from preoperative 12 and 8 to postoperative 17 and 15. Conclusion The endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomy is a more minimally invasive approach for anterior decompression of cervicomedullary with basilar invagination. The advantages over the standard transoral odontoidectomy include visualization improvement, elimination of risk of tongue swelling and teeth damaging, alleviation of prolonged intubation, reduction of need for enteral tube feeding, and less risk of affecting phonation.
Reaungamornrat, S; Liu, W P; Otake, Y; Uneri, A; Siewerdsen, J H; Taylor, R H; Wang, A S; Nithiananthan, S; Schafer, S; Tryggestad, E; Richmon, J; Sorger, J M
Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers a minimally invasive approach to resection of base-of-tongue tumors. However, precise localization of the surgical target and adjacent critical structures can be challenged by the highly deformed intraoperative setup. We propose a deformable registration method using intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to accurately align preoperative CT or MR images with the intraoperative scene. The registration method combines a Gaussian mixture (GM) model followed by a variation of the Demons algorithm. First, following segmentation of the volume of interest (i.e. volume of the tongue extending to the hyoid), a GM model is applied to surface point clouds for rigid initialization (GM rigid) followed by nonrigid deformation (GM nonrigid). Second, the registration is refined using the Demons algorithm applied to distance map transforms of the (GM-registered) preoperative image and intraoperative CBCT. Performance was evaluated in repeat cadaver studies (25 image pairs) in terms of target registration error (TRE), entropy correlation coefficient (ECC) and normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI). Retraction of the tongue in the TORS operative setup induced gross deformation >30 mm. The mean TRE following the GM rigid, GM nonrigid and Demons steps was 4.6, 2.1 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The respective ECC was 0.57, 0.70 and 0.73, and NPMI was 0.46, 0.57 and 0.60. Registration accuracy was best across the superior aspect of the tongue and in proximity to the hyoid (by virtue of GM registration of surface points on these structures). The Demons step refined registration primarily in deeper portions of the tongue further from the surface and hyoid bone. Since the method does not use image intensities directly, it is suitable to multi-modality registration of preoperative CT or MR with intraoperative CBCT. Extending the 3D image registration to the fusion of image and planning data in stereo-endoscopic video is anticipated to
Liu, Wendy Sijia; Limmer, Alex; Jabbour, Joe; Clark, Jonathan
Trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS) is emerging as a minimally invasive alternative to open surgery, or trans-oral laser surgery, for the treatment of some head and neck pathologies, particularly oropharyngeal carcinoma, which is rapidly increasing in incidence. In this article we review current evidence regarding the use of TORS in head and neck surgery in a manner relevant to general practice. This information may be used to facilitate discussion with patients. Compared with open surgery or trans-oral laser surgery, TORS has numerous advantages, including no scarring, less blood loss, fewer complications, lower rates of admission to the intensive care unit, and reduced length of hospitalisation. The availability of TORS in Australia is currently limited and, therefore, public awareness about TORS is lacking. Details regarding the role of TORS and reliable, up-to-date, patient-friendly information sources are discussed in this article.
Ansarin, Mohssen; Tagliabue, Marta; Chu, Francesco; Zorzi, Stefano; Proh, Michele; Preda, Lorenzo
Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are very rare, representing about 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. An external surgical approach is mainly used. Several recent papers show how transoral robotic surgery (TORS) excision could be a prospective tool to remove mainly benign lesions in PPS; no cases of neurogenic tumors from the retrostyloid space treated with TORS have been reported. We present two cases which underwent TORS for schwannomas from the retrostyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. Clinical diagnosis of schwannoma was performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the first case a 6 cm neurogenic tumor arose from the vagus nerve and in the second case a 5 cm mass from the sympathetic chain was observed. Both cases were treated successfully by the TORS approach using a new “J”-shaped incision through the mucosa and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Left vocal cord palsy and the Claude Bernard Horner syndrome, respectively, were observed as expected postsurgical sequelae. In case 1 the first bite syndrome developed after three months, while no complications were observed in case 2. Both patients regained a normal swallowing function. TORS seems to be a feasible mini-invasive procedure for benign PPS masses including masses in the poststyloid space. PMID:25202464
Full Text Available Parapharyngeal space (PPS tumors are very rare, representing about 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. An external surgical approach is mainly used. Several recent papers show how transoral robotic surgery (TORS excision could be a prospective tool to remove mainly benign lesions in PPS; no cases of neurogenic tumors from the retrostyloid space treated with TORS have been reported. We present two cases which underwent TORS for schwannomas from the retrostyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. Clinical diagnosis of schwannoma was performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In the first case a 6 cm neurogenic tumor arose from the vagus nerve and in the second case a 5 cm mass from the sympathetic chain was observed. Both cases were treated successfully by the TORS approach using a new “J”-shaped incision through the mucosa and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Left vocal cord palsy and the Claude Bernard Horner syndrome, respectively, were observed as expected postsurgical sequelae. In case 1 the first bite syndrome developed after three months, while no complications were observed in case 2. Both patients regained a normal swallowing function. TORS seems to be a feasible mini-invasive procedure for benign PPS masses including masses in the poststyloid space.
Hans, S; Delas, B; Gorphe, P; Ménard, M; Brasnu, D
Robots have invaded industry and, more recently, the field of medicine. Following the development of various prototypes, Intuitive Surgical® has developed the Da Vinci surgical robot. This robot, designed for abdominal surgery, has been widely used in urology since 2000. The many advantages of this transoral robotic surgery (TORS) are described in this article. Its disadvantages are essentially its high cost and the absence of tactile feedback. The first feasibility studies in head and neck cancer, conducted in animals, dummies and cadavers, were performed in 2005, followed by the first publications in patients in 2006. The first series including more than 20 patients treated by TORS demonstrated the feasibility for the following sites: oropharynx, supraglottic larynx and hypopharynx. However, these studies did not validate the oncological results of the TORS technique. TORS decreases the number of tracheotomies, and allows more rapid swallowing rehabilitation and a shorter length of hospital stay. Technical improvements are expected. Smaller, more ergonomic, new generation robots, therefore more adapted to the head and neck, will probably be available in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An estimated 10 billion dollars is spent treating gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the USA every year. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF using the EsophyX™ device in the surgical treatment of GERD.
Gorphe, Philippe; Von Tan, Jean; El Bedoui, Sophie; Hartl, Dana M; Auperin, Anne; Qassemyar, Quentin; Moya-Plana, Antoine; Janot, François; Julieron, Morbize; Temam, Stephane
The latest generation Da Vinci ® Xi™ Surgical System Robot released has not been evaluated to date in transoral surgery for head and neck cancers. We report here the 1-year results of a non-randomized phase II multicentric prospective trial aimed at assessing its feasibility and technical specificities. Our primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of transoral robotic surgery using the da Vinci ® Xi™ Surgical System Robot. The secondary objective was to assess peroperative outcomes. Twenty-seven patients, mean age 62.7 years, were included between May 2015 and June 2016 with tumors affecting the following sites: oropharynx (n = 21), larynx (n = 4), hypopharynx (n = 1), parapharyngeal space (n = 1). Eighteen patients were included for primary treatment, three for a local recurrence, and six for cancer in a previously irradiated field. Three were reconstructed with a FAMM flap and 6 with a free ALT flap. The mean docking time was 12 min. "Chopsticking" of surgical instruments was very rare. During hospitalization following surgery, 3 patients experienced significant bleeding between day 8 and 9 that required surgical transoral hemostasis (n = 1) or endovascular embolization (n = 2). Transoral robotic surgery using the da Vinci ® Xi™ Surgical System Robot proved feasible with technological improvements compared to previous generation surgical system robots and with a similar postoperative course. Further technological progress is expected to be of significant benefit to the patients.
Full Text Available We present the case of a ten-year-old female patient referred to Gastroenterolgy consultation for abdominal pain and cramping, usually worse after eating, recurring diarrhoea, hypochromic and microcytic anaemia with low serum iron and ferritin levels. Moderate to severe Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum e right colon (L3 was diagnosed, based on endoscopic image and biopsy. The patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine, but after one year of treatment she was steroids dependent and treatment was switched to infliximab. One year after beginning this treatment, the patient achieved remission (clinical and laboratorial parameters. A control colonoscopy showed mucosal healing with scars and deformation with stenosis of ileocecal valve (Figures 1-2. Surgical intervention will be probably necessary in near future.
Full Text Available Endoscopic ampullectomy offers a minimally invasive method of effectively treating non-invasive neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater and surrounding peri-ampullary region with high success and relative safety. These lesions would otherwise require surgical intervention, including pancreatico-duodenectomy. However, major complications may occur and a careful assessment of the patients comorbidities and their ability to tolerate adverse events needs to be factored into the treatment decision. Careful staging, often multi-modality is required, particularly for extensive lesions. Complete en-bloc excision of the entire neoplasm should be the goal with conventional papillary adenomas. Large lesions with extra-papillary extension currently require extended piecemeal excision, however with meticulous technique, recurrence is uncommon in longterm follow up.
Konofaos, Petros; Hammond, Sarah; Ver Halen, Jon P; Samant, Sandeep
Although the use of transoral robotic surgery for tumor extirpation is expanding, little is known about national trends in the reconstruction of resultant defects. An 18-question electronic survey was created by an expert panel of surgeons from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the University of Tennessee. Eligible participants were identified by the American Head and Neck Society Web site and from the Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Web site after review of surgeons trained in transoral robotic surgery techniques. Twenty-three of 27 preselected head and neck surgeons (85.18 percent) completed the survey. All respondents use transoral robotic surgery for head and neck tumor extirpation. The majority of the respondents [n = 17 (77.3 percent)] did not use any means of reconstruction. With respect to methods of reconstruction following transoral robotic surgery defects, the majority [n = 4 (80.0 percent)] used a free flap, a pedicled local flap [n = 3 (60.0 percent)], or a distant flap [n = 3 (60.0 percent)]. The radial forearm flap was the most commonly used free flap by all respondents. In general, the majority of survey respondents allow defects to heal secondarily or close primarily. Based on this survey, consensus indications for pedicled or free tissue transfer following transoral robotic surgery defects were primary head and neck tumors (stage T3 and T4a), pharyngeal defects with exposure of vital structures, and prior irradiation or chemoradiation to the operative site and neck.
Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded
To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.
Abdelfattah, Hesham Mostafa; Ahmed, Mohammed Elrabie; Ahmed, Mona El-Rabie; Ahmed, Mohamed Abd El-Kader; Moussa, Abd-Elmateen
Pyriform sinus malformations represent rare third and fourth branchial anomalies. Fistulae at the latter site were initially described and make up less than 1 % of all brachial anomalies. They may be discovered incidentally, or may present as a neck mass with recurrent infection, dysphagia, or airway compromise, and can be an unusual cause of dysphonia in infant and children. Here, we present a case of third branchial cyst located in pharyngeal wall of the left pyriform sinus which presented with dysphonia since birth in a 6-year-old girl. Transoral CO2 laser excision was carried out successfully with no communicating tract. The patient's dysphonia showed progressive regression at 1-year follow-up. Third branchial cyst in the left pyriform sinus (Bailey's type IV) is an unusual cause of dysphonia in pediatric. Our present case report is the first brachial cyst to be reported in the pyriform fossa and the second branchial anomalies to be excised transorally with CO2 laser.
Russell, Jonathon O; Noureldine, Salem I; Al Khadem, Mai G; Chaudhary, Hamad A; Day, Andrew T; Kim, Hoon Yub; Tufano, Ralph P; Richmon, Jeremy D
Transoral thyroid surgery allows the surgeon to conceal incisions within the oral cavity without significantly increasing the amount of required dissection. TORT provides an ideal scarless, midline access to the thyroid gland and bilateral central neck compartments. This approach, however, presents multiple technical challenges. Herein, we present our experience using the latest generation robotic surgical system to accomplish transoral robotic thyroidectomy (TORT). In two human cadavers, the da Vinci Xi surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was used to complete TORT. Total thyroidectomy and bilateral central neck dissection was successfully completed in both cadavers. The da Vinci Xi platform offered several technologic advantages over previous robotic generations including overhead docking, narrower arms, and improved range of motion allowing for improved execution of previously described TORT techniques.
Swaney, Philip J; Mahoney, Arthur W; Hartley, Bryan I; Remirez, Andria A; Lamers, Erik; Feins, Richard H; Alterovitz, Ron; Webster, Robert J
Lung cancer is the most deadly form of cancer in part because of the challenges associated with accessing nodules for diagnosis and therapy. Transoral access is preferred to percutaneous access since it has a lower risk of lung collapse, yet many sites are currently unreachable transorally due to limitations with current bronchoscopic instruments. Toward this end, we present a new robotic system for image-guided trans-bronchoscopic lung access. The system uses a bronchoscope to navigate in the airway and bronchial tubes to a site near the desired target, a concentric tube robot to move through the bronchial wall and aim at the target, and a bevel-tip steerable needle with magnetic tracking to maneuver through lung tissue to the target under closed-loop control. In this work, we illustrate the workflow of our system and show accurate targeting in phantom experiments. Ex vivo porcine lung experiments show that our steerable needle can be tuned to achieve appreciable curvature in lung tissue. Lastly, we present targeting results with our system using two scenarios based on patient cases. In these experiments, phantoms were created from patient-specific computed tomography information and our system was used to target the locations of suspicious nodules, illustrating the ability of our system to reach sites that are traditionally inaccessible transorally.
Zahoor, T; Dawson, R; Sen, M; Makura, Z
The choices made by patients offered treatment for early laryngeal cancer with radiotherapy or transoral laser resection were reviewed. A prospective review was conducted of all patients diagnosed and treated for early laryngeal carcinoma from December 2002 to September 2009 at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. A total of 209 patients with tumour stage T1 or T2 laryngeal cancer were treated; each new patient suitable for radiotherapy or transoral laser resection was seen jointly by the clinical (radiation) oncologist and head and neck surgeon, and offered the choice of treatment. Of the patients, 47.4 per cent were given a choice between radiotherapy and transoral laser resection; 51.2 per cent were advised to have radiotherapy, and there were no records for the remaining 1.4 per cent. From those given the choice, 59.6 per cent chose transoral laser resection (p < 0.02 (t-test)) and 35.4 per cent chose radiotherapy. When given the choice, a statistically significant majority of patients choose transoral laser resection rather than radiotherapy.
Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Ponchon, Thierry
evidence). 2 ESGE recommends endoscopic resection with a curative intent for visible lesions in Barrett's esophagus (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). ESD has not been shown to be superior to EMR for excision of mucosal cancer, and for that reason EMR should be preferred. ESD may...... RECOMMENDATIONS: 1 ESGE recommends endoscopic en bloc resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell cancers (SCCs), excluding those with obvious submucosal involvement (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) may be considered in such lesions when...
Piedra, Mark P; Hunt, Matthew A; Nemecek, Andrew N
Early fixation of type II odontoid fractures has been shown to provide high rates of long-term stabilization and osteosynthesis. In this report, the authors present the case of a patient with a locked type II odontoid fracture treated by anterior screw fixation facilitated by closed transoral and posterior cervical manual reduction. While transoral intraoperative reduction of a partially displaced odontoid fracture has previously been described, the authors present the first case utilizing this technique in the treatment of a completely dislocated type II odontoid fracture.
Miller, Bethany H. T., E-mail: email@example.com [Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Preston Hospital, Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Ewen A., E-mail: Eagriffiths@doctors.org.uk [The New Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (United Kingdom); Pursnani, Kishore G., E-mail: Kish.Pursnani@lthtr.nhs.uk; Ward, Jeremy B., E-mail: Jeremy.Ward@lthtr.nhs.uk [Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Preston Hospital, Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (United Kingdom); Stockwell, Robert C., E-mail: Robert.Stockwell@lthtr.nhs.uk [Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Chorley and South Ribble Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)
IntroductionSelf-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) are used to palliate malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and are useful in patients with limited life expectancy or severe medical comorbidity, which would preclude surgery. Stenting can be performed transorally or by a percutaneous transgastric technique. Our goal was to review the outcome of patients who underwent radiological SEMS insertion performed by a single consultant interventional radiologist. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database held by one consultant radiologist. Data were retrieved from radiological reports, multidisciplinary team meetings, and the patients' case notes. Univariate survival analysis was performed. Results: Between December 2000 and January 2011, 100 patients (63 males, 37 females) had 110 gastroduodenal stenting procedures. Median age was 73 (range 39-89) years. SEMS were inserted transorally (n = 66) or transgastrically (n = 44). Site of obstruction was the stomach (n = 37), duodenum (n = 50), gastric pull-up (n = 10), or gastroenterostomy (n = 13). Seven patients required biliary stents. Technical success was 86.4 %: 83.3 % for transoral insertion, 90.9 % for transgastric insertion. Eleven patients developed complications. Median GOO severity score: 1 pre-stenting, 2 post-stenting (p = 0.0001). Median survival was 54 (range 1-624) days. Post-stenting GOO severity score was predictive of survival (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The technical success rate for insertion of palliative SEMS is high. Insertional technique can be tailored to the individual depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is possible to access the stomach percutaneously. Patients who have successful stenting and return to eating a soft/normal diet have a statistically significant increase in survival.
Miller, Bethany H. T.; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Pursnani, Kishore G.; Ward, Jeremy B.; Stockwell, Robert C.
IntroductionSelf-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) are used to palliate malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and are useful in patients with limited life expectancy or severe medical comorbidity, which would preclude surgery. Stenting can be performed transorally or by a percutaneous transgastric technique. Our goal was to review the outcome of patients who underwent radiological SEMS insertion performed by a single consultant interventional radiologist. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database held by one consultant radiologist. Data were retrieved from radiological reports, multidisciplinary team meetings, and the patients’ case notes. Univariate survival analysis was performed. Results: Between December 2000 and January 2011, 100 patients (63 males, 37 females) had 110 gastroduodenal stenting procedures. Median age was 73 (range 39–89) years. SEMS were inserted transorally (n = 66) or transgastrically (n = 44). Site of obstruction was the stomach (n = 37), duodenum (n = 50), gastric pull-up (n = 10), or gastroenterostomy (n = 13). Seven patients required biliary stents. Technical success was 86.4 %: 83.3 % for transoral insertion, 90.9 % for transgastric insertion. Eleven patients developed complications. Median GOO severity score: 1 pre-stenting, 2 post-stenting (p = 0.0001). Median survival was 54 (range 1–624) days. Post-stenting GOO severity score was predictive of survival (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The technical success rate for insertion of palliative SEMS is high. Insertional technique can be tailored to the individual depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is possible to access the stomach percutaneously. Patients who have successful stenting and return to eating a soft/normal diet have a statistically significant increase in survival
Sathya Kumar Devireddy
Full Text Available Introduction: Mandibular fractures represent approximately two-thirds of all the maxillofacial fractures (nearly 70% out of which fractures of mandibular angle represent for 26-35%. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to compare the transoral and extraoral (submandibular approaches for fixation of mandibular angle fractures. Objectives of Study: The objectives of the following study are to evaluate ease of accessibility, time taken for the procedure, ease of anatomic reduction and complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 30 patients reporting to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh during the period of months from November 2011 to August 2013 who were randomly divided in two groups based on computer generated simple randomization chart. Group I patients underwent transoral reduction and fixation and Group II patients underwent extraoral reduction and fixation. The ease of accessibility was analysed by visual analogue scale by the operating surgeon, time taken from incision to closure with digital clock, difficulty level index of surgeon based on the time taken for the procedure and approach related complications. Results: The ease of accessibility in Group I was good in 53.3% while in Group II patients approached extraorally it was good in 86.7%. Group I patients approached transorally showed a mean of 49.7 min while that of Group II patients approached extraorally showed a mean of 73.4 min. Group I had a minimum difficulty level index in 60%, moderate difficulty level in 33.3% and severe difficulty level in 6.7% while Group II had a minimum and moderate difficulty level in 46.7% and severe difficulty level in 6.7%. There was 1 (6.7% complication reported in each group. Conclusion: The statistical analysis of this study concludes that fracture line starting anterior to mandibular third molar and ending at anteroinferior border of
Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I
The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.
Robb, P J; Bew, S; Kubba, H; Murphy, N; Primhak, R; Rollin, A-M; Tremlett, M
During 2008, ENT-UK received a number of professional enquiries from colleagues about the management of children with upper airway obstruction and uncomplicated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). These children with sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) are usually referred to paediatricians and ENT surgeons. In some district general hospitals, (DGHs) where paediatric intensive care (PICU) facilities to ventilate children were not available, paediatrician and anaesthetist colleagues were expressing concern about children with a clinical diagnosis of OSA having routine tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy. As BAPO President, I was asked by the ENT-UK President, Professor Richard Ramsden, to investigate the issues and rapidly develop a working consensus statement to support safe but local treatment of these children. The Royal Colleges of Anaesthetists and Paediatrics and Child Health and the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists nominated expert members from both secondary and tertiary care to contribute and develop a consensus statement based on the limited evidence base available. Our terms of reference were to produce a statement that was brief, with a limited number of references, to inform decision-making at the present time. With patient safety as the first priority, the working party wished to support practice that facilitated referral to a tertiary centre of those children who could be expected, on clinical assessment alone, potentially to require PICU facilities. In contrast, the majority of children who could be safely managed in a secondary care setting should be managed closer to home in a DGH. BAPO, ENT-UK, APA, RCS-CSF and RCoA have endorsed the consensus statement; the RCPCH has no mechanism for endorsing consensus statements, but the RCPCH Clinical Effectiveness Committee reviewed the statement, concluding it was a 'concise, accurate and helpful document'. The consensus statement is an interim working tool, based on level-five evidence. It
Rodrigo, J.P.; Shah, J.P.; Silver, C.E.; Medina, J.E.; Takes, R.P.; Robbins, K.T.; Rinaldo, A.; Werner, J.A.; Ferlito, A.
The decision regarding treatment of the clinically negative neck has been debated extensively. This is particularly true with early-stage tumors for which surgery is the treatment of choice, and the tumor has been resected transorally without a cervical incision. Elective neck dissection in this
Paulo Castro Soares
Full Text Available Complete pharyngo-oesophageal stricture (PES after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer is a relatively rare and difficult complication to manage. Historically this condition has been treated surgically, but endoscopic approaches are now available. We present a 61-year-old man with an epidermoid carcinoma of the supraglottic stage and a micro-invasive epidermoid carcinoma of the oropharynx treated surgically and subsequently by adjuvant radiotherapy. Eight months after the end of the radiotherapy, a complete PES was diagnosed and treated with a combined anterograde-retrograde endoscopic dilation (CARD. The procedure was performed using a transoral anterograde progression with a rigid pharyngoscope and a retrograde progression with an extra-slim nasal endoscope using the percutaneous gastrostomy already in place. Using both transillumination and direct visualisation from both sides of the complete stenosis patency was restored between the neopharynx and the oesophagus. Despite the use of an endoprosthesis, the complete PES recurred and the technique had to be performed a second time. Illustrating the complexity of the case different types of endoprosthesis and several dilations had to be performed for our patient to achieve and maintain a normal oral intake. This case report illustrates that even in complicated recurrent radiation-induced complete PES a CARD can be performed safely and successfully using different types of endoprosthesis.
Full Text Available The management of parapharyngeal tumor is surgical, but the approach remains a challenge. Attention should be paid to avoidance intra-operative bleeding or cranial nerves damage. We report a case of a 67-year-old male complaining of left-ear fullness. A submucosal mass arising from the lateral wall of oropharynx on the left side was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass arising from the parotid gland, in particular from the deep lobe, and a fine needle biopsy was compatible with “Warthin tumor.” We performed a mini-invasive transoral approach under magnification, previous isolation of homolateral vessels. The decision on which surgical approach to be used is determined by site, size vascularity, and histology of the tumor. A literature review of the main surgical approaches was performed. We performed a combined transoral dissection under magnification with cervicotomic exposure of the neck vascular bundle allowing to dissect the tumor and manage any intra-operative complications.
van Vilsteren, Frederike G. I.; Pouw, Roos E.; Herrero, Lorenza Alvarez; Bisschops, Raf; Houben, Martin; Peters, Frans T. M.; Schenk, B. E.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Schoon, Erik J.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.
Background: Endoscopic resection is the cornerstone of endoscopic management of esophageal early neoplasia. However, endoscopic resection is a complex technique requiring knowledge and expertise. Our aims were to identify the most important learning points in performing endoscopic resection in a
Fricke, Bradley L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shott, Sally R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)
Fricke, Bradley L.; Donnelly, Lane F.; Shott, Sally R.; Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S.
Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)
Capaccio, P; Gaffuri, M; Rossi, V; Pignataro, L
It has been suggested that a conservative trans-oral approach to proximal and hilo-parenchymal submandibular stones (HPSMS) is a valid alternative to the more frequently used sialadenectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical, ultrasonographic and patients' subjective outcomes of results of the trans-oral removal of HPSMS. Between January 2003 and September 2015, sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery was used to remove symptomatic, large (> 7 mm), fixed and palpable HPSMS from 479 patients under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed clinically and ultrasonographically to investigate symptom relief and recurrence of stones, and were telephonically interviewed to assess saliva-related subjective outcomes with a questionnaire. Stones were successfully removed from 472 patients (98.5%); the seven failures (1.5%) concerned pure parenchymal stones. One year after the procedure, 408 patients (85.1%) were symptom free, 59 (12.3%) had recurrent obstructive symptoms and 12 (2.6%) had recurrent infections. Of the 54 patients who developed a recurrent stone (11.2%), 52 underwent a second procedure: 29 interventional sialendoscopies, two sialendoscope-assisted intra-corporeal pneumatic lithotripsy, eight secondary transoral surgery to remove residual stones, six a cycle of extra-corporeal lithotripsy and seven submandibular sialadenectomy. Most patients (75.2%) reported mild surgery-related pain. The symptoms of 454 patients (94.8%) improved after adjunctive treatment and, at the end of follow-up, the affected gland was preserved in 98.5% of patients. A sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral removal of large HPSMS is a safe, effective, conservative surgical procedure, and functional preservation of the main duct and parenchyma of the obstructed gland allows sialendoscopic access through the natural ostium in case of recurrence. Combining a trans-oral approach with other minimally invasive, conservative procedures ensures symptomatic relief and salivary
J. C. Andreu Ballester
Full Text Available Introduction: tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, is one of the most frequent surgical procedures generally performed, especially in young patients. Several studies suggest that there is a relationship between tonsillectomy and altered MALT immune system. Objective: to examine the possible association between tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy and the risk of subsequent appendicitis. Material and method: a cross-sectional study was performed in 650 patients admitted to the emergency department of a general hospital in Valencia, Spain. Previous history of tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy was related to a history of appendectomy. A descriptive study and an analysis of the relationship between previous operations and appendicitis was performed. A multivariable analysis controlled for age and sex was also performed, including the possible interaction of the gender variable. The independent effect of each of the procedures (tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy was tested. Results: the 25.5% of patients had undergone tonsillectomy and 11.5% adenoidectomy; 17.5% had had an appendectomy. On average, women were operated on more frequently than men. In the bivariate analysis, both tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were significantly associated with subsequent appendectomy. In the multivariate analysis, this association was only maintained for tonsillectomy (OR: 3.23; 95% CI: 2.11-4.94. A stratified analysis controlling for sex showed a modification of this effect, with a higher association in women (OR: 5.20; 95% CI: 2.91-9.28 than in men (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.90-3.39. Conclusions: a clear association has been found, especially in women, between previous tonsillectomy and subsequent acute appendicitis. Due to a lack of data on acute appendicitis there should be further studies to explain the findings of this study, as this could be the first described risk factor of acute appendicitis.Introducción: la amigdalectomía, sola o acompañada de adenoidectom
Vaught, Meghan E; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; deLaforcade, Armelle M
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (C stat ) and static resistance (R stat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of mechanics, as observed by a reduction in C stat , presumably due to airway flooding and collapse. While no long-lasting effects were noted in these clinical patients, this effect should be considered when performing TOTW on dogs with respiratory diseases. Respiratory mechanics testing using a CCV was feasible and may be a useful clinical testing approach.
Lindert, E.J. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.
OBJECTIVE: To describe a new endoscope shaft developed for suction-aspiration during endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: A custom-made shaft for a Wolf endoscope (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) was developed with a height of 10 mm and a width of 5 mm, allowing an
Pradier, Olivier; Christiansen, Hans; Schmidberger, Heinz; Martin, Alexios; Jaeckel, Martin C.; Steiner, Wolfgang; Ambrosch, Petra; Kahler, Elke; Hess, Clemens F.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to show that a less invasive surgery with organ preservation in combination with radiotherapy is an alternative to a radical treatment. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000, 208 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after surgical CO 2 laser resection. Primary sites included oral cavity, 38; oropharynx, 88; larynx, 36; hypopharynx, 46. Disease stages were as follows: Stage III, 40 patients; Stage IV, 168 patients. Before 1994, the treatment consisted of a split-course radiotherapy with carboplatinum (Treatment A). After 1994, the patients received a conventional radiotherapy (Treatment B). Results: Patients had 5-year locoregional control and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates of 68% and 48%, respectively. The 5-year DSS was 70% and 44% for Stages III and IV, respectively (p = 0.00127). Patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater or equal to 13.5 g/dL before radiotherapy had a 5-year DSS of 55% as compared with 39% for patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater than 13.5 g/dL (p = 0.0054). Conclusion: In this series of patients with advanced head-and-neck tumors, transoral laser surgery in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in locoregional control and DSS rates similar to those reported for radical surgery followed by radiotherapy. Treatment B has clearly been superior to Treatment A. A further improvement of our treatment regimen might be expected by the combination of adjuvant radiotherapy with concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy
Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R
Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.
Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Fischer, Andreas; Schmidt, Arthur
Colorectal adenomas are well known precursors of invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for adenoma detection. Colonoscopy is far more than a diagnostic tool, as it allows effective treatment of colorectal adenomas. Endoscopic resection of colorectal adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Difficult resection techniques are available, such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic full-thickness resection. This review aims to provide an overview of the different endoscopic resection techniques and their indications, and summarizes the current recommendations in the recently published guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
Effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine with intravenous anesthesia on postoperative emergence agitation/delirium in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy: A CONSORT-prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.
Cao, Jun-Li; Pei, Yu-Ping; Wei, Jing-Qiu; Zhang, Yue-Ying
Postoperative emergence agitation/delirium (POED) is a common complication in pediatric surgery patients, which increases the risk of developing postoperative airway obstruction and respiratory depression. This study aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine (DEX) and its effects on POED in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy.Sixty patients scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, aged 2 to 8 years, were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n = 30). Pediatric patients in the group DEX received intravenous (IV) DEX 1 μg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h continuous infusion, and the same volume of 0.9% saline was administrated in the group control. Anesthesia was maintained with target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanyl. Intraoperative heart rate (HR), noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP), blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), recovery time, and extubation time were recorded. Pain level was evaluated using the objective pain score (OPS), pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) scale and Cole 5-point scale (CPS) was used to evaluate POED when patients at 0, 5, 15 minutes, and then at intervals of 15 minutes for 60 minutes after parents arrival at postanesthesia care unit (PACU).The results showed that intraoperative HR was significantly lower in group DEX (P pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, without adverse hemodynamic effects, though the lower incidence of POED was not observed.
Beall, Douglas P.; Martin, Hal D.; Stapp, Annette M.; Stanfield, Matthew
The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure used to treat vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis, metastatic lesions, multiple myeloma, and benign but destabilizing bone tumors. The injection of PMMA into the C2 vertebral body using the transoral technique has been reported in three separate patients for treatment of benign tumors (a vertebral hemangioma and an aneurysmal bone cyst) and for multiple myeloma in the third patient. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is most commonly performed to treat benign vertebral compression fractures, a transoral C2 approach has not been reported in the English literature as a treatment for a benign fracture of C2. We report the treatment of a fracture and nonunion of the base of the dens and a subarticular fracture of the vertebral body of C2 using a bilateral transoral approach. (orig.)
Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.
Smart, Christopher J; Cunningham, Chris; Bach, Simon P
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a well established method of accurate resection of specimens from the rectum under binocular vision. This review examines its role in the treatment of benign conditions of the rectum and the evidence to support its use and compliment existing endoscopic treatments. The evolution of TEMS in early rectal cancer and the concepts and outcomes of how it has been utilised to treat patients so far are presented. The bespoke nature of early rectal cancer treatment is changing the standard algorithms of rectal cancer care. The future of TEMS in the organ preserving treatment of early rectal cancer is discussed and how as clinicians we are able to select the correct patients for neoadjuvant or radical treatments accurately. The role of radiotherapy and outcomes from combination treatment using TEMS are presented with suggestions for areas of future research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A couple of minimally-invasive, endoscopic antireflux procedures have been developed during the last years. Beside endoscopic suturing these included injection/implantation technique of biopolymers and application of radiofrequency. Radiofrequency (Stretta) has proved only a very modest effect, while implantation techniques have been abandoned due to lack of long-term efficacy (Gatekeeper) or serious side effects (Enteryx). While first generation endoluminal suturing techniques (EndoCinch, ESD) demonstrated a proof of principle their lack of durability, due to suture loss, led to the development of a potentially durable transmural plication technique (Plicator). In a prospective-randomized, sham-controlled trial the Plicator procedure proved superiority concerning reflux symptoms, medication use and esophageal acid exposure (24-h-pH-metry). While long-term data have to be awaited to draw final conclusions, technical improvements will drive innovation in this field.
Harewood, Gavin C
The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.
Gessner, C E; Jowell, P S; Baillie, J
The development of past, present, and future endoscopic training methods is described. A historical perspective of endoscopy training guidelines and devices is used to demonstrate support for the use of novel endoscopic training techniques. Computer simulation of endoscopy, interactive learning, and virtual reality applications in endoscopy and surgery are reviewed. The goals of endoscopic simulation and challenges facing investigators in this field are discussed, with an emphasis on current and future research.
Full Text Available Background. Subcutaneous lipomas that occur in the trunk and proximal extremities are commonly dissected by low-invasive method. However, a standard surgical method for lipomas of the epiglottis has been absent. Microscopic laryngeal surgery is appropriate to extirpate small epiglottic lipomas. However, microscopic laryngeal surgery may be insufficient for giant epiglottic lipomas because there is restricted visualization of the operating field of the tumor under the microscope. Furthermore, microscopic surgical instruments are very small to manipulate giant lipomas, and it would be excessive to approach these lipomas via external cervical incisions. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old female presented with a giant lipoma on the lingual surface of the epiglottis. Following a tracheotomy, microscopic surgery was inadequate to manipulate the epiglottic lipoma. Instead, we performed macroscopic surgery in which the epiglottic lipoma was pulled into the oral cavity with forceps and then separated from the surrounding tissues using the surgeon’s finger to dissect the tumor en bloc. Conclusion. The low-invasive method of transoral finger dissection enabled the giant lipoma to be extirpated without leaving any remnants or causing excessive epiglottic damage.
Harris, A T; Tanyi, A; Hart, R D; Trites, J; Rigby, M H; Lancaster, J; Nicolaides, A; Taylor, S M
Transoral laser microsurgery applies to the piecemeal removal of malignant tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract using the CO 2 laser under the operating microscope. This method of surgery is being increasingly popularised as a single modality treatment of choice in early laryngeal cancers (T1 and T2) and occasionally in the more advanced forms of the disease (T3 and T4), predominantly within the supraglottis. Thomas Kuhn, the American physicist turned philosopher and historian of science, coined the phrase 'paradigm shift' in his groundbreaking book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. He argued that the arrival of the new and often incompatible idea forms the core of a new paradigm, the birth of an entirely new way of thinking. This article discusses whether Steiner and colleagues truly brought about a paradigm shift in oncological surgery. By rejecting the principle of en block resection and by replacing it with the belief that not only is it oncologically safe to cut through the substance of the tumour but in doing so one can actually achieve better results, Steiner was able to truly revolutionise the management of laryngeal cancer. Even though within this article the repercussions of his insight are limited to the upper aerodigestive tract oncological surgery, his willingness to question other peoples' dogma makes his contribution truly a genuine paradigm shift.
Mora, Francesco; Missale, Francesco; Incandela, Fabiola; Filauro, Marta; Parrinello, Giampiero; Paderno, Alberto; Della Casa, Palmiro; Piazza, Cesare; Peretti, Giorgio
Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC) can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position. We reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed. Significant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B ( p = 0.04). A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A), although no statistical significance was achieved. Use of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.
Full Text Available BackgroundTransoral laser microsurgery (TLM for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position.MethodsWe reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed.ResultsSignificant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B (p = 0.04. A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A, although no statistical significance was achieved.ConclusionUse of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.
Deshpande, Nikhil; Chauhan, Manish; Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S
In this paper, a novel, motorized, multi-degrees-of-freedom (DoF), microsurgical forceps tool is presented, which is based on a master-slave teleoperation architecture. The slave device is a 7-DoF manipulator with: (i) 6-DoF positioning and orientation, (ii) 1 open/close gripper DoF; and (iii) an integrated force/torque sensor for tissue grip-force measurement. The master device is a 7-DoF haptic interface which teleoperates the slave device, and provides haptic feedback in its gripper interface. The combination of the device and the surgeon interface replaces the manual, hand-held device providing easy-to-use and ergonomic tissue control, simplifying the surgical tasks. This makes the system suitable to real surgical scenarios in the operating room (OR). The performance of the system was analysed through the evaluation of teleoperation control and characterization of gripping force. The new system offers an overall positioning error of less than 400 μm demonstrating its safety and accuracy. Improved system precision, usability, and ergonomics point to the potential suitability of the device for the OR and its ability to advance haptic-feedback-enhanced transoral laser microsurgeries.
Richmon, Jeremy D; Feng, Allen L; Yang, Wuyang; Starmer, Heather; Quon, Harry; Gourin, Christine G
To investigate the use of an algorithm for rapid discharge after transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and its effect on postoperative complications. Retrospective cohort study. A retrospective analysis of TORS cases from September 2009 to February 2013 was conducted. The effect of patient and tumor characteristics on postoperative length of stay (LOS) and complications were analyzed. A total of 91 patients were included; 79 underwent TORS for malignancy and 12 for a benign process. The mean LOS was 1.51 days (range, 1-5 days) with a median of 1 day. The mean time to initiation of oral diet was 1.26 days (range, 1-7 days) with a median of 1 day. Eleven (12%) patients experienced one or more complications during their postoperative course. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between patient and procedure variables and postoperative complications. TORS base of tongue reduction for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was associated with a significantly greater mean incremental time to initiation of oral diet (1.0 days, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 1.7, P home is feasible and not associated with postoperative complications. Similarly, the performance of a concurrent neck dissection does not contribute to LOS or the development of postoperative complications. Patients undergoing TORS for OSA are at greater risk of delay in initiation of oral diet and increased LOS. 4 © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Lagarto, João. L.; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Unger, Jakob; Faller, Leta M.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Ma, Dinglong M.; Bec, Julien; Moore, Michael G.; Bewley, Arnaud F.; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Farwell, Gregory D.; Marcu, Laura
Autofluorescence lifetime spectroscopy is a promising non-invasive label-free tool for characterization of biological tissues and shows potential to report structural and biochemical alterations in tissue owing to pathological transformations. In particular, when combined with fiber-optic based instruments, autofluorescence lifetime measurements can enhance intraoperative diagnosis and provide guidance in surgical procedures. We investigate the potential of a fiber-optic based multi-spectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy instrument to characterize the autofluorescence fingerprint associated with histologic, morphologic and metabolic changes in tissue that can provide real-time contrast between healthy and tumor regions in vivo and guide clinicians during resection of diseased areas during transoral robotic surgery. To provide immediate feedback to the surgeons, we employ tracking of an aiming beam that co-registers our point measurements with the robot camera images and allows visualization of the surgical area augmented with autofluorescence lifetime data in the surgeon's console in real-time. For each patient, autofluorescence lifetime measurements were acquired from normal, diseased and surgically altered tissue, both in vivo (pre- and post-resection) and ex vivo. Initial results indicate tumor and normal regions can be distinguished based on changes in lifetime parameters measured in vivo, when the tumor is located superficially. In particular, results show that autofluorescence lifetime of tumor is shorter than that of normal tissue (p robot assisted cancer removal interventions.
Tytgat, G. N.
The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000
The objective was to prove the advantage of endoscopic laser-urethroplasty over internal urethrotomy in acquired urethral strictures. Patients and Method: From January, 1996 to June, 2005, 35 patients with a mean age of 66 years were submitted to endoscopic laser-urethroplasty for strictures of either the bulbar (30) or membranous (5) urethra. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. First of all, the strictures were incised at the 4, 8 and 12 o'clock position by means of a Sachse-urethrotom. Then the scar flap between the 4 and 8 o'clock position was vaporized using a Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1060 nm and a 600 pm bare fiber, the latter always being in contact with the tissue. The laser worked at 40W power in continuous mode. The total energy averaged 2574 J. An indwelling catheter was kept in place overnight and the patients were discharged the following day. Urinalysis, uroflowmetry and clinical examination were performed at two months after surgery and from then on every six months. Results: No serious complications were encountered. Considering a mean follow-up of 18 months, the average peak flow improved from 7.3 ml/s preoperatively to 18.7 mVs postoperatively. The treatment faded in 5 patients ( 14.3% ) who finally underwent open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty yields better short-term results than internal visual urethrotomy. Long-term follow-up has yet to confirm its superiority in the treatment of acquired urethral strictures.
Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Paes, Walter Siqueira; Fausto, Agnes M.F.; Nucci, Jose Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Okuno, Emico; Maruta, Luis Massuo
Equivalent and effective doses in occupational exposures are evaluated considering that some specific endoscopic examinations, radiographic and fluoroscopic images of patients are taken with the medical staff near to the radiation field. Examinations are simulated using an anthropomorphic phantom as a member of the medical staff. Thermoluminescent dosemeters are attached in several positions of the phantom in order to determine some organ doses. From the comparison between the doses experimentally determined and the International and the Brazilian recommended occupational dose limits, the maximum number of examination that any member of the staff can perform was calculated
Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumours arising from remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and occupy the sellar region. The patients may remain asymptomatic for long duration or present with headache or visual disturbances. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Traditionally these tumours have been removed by neurosurgeons through the cranial approach but the advent of nasal endoscopes has opened new avenues for ENT surgeons to treat such patients. We hereby present a case of craniopharyngioma who was successfully treated by Trans-nasal Hypophysectomy.
Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel
Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods.
Nikhil Deshpande PhD
Full Text Available Objective To present a new computer-assisted system for improved usability, intuitiveness, efficiency, and controllability in transoral laser microsurgery (TLM. Study Design Pilot technology feasibility study. Setting A dedicated room with a simulated TLM surgical setup: surgical microscope, surgical laser system, instruments, ex vivo pig larynxes, and computer-assisted system. Subjects and Methods The computer-assisted laser microsurgery (CALM system consists of a novel motorized laser micromanipulator and a tablet- and stylus-based control interface. The system setup includes the Leica 2 surgical microscope and the DEKA HiScan Surgical laser system. The system was validated through a first-of-its-kind observational study with 57 international surgeons with varied experience in TLM. The subjects performed real surgical tasks on ex vivo pig larynxes in a simulated TLM scenario. The qualitative aspects were established with a newly devised questionnaire assessing the usability, efficiency, and suitability of the system. Results The surgeons evaluated the CALM system with an average score of 6.29 (out of 7 in ease of use and ease of learning, while an average score of 5.96 was assigned for controllability and safety. A score of 1.51 indicated reduced workload for the subjects. Of 57 subjects, 41 stated that the CALM system allows better surgical quality than the existing TLM systems. Conclusions The CALM system augments the usability, controllability, and efficiency in TLM. It enhances the ergonomics and accuracy beyond the current state of the art, potentially improving the surgical safety and quality. The system offers the intraoperative automated scanning of customized long incisions achieving uniform resections at the surgical site.
Karaman, Murat; Gün, Taylan; Temelkuran, Burak; Aynacı, Engin; Kaya, Cem; Tekin, Ahmet Mahmut
To compare intra-operative and post-operative effectiveness of fiber delivered CO 2 laser to monopolar electrocautery in robot assisted tongue base surgery. Prospective non-randomized clinical study. Twenty moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, non-compliant with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), underwent Transoral Robotic Surgery (TORS) using the Da Vinci surgical robot in our University Hospital. OSA was treated with monopolar electrocautery in 10 patients, and with flexible CO 2 laser fiber in another 10 patients. The following parameters in the two sets are analyzed: Intraoperative bleeding that required cauterization, robot operating time, need for tracheotomy, postoperative self-limiting bleeding, length of hospitalization, duration until start of oral intake, pre-operative and post-operative minimum arterial oxygen saturation, pre-operative and post-operative Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, postoperative airway complication and postoperative pain. Mean follow-up was 12 months. None of the patients required tracheotomy and there were no intraoperative complications related to the use of the robot or the CO 2 laser. The use of CO 2 laser in TORS-assisted tongue base surgery resulted in less intraoperative bleeding that required cauterization, shorter robot operating time, shorter length of hospitalization, shorter duration until start of oral intake and less postoperative pain, when compared to electrocautery. Postoperative apnea-hypopnea index scores showed better efficacy of CO 2 laser than electrocautery. Comparison of postoperative airway complication rates and Epworth sleepiness scale scores were found to be statistically insignificant between the two groups. The use of CO 2 laser in robot assisted tongue base surgery has various intraoperative and post-operative advantages when compared to monopolar electrocautery.
Ashraf Arafat Abdelhalim
Full Text Available Background: Emergence agitation (EA has been documented as a common side-effect of sevoflurane anesthesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to compare the effects of ketamine versus fentanyl, administered 10 min before the end of surgery on the development of EA. Methods: A total of 120 children aged 3-7 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II physical status were randomly assigned to one of three equal groups receiving either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K, fentanyl 1 μg/kg (Group F or saline (Group C at 10 min before the end of surgery. Post-operative EA was assessed with Aono′′s four point scale. Recovery times, the post-operative pain and adverse reactions were assessed. Results: There was no significant difference between the three groups regarding recovery and discharge times from post-anesthesia care unit. The incidence of EA was significantly low in Group K and Group F (15% and 17.5%, respectively compared to the control group (42.5%, with no significant difference between Group K and Group F. There were no significant differences in Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale between the three groups. The incidence of nausea or vomiting was significantly more in Group F compared to that in other two groups. However, no complications such as somnolence, oxygen desaturation or respiratory depression occurred during the study period and there were no episodes of hallucinations or bad dreams in the ketamine group. Conclusion: The intravenous administration of either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg or fentanyl 1 μg/kg before the end of surgery in sevoflurane-anesthetized children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy reduces the incidence of post-operative agitation without delaying emergence.
Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Wehrmann, Till
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ≥ 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia. PMID:23951393
Peroral endoscopic myotomy （POEM） incorporatesconcepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopicsurgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizinga submucosal tunnel as an operating space.Although intended for the palliation of symptoms ofachalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is alsoefficacious in the management of spastic esophagealdisorders. The technique requires an understanding ofthe pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders aswell as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut.POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% ofpatients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition,it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremesof age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken.Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist tomanage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical asfailure to do so could result in significant morbidity. Themajor late adverse event is gastroesophageal refluxwhich appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients.Research is being conducted to clarify the optimaltechnique for POEM and a personalized approach bymeasuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junctiondistensibility appears promising. In addition toesophageal disorders,POEM is being studied in themanagement of gastroparesis （gastric pyloromyotomy）with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility.Although POEM represents a paradigm shift themanagement of esophageal motility disorders, theresults of prospective randomized controlled trials withlong-term follow up are eagerly awaited.
Decristoforo, P; Kaltseis, J; Fritz, A; Edlinger, M; Posch, W; Wilflingseder, D; Lass-Flörl, C; Orth-Höller, D
Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes, have been described. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination varies dramatically in literature. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture-based and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3%-4.6% according to the national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene-relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples failing in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly Pseudomonas oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n = 9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n = 6, 11.5%) only on account of microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared with results from other European countries, possibly due to the high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comparison of benzydamine hydrochloride and Salvia officinalis as an adjuvant local treatment to systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in controlling pain after tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both: an open-label, single-blind, randomized clinical trial
MD Sinisa Lalićević
Conclusions: In this clinical trial of children and adults who underwent tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both, BNZD, as an adjuvant to an NSAID, was more effective than SO in controlling postoperative pain and infection. The pain-reducing effect of BNZD was of quick onset and persisted for 1 week after surgery. The safety profile of BNZD was comparable to that of SO, with the exception of postoperative infection in adults, for which BNZD was more efficacious. In particular, the use of BNZD was not associated with a high risk for early postoperative hemorrhage.
Harith M. Alkhateeb
Conclusions: (1 Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2 A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3 Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective.
Horii, S.C.; Garra, B.S.; Zeman, R.K.; Krasner, B.H.; Lo, S.C.B.; Davros, W.J.; Silverman, P.M.; Cattau, E.L.; Fleischer, D.E.; Benjamin, S.B.S.B.
As part of the clinical evaluation of image management and communications system (IMACS), the authors undertook a prospective study to compare conventional film versus digitized film viewed on a workstation. Twenty-five each of normal and abnormal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic (ERCP) studies were digitized with a 1,684 x 2,048-pixel matrix and evaluated in a single-blind fashion on the workstation. The resulting interpretations were then compared with those resulting from interpretation of film (spot film and 100-mm photospot) images. They report that no significant differences were found in ability to see anatomic detail or pathology. A second study involved performing 10 ERCP studies in a lithotripsy suite equipped with biplane digital fluoroscopy. The digital video displays were comparable in quality to that of film. Progress is being made in using the IMACS for archiving and retrieval of all current ERCP images
Gay, F; el Nawar, A; Van Gossum, A
From March 87 to March 92, fifty eight patients were referred to our department for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The modality of the feeding tube insertion is described. The most common indications for placement were neurologic disorders in 62% of the cases (n = 36) and malignant diseases in 32% (n = 19). The success rate of the technique was 98.3% (n = 57). No procedure-related mortality was observed. A low rate of major complication (1.7%) and minor complication (10.5%) was noted. Feeding tubes were removed in 21% of patients (n = 12); none of them with malignant disease. Survival curve analysis demonstrated that 50% of patients died within 3 months of PEG placement. Such results raise questions about the selection of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience suggests that PEG is easy and safe, even in debilitated patients, having an acceptable life expectancy.
Yad Ram Yadav
Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of
Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian
Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...
Main, Barry G; Blencowe, Natalie S; Howes, Noah; Cousins, Sian; Avery, Kerry N L; Gormley, Alexander; Radford, Phil; Elliott, Daisy; Byrne, Benjamin; Wilson, Nicholas; Hinchliffe, Robert; Blazeby, Jane M
Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been adopted in some parts of the world as an innovative approach to the resection of oropharyngeal tumours. The development, details and outcomes of early-to-later phase evaluation of this technique and the quality of evidence to support its adoption into practice have hitherto not been summarised. The aim of this review is to identify and summarise the early and later phase studies of, and evidence for, TORS and to understand how early phase studies report intervention development, governance procedures and selection and reporting of outcomes to optimise methods for using the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term follow-up (IDEAL) framework for surgical innovation that informs evidence-based practice. The protocol has been written in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols checklist. Electronic searches in OVID SP versions of Medline and EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the start of indexing to 30 April 2017 will identify studies reporting TORS. At least two independent researchers will identify studies for inclusion. Two researchers will extract data from each paper. Studies will be categorised into IDEAL stages of study design from 'pre-IDEAL' to randomised controlled trials (stage 3). Data will be collected about the (1) novel intervention and criteria for modification, (2) governance arrangements and patient information provision, (3) outcome domains selected and reported and (4) quality of study design, conduct and reporting. Descriptive statistics and a narrative synthesis will be presented. The results of this systematic review will be presented at relevant conferences. The methods will be used to inform future reviews exploring other novel surgical innovations. The findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This study does not require ethical approval. © Article
Chen, Stephanie; Jarboe, Marcus D; Teitelbaum, Daniel H
Although laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the standard surgical treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), surgical complications and post-operative pain are not uncommon, especially for those patients who are neurologically impaired (NI) or undergoing re-operative procedures. To address this challenge, we utilized the transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) procedure to treat GERD via an endoscopic approach. Eleven TIF patients were included with an average age of 16.5 ± 5.1 years and weight of 45.7 ± 13.3 kg. NI was present in nine patients (82%), including a predominant number of patients with a history of seizures and gastrostomy tube feeding. Five patients had a history of a previous failed fundoplication requiring a re-operative procedure (45%). A retrospective chart review evaluated patient outcomes and post-operative complications. The length of the TIF procedure was 113.3 ± 31.3 min with minimal blood loss. The length of stay was 1.2 ± 0.4 days, although one TIF patient was re-admitted for endoscopic clipping for gastric bleeding. At a follow-up of 8.2 ± 4.2 months, TIF effectively resolved GERD in 10 out of 11 children. A few of the patient's families reported complaints of gagging or dysphagia (30%, 3/11); however it was difficult to determine if complaints were due the procedures itself or baseline NI. All patients who had a follow-up upper GI or pH probe study showed no evidence of reflux. One TIF patient had no recurrent reflux but required an esophago-gastric disconnection for retching. The TIF procedure can complement the current surgically and medically available options for children with GERD, especially in complicated patients such as those with NI. However, complications including hemorrhage emphasize the potential risk of the procedure. Further studies with more patients and a longer follow-up course must be conducted to better assess efficacy.
Rassekh, Christopher H; Kazahaya, Ken; Livolsi, Virginia A; Loevner, Laurie A; Cowan, Andy T; Weinstein, Gregory S
Congenital cervical salivary duct fistulae are rare entities and can mimic branchial cleft fistulae. Ectopic salivary tissue associated with these pharyngocervical tracts may have malignant potential. We present a case report of a novel surgical approach and review of the literature. A 27-year-old man presented with complaint of drainage from the right side of his neck since early childhood. A tract was found from the posterior tonsillar pillar into the neck and ectopic salivary tissue was found along the tract. A congenital hearing loss was also present. Transoral robotic (TORS)-assisted surgery was used in the management of this patient and allowed excellent visualization of the pharyngeal component of the lesion and a minimally invasive approach. The patient did well with no recurrence. TORS was helpful for management of a congenital salivary fistula and may be helpful for branchial cleft fistulae. These lesions may be associated with the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Juul, Marie Louise; Wagner, Niels
In this retrospective follow-up study, we present the middle-term results of transoral removal of submandibular calculi by incision in the floor of the mouth together with a patient satisfaction survey. These results will be compared with those of international studies. This is an individual...... retrospective cohort follow-up study. Forty-two patients had salivary calculi removed by incision in the mouth in the period from August 2009 to July 2012 at the Ear-nose-throat department of the North Zealand Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark. A retrospective study was carried out, focusing on the effects...... of the surgery and on patient satisfaction. The patients completed a questionnaire and underwent an objective physical exam. We found a high success rate (93 %), high patient satisfaction (94 %) and a high number of patients with no symptoms (92 %). In 94 % of the patients the gland was preserved, and there were...
Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K
Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.
Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. M Brand, D Bisoz. Abstract. Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among ...
Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ... endoscopic management at a median of 12 days (range 2 - 104 days) after surgery. Presenting features included intra-abdominal collections with pain in 58 cases ...
Reilink, Rob; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak
Background Advanced flexible endoscopes and instruments with multiple degrees of freedom enable physicians to perform challenging procedures such as the removal of large sections of mucosal tissue. However, these advanced endoscopes are difficult to control and require several physicians to
Curry, Martin; Malpani, Anand; Li, Ryan; Tantillo, Thomas; Jog, Amod; Blanco, Ray; Ha, Patrick K; Califano, Joseph; Kumar, Rajesh; Richmon, Jeremy
To develop a robotic surgery training regimen integrating objective skill assessment for otolaryngology and head and neck surgery trainees consisting of training modules of increasing complexity leading up to procedure-specific training. In particular, we investigated applications of such a training approach for surgical extirpation of oropharyngeal tumors via a transoral approach using the da Vinci robotic system. Prospective blinded data collection and objective evaluation (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills [OSATS]) of three distinct phases using the da Vinci robotic surgical system in an academic university medical engineering/computer science laboratory setting. Between September 2010 and July 2011, eight otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents and four staff experts from an academic hospital participated in three distinct phases of robotic surgery training involving 1) robotic platform operational skills, 2) set up of the patient side system, and 3) a complete ex vivo surgical extirpation of an oropharyngeal tumor located in the base of tongue. Trainees performed multiple (four) approximately equally spaced training sessions in each stage of the training. In addition to trainees, baseline performance data were obtained for the experts. Each surgical stage was documented with motion and event data captured from the application programming interfaces of the da Vinci system, as well as separate video cameras as appropriate. All data were assessed using automated skill measures of task efficiency and correlated with structured assessment (OSATS and similar Likert scale) from three experts to assess expert and trainee differences and compute automated and expert assessed learning curves. Our data show that such training results in an improved didactic robotic knowledge base and improved clinical efficiency with respect to the set up and console manipulation. Experts (e.g., average OSATS, 25; standard deviation [SD], 3.1; module 1, suturing
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is devastating due to its poor prognosis. Patients require a multidisciplinary approach to guide available options, mostly palliative because of advanced disease at presentation. Palliation including relief of biliary obstruction, gastric outlet obstruction, and cancer-related pain has become the focus in patients whose cancer is determined to be unresectable. Endoscopic stenting for biliary obstruction is an option for drainage to avoid the complications including jaundice, pruritus, infection, liver dysfunction and eventually failure. Enteral stents can relieve gastric obstruction and allow patients to resume oral intake. Pain is difficult to treat in cancer patients and endoscopic procedures such as pancreatic stenting and celiac plexus neurolysis can provide relief. The objective of endoscopic palliation is to primarily address symptoms as well improve quality of life.
Maliniemi, H.; Muukka, E.
For over ten years, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed, complementary inspection methods for steam turbine condition monitoring, which can be applied both during operation and shutdown. One important method used periodically during outages is endoscopic inspection. The inspection is based on the method where the internal parts of the turbine is inspected through access borings with endoscope and where the magnified figures of the internal parts is seen on video screen. To improve inspection assurance, an image-processing based pattern recognition method for cracks has been developed for the endoscopic inspection of turbine blades. It is based on the deduction conditions derived from the crack shape. The computer gives an alarm of a crack detection and prints a simulated image of the crack, which is then checked manually
Patel, Bhupendra C K
Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.
Bredenoord, A. J.; Rösch, T.; Fockens, P.
Treatment of achalasia is complicated by symptom recurrence and a significant risk for severe complications. Endoscopic myotomy was developed in the search for a highly efficacious treatment with lower risks. Since its introduction in 2010, several centers have adopted the technique and published
We highlight a potentially lethal complication of acute severe pancreatitis that may not be suspected in severely ill patients. A 41-year-old woman developed acute severe pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis. When her condition deteriorated ...
Barakat, Monique T; Girotra, Mohit; Huang, Robert J; Banerjee, Subhas
Outbreaks of transmission of infection related to endoscopy despite reported adherence to reprocessing guidelines warrant scrutiny of all potential contributing factors. Recent reports from ambulatory surgery centers indicated widespread significant occult damage within endoscope working channels, raising concerns regarding the potential detrimental impact of this damage on the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. We inspected working channels of all 68 endoscopes at our academic institution using a novel flexible inspection endoscope. Inspections were recorded and videos reviewed by 3 investigators to evaluate and rate channel damage and/or debris. Working channel rinsates were obtained from all endoscopes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence was measured. Overall endoscope working channel damage was rated as minimal and/or mild and was consistent with expected wear and tear (median 1.59 on our 5-point scale). Our predominant findings included superficial scratches (98.5%) and scratches with adherent peel (76.5%). No channel perforations, stains, or burns were detected. The extent of damage was not predicted by endoscope age. Minor punctate debris was common, and a few small drops of fluid were noted in 42.6% of endoscopes after reprocessing and drying. The presence of residual fluid predicted higher ATP bioluminescence values. The presence of visualized working channel damage or debris was not associated with elevated ATP bioluminescence values. The flexible inspection endoscope enables high-resolution imaging of endoscope working channels and offers endoscopy units an additional modality for endoscope surveillance, potentially complementing bacterial cultures and ATP values. Our study, conducted in a busy academic endoscopy unit, indicated predominately mild damage to endoscope working channels, which did not correlate with elevated ATP values. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Alessandrini, Marco; Pavone, Isabella; Micarelli, Alessandro; Caporale, Claudio
Considering the emerging advantages related to da Vinci Xi robotic platform, the aim of this study is to compare for the first time the operative outcomes of this tool to the previous da Vinci Si during transoral robotic surgery (TORS), both performed for squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the base of tongue (BOT). Intra- and peri-operative outcomes of eight patients with early stage (T1-T2) of the BOT carcinoma and undergoing TORS by means of the da Vinci Xi robotic platform (Xi-TORS) are compared with the da Vinci Si group ones (Si-TORS). With respect to Si-TORS group, Xi-TORS group demonstrated a significantly shorter overall operative time, console time, and intraoperative blood loss, as well as peri-operative pain intensity and length of mean hospital stays and nasogastric tube positioning. Considering recent advantages offered by surgical robotic techniques, the da Vinci Xi Surgical System preliminary outcomes could suggest its possible future routine implementation in BOT squamous cell carcinoma procedures.
Leonhardt, Fernando Danelon; Quon, Harry; Abrahão, Marcio; O'Malley, Bert W; Weinstein, Gregory S
The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Short Form (SF)-8 and Performance Status Scale (PSS) questionnaires were completed prior to surgery, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. In all, 38 patients treated with TORS followed by adjuvant therapy as indicated were prospectively enrolled. For PSS Eating and Diet domains, significant decreases occurred at 6 months (p ≤ .001 and p ≤ .001, respectively) but not at 12 months. Significant declines in PSS Speech were seen at 6 and 12 months (p ≤ .001 and p ≤ .001). There were no significant declines in the SF-8 domains, except for Bodily Pain and Global Health (6 months). Significantly higher PSS Eating and Diet scores were seen at 6 months for TORS alone compared with TORS and chemoradiation. Combination TORS and adjuvant therapy caused a temporary decrease in several domains at 6 months, returning to baseline including swallowing function in all patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian
Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...
Full Text Available Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a well-established advanced endoscopic technique for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatobiliary diseases. New advances have been made in the treatment concept and techniques of ERCP in recent years. This article elaborates on the recent advances in ERCP, including the application of pancreatic duct stent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aggressive hydration to prevent postoperative pancreatitis, covered metal stent for the treatment of benign bile duct stenosis, intraluminal radiofrequency ablation for malignant bile duct stenosis, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and covered metal stent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, peroral choledochoscopy for qualitative diagnosis of bile duct stenosis and huge refractory stones, definition of difficult intubation, timing of pre-cut technique, and ERCP after gastrointestinal reconstruction.
Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter
Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiop......Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde...... of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need...
Zacharia, Brad E; Amine, Muhamad; Anand, Vijay; Schwartz, Theodore H
Craniopharyngioma is a rare clinical entity that poses a significant management challenge given their location and propensity to recur. As part of a minimally disruptive treatment paradigm, the expanded endonasal approach has the potential to improve rates of resection, improve postoperative visual recovery, and minimize surgical morbidity. This article updates the otolaryngologic community on the basic principles and techniques regarding the incorporation of the endoscopic, endonasal approach in the management paradigm of craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Irion, K M; Novak, P
With the advent of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) a decade ago, the requirements for operating rooms (OR) and their equipment have been increased. Compared with conventional open surgery, the new endoscopic techniques require additional tools. Television systems, for video-assisted image acquisition and visualisation, including cameras, monitors and light systems, as well as insufflators, pumps, high-frequency units, lasers and motorised therapy units, are nowadays usually made available on carts during endoscopic surgery. In conjunction with a set of endoscopic instruments, these high-tech units allow new operating techniques to be performed. The benefit for patients has become clear in recent years; however, the technical complexity of OR has also increased considerably. To minimise this problem for the OR personnel, the MIS concept 'OR1' (Operating Room 1) was developed and implemented. OR1 is a fully functional and integrated multi-speciality surgical suite for MIS. The centrepieces of the OR1 are the Storz Communication Bus (SCB) and the advanced image and data archiving system (Aida) from Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany. Both components allow monitoring, access and networking of the MIS equipment and other OR facilities, as well as the acquisition, storage and display of image, patient and equipment data during the endoscopic procedure. A central user interface allows efficient, simplified operation and online clinical images. Due to the system integration, the handling of complex equipment is considerably simplified, logistical procedures in the OR are improved, procedure times are shorter and, particularly noteworthy, operative risk can be reduced through simplified device operation.
Paul, J.; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika
The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26–50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of ...
Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D
Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies.
The number of medical accidents in endoscopic surgery has recently increased. Surgical complications caused by inadequate preparation or immature technique or those resulting in serious adverse outcomes may be referred to as medical accidents. The Nationwide Survey of Endoscopic Surgery showed that bile duct injury and uncontrollable bleeding were seen in 0.68% and in 0.58%, respectively, of cholecystectomy patients; interoperative and postoperative complications in 0.84% and in 3.8%, respectively, of gastric cancer surgery patients; and operative complications in 6.74% of bowel surgery patients. Some required open repair, and 49 patients died. The characteristic causes of complications in endoscopic surgery are a misunderstanding of anatomy, handling of organs outside the visual field, burn by electrocautery, and injuries caused by forceps. Bleeding that requires a laparotomy for hemostasis is also a complication. Furthermore, since the surgery is usually videorecorded, immature techniques resulting in complications are easily discovered. To decrease the frequency of accidents, education through textbooks and seminars, training using training boxes, simulators, or animals, proper selection of the surgeon depending on the difficulty of the procedure, a low threshold for conversion to laparotomy, and use of the best optical equipment and surgical instruments are important. To avoid malpractice lawsuits, informed consent obtained before surgery and proper communication after accidents are necessary.
Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D
Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies. PMID:26839644
Paul, J; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika
The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26-50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of the bleeding vessel. Of these, in four cases unsuspected diagnosis was made. Of the remaining 19, in three patients, the bleeding point could not be localized accurately and these patients were managed by anteroposterior packing. The rest of the 16 patients were managed by endoscopic cauterization. In four patients, there was recurrence of bleeding within 24 h. In one of these, cauterization controlled the bleeding while in the rest nasal packing had to be resorted to. Thus, of the 23 patients of posterior epistaxis subjected to nasal endoscopy, we could avoid nasal packing in 17 (74%). To conclude, endoscopic nasal cauterization is recommended as the first line to treatment in all cases of posterior epistaxis. This will not only prevent the uncomfortable and potentially dangerous nasal packing but also help in finding the underlying pathology.
Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.
Knudsen, Marie Høxbro; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem; Karstensen, John Gésdal
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is currently standard treatment for biliary drainage. Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) is a novel method to overcome an unsuccessful biliary drainage procedure. Under endoscopic ultrasound guidance a guidewire is passed via a needle from the stomach or duodenum to the common bile duct and from there on to the duodenum enabling ERCP. With a relatively high rate of success EUS-RV should be considered as an alternative to biliary drainage and surgical intervention.
Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M.
Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management ...
Rafael Antonio Luengas Tello
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal endoscopic surgery has been making great progress since the seventies in the management paradigms of conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, polyp resection and diagnostic and therapeutic management of the biliary tract. The current challenge is the development of techniques that allow endoscopic treatment of emerging diseases such as cancer, morbid obesity, gastro-esophageal reflux and achalasia. This article reports on new techniques and expectations for the future in the endoscopic management of these diseases.
Bahannan, Abdulrahman A.; Zabrodsky, M.; Chovanec, M.; Cerny, L.; Lohynska, R.
To compare post treatment quality of life (QoL) of patients treated by radiotherapy or endoscopic transoral endolaryngeal surgery using two quality of life scoring tools. From May 1998 to July 2005, 48 patients (11 women and 37 men) with early glottic cancer were treated with curative radiotherapy (18 patients) or laser cordectomy (30 patients), and retrospectively evaluated using QoL questionnaires; European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) - EORTC-QoL Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30 version 2.0) and organ specific EORTC - QLQ, Head and Neck Module (QLQ-H and N35) at the University Hospital Motol, Czech Republic. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Only patients in complete remission were enrolled in the study. The overall score calculated separately for both questionnaires was not statistically different between both groups. Statistically significant differences were found only in specific group of questions focusing on saliva production (p=0.034) and sexuality performance (p=0.002). The majority of cases treated with cordectomy were Tis lesions. In the radiotherapy group, T1 lesions predominated (p=0.0001). Patients treated with radiotherapy were significantly older than those treated with cordectomy (p=0.027), which could explain the worsened score in sexuality questions. There were no significant differences found between genders allocated either to cordectomy or radiotherapy group. The overall QoL did not differ between patients treated with cordectomy or radiotherapy, despite the fact that patients treated with radiotherapy had more advanced disease and were older. There was significantly worse saliva and sexuality question score in the radiotherapy group. (author)
Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M
Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.
Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment has generally been accepted in the management of bleeding esophageal varices. Both the control of acute variceal bleeding and elective variceal eradication to prevent recurrent bleeding can be achieved via endoscopic methods. In contrast to acute and elective treatment, the role of endoscopic therapy in asymptomatic patients who have never had variceal bleeding remains controversial because of the rather disappointing results obtained from prophylactic sclerotherapy. Most published randomized controlled trials showed that prophylactic sclerotherapy had no effect on survival. In some studies, neither survival rate nor bleeding risk was improved. In this article, the author champions the view that asymptomatic esophageal varices should be endoscopically treated.
Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel
Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices.
Owadally, Waheeda; Hurt, Chris; Timmins, Hayley; Parsons, Emma; Townsend, Sarah; Patterson, Joanne; Hutcheson, Katherine; Powell, Ned; Beasley, Matthew; Palaniappan, Nachi; Robinson, Max; Jones, Terence M.; Evans, Mererid
Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence worldwide. Current treatments are associated with high survival rates but often result in significant long-term toxicities. In particular, long-term dysphagia has a negative impact on patient quality of life and health. The aim of PATHOS is to determine whether reducing the intensity of adjuvant treatment after minimally invasive transoral surgery in this favourable prognosis disease will result in better long-term swallowing function whilst maintaining excellent disease-specific survival outcomes. The study is a multicentre phase II/III randomised controlled trial for patients with biopsy-proven Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer staged T1-T3 N0-N2b with a primary tumour that is resectable via a transoral approach. Following transoral surgery and neck dissection, patients are allocated into three groups based on pathological risk factors for recurrence. Patients in the low-risk pathology group will receive no adjuvant treatment, as in standard practice. Patients in the intermediate-risk pathology group will be randomised to receive either standard dose post-operative radiotherapy (control) or reduced dose radiotherapy. Patients in the high-risk pathology group will be randomised to receive either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (control) or radiotherapy alone. The primary outcome of the phase II study is patient reported swallowing function measured using the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory score at 12 months post-treatment. If the phase II study is successful, PATHOS will proceed to a phase III non-inferiority trial with overall survival as the primary endpoint. PATHOS is a prospective, randomised trial for Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer, which represents a different disease entity compared with other head and neck cancers. The trial aims to demonstrate that long-term dysphagia can be lessened by reducing the intensity
Eichhorn, Klaus Wolfgang; Westphal, Ralf; Rilk, Markus; Last, Carsten; Bootz, Friedrich; Wahl, Friedrich; Jakob, Mark; Send, Thorsten
Having one hand occupied with the endoscope is the major disadvantage for the surgeon when it comes to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Only the other hand is free to use the surgical instruments. Tiredness or frequent instrument changes can thus lead to shaky endoscopic images. We collected the pose data (position and orientation) of the rigid 0° endoscope and all the instruments used in 16 FESS procedures with manual endoscope guidance as well as robot-assisted endoscope guidance. In combination with the DICOM CT data, we tracked the endoscope poses and workspaces using self-developed tracking markers. All surgeries were performed once with the robot and once with the surgeon holding the endoscope. Looking at the durations required, we observed a decrease in the operating time because one surgeon doing all the procedures and so a learning curve occurred what we expected. The visual inspection of the specimens showed no damages to any of the structures outside the paranasal sinuses. Robot-assisted endoscope guidance in sinus surgery is possible. Further CT data, however, are desirable for the surgical analysis of a tracker-based navigation within the anatomic borders. Our marker-based tracking of the endoscope as well as the instruments makes an automated endoscope guidance feasible. On the subjective side, we see that RASS brings a relief for the surgeon.
Conclusions: Endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach is considered one of the most useful surgical solutions to manage selected tumors that involve the infratemporal fossa. A good understanding of the endoscopic anatomy of infratemporal fossa allows safe and complete resection of lesions arising or extending to infratemporal fossa.
Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.
The integral search for improved living conditions for those patients with gastric cancer who have not received curative surgical treatment continues to challenge the knowledge, dexterity and ethical foundations of medical teams. The justification for palliative treatment must be based on a thorough consideration of the available options and the particular situation in each case. This article reviews endoscopic therapy with auto expandable prosthetics for palliative treatment of gastric cancer, as well as the scientific evidence that supports its use and the factors that determine its indication.
Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of
Persky, Michael J; Albergotti, William G; Rath, Tanya J; Kubik, Mark W; Abberbock, Shira; Geltzeiler, Mathew; Kim, Seungwon; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L
Objective To compare positive margin rates between the 2 most common subsites of oropharyngeal transoral robotic surgery (TORS), the base of tongue (BOT) and the tonsil, as well as identify preoperative imaging characteristics that predispose toward positive margins. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care referral center. Subjects and Methods We compared the final and intraoperative positive margin rate between TORS resections for tonsil and BOT oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), as well as the effect of margins on treatment. A blinded neuroradiologist examined the preoperative imaging of BOT tumors to measure their dimensions and patterns of spread and provided a prediction of final margin results. Results Between January 2010 and May 2016, a total of 254 patients underwent TORS for OPSCC. A total of 140 patients who underwent TORS for T1/T2 OPSCC met inclusion criteria. A final positive margin is significantly more likely for BOT tumors than tonsil tumors (19.6% vs 4.5%, respectively, P = .004) and likewise for intraoperative margins of BOT and tonsil tumors (35.3% vs 12.4%, respectively; P = .002). A positive final margin is 10 times more likely to receive chemoradiation compared to a negative margin, controlling for extracapsular spread and nodal status (odds ratio, 9.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-59.6; P = .02). Preoperative imaging characteristics and subjective radiologic examination of BOT tumors did not correlate with final margin status. Conclusion Positive margins are significantly more likely during TORS BOT resections compared to tonsil resections. More research is needed to help surgeons predict which T1/T2 tumors will be difficult to completely extirpate.
Patel, Sapna A; Parvathaneni, Aarthi; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Houlton, Jeffrey J; Karni, Ron J; Liao, Jay J; Futran, Neal D; Méndez, Eduardo
Our primary objective is to describe the post- operative management in patients with an unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) treated with trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS). We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional case series including all patients diagnosed with an unknown primary HNSCC who underwent TORS to identify the primary site from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2016. We excluded those with recurrent disease, ≤6months of follow up from TORS, previous history of radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck, or evidence of primary tumor site based on previous biopsies. Our main outcome measure was receipt of post-operative therapy. The tumor was identified in 26/35 (74.3%) subjects. Post-TORS, 2 subjects did not receive adjuvant therapy due to favorable pathology. Volume reduction of RT mucosal site coverage was achieved in 12/26 (46.1%) subjects who had lateralizing tumors, ie. those confined to the palatine tonsil or glossotonsillar sulcus. In addition, for 8/26 (30.1%), the contralateral neck RT was also avoided. In 9 subjects, no primary was identified (pT0); four of these received RT to the involved ipsilateral neck nodal basin only without pharyngeal mucosal irradiation. Surgical management of an unknown primary with TORS can lead to deintensification of adjuvant therapy including avoidance of chemotherapy and reduction in RT doses and volume. There was no increase in short term treatment failures. Treatment after TORS can vary significantly, thus we advocate adherence to NCCN guideline therapy post-TORS to avoid treatment-associated variability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Singh, Rajiv Ranjan; Singh, Virendra
Hilar biliary strictures are caused by various benign and malignant conditions. It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignant strictures. Postcholecystectomy benign biliary strictures are frequently encountered. Endoscopic management of these strictures is challenging. An endoscopic method has been advocated that involves placement of increasing number of stents at regular intervals to resolve the stricture. Malignant hilar strictures are mostly unresectable at the time of diagnosis and only palliation is possible.Endoscopic palliation is preferred over surgery or radiological intervention. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography is quite important in the management of these strictures. Metal stents are superior to plastic stents. The opinion is divided over the issue of unilateral or bilateral stenting.Minimal contrast or no contrast technique has been advocated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography of these patients. The role of intraluminal brachytherapy, intraductal ablation devices, photodynamic therapy, and endoscopic ultrasound still remains to be defined. PMID:26191345
Endoscopic imaging systems that perform as the "eye" of the operator during endoscopic surgical procedures have developed rapidly due to various technological developments. In addition, since the most recent turn of the century robotic surgery has increased its scope through the utilization of systems such as Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci System. To optimize the imaging required for precise robotic surgery, a unique endoscope has been developed, consisting of both a two dimensional (2D) image optical system for wider observation of the entire surgical field, and a three dimensional (3D) image optical system for observation of the more precise details at the operative site. Additionally, a "near infrared radiation" endoscopic system is under development to detect the sentinel lymph node more readily. Such progress in the area of endoscopic imaging is expected to enhance the surgical procedure from both the patient's and the surgeon's point of view.
Pinchuk, Alexey V; Dmitriev, Ilya V; Shmarina, Nonna V; Teterin, Yury S; Balkarov, Aslan G; Storozhev, Roman V; Anisimov, Yuri A; Gasanov, Ali M
An evaluation of the efficacy of endoscopic methods for the diagnosis and correction of surgical and immunological complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. From October 2011 to March 2015, 27 patients underwent simultaneous retroperitoneal pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). Diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with protocol biopsy of the donor and recipient duodenal mucosa and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) were performed to detect possible complications. Endoscopic stenting of the main pancreatic duct with plastic stents and three-stage endoscopic hemostasis were conducted to correct the identified complications. Endoscopic methods showed high efficiency in the timely diagnosis and adequate correction of complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Woodward, Timothy A.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a technology that had been used primarily as a passive imaging modality. Recent advances have enabled us to move beyond the use of EUS solely as a staging tool to an interventional device. Current studies suggest that interventional applications of EUS will allow for minimally invasive assessment and therapies in a cost-effective manner. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been demonstrated to be a technically feasible, relatively safe method of obtaining cytologic specimens. The clinical utility of EUS- FNA appears to be greatest in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer and in the nodal staging of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. In addition, EUS-FNA has demonstrated utility in the sampling pleural and ascitic fluid not generally appreciated or assessable to standard interventions. Interventional applications of EUS include EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage, EUS-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia, and EUS- guided celiac plexus neurolysis in the treatment of pancreatic cancer pain. Finally, EUS-guided fine-needle installation is being evaluated, in conjunction with recent bimolecular treatment modalities, as a delivery system in the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tumors.
Liew, Kong Yew; Narayanan, Prepageran; Waran, Vicknes
Objectives To demonstrate, step-by-step, the technique and efficacy of endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Design The video shows a step-by-step approach to the resection, covering the exposure, access, resection, and confirmation of resection and reconstruction. Setting The surgery was performed in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, a tertiary referral center in the capital of Malaysia. Participants Surgery was performed jointly by Professor Prepageran from the department of otorhinolaryngology and Professor Vicknes Waran from the division of neurosurgery. Both surgeons are from the University of Malaya. Video compilation, editing, and voice narration was done by Dr. Kong Yew Liew. Main Outcome Measures Completeness of resection and avoidance of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Based on intraoperative views and MRI findings, the tumor was completely resected with the patient suffering only transient diabetes insipidus. Conclusion Central suprasellar tumors can be removed completely via an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach with minimal morbidity to the patient. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/ZNIHfk12cYg .
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. 884... Surgical Devices § 884.4100 Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrocautery is a device used to perform female sterilization under endoscopic observation. It is designed to...
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H.
Endoscopic therapy for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The two most commonly utilized endoscopic interventions are large balloon pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin injection (BTI). These interventions have been extensively scrutinized and compared with each other as well as with surgical disruption (myotomy) of the LES. PD is generally more effective in improving dysphagia in achalasia than BTI, with the latter reserved for infirm older people, and PD may approach treatment results attained with myotomy. However, PD may need to be repeated. Small balloon dilation and endoscopic stent placement for achalasia have only been used in select centers. Per oral endoscopic myotomy is a newer endoscopic modality that will likely change the treatment paradigm for achalasia. It arose from the field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and represents a scarless endoscopic approach to Heller myotomy. This is a technique that requires extensive training and preparation and thus there should be rigorous accreditation and monitoring of outcomes to ensure safety and efficacy. PMID:23503707
Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R.J.
Peptic ulcers account for more than half of the cases of non variceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and therefore, are the focus of most of the methods of endoscopic hemostasis. Surgical intervention is now largely reserved for patients in whom endoscopic hemostasis has failed. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been employed to stop bleeding and reduce the risk of rebleeding, with no major differences in outcome between these methods. These include injection therapy, fibrin injection, heater probe, mono polar electrocautery, bipolar electrocautery, lasers and mechanical hemo clipping. The most important factor in determining outcome after gastrointestinal bleeding is rebleeding or persistent bleeding. The endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, however, provides the most useful prognostic information for bleeding. Recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis occurs in 15-20% of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The best approach to these patients remains controversial; the current options are repeat endoscopic therapy with the same or a different technique, emergency surgery or semi elective surgery after repeat endoscopic hemostasis. The combination of epinephrine injection with thermal coagulation may be more effective than epinephrine injection alone. Newer modalities such as fibrin injection or the application of hemo clips appear promising and comparative studies are awaited. (author)
Liu, J B; Zhuang, T G
A practical PACS-based Endoscope Image Acquisition Workstation is here introduced. By a Multimedia Video Card, the endoscope video is digitized and captured dynamically or statically into computer. This workstation realizes a variety of functions such as the endoscope video's acquisition and display, as well as the editing, processing, managing, storage, printing, communication of related information. Together with other medical image workstation, it can make up the image sources of PACS for hospitals. In addition, it can also act as an independent endoscopy diagnostic system.
Full Text Available Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy, and the incidence varies from 1% to 48%. It can be challenging to localize the bleeder or to administer various interventions through a side-viewing endoscope. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and the outcome of endoscopic intervention therapies. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 513 patients who underwent biliary sphincterotomy in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 2011 and 2016. The blood biochemistry, comorbidities, indication for sphincterotomy, severity of bleeding, endoscopic features of bleeder, and type of endoscopic therapy were analyzed. Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding occurred in 65 (12.6% patients. Forty-five patients had immediate bleeding and 20 patients had delayed bleeding. The multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding were liver cirrhosis (P = 0.029, end-stage renal disease (P = 0.038, previous antiplatelet drug use (P<0.001, and duodenal ulcer (P = 0.023. The complications of pancreatitis and cholangitis were higher in the bleeding group, with statistical significance. Delayed bleeding occurred within 1 to 7 days (mean, 2.5 days, and 60% (12/20 of the patients received endoscopic evaluation. In the delayed bleeding group, the successful hemostasis rate was 71.4% (5/7, and 65% (13/20 of the patients had ceased bleeding without endoscopic hemostasis therapy. Comparison of different therapeutic modalities showed that cholangitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine spray (P = 0.042 and pancreatitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine injection and electrocoagulation (P = 0.041 and P = 0.039 respectively. Clinically, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and further endoscopic hemostasis therapy increase the complication rate of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Realizing the effectiveness of each
Fiz, Ivana; Mazzola, Francesco; Fiz, Francesco; Marchi, Filippo; Filauro, Marta; Paderno, Alberto; Parrinello, Giampiero; Piazza, Cesare; Peretti, Giorgio
Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) represents one of the most effective treatment strategies for Tis-T2 glottic squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The prognostic influence of close/positive margins is still debated, and the role of narrow band imaging (NBI) in their intraoperative definition is still to be validated on large cohort of patients. This study analyzed the influence of margin status on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). We retrospectively studied 507 cases of pTis-T1b (Group A) and 127 cases of pT2 (Group B) glottic SCC. We identified the following margin status: negative ( n = 232), close superficial ( n = 79), close deep (CD) ( n = 35), positive single superficial ( n = 146), positive multiple superficial ( n = 94), and positive deep ( n = 48) and analyzed their impact on RFS and DSS. Close margins were defined by tumor-margin distance <1 mm. Pre-TLM margins were defined by white light in 323 patients, whereas NBI was employed in 311 patients. In Group A, DSS and RFS were reduced in positive multiple superficial and positive deep margins (DSS = 96.1 and 97%, both p < 0.05; RFS = 72%, p < 0.001 and 75.8%, p < 0.01). In Group B, DSS was reduced in positive multiple superficial margins (82.4%, p < 0.05). RFS was reduced in positive single superficial, positive multiple superficial, and positive deep margins (62.5, 41.2, and 53.3%, p < 0.01). In the entire population, RFS was reduced in CD margins (77.1%, p < 0.05). Use of NBI led to improvement in RFS and DSS. The study indicates that close and positive single superficial margins do not affect DSS. By contrast, all types of margin positivity predict the occurrence of relapses, albeit with different likelihood, depending on stage/margin type. CD margins should be considered as a single risk factor. Use of NBI granted better intraoperative margins definition.
Full Text Available IntroductionTransoral laser microsurgery (TLM represents one of the most effective treatment strategies for Tis–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. The prognostic influence of close/positive margins is still debated, and the role of narrow band imaging (NBI in their intraoperative definition is still to be validated on large cohort of patients. This study analyzed the influence of margin status on recurrence-free survival (RFS and disease-specific survival (DSS.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 507 cases of pTis–T1b (Group A and 127 cases of pT2 (Group B glottic SCC. We identified the following margin status: negative (n = 232, close superficial (n = 79, close deep (CD (n = 35, positive single superficial (n = 146, positive multiple superficial (n = 94, and positive deep (n = 48 and analyzed their impact on RFS and DSS. Close margins were defined by tumor-margin distance <1 mm. Pre-TLM margins were defined by white light in 323 patients, whereas NBI was employed in 311 patients.ResultsIn Group A, DSS and RFS were reduced in positive multiple superficial and positive deep margins (DSS = 96.1 and 97%, both p < 0.05; RFS = 72%, p < 0.001 and 75.8%, p < 0.01. In Group B, DSS was reduced in positive multiple superficial margins (82.4%, p < 0.05. RFS was reduced in positive single superficial, positive multiple superficial, and positive deep margins (62.5, 41.2, and 53.3%, p < 0.01. In the entire population, RFS was reduced in CD margins (77.1%, p < 0.05. Use of NBI led to improvement in RFS and DSS.ConclusionThe study indicates that close and positive single superficial margins do not affect DSS. By contrast, all types of margin positivity predict the occurrence of relapses, albeit with different likelihood, depending on stage/margin type. CD margins should be considered as a single risk factor. Use of NBI granted better intraoperative margins definition.
Zorron, Ricardo; Galvão-Neto, Manoel Passos; Campos, Josemberg; Branco, Alcides José; Sampaio, José; Junghans, Tido; Bothe, Claudia; Benzing, Christian; Krenzien, Felix
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a standard therapy in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding, although with good results in the literature, are showing higher rates of treatment failure to reduce obesity-associated morbidity and body weight. Other problems after bariatric may occur, as band erosion, gastroesophageal reflux disease and might be refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to a RYGB can be an effective alternative, as long as specific indications for revision are fulfilled. The objective of this study was to analyse own and literature data on revisional bariatric procedures to evaluate best alternatives to current practice. Institutional experience and systematic review from the literature on revisional bariatric surgery. Endoscopic procedures are recently applied to ameliorate failure and complications of bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20%. Transoral outlet reduction is currently an alternative method to reduce the gastrojejunal anastomosis. The diameter and volume of sleeve gastrectomy can enlarge as well, which can be reduced by endoscopic full-thickness sutures longitudinally. Dumping syndrome and severe hypoglycemic episodes (neuroglycopenia) can be present in patients following RYGB. The hypoglycemic episodes have to be evaluated and usually can be treated conventionally. To avoid partial pancreatectomy or conversion to normal anatomy, a new laparoscopic approach with remnant gastric resection and jejunal interposition can be applied in non-responders alternatively. Hypoglycemic episodes are ameliorated while weight loss is sustained. Revisional and endoscopic procedures following bariatric surgery in patients with collateral symptomatic or treatment failure can be applied. Conventional non-surgical approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional surgery will be indicated. Former complex surgical revisional procedures are evolving to less
Nogami, Shinnosuke; Takahashi, Tetsu; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yamashita, Yoshihiro
Endoscope-assisted transoral open reduction and internal fixation (EAORIF) for mandibular condyle fractures has recently become popular because it is minimally invasive, provides excellent visibility without a large incision, and reduces surgical scarring and the risk of facial nerve injury. This report describes a retrospective clinical study that compared certain clinical parameters, including postoperative function, between the retromandibular (RM) approach and EAORIF. Fifteen patients were treated by the RM approach, whereas 15 underwent EAORIF between July 2006 and September 2011 at Kyushu Dental College, Japan. Clinical indices comprised fracture line, fracture type, number of plates used, surgical duration, bleeding amount, and functional items, including maximum interincisal opening, mandibular deviation on the opening pathway, malocclusion, facial paresthesia, and temporomandibular joint pain and clicking. The areas subjected to either approach included lower neck and subcondyle. The RM approach was used for mandibular condyle fractures with dislocation of a small bone segment. Both groups used 2 plates in all cases. Surgical duration, maximum interincisal opening, mandibular deviation, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint function at 6 months after surgery were comparable between groups. The average bleeding amount in the EAORIF group was greater than in the RM group. One patient from the RM group developed facial paresthesia that persisted for 6 months after surgery. It was concluded that surgical treatment was suitable for fractures of the lower neck and subcondylar. Both procedures showed good results in the functional items of this study.
Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of severe acute gallstone pancreatitis discovered at diag~osticlaparotomy. ... in these cases Included cholecystectomy and Ttube drainage (2 patients) cholecystostomy drainage (3 patients), and closure of the abdomen without drainage (2 patients).
De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H
Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.
Patients' medical records, operative notes, and neural tube database records were used to complete a structured questionnaire. The difference in ... likely after 6 months. Keywords: obstructive hydrocephalus; endoscopic third ventriculostomy; ventriculoperitoneal shunt; children; paediatric surgery; neurosurgery; Ethiopia ...
Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis. Rinki Saha, Anuradha Sinha, Jyoti Prakash Phukan. Abstract. Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed ...
Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc
This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that ea...
A. M. Gasanov
Full Text Available In the article, we report the incidence and etiology of pulmonary hemorrhage, and modern classifications according to the literature data. Methods of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage are analyzed.
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic ...
Full Text Available The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is known for its varied diagnostic and therapeutic utility for a variety of disorders. However it has greater likelihood of procedure related complications among the endoscopic procedures of gastrointestinal tract. The extraluminal hemorrhagic complications following ERCP are potentially life threatening though relatively rare. We present a 50 year patient with choledocholithiasis and cholelithiasis developing rare complication of subcapsular hepatic hematoma, following ERCP due to guide wire injury.
Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Shapiro, H.A.
The radiographic features of endoscopic sphincterotomies performed in 44 patients were evaluated. Radiographic landmarks aided in proper sphincterotome placement and also disclosed conditions and anatomic variations that made catheter placement difficult. Fluoroscopic and radiographic monitoring not only assisted the performance of endoscopic sphincterotomy, but also confirmed successful results and revealed reasons for failure. Radiographic changes in the biliary tract after sphincterotomy, as well as potential complications of sphincterotomy, are discussed and illustrated
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders. PMID:29397656
Young Kwan Cho
Full Text Available Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.
Rossini, Zefferino; Milani, Davide; Nicolosi, Federico; Costa, Francesco; Lasio, Giovanni Battista; D'Angelo, Vincenzo Antonio; Fornari, Maurizio; Colombo, Giovanni
The transnasal approach to lesions involving the craniovertebral junction represents a technical challenge because of limited inferior exposure. The endoscopic transseptal approach (EtsA) with posterior nasal spine (PNS) removal is described. This technique can create a wide exposure of the craniovertebral junction, thereby increasing the caudal exposure. On patients undergoing anterior craniovertebral junction decompression, we calculated the degree of exposure on the sagittal plan through a paraseptal route, an EtsA without and with PNS removal. The horizontal exposure and working area with the latter approach were also evaluated. Five patients underwent the transnasal procedure. The age of patients ranged from 34-71 years. All patients harbored basilar impression. The mean postoperative Nurick grade (1, 8) was improved versus the average preoperative grade (3). The average follow-up duration was 16 months. All patients underwent occipitocervical fixation. The mean vertical distances, from the clinoid recess to the inferior most limit with the paraseptal approach, EtsA without and with PNS removal were 38.52, 44.12, and 51.16 mm, respectively. The difference between our approach and a standard paraseptal route was statistically significant (P = 0.041; P< 0.05). The mean horizontal distances were 31.68 mm (mononostril entry) and 35.37 mm (binostril entry). The mean working area was 1795.53 mm 2 . Endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction are increasing, but the downward extension on the anterior cervical spine represents a limit. Therefore, many surgeons prefer transoral or transcervical approaches. The EtsA with PNS removal allows for a more caudal exposure than the standard paraseptal approach, with reduced nasal trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kao, S S; Micklem, J; Ofo, E; Edwards, S; Dhatrak, D; Foreman, A; Krishnan, S; Hodge, J-C
The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the Western world is increasing, with the human papillomavirus epidemic implicated in this observed trend. The optimal treatment modality is yet undetermined regarding oncological outcomes. This study comprised 98 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, treated with either primary transoral surgery with adjuvant therapy or primary chemoradiotherapy with curative intent, between 2008 and 2012. Clinicopathological characteristics including tumour-node-metastasis stage, human papillomavirus status, treatment modality, recurrence and overall survival were collated. Five per cent of primary surgical patients had locoregional recurrences compared with 25 per cent of primary chemoradiotherapy patients. A lower rate of locoregional recurrence was observed in the human papillomavirus positive group. This paper reports higher rates of overall survival and local control for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with primary surgery compared with primary chemoradiotherapy. This reflects overall lower tumour stage and higher human papillomavirus status in this group.
Scott, Susanne Irene; Madsen, Anne Kathrine Østergaard; Rubek, Niclas
OBJECTIVE: To examine pain after Transoral Robotic Surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) versus traditional bilateral tonsillectomy in adults. METHODS: Pain evolvement was assessed in a prospective case-control design of 16 consecutive patients treated with TORS for early...... stage OPSCC versus 12 patients, who underwent bilateral tonsillectomy on suspicion of malignant disease. The TORS group received an optimized analgesia regime of preoperative oral celecoxib and gabapentin, intra- and postoperative high-dose intravenous dexamethasone, and regular postoperative oral...... contalgin, gabapentin, celecoxib, paracetamol and rescue morphine. The tonsillectomy group received the departmental standard analgesia regime with low-dose preoperative oral dexamethasone, celecoxib and paracetamol. Postoperative regular analgesia consisted of oral NSAID and paracetamol with weak opioids...
Rubek, Niclas; Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Charabi, Birgitte Wittenborg
(RT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy. This is the first study in Scandinavia from a head and neck cancer centre that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of performing primary transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and concurrent neck dissection for patients with early stage OPSCC. Between September...... bilateral neck dissection. Due to an upstaging following surgery, 13 patients were referred to adjuvant therapy. Four of these patients received RT and two patients received concomitant chemo-radiation (CCR) therapy. Seven patients declined the recommended adjuvant therapy one of whom later developed an N......-site recurrence and received salvage surgery with postoperative RT. In summary, 43% of the patients were referred to adjuvant therapy following primary surgery which was mainly due to N-site stage migration and ECE. Primary TORS and concurrent neck dissection is a safe and feasible procedure that may...
F.J.C. van den Broek (Frank); E.J.R. de Graaf (Eelco); M.G.W. Dijkgraaf (Marcel); J.B. Reitsma (Johannes); J. Haringsma (Jelle); R. Timmer (Robin); B.L. Weusten (Bas); M.F. Gerhards (Michael); E.C. Consten (Esther); M.P. Schwartz (Matthijs); M.J. Boom (Maarten); E.J. Derksen (Erik); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); P.H.P. Davids (Paul); C. Hoff (Christiaan); H.M. van Dullemen (Hendrik); G.D.N. Heine (Dimitri); K. van der Linde (Klaas); J.M. Jansen (Jeroen); R.C.H. Mallant-Hent (Rosalie); R. Breumelhof (Ronald); H. Geldof (Han); J.C. Hardwick (James); P. Doornebosch (Pascal); A.C.T.M. Depla (Annekatrien); M.F. Ernst (Miranda); I.P. van Munster (Ivo); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); E.J. Schoon (Erik); W.A. Bemelman (Willem); P. Fockens (Paul); E. Dekker (Evelien)
textabstractBackground: Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does
van den Broek, Frank J. C.; de Graaf, Eelco J. R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Haringsma, Jelle; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Gerhards, Michael F.; Consten, Esther C. J.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Boom, Maarten J.; Derksen, Erik J.; Bijnen, A. Bart; Davids, Paul H. P.; Hoff, Christiaan; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; Heine, G. Dimitri N.; van der Linde, Klaas; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie C. H.; Breumelhof, Ronald; Geldof, Han; Hardwick, James C. H.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; Depla, Annekatrien C. T. M.; Ernst, Miranda F.; van Munster, Ivo P.; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Schoon, Erik J.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien; Reitsma, J.
Background: Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require
Chan, Jason Y K; Leung, Iris; Navarro-Alarcon, David; Lin, Weiyang; Li, Peng; Lee, Dennis L Y; Liu, Yun-hui; Tong, Michael C F
To evaluate the feasibility of a unique prototype foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder (FREE) in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cadaveric study. Using human cadavers, we investigated the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of the robotic endoscope holder in performing endoscopic sinus surgery with two hands in five cadaver heads, mimicking a single nostril three-handed technique. The FREE robot is relatively easy to use. Setup was quick, taking less than 3 minutes from docking the robot at the head of the bed to visualizing the middle meatus. The unit is also relatively small, takes up little space, and currently has four degrees of freedom. The learning curve for using the foot control was short. The use of both hands was not hindered by the presence of the endoscope in the nasal cavity. The tremor filtration also aided in the smooth movement of the endoscope, with minimal collisions. The FREE endoscope holder in an ex-vivo cadaver test corroborated the feasibility of the robotic prototype, which allows for a two-handed approach to surgery equal to a single nostril three-handed technique without the holder that may reduce operating time. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its safety profile and use in other areas of endoscopic surgery. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:566-569, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J
The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.
Chang Min Cho
Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS has been recently established as an indispensable modality for the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal (GI disorders. EUS proficiency requires both cognitive and technical abilities, including an understanding of the appropriate indications, the performance of appropriate evaluations before and after the procedure, and the management of procedure-related complications. An increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures and a continual shortage of EUS training programs are two major obstacles for EUS training. Acquiring the skills necessary to comprehend and conduct EUS often requires training beyond the scope of a standard GI fellowship program. In addition to traditional formal EUS training and preceptorships, regular short-term intensive EUS training programs that provide training at various levels may help EUS practitioners improve and maintain EUS-related knowledges and skills. Theoretical knowledge can be acquired from lectures, textbooks, atlases, slides, videotapes, digital video discs, interactive compact discs, and websites. Informal EUS training is generally based on 1- or 2-day intensive seminars, including didactic lectures, skills demonstrated by expert practitioners through live video-streaming of procedures, and hands-on learning using animal or phantom models.
Huang, Yu-Chih; Yeh, Wen-Lin
Operative treatment of prepatellar bursitis is indicated in intractable bursitis. The most common complication of surgical treatment for prepatellar bursitis is skin problems. For traumatic prepatellar bursitis, we propose a protocol of outpatient endoscopic surgery under local anaesthesia. From September 1996 to February 2001, 60 cases of failed nonoperative treatment for prepatellar bursitis were included. The average age was 33.5 ± 11.1 years (range 21-55). The average operation duration was 18 minutes. Two to three mini-arthroscopic portals were used in our series. No sutures or a simple suture was needed for the portals after operation. After follow-up for an average of 36.3 months, all patients are were symptom-free and had regained knee function. None of the population had local tenderness or hypo-aesthesia around their wound. Their radiographic and sonographic examinations showed no recurrence of bursitis. Outpatient arthroscopic bursectomy under local anaesthesia is an effective procedure for the treatment of post-traumatic prepatellar bursitis after failed conservative treatments. Both the cosmetic results and functional results were satisfactory.
Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NAJ is a tumor with vascular component, slow growing, benign but very aggressive because of its local invasiveness. The NAJ is rare, accounting for 0.05% of all head and neck cancers. The classic triad of epistaxis, unilateral nasal obstruction and a mass in the nasopharynx suggests the diagnosis of NAJ and is then supplemented by imaging. Over the past 10 years the treatment of this disease has been discussed with the aim of designing a management protocol. Currently, surgery appears to be the best treatment of the NAJ. Other methods such as hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment modalities are now used occasionally as complementary treatments. Objective: To present the cases of this disease in the Hospital Infantil between October 2007 and August 2008. Methods: A retrospective case study of five cases of NAJ underwent surgery solely with endoscopic technique of two surgeons. Classifieds between IIA and IIIA. All patients underwent angiography with embolization of the tumor 3-4 days before surgery. Follow-up after surgery to detect recurrence. Results: There were two relapses in the following two years after surgery. Conclusion: Given the short period of patient follow-up, there were only two relapses in one year. So there is need for further action to claim that this technique has a low recurrence rate, since the recurrence is probably related to incomplete resection the initial tumor.
Prognostic value of age, subglottic, and anterior commissure involvement for early glottic carcinoma treated with CO2 laser transoral microsurgery: a retrospective, single-center cohort study of 261 patients.
Carta, Filippo; Bandino, Fabrizio; Olla, Aurora Marta; Chuchueva, Natalia; Gerosa, Clara; Puxeddu, Roberto
CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery for glottic carcinoma, when indicated, has the well-established advantages of low morbidity and positive oncological outcomes. The present study aims to determine how patient age, and tumor site could negatively impact prognosis; other variables such as the status of the margins of resection, tobacco and alcohol intake, and the grade of differentiation of the tumors have been evaluated. This was a retrospective analysis on 261 patients with a glottic carcinoma who underwent CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery. The impact of different variables was calculated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The study included 248 males and 13 females. The median follow-up period was 4.3 years. Five-year disease-specific survival, recurrence-free survival, local control with laser alone, overall laryngeal preservation, and overall survival rates were 99.4, 92.2, 93.8, 97.6, and 85.5%, respectively. Equivalent results were observed in young and elderly patients. Patients with positive margins after CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery showed a reduced local control with laser alone. T2 patients with true subglottic spreading and patients with anterior commissure involvement of grade 3 (Rucci's classification) experienced worse local control rates, despite free surgical margins confirmed by histology. CO 2 laser transoral microsurgery is an effective and reproducible single-stage modality therapy for young and elderly patients with glottic carcinoma. Superficial close margins can be managed by a careful wait-and-see policy, while positive margins should undergo surgical enlargement. In our experience, undifferentiated tumors, true subglottic extension, and anterior commissure involvement of grade 3 were associated with worse outcomes.
Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha
Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watson, David I; Immanuel, Arul
Gastroesophageal reflux is extremely common in Western countries. For selected patients, there is an established role for the surgical treatment of reflux, and possibly an emerging role for endoscopic antireflux procedures. Randomized trials have compared medical versus surgical management, laparoscopic versus open surgery and partial versus total fundoplications. However, the evidence base for endoscopic procedures is limited to some small sham-controlled studies, and cohort studies with short-term follow-up. Laparoscopic fundoplication has been shown to be an effective antireflux operation. It facilitates quicker convalescence and is associated with fewer complications, but has a similar longer term outcome compared with open antireflux surgery. In most randomized trials, antireflux surgery achieves at least as good control of reflux as medical therapy, and these studies support a wider application of surgery for the treatment of moderate-to-severe reflux. Laparoscopic partial fundoplication is an effective surgical procedure with fewer side effects, and it may achieve high rates of patient satisfaction at late follow-up. Many of the early endoscopic antireflux procedures have failed to achieve effective reflux control, and they have been withdrawn from the market. Newer procedures have the potential to fashion a surgical fundoplication. However, at present there is insufficient evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of endoscopic procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and no endoscopic procedure has achieved equivalent reflux control to that achieved by surgical fundoplication.
Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai
Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.
Gellner, Verena; Tomazic, Peter V
The endoscopic transnasal trans-sphenoidal transtubercular approach has become a standard alternative approach to neurosurgical transcranial routes for lesions of the anterior skull base in particular pathologies of the anterior tubercle, sphenoid plane, and midline lesions up to the interpeduncular cistern. For both the endoscopic and the transcranial approach indications must strictly be evaluated and tailored to the patients' morphology and condition. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the evidence in literature of the limitations of the endoscopic transtubercular approach. A PubMed/Medline search was conducted in January 2018 entering following keywords. Upon initial screening 7 papers were included in this review. There are several other papers describing the endoscopic transtubercular approach (ETTA). We tried to list the limitation factors according to the actual existing literature as cited. The main limiting factors are laterally extending lesions in relation to the optic canal and vascular encasement and/or unfavorable tumor tissue consistency. The ETTA is considered as a high level transnasal endoscopic extended skull base approach and requires excellent training, skills and experience.
Bloomfield, Ian; Van Dalen, Roelof; Lolohea, Simione; Wu, Linus
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques. A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand. A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%. Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
... Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrosurgical unit and... device includes the electrosurgical generator, patient plate, electric biopsy forceps, electrode, flexible snare, electrosurgical alarm system, electrosurgical power supply unit, electrical clamp, self...
Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.
The endoscopic preperitoneal technique (TEP) is an appealing inguinal hernia repair technique, theoretically superior to other approaches. In practice some problems remain unsolved. Real incidences of chronic postoperative inguinal pain (CPIP) and other important sequelae of endoscopic hernia repair
Jye Hae Park
Full Text Available Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6 months. Results: Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5 years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87% had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment. Conclusion: PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.
Ainsworth, A P; Rafaelsen, S R; Wamberg, P A
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether initial endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is more cost effective than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis of EUS, MRCP and ERCP was performed on 163...
Goyal, Jatinder; Ramesh, Jayapal
Peripancreatic fluid collections are a well-known complication of pancreatitis and can vary from fluid-filled collections to entirely necrotic collections. Although most of the fluid-filled pseudocysts tend to resolve spontaneously with conservative management, intervention is necessary in symptomatic patients. Open surgery has been the traditional treatment modality of choice though endoscopic, laparoscopic and transcutaneous techniques offer alternative drainage approaches. During the last decade, improvement in endoscopic ultrasound technology has enabled real-time access and drainage of fluid collections that were previously not amenable to blind transmural drainage. This has initiated a trend towards use of this modality for treatment of pseudocysts. In this review, we have summarised the existing evidence for endoscopic drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections from published studies.
Soendenaa, K.; Horn, A.; Viste, A.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was carried out for the first time in 1968. Five years later endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed. Since then both modalities have become established as necessary adjuncts in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pathology in the bile duct or pancreas. The main indication is common bile duct stone, and as a consequence of this treatment fewer patients are now treated surgically. Patients with malignant bile duct obstruction can be given reasonable palliation of both jaundice and pruritus and therefore improved quality of life. Some reports indicate that endoscopic drainage may be useful for pancreatic stenosis. Complications are few, but vigilance and prompt treatment is necessary to keep morbidity at a minimum. Follow-up after several years shows that sphincterotomy is successful also in the long term. The authors discuss the present diagnostic and therapeutic situation. 31 refs., 2 tabs
Sakai, Y; Kobayashi, S; Watanabe, E; Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K
In the reconstruction of asymmetrical deformities of the facial skeleton, both an endoscope and a neuronavigator have been used. The endoscope allows the surgeon a wide view of the object on a television monitor, reduces the scarring, minimizes the undermined field, and reduces the need to work blind. The neuronavigator is a frameless computed tomographic stereotactic device that has been mainly used in neurosurgery. The device is easy to use and can offer the surgeon three-dimensional coordinates of the status during the operation. We have used this new technique in three clinical cases, two involving augmentation of the zygomatic bone on one side and one involving reduction of the frontal bone on one side. The surgical techniques we used and the versatility of both the endoscope and the neuronavigator are discussed herein based on our own experience.
Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel
Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA.
Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an integral component of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage is a recognized complication. First line treatment involves a variety of endoscopic techniques performed at the time of sphincterotomy. If these are not successful, transcatheter arterial embolization or open surgical vessel ligation are therapeutic considerations.
D. V. Samsonov
Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.
Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan
This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
neurosurgical technique used for management of C1-C2 dislocation causing ... symptoms of moderate-severe pain in the neck and restrain of ... extension) and C-spine CT-scan showed atlanto-axial dislocation ... The patient was preoxygenated over 3 min by 100% oxygen and ... Intraoperative blood loss was about 350 ml.
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros N
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to laparoscopy Heller myotomy (LHM). POEM is arguably the most successful clinical application of NOTES. The growth of POEM from a single center in 2008 to approximately 60 centers worldwide in 2014 with several thousand procedures having been performed attests to the success of POEM. Initial efficacy, safety and acid reflux data suggest at least equivalence of POEM to LHM, the previous gold standard for achalasia therapy. Adjunctive techniques used in the West include impedance planimetry for real-time intraprocedural luminal assessment and endoscopic suturing for challenging mucosal defect closures during POEM. The impact of POEM extends beyond the realm of esophageal motility disorders as it is rapidly popularizing endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West and spawning offshoots that use the submucosal tunnel technique for a host of new indications ranging from resection of tumors to pyloromyotomy for gastroparesis. PMID:25548473
Zhou, Pinghong; Yao, Liqing; Qin, Xinyu; Xu, Meidong; Zhong, Yunshi; Chen, Weifeng
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for locally recurrent colorectal cancer after previous endoscopic mucosal resection. A total of 16 patients with locally recurrent colorectal lesions were enrolled. A needle knife, an insulated-tip knife and a hook knife were used to resect the lesion along the submucosa. The rate of the curative resection, procedure time, and incidence of complications were evaluated. Of 16 lesions, 15 were completely resected with endoscopic submucosal dissection, yielding an en bloc resection rate of 93.8 percent. Histologic examination confirmed that lateral and basal margins were cancer-free in 14 patients (87.5 percent). The average procedure time was 87.2 +/- 60.7 minutes. None of the patients had immediate or delayed bleeding during or after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Perforation in one patient (6.3 percent) was the only complication and was managed conservatively. The mean follow-up period was 15.5 +/- 6.8 months; none of the patients experienced lesion residue or recurrence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection appears to be effective for locally recurrent colorectal cancer after previous endoscopic mucosal resection, making it possible to resect whole lesions and provide precise histologic information.
Vignesh, Shivakumar; Hoffe, Sarah E; Meredith, Kenneth L; Shridhar, Ravi; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Gupta, Akshay K
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most important identifiable risk factor for the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. This article reviews the current endoscopic therapies for BE with high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancer and briefly discusses the endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer. The diagnosis of low-grade or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) is based on several cytologic criteria that suggest neoplastic transformation of the columnar epithelium. HGD and carcinoma in situ are regarded as equivalent. The presence of dysplasia, particularly HGD, is also a risk factor for synchronous and metachronous adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia is a marker of adenocarcinoma and also has been shown to be the preinvasive lesion. Esophagectomy has been the conventional treatment for T1 esophageal cancer and, although debated, is an appropriate option in some patients with HGD due to the presence of occult cancer in over one-third of patients. Endoscopic ablative modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation) and endoscopic resection techniques (eg, endoscopic mucosal resection) have demonstrated promising results. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy makes endoscopic treatment an attractive potential option.
Fusco, Stefano; Kratt, Thomas; Gani, Cihan; Stueker, Dietmar; Zips, Daniel; Malek, Nisar P; Goetz, Martin
Complete esophageal obstruction after (chemo)radiation for head and neck cancers is rare. However, inability to swallow one's own saliva strongly inflicts upon quality of life. Techniques for endoscopic recanalization in complete obstruction are not well established. We assessed the efficacy and safety of rendezvous recanalization. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent endoscopic recanalization of complete proximal esophageal obstruction after radiotherapy between January 2009 and June 2016. Technical success was defined as an ability to pass an endoscope across the recanalized lumen, clinical success by changes in the dysphagia score. Adverse events were recorded prospectively. 19 patients with complete obstruction (dysphagia IV°), all of whom had failed at least one trial of conventional dilatation, underwent recanalization by endoscopic rendezvous, a combined approach through a gastrostomy and perorally under fluoroscopic control. Conscious sedation was used in all patients. In 18/19 patients (94.7%), recanalization was technically successful. In 14/18 patients (77.8%), the post-intervention dysphagia score changed to ≤ II. Three patients had their PEG removed. Factors negatively associated with success were obstruction length of 50 mm; and tumor recurrence for long-term success. No severe complications were recorded. Rendezvous recanalization for complete esophageal obstruction is a reliable and safe method to re-establish luminal patency. Differences between technical and clinical success rates highlight the importance of additional functional factors associated with dysphagia. Given the lack of therapeutic alternatives, rendezvous recanalization is a valid option to improve dysphagia.
Kim, Jung Hee; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Se, Young-Bem; Kim, Hey In; Lee, Seung Hoon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Yong Hwy
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has recently been introduced in pituitary surgery. We investigated outcomes and complications of endoscopic surgery in 2 referral centers in Korea. We enrolled 134 patients with acromegaly (microadenomas, n = 15; macroadenomas, n = 119) who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at Seoul National University Hospital (n = 74) and Samsung Medical Center (n = 60) between January 2009 and March 2016. Remission was defined as having a normal insulin-like growth factor-1 and a suppressed growth hormone (GH) surgery, normal pituitary function was maintained in 34 patients (25.4%). Sixty-four patients (47.7%) presented complete (n = 59, 44.0%) or incomplete (n = 5, 3.7%) recovery of pituitary function. Hypopituitarism persisted in 20 patients (14.9%) and worsened in 16 patients (11.9%). Postoperatively, transient diabetes insipidus was reported in 52 patients (38.8%) but only persisted in 2 patients (1.5%). Other postoperative complications were epistaxis (n = 2), cerebral fluid leakage (n = 4), infection (n = 1), and intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 1). Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly presented high remission rates and a low incidence of endocrine deficits and complications. Regardless of surgical techniques, invasive pituitary tumors were associated with poor outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH is generally addressed by craniotomy under general anesthesia. We report a patient whose traumatic ASDH was treated under local anesthesia by one-burr-hole endoscopic surgery. This 87-year-old woman had undergone coil embolization for a ruptured right middle-cerebral artery aneurysm and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus 5 years earlier. Upon admission, she manifested consciousness disturbance after suffering head trauma and right hemiplegia. Her Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 (E2V2M4. Computed tomography (CT demonstrated a thick, left-frontotemporal ASDH. Due to her advanced age and poor condition, we performed endoscopic surgery rather than craniotomy to evacuate the ASDH. Under local anesthesia, we made a burr hole in her left forehead and increased its size to 15 mm in diameter. After introducing a transparent sheath into the hematoma cavity with a rigid endoscope, the clot was evacuated with a suction tube. The arterial bleeding point was electrically coagulated. A postoperative CT scan confirmed the reduction of the hematoma. There was neither brain compression nor brain swelling. Her consciousness disturbance and right hemiplegia improved immediately. Endoscopic surgery may represent a viable method to address traumatic intracranial hematomas in some patients.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.
Uppal, Dushant S; Wang, Andrew Y
Achalasia is the most common primary motility disorder of the esophagus and presents as dysphagia to solids and liquids. It is characterized by impaired deglutitive relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. High-resolution manometry allows for definitive diagnosis and classification of achalasia, with type II being the most responsive to therapy. Since no cure for achalasia exists, early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is critical to prevent end-stage disease. The central tenant of diagnosis is to first rule out mechanical obstruction due to stricture or malignancy, which is often accomplished by endoscopic and fluoroscopic examination. Therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD), surgical myotomy, and endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin injection. Heller myotomy and PD are more efficacious than pharmacologic therapies and should be considered first-line treatment options. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a minimally-invasive endoscopic therapy that might be as effective as surgical myotomy when performed by a trained and experienced endoscopist, although long-term data are lacking. Overall, therapy should be individualized to each patient’s clinical situation and based upon his or her risk tolerance, operative candidacy, and life expectancy. In instances of therapeutic failure or symptom recurrence re-treatment is possible and can include PD or POEM of the wall opposite the site of prior myotomy. Patients undergoing therapy for achalasia require counseling, as the goal of therapy is to improve swallowing and prevent late manifestations of the disease rather than to restore normal swallowing, which is unfortunately impossible. PMID:27818585
Matthew P. Spinn
Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.
An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic injection sclerotherapy in patients with portal hypertension seen at the Centre for Clinical Research, ... The report concludes that variceal injection sclerotherapy is a useful method of treating oesophageal varices and can be performed on an out patient basis.
WOUTERS, B; VANOVERBEEK, JJM
Over the years the techniques for endoscopic treatment of Zenker's diverticulum have been improved. Initially, in 1964, we used the electrocoagulation technique as described by Dohlman, but currently we prefer to sever the tissue bridge between the diverticulum and esophagus with the CO2 laser under
Revert, A.; Arana, E.; Pertejo, V.; Berenguer, M.; Masip, M.J.
Focal liver opacification during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is an uncommon complication caused by excessive pressure during contrast injection. In this situation, ERCP must be interrupted and the position of the cannula checked. We recommend that these images be excluded from the diagnosis of tumor or cystic cavities. 4 refs
miniport for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. Akinari Hinoki*, Ikeda ... method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the ... the open technique and an additional 2 mm miniport). A ... (unilateral, n = 9) or 42 ± 8 min (bilateral, n = 5). The mean .... Methods of laparoscopic repair have recently ...
Shrestha, B; Baidya, J L
Posterior urethral injury requires meticulous tertiary care and optimum expertise to manage successfully. The aim of our study is to describe our experiences with pelvic injuries involving posterior urethra and their outcome after early endoscopic realignment. A prospective study was carried out in 20 patients with complete posterior urethral rupture, from November 2007 till October 2010. They presented with blunt traumatic pelvic fracture and underwent primary realignment of posterior urethra in our institute. The definitive diagnosis of urethral rupture was made after retrograde urethrography and antegrade urethrography where applicable. The initial management was suprapubic catheter insertion after primary trauma management in casualty. After a week of conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and pain management, patients were subjected to the endoscopic realignment. The follow up period was at least six months. The results were analyzed with SPSS software. After endoscopic realignment, all patients were advised CISC for the initial 3 months. All patients voided well after three months of CISC. However, 12 patients were lost to follow up by the end of 6 postoperative months. Out of eight remaining patients, two had features of restricture and were managed with DVU followed by CISC again. One patient with restricture had some degree of erectile dysfunction who improved significantly after phospodiesterase inhibitors. None of the patients had features of incontinence. Early endoscopic realignment of posterior urethra is a minimally invasive modality in the management of complete posterior urethral injury with low rates of incontinence and impotency.
Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Karmarkar, Vikram S; Shaikh, Salman T
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has now become an accepted mode of hydrocephalus treatment in children. Varying degrees of success for the procedure have been reported depending on the type and etiology of hydrocephalus, age of the patient and certain technical parameters. Review of these factors for predictability of success, complications and validation of success score is presented.
P Khanna, BR Ray, R Sinha, R Kumar, K Sikka, AC Singh ... We present the anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of 14 JNAs, together with a review. ... Mean duration of surgery was 197.14 ± 77 minutes, and median blood loss ...
The present disclosure relates to an illumination system for endoscopic applications comprising at least one substantially monochromatic light source having a predefined central wavelength between 400 and 500 nm or between 500 and 550 nm, an optical transmission path adapted to guide light emanat...... for photodynamic diagnosis and/or therapy of bladder cancer is further disclosed herein....
Background This report describes the first miniport method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. To validate its safety and efficacy, the authors evaluated their early experiences. Methods Between April 2014 and December 2014, 19 SEALs using miniport ...
Nov 4, 2013 ... operative treatment is necessary, repair by a surgeon with expertise in biliary ... vascular injuries or other endoscopic findings requiring surgical or radiological intervention. Of 84 patients ..... necrosis and unrecognised distal CD injury. ... placement of multiple simultaneous stents, an alternative option.
van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; Groot, Minke; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Spennacchio, Pietro A.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek
The purpose of our study was to determine an anatomic landmark to help locate portals in endoscopic calcaneoplasty. The device for optimal portal placement (DOPP) was developed to measure the distance from the distal fibula tip to the calcaneus (DFC) in 28 volunteers to determine the location of the
T S Chandrasekar
Full Text Available Bile duct injuries and subsequent leaks can occur following laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies and also during other hepatobiliary surgeries. Various patient related and technical factors are implicated in the causation of biliary injuries. Over a period of twenty five years managing such patients of biliary injuries our team has found a practical approach to assess the cause of biliary injuries based on the symptoms, clinical examination and imaging. Bismuth classification is helpful in most of the cases. Immediate referral to a centre experienced in the management of bile duct injury and timely intervention is associated with improved outcomes. Resuscitation, correcting dyselectrolytemia, aspiration of undrained biloma and antibiotics take the priority in the management. The goal is to restore the bile conduit, and to prevent short and longterm complications such as biliary fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, biliary stricture, recurrent cholangitis and secondary biliary cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapy by reducing the transpapillary pressure gradient helps in reducing the leak. Endoscopic therapy with biliary sphincterotomy alone or with additional placement of a biliary stent/ nasobiliary drainage is advocated. In our tertiary care referral unit, we found endoscopic interventions are useful in situations where there is leak with associated CBD calculus or a foreign body, peripheral bile duct injury, cystic duct stump leak and partial bile duct injury with leak/ narrowing of the lumen. Endotherapy is not useful in case of complete transection (total cut off and complete stricture involving common hepatic or common bile ducts. In conclusion, endoscopic treatment can be considered a highly effective therapy and should be the first-line therapy in such patients. Though less successful, an endoscopic attempt is warranted in patients suffering from central bile duct leakages failing which surgical management is recommended.
Hill, Christine; El Zein, Mohamad; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dunlap, Margo; Chang, Angela; Agrawal, Alison; Barola, Sindhu; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Chen, Yen-I; Kalloo, Anthony N; Khashab, Mouen A; Kumbhari, Vivek
Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is gaining traction as a minimally invasive bariatric treatment. Concern that the learning curve may be slow, even among those proficient in endoscopic suturing, is a barrier to widespread implementation of the procedure. Therefore, we aimed to define the learning curve for ESG in a single endoscopist experienced in endoscopic suturing who participated in a 1-day ESG training program. Consecutive patients who underwent ESG between February 2016 and November 2016 were included. The performing endoscopist, who is proficient in endoscopic suturing for non-ESG procedures, participated in a 1-day ESG training session before offering ESG to patients. The outcome measurements were length of procedure (LOP) and number of plications per procedure. Nonlinear regression was used to determine the learning plateau and calculate the learning rate. Twenty-one consecutive patients (8 males), with mean age 47.7 ± 11.2 years and mean body mass index 41.8 ± 8.5 kg/m 2 underwent ESG. LOP decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a learning plateau at 101.5 minutes and a learning rate of 7 cases ( P = 0.04). The number of plications per procedure also decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a plateau at 8 sutures and a learning rate of 9 cases ( P < 0.001). Further, the average time per plication decreased significantly with consecutive procedures, reaching a plateau at 9 procedures ( P < 0.001). Endoscopists experienced in endoscopic suturing are expected to achieve a reduction in LOP and number of plications per procedure in successive cases, with progress plateauing at 7 and 9 cases, respectively.
Tyler Stevens; Mansour A Parsi
Hormone-stimulated pancreatic function tests (PFTs) are considered the gold standard for measuring pancreatic exocrine function. PFTs involve the administration of intravenous secretin or cholecystokinin, followed by collection and analysis of pancreatic secretions. Because exocrine function may decline in the earliest phase of pancreatic fibrosis, PFTs are considered accurate for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Unfortunately, these potentially valuable tests are infrequently performed except at specialized centers, because they are time consuming and complicated. To overcome these limitations, endoscopic PFT methods have been developed which include aspiration of pancreatic secretions through the suction channel of the endoscope. The secretin endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) involves collection of duodenal aspirates at 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after secretin stimulation. A bicarbonate concentration greater than 80 mmol/L in any of the samples is considered a normal result. The secretin ePFT has demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared with various reference standards, including the "Dreiling tube" secretin PFT, endoscopic ultrasound, and surgical histology. Furthermore, a standard autoanalyzer can be used for bicarbonate analysis, which allows the secretin ePFT to be performed at any hospital. The secretin ePFT may complement imaging tests like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis.This paper will review the literature validating the use of ePFT in the diagnosis of exocrine insufficiency and chronic pancreatitis. Newer developments will also be discussed, including the feasibility of combined EUS/ePFT, the use of cholecystokinin alone or in combination with secretin, and the discovery of new protein and lipid pancreatic juice biomarkers which may complement traditionalfluid analysis.
Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Cheon, Jung Eun; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Guk Myung
Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required
Terra, A.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N.; Brezinsek, S.; Egner, S.; Hartl, M.; Kampf, D.; Klammer, J.; Lambertz, H.T.; Morlock, C.; Murari, A.; Reindl, M.; Sanders, S.; Sergienko, G.; Spencer, G.
Highlights: ► Replacement of JET diagnostics to match the new ITER-like Wall. ► The endoscope test ITER-like design with only mirror based optics. ► Withstanding and diagnostic capability during Plasma operation and disruptions. ► Engineering process from design to installation and procurement. -- Abstract: The development of optical diagnostics, like endoscopes, compatible with the ITER environment (metallic plasma facing components, neutron proof optics, etc.) is a challenge, but current tokamaks such as JET provide opportunities to test fully working concepts. This paper describes the engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope that has recently been designed, procured and installed on JET. The system must operate in a very strict environment with high temperature, high magnetic fields up to B = 4 T and rapid field variations (∂B/∂t ∼ 100 T/s) that induce high stresses due to eddy currents in the front mirror assembly. It must be designed to withstand high mechanical loads especially during disruptions, which lead to acceleration of about 7 g at 14 Hz. For the JET endoscope, when the plasma thermal loading, direct and indirect, was added to the assumed disruption loads, the reserve factor, defined as a ratio of yield strength over summed up von Mises stresses, was close to 1 for the mirror components. To ensure reliable operation, several analyses were performed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical performance of the endoscope and a final validation was obtained from mechanical and thermal tests, before the system's final installation in May 2011. During the tests, stability of the field of view angle variation was kept below 1° despite the high thermal gradient on endoscope head (∂T/∂x ∼ 500 K/m). In parallel, to ensure long time operation and to prevent undesirable performance degradation, a shutter system was also implemented in order to reduce impurity deposition on in-vessel mirrors but also to allow in situ transmission calibration
Kim, Da Hee; Kim, Hwan; Kwak, Sanghyun; Baek, Kwangha; Na, Gina; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Se Heon
The da Vinci system (da Vinci Surgical System; Intuitive Surgical Inc.) has rapidly developed in several years from the S system to the Si system and now the Xi System. To investigate the surgical feasibility and to provide workflow guidance for the newly released system, we used the new da Vinci Xi system for transoral robotic surgery (TORS) on a cadaveric specimen. Bilateral supraglottic partial laryngectomy, hypopharyngectomy, lateral oropharyngectomy, and base of the tongue resection were serially performed in search of the optimal procedures with the new system. The new surgical robotic system has been upgraded in all respects. The telescope and camera were incorporated into one system, with a digital end-mounted camera. Overhead boom rotation allows multiquadrant access without axis limitation, the arms are now thinner and longer with grabbing movements for easy adjustments. The patient clearance button dramatically reduces external collisions. The new surgical robotic system has been optimized for improved anatomic access, with better-equipped appurtenances. This cadaveric study of TORS offers guidance on the best protocol for surgical workflow with the new Xi system leading to improvements in the functional results of TORS.
A. N. Shkarubo
Full Text Available 27 patients aged 2,5-61 years with skull base and C1-C2 vertebral body tumours and nontumorous pathology in the craniocervical junction underwent surgery. All patients revealed craniovertebral instability. To perform OSD we used autobone and metallic wire in 1 case, "Ventrofix" - 2; "CCD" - 9, "Vertex" - 15. In 26 cases OSD was followed by transoral tumor removal; in 1 - removal of the skull base chordoma spreading into C1-C2 segments was followed by OSD. In our practice we used original patent instruments, devices and surgical techniques. After the tumor has been removed, the skull defect hermetic closure and plasty were performed using the original patent technique for preventing postoperative CSF leakage as well as different glue compositions. This technique proved to shorten hospitalization period and reduce treatment costs as well as launch an early rehabilitation programme - on the 3d-4th day after operation. Use of new technologies in surgical treatment of skull base tumors invading upper cervical spinal segments accompanied by craniovertebral instability allowed to improve surgical outcome and start up early rehabilitation.
threatening complication of laryngospasm that occurs during or after general anaesthesia. It is a complication of poorly treated or unrecognized laryngospasm occurring at extubation or later in the postoperative period. Objective: To emphasize ...
Apr 13, 2013 ... relatively ineffective and often an unjustified procedure. An audit was carried out to strengthen the argument that tonsillectomy was a valid treatment, the audit reported that 85% of the patients had all the essential criteria/ indications documented, necessitating these procedures. It then concluded that these ...
Mistry, N; Coulson, C; George, A
Digital and mobile device technology in healthcare is a growing market. The introduction of the endoscope-i, the world's first endoscopic mobile imaging system, allows the acquisition of high definition images of the ear, nose and throat (ENT). The system combines the e-i Pro camera app with a bespoke engineered endoscope-i adaptor which fits securely onto the iPhone or iPod touch. Endoscopic examination forms a salient aspect of the ENT work-up. The endoscope-i therefore provides a mobile and compact alternative to the existing bulky endoscopic systems currently in use which often restrict the clinician to the clinic setting. Areas covered: This article gives a detailed overview of the endoscope-i system together with its applications. A review and comparison of alternative devices on the market offering smartphone adapted endoscopic viewing systems is also presented. Expert commentary: The endoscope-i fulfils unmet needs by providing a compact, highly portable, simple to use endoscopic viewing system which is cost-effective and which makes use of smartphone technology most clinicians have in their pocket. The system allows real-time feedback to the patient and has the potential to transform the way that healthcare is delivered in ENT as well as having applications further afield.
Campo, Rudi; Wattiez, Arnaud; Tanos, Vasilis; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Grimbizis, Grigoris; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Puga, Marco; Molinas, Roger; O'Donovan, Peter; Deprest, Jan; Van Belle, Yves; Lissens, Ann; Herrmann, Anja; Tahir, Mahmood; Benedetto, Chiara; Siebert, Igno; Rabischong, Benoit; De Wilde, Rudy Leon
In recent years, training and education in endoscopic surgery has been critically reviewed. Clinicians, both surgeons as gynaecologist who perform endoscopic surgery without proper training of the specific psychomotor skills are at higher risk to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the apprentice-tutor model has long been a successful approach for training of surgeons, recently, clinicians have recognised that endoscopic surgery requires an important training phase outside the operating theatre. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA), recognises the necessity of this structured approach and implements two separated stages in its learning strategy. In the first stage, a skill certificate on theoretical knowledge and specific practical psychomotor skills is acquired through a high stake exam; in the second stage, a clinical programme is completed to achieve surgical competence and receive the corresponding diploma. Three diplomas can be awarded: (a) the Bachelor in Endoscopy; (b) the Minimally Invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS); and (c) the Master level. The Master level is sub-divided into two separate diplomas: the Master in Laparoscopic Pelvic Surgery and the Master in Hysteroscopy. The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and the quality control. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence and it counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice tutor model. It is seen as a major step toward standardization of endoscopic surgical training in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saunders, Katherine H; Igel, Leon I; Saumoy, Monica; Sharaiha, Reem Z; Aronne, Louis J
In this review, we describe the FDA-approved and investigational devices and endoscopic bariatric therapies for the treatment of obesity. We focus on literature published in the past few years and present mechanisms of action as well as efficacy and safety data. Devices and endoscopic procedures are emerging options to fill the significant treatment gap in the management of obesity. Not only are these devices and procedures minimally invasive and reversible, but they are potentially more effective than antiobesity medications, often safer for poor surgical candidates and possibly less expensive than bariatric surgery. As many patients require a variety of management strategies (medications, devices, procedures, and/or surgery) in addition to lifestyle modifications to achieve clinically significant weight loss, the future of obesity treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach. Combinations of advanced treatment strategies can lead to additive or synergistic weight loss. This is an area that requires further investigation.
P Mahesh Shanmugam
Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.
Becq, Aymeric; Camus, Marine; Rahmi, Gabriel; de Parades, Vincent; Marteau, Philippe
Introduction Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-validated treatment of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Other indications of endoscopic RFA are under evaluation. Results Four prospective studies (total 69 patients) have shown that RFA achieved complete remission of early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia at a rate of 80%, but with a substantial risk of stricture. In the setting of gastric antral vascular ectasia, two prospective monocenter studies, and a retrospective multicenter study, (total 51 patients), suggest that RFA is efficacious in terms of reducing transfusion dependency. In the setting of chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy, a prospective monocenter study and a retrospective multicenter study (total 56 patients) suggest that RFA is an efficient treatment. A retrospective comparative study (64 patients) suggests that RFA improves stents patency in malignant biliary strictures. Conclusions Endoscopic RFA is an upcoming treatment modality in early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia, as well as in gastric, rectal, and biliary diseases. PMID:26279839
Rauf, A.; Ahmed, I.; Rauf, M.H.; Rauf, M.
Objective: To determine the efficiency and safety of endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi with the available modern endoscopic instruments. Methology: In case series, patients were collected randomly from 2007 to 2014. Patients were diagnosed with ultrasound and Nephroscope with Swiss pneumatic lithoclast, lithotrite and stone punch were used for treatment. Results: Majority of the patient could be managed with the method adopted. Stone size, hardness or softness, gender were the factors affecting treatment. Associated prostate pathology was seen in four patients. Postoperative complications included hemorrhage, perforation, residual stone and transurethral resection of prostate syndrome. Conclusion: Overall, it is a safe procedure except in patients with large enlarged prostate and large vesical calculi. Very hard vesical calculus may need vesicolithotomy. (author)
Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner
Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282
Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.
Nicholas J Shaheen
Full Text Available Barrett′s esophagus (BE is the precursor lesion to esophageal adenocarcinoma. This cancer has undergone a rapid increase in incidence in Western societies in the last 30 years. Current practices seek to lower the risk of death from this cancer by performing screening upper endoscopy on those with chronic reflux symptoms, and then surveillance upper endoscopy on those found to have BE at periodic intervals. While this approach is intuitively appealing, no data substantiate a decreased cancer risk with these practices, and substantial issues limit the effectiveness of this approach. This article outlines the current approaches to BE, their shortcomings, and presents data supporting the use of endoscopic therapy for subjects with BE and dysplasia. A significant and growing literature supports the use of endoscopic therapy in BE, and this approach, combined with improved risk stratification, may improve our care of subjects with BE.
Full Text Available Intrasheath subluxation of the peroneal tendons within the peroneal groove is an uncommon problem. Open exploration combined with a peroneal groove-deepening procedure and retinacular reefing is the recommended treatment. This extensive lateral approach needs incision of the intact superior peroneal retinaculum and repair afterwards. We treated three patients with a painful intrasheath subluxation using an endoscopic approach. During this tendoscopy both tendons were inspected. The distal muscle fibers of the peroneus brevis tendon were resected in two patients. A partial tear was debrided in the third patient. All patients had a good result. No wound-healing problems or other complications occurred. Early return to work and sports was possible. An endoscopic approach was successful in treatment of an intrasheath subluxation of the peroneal tendons.
Jong Wook Kim
Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment is a minimally invasive treatment for managing patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Although several bulking agents have been used for endoscopic treatment, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is the only bulking agent currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR has gained great popularity owing to several obvious benefits, including short operative time, short hospital stay, minimal invasiveness, high efficacy, low complication rate, and reduced cost. Initially, the success rates of endoscopic treatment have been lower than that of open antireflux surgery. However, because injection techniques have been developed, a recent study showed higher success rates of endoscopic treatment than open surgery in the treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-grade VUR. Despite the controversy surrounding its effectiveness, endoscopic treatment is considered a valuable treatment option and viable alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis.
Eun Jeong Gong
Full Text Available Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions.
Choi, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Kyung Tai; Lee, Young Koo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ryoul; Chung, Woo Chull; Cha, Seung Do
Compare the result of endoscopic versus open bursectomy in lateral malleolar bursitis. Prospective evaluation of 21 patients (22 ankles) undergoing either open or endoscopic excision of lateral malleolar bursitis. The median age was 64 (38-79) years old. The median postoperative follow-up was 15 (12-18) months. Those patients undergoing endoscopic excision showed a higher satisfaction rate (excellent 9, good 2) than open excision (excellent 4, good 3, fair 1). The wounds also healed earlier in the endoscopic group although the operation time was slightly longer. One patient in the endoscopic group had recurrence of symptoms but complications in the open group included one patient with skin necrosis, one patient with wound dehiscence, and two patients of with superficial peroneal nerve injury. Endoscopic resection of the lateral malleolar bursitis is a promising technique and shows favorable results compared to the open resection. Therapeutic studies-Investigating the result of treatment, Level II.
Tumor bleeding is not a rare complication in patients with inoperable gastric cancer. Endoscopy has important roles in the diagnosis and primary treatment of tumor bleeding, similar to its roles in other non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases. Although limited studies have been performed, endoscopic therapy has been highly successful in achieving initial hemostasis. One or a combination of endoscopic therapy modalities, such as injection therapy, mechanical therapy, or ablative therapy, can be used for hemostasis in patients with endoscopic stigmata of recent hemorrhage. However, rebleeding after successful hemostasis with endoscopic therapy frequently occurs. Endoscopic therapy may be a treatment option for successfully controlling this rebleeding. Transarterial embolization or palliative surgery should be considered when endoscopic therapy fails. For primary and secondary prevention of tumor bleeding, proton pump inhibitors can be prescribed, although their effectiveness to prevent bleeding remains to be investigated. PMID:25844339
Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...
Christensen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Schulze, S
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are at risk of developing cardiorespiratory complications, but the mechanism is still unknown. Treatment with metoprolol 2 h before the endoscopy has been shown to decrease the incidence of myocardial ischaemia......: The existence of a defence-like reaction ('vagal withdrawal') during ERCP has been shown. Metoprolol given 2 h before the procedure did not affect the occurrence of this phenomenon. The interaction of other periendoscopic factors is still unclear and should be studied further....
Roth, K; Sieber, J P; Schrimm, H; Heeg, P; Buess, G
This paper deals with the requirements for automated processing of endoscopic surgical instruments. After a brief analysis of the current problems, solutions are discussed. Test-procedures have been developed to validate the automated processing, so that the cleaning results are guaranteed and reproducable. Also a device for testing and cleaning was designed together with Netzsch Newamatic and PCI, called TC-MIC, to automate processing and reduce manual work.
Full Text Available We describe a 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 Mirizzi syndrome diagnosed on endoscopic ultrasound. He presented with acute onset of jaundice, malaise, dark urine over 3-4 days, and was found to have obstructive jaundice on lab testing. CT scan of the abdomen showed intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation, a 1.5 cm common bile duct (CBD above the pancreas, and possible stones in the CBD, but no masses. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP by a community gastroenterologist failed to cannulate the CBD. At the University Center, type 1 Mirizzi syndrome was noted on endoscopic ultrasound with narrowing of the CBD with extrinsic compression from cystic duct stone. During repeat ERCP, the CBD could be cannulated over the pancreatic duct wire. A mid CBD narrowing, distal CBD stones, proximal CBD and extrahepatic duct dilation were noted, and biliary sphincterotomy was performed. A small stone in the distal CBD was removed with an extraction balloon. The cystic duct stone was moved with the biliary balloon into the CBD, mechanical basket lithotripsy was performed and stone fragments were delivered out with an extraction balloon. The patient was seen 7 weeks later in the clinic. Skin and scleral icterus had cleared up and he is scheduled for an elective cholecystectomy. Mirizzi syndrome refers to biliary obstruction resulting from impacted stone in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder and commonly presents with obstructive jaundice. Type 1 does not have cholecystocholedochal fistulas, but they present in types 2, 3 and 4. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can also be used as a temporizing measure or definitive treatment in poor surgical risk candidates.
Atreja, Ashish; Rizk, Maged; Gurland, Brooke
Endoscopic electronic medical record systems (EEMRs) are now increasingly utilized in many endoscopy centers. Modern EEMRs not only support endoscopy report generation, but often include features such as practice management tools, image and video clip management, inventory management, e-faxes to referring physicians, and database support to measure quality and patient outcomes. There are many existing software vendors offering EEMRs, and choosing a software vendor can be time consuming and co...
Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua
In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.
Mirian Cabral Moreira de Castro
Full Text Available To describe a series of 129 consecutive patients submitted to the resection of pituitary tumors using the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in a public medical center. Method: Retrospective analysis based on the records of patients submitted to the resection of a pituitary tumor through the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach between 2004 and 2009. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine records were analyzed. The tumor was non-secreting in 96 (74.42% and secreting in 33 patients (22.58%. Out of the secretory tumors, the most prevalent was the growth hormone producer (7.65%, followed by the prolactinoma, (6.98%. Eleven patients developed cerebral spinal fluid (CSF fistulas, and four of them developed meningitis. One patient died due to intracerebral hemorrhage in the postoperative period. Conclusion: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to sellar tumors proved to be safe when the majority of the tumors were non-secreting. The most frequent complication was CSF. This technique can be done even in a public hospital with financial limits, since the health professionals are integrated.
Luciana Lopes de Oliveira
Full Text Available A 76-year-old woman, presenting with a 4-year history of progressive dysphagia, was submitted to endoscopic examination. The upper endoscopy revealed a proximal esophageal stricture and inflammatory mucosa associated with multiples small orifices in the esophageal wall, some of them fulfilled with white spots suggestive of fungal infection. This was a typical endoscopic finding of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, a benign and rare condition, related to chronic esophagitis and others comorbid states, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or infectious esophagitis, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, and achalasia. Dysphagia is the predominant symptom and can be accompanied by esophageal stricture in 80% to 90% of patients. The pathogenesis is unknown, and as the pseudodiverticulosis is an intramural finding, endoscopy biopsies are inconclusive. The main histological finding is dilation of the submucosal glands excretory ducts, probably obstructed by inflammatory cells. The treatment consists in management of the underlying diseases and symptoms relief. In this particular case, the patient was submitted to antifungal drugs followed by endoscopic dilation with thermoplastic bougies, with satisfactory improvement of dysphagia.
Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoon
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy. For solo-surgery, we used an Endoeye Flex Laparo-Thoraco Videoscope (Olympus America, Inc.). A Vitom Karl Storz holding system (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.) composed of several bars connected by a ball-joint system was used for fixation of endoscope. A snake retractor and a brain-spoon retractor were used on the sternocleidomastoid. Endoscopic thyroidectomy using the solo-surgeon technique was performed in 10 patients having papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean patient age was 36.0 ± 11.1 years, and all patients were female. There were no postoperative complications such as vocal cord paralysis and hematoma. When compared with the operating times and volume of drainage of a control group of 100 patients who underwent surgery through the conventional retroauricular approach between May 2013 and December 2015, the operating times and volume of drainage were not significantly different (P = .781 and .541, respectively). Solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy is safe and feasible when performed by a surgeon competent in endoscopic thyroidectomy.
Davanzo, Justin R; Goyal, Neerav; Zacharia, Brad E
This video abstract demonstrates the use of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach for the resection of a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma. These tumors are notoriously difficult to treat, and many approaches have been tried to facilitate safe and effective resection. The endoscopic endonasal approach has been increasingly utilized for selected sellar/suprasellar pathology. We present the case of a 39-year-old man who was found to have a cystic, partially calcified suprasellar mass consistent with a craniopharyngioma. To facilitate robust skull base repair, a vascularized nasoseptal flap was harvested. A wide sphenoidotomy was performed and the sella and tuberculum were exposed. After the dural opening and arachnoid dissection, the stalk was identified, merging seamlessly with the tumor capsule. The lesion was then internally debulked with the use of an ultrasonic aspirator. The capsule was then dissected off of the optic chiasm, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The cavity was inspected with an angled endoscope to ensure complete resection. A multilayered reconstruction was performed using autologous fascia lata, the previously harvested nasoseptal flap, and dural sealant. Postoperatively, the patient did have expected panhypopituitarism but remained neurologically intact and had improvement in his vision. In conclusion, this video demonstrates how an expanded endonasal approach can be used to safely resect a craniopharyngioma, even when in close proximity to delicate structures such as the optic chiasm. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/tahjHmrXhc4 .
Rabinovitz, R.; Hai, N.; Abraham, Martin D.; Adler, Doron; Nissani, M.; Fridental, Ron; Vitsnudel, Ilia
We have introduced a computer-based endoscopic camera which includes (a) unique real-time digital image processing to optimize image visualization by reducing over exposed glared areas and brightening dark areas, and by accentuating sharpness and fine structures, and (b) patient data documentation and management. The image processing is based on i Sight's iSP1000TM digital video processor chip and Adaptive SensitivityTM patented scheme for capturing and displaying images with wide dynamic range of light, taking into account local neighborhood image conditions and global image statistics. It provides the medical user with the ability to view images under difficult lighting conditions, without losing details `in the dark' or in completely saturated areas. The patient data documentation and management allows storage of images (approximately 1 MB per image for a full 24 bit color image) to any storage device installed into the camera, or to an external host media via network. The patient data which is included with every image described essential information on the patient and procedure. The operator can assign custom data descriptors, and can search for the stored image/data by typing any image descriptor. The camera optics has extended zoom range of f equals 20 - 45 mm allowing control of the diameter of the field which is displayed on the monitor such that the complete field of view of the endoscope can be displayed on all the area of the screen. All these features provide versatile endoscopic camera with excellent image quality and documentation capabilities.
Full Text Available Advances in diagnostic modalities and improvement in surveillance programs for Barrett esophagus has resulted in an increase in the incidence of superficial esophageal cancers (SECs. SEC, due to their limited metastatic potential, are amenable to non-invasive treatment modalities. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD are some of the new modalities that gastroenterologists have used over the last decade to diagnose and treat SEC. However, esophageal stricture (ES is a very common complication and a major cause of morbidity post-ESD. In the past few years, there has been a tremendous effort to reduce the incidence of ES among patients undergoing ESD. Steroids have shown the most consistent results over time with minimal complications although the preferred mode of delivery is debatable, with both systemic and local therapy having pros and cons for specific subgroups of patients. Newer modalities such as esophageal stents, autologous cell sheet transplantation, polyglycolic acid, and tranilast have shown promising results but the depth of experience with these methods is still limited. We have summarized case reports, prospective single center studies, and randomized controlled trials describing the various methods intended to reduce the incidence of ES after ESD. Indications, techniques, outcomes, limitations, and reported complications are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to show that endoscopic surgery is a simple and acceptable method for various problems associated with wounds, range of motion and that such surgery ensures an early return to work after treatment of nonresponding nonseptic bursitis. Methods: Thirty-two patients with nonseptic bursitis caused by repeated minor trauma that did not respond to medical treatment from 2008 to 2012 were included in this study. Radiographic [anteroposterior and lateral], ultrasound, macro and microscopic analyses of drainage liquid and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from the patients for the diagnosis. Results: The mean age was 40.8 years. Fifteen patients had prepatellar bursitis, 13 had olecranon bursitis and 4 had ankle bursitis. Two patients had a history of falling on their knee. The other patients had a history of repetitive stimulation .The mean follow up period was 2.6 years [range. 2-5 years] and no medical complications occurred after the endoscopic surgery; such as scarring, loss of sensation and infection. One recurrence in response to medical treatment was observed. Conclusion: Endoscopic bursectomy is a short and acceptable procedure with excellent results in terms of returning to work early and minimal wound related problems. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 220-223
Marchan, Mark L.
Endoscopy has become an important procedure in many medical specialties. For the Otologist, however, space limitations within the ear have restricted development of endoscopic procedures. The desire for minimally invasive techniques in Otology has demonstrated itself through the work of numerous physicians who have performed procedures ranging from diagnostic inspection of the middle ear to viewing the interior of the cochlea. To assist in performing such endoscopic procedures, Xomed-Treace has developed a line of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for use by the Otologist. These scopes combine illumination and imaging fiber bundles within a small diameter unit ranging in size from 0.8 mm to 1.2 mm. The 1.2 mm scope is produced with an angled, rigid stainless steel sheath. The 0.8 mm scope is flexible with the ability to articulate 120 degree(s) in one direction. The fiberscopes have been designed for the Otologist to produce a good resolution image while allowing ease of operation through ergonomics and consideration of the surgical anatomy.
Park, Hong Jun
Colorectal polypectomy is an effective method for prevention of colorectal cancer. Many endoscopic instruments have been used for colorectal polypectomy, such as snares, forceps, endoscopic clips, a Coagrasper, retrieval net, injector, and electrosurgery generator unit (ESU). Understanding the characteristics of endoscopic instruments and their proper use according to morphology and size of the colorectal polyp will enable endoscopists to perform effective polypectomy. I reviewed the characte...
Rueckauer, K.; Dinkel, E.
Endoscopic pertubation of oesophagogustric neoplasms is an established method of palliative treatment. The dislocated plastic prosthesis may be removed with difficulties from the stomach endoscopically. A simple technique for endoscopic removal of the prosthesis is described. The tube can be precisely centred within the oesophageal lumen by use of an intestinal decompression tube and additional guidance by the endoscopic retraction forceps. Thus gross damge of the exophytic tumor tissue with bleeding or perforation sequelae can be avoided. Injury to the patient does not exceed that caused by an ordinary gastroscopy. (orig.) [de
Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Maselli, Roberta; Santi, Grace
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an innovative, minimally invasive, endoscopic treatment for esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders, emerged from the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures, and since the first human case performed by Inoue in 2008, showed exciting results in international level, with more than 4000 cases globally up to now. POEM showed superior characteristics than the standard 100-year-old surgical or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), not only for all types of esophageal achalasia [classical (I), vigorous (II), spastic (III), Chicago Classification], but also for advanced sigmoid type achalasia (S1 and S2), failed LHM, or other esophageal motility disorders (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or Jackhammer esophagus). POEM starts with a mucosal incision, followed by submucosal tunnel creation crossing the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and myotomy. Finally the mucosal entry is closed with endoscopic clip placement. POEM permitted relatively free choice of myotomy length and localization. Although it is technically demanding procedure, POEM can be performed safely and achieves very good control of dysphagia and chest pain. Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common troublesome side effect, and is well controllable with proton pump inhibitors. Furthermore, POEM opened the era of submucosal tunnel endoscopy, with many other applications. Based on the same principles with POEM, in combination with new technological developments, such as endoscopic suturing, peroral endoscopic tumor resection (POET), is safely and effectively applied for challenging submucosal esophageal, EGJ and gastric cardia tumors (submucosal tumors), emerged from muscularis propria. POET showed up to know promising results, however, it is restricted to specialized centers. The present article reviews the recent data of POEM and POET and discussed controversial issues that need further study and future perspectives. PMID
Riveron Quevedo, Kelly; Irsula Ballaga, Vladimir; Gonzalez Ulloa, Lianne; Deborah LLorca, Armando
The case report of a 30 year-old presumably healthy patient, who attended the Gastroenterology Department from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, and suffering from biliary cholic, ictero, choluria, nausea, vomit and loss of appetite is presented. The complementary examinations confirmed the choledocolitiasis and cholelitiasis diagnosis, reason why it was necessary to carry out a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic esphinterotomy and ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in a single anesthetic injection. The postoperative clinical course was favorable and she was discharged without complications 24 hours before the intervention
Al Taii, Haider; Confer, Bradley; Gabbard, Scott; Kroh, Matthew; Jang, Sunguk; Rodriguez, John; Parsi, Mansour A.; Vargo, John J.; Ponsky, Jeffrey
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed less than a decade ago for the treatment of achalasia. Its minimally invasive approach and the favorable short-term outcome have led to rapid adoption of the technique throughout the world. As with any new technique, there will be adverse events, and it is important that effective treatments for these adverse events be discussed. We present a case of successful endoscopic management of an intramural sinus leak after a POEM procedure using tandem fully covered esophageal stents. PMID:27921057
Sinha, Parul; Pipkorn, Patrik; Thorstad, Wade L; Gay, Hiram A; Haughey, Bruce H
The purpose of our study is to compare oncologic and functional outcomes of p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients, in the presence and absence of planned radiation to the primary bed following transoral surgery (TOS), stratified by T-classification. Retrospective cohort study of 261, T1-T4, consecutively TOS-treated OPSCC patients. At a median follow-up of 61months, local recurrence (LR) occurred in 6 (2.3%)patients (3 each in T1-T2 and T3-T4 groups), of which 5 had tumors in the tongue base and one in the tonsil. Of patients not receiving planned primary bed radiation, LR occurred in 3% of T1-T2s versus 17% of T3-T4s. In patients with T1-T2 tumors, Absolute Risk Reduction of LR with primary bed radiation was 3.26% (95% CI: -0.37%, 7%); Number Needed to Treat to prevent one LR was 31 (95% CI: 14.5, 271). Absolute Risk Increase for gastrostomy-tube with primary bed radiation was 34.4% (95% CI: 24%, 45%); Number Needed to Harm was 3 (95% CI: 2.2, 4.2), i.e., for every three patients with T1-T2 tumors receiving primary bed radiation, one had a gastrostomy-tube. Elimination of primary bed radiation in margin-negative resected, T1-T2 p16-positive OPSCC was not associated with significant compromise of local control, and correlated with superior swallowing preservation, assessed using gastrostomy rate as a surrogate. Lack of primary bed radiation in T3-T4 tumors associated with significantly increased LR rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Shuang; Zhang, Changchun; Liu, Li; Meng, Max Q-H
Flexible surgical robot can work in confined and complex environments, which makes it a good option for minimally invasive surgery. In order to utilize flexible manipulators in complicated and constrained surgical environments, it is of great significance to monitor the position and shape of the curvilinear manipulator in real time during the procedures. In this paper, we propose a magnetic tracking-based planar shape sensing and navigation system for flexible surgical robots in the transoral surgery. The system can provide the real-time tip position and shape information of the robot during the operation. We use wire-driven flexible robot to serve as the manipulator. It has three degrees of freedom. A permanent magnet is mounted at the distal end of the robot. Its magnetic field can be sensed with a magnetic sensor array. Therefore, position and orientation of the tip can be estimated utilizing a tracking method. A shape sensing algorithm is then carried out to estimate the real-time shape based on the tip pose. With the tip pose and shape display in the 3D reconstructed CT model, navigation can be achieved. Using the proposed system, we carried out planar navigation experiments on a skull phantom to touch three different target positions under the navigation of the skull display interface. During the experiments, the real-time shape has been well monitored and distance errors between the robot tip and the targets in the skull have been recorded. The mean navigation error is [Formula: see text] mm, while the maximum error is 3.2 mm. The proposed method provides the advantages that no sensors are needed to mount on the robot and no line-of-sight problem. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the proposed method.
Amelot, Aymeric; Trunet, Stephanie; Degos, Vincent; André, Olivier; Dionnet, Aurore; Cornu, Philippe; Hans, Stéphane; Chauvet, Dorian
The role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the skull base emerges and represents the natural progression toward miniinvasive resections in confined spaces. The accessibility of the sella via TORS has been recently described on fresh human cadavers. An anatomic study is mandatory to know if this approach would be feasible in the majority of patients regardless of their oral morphological features. From 30 skull base CT scans from patients who were asked to open their mouth as wide as they can, we measured specific dimensions of the oral cavity and the skull base, such as length of the palate, mouth opening and distance from the sella to the palate. All data were acquired on a sagittal midline plane and on a 25° rotation plane, which simulated the axis of the robotic instruments. Looking at the projection of the dental palatine line on the sella, we studied possible predictive factors of sellar accessibility and tried to bring objective data for surgical feasibility. We also proposed an angle α to study the working angle at the skull base. We observed that the maximal mouth opening was a good predictive factor of sellar accessibility by TORS (p < 0.05). The mouth aperture threshold value for a good sensitivity, over 80 %, was comparable to the mean value of mouth opening in our series, 38.9 and 39.4 mm respectively. Moreover, we showed a statistically significant increase of the working angle α at the skull base comparing the lateral access to the midline one (p < 0.05). This seemed to quantitatively demonstrate that the robotic arms placed at the labial commissure of the mouth can reach the sella. From these anatomical features and previous cadaveric dissections, we assume that TORS may be feasible on a majority of patients to remove pituitary adenomas.
Sher, David J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Fidler, Mary Jo [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stenson, Kerstin; Al-Khudari, Samer [Department of Otolaryngology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)
Purpose: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of primary chemoradiation therapy (CRT) versus transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for clinical N2, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe the health states after treatment with CRT or TORS, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy or CRT in the presence of high-risk pathology (positive margins or extracapsular extension). Outcomes, toxicities, and costs were extracted from the literature. One-way sensitivity analyses (SA) were performed over a wide range of parameters, as were 2-way SA between the key variables. Probabilistic SA and value of information studies were performed over key parameters. Results: The expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)/total costs for CRT and TORS were 7.31/$50,100 and 7.29/$62,200, respectively, so that CRT dominated TORS. In SA, primary CRT was almost always cost-effective up to a societal willingness-to-pay of $200,000/QALY, unless the locoregional recurrence risk after TORS was 30% to 50% lower, at which point it became cost effective at a willingness-to-pay of $50-100,000/QALY. Probabilistic SA confirmed the importance of locoregional recurrence risk, and the value of information in precisely knowing this parameter was more than $7M per year. If the long-term utility after TORS was 0.03 lower than CRT, CRT was cost-effective over nearly any assumption. Conclusions: Under nearly all assumptions, primary CRT was the cost-effective therapy for HPV-associated, clinical N2 OPC. However, in the hypothetical event of a large relative improvement in LRR with surgery and equivalent long-term utilities, primary TORS would become the higher-value treatment, arguing for prospective, comparative study of the 2 paradigms.
Sher, David J.; Fidler, Mary Jo; Tishler, Roy B.; Stenson, Kerstin; Al-Khudari, Samer
Purpose: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of primary chemoradiation therapy (CRT) versus transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for clinical N2, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe the health states after treatment with CRT or TORS, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy or CRT in the presence of high-risk pathology (positive margins or extracapsular extension). Outcomes, toxicities, and costs were extracted from the literature. One-way sensitivity analyses (SA) were performed over a wide range of parameters, as were 2-way SA between the key variables. Probabilistic SA and value of information studies were performed over key parameters. Results: The expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)/total costs for CRT and TORS were 7.31/$50,100 and 7.29/$62,200, respectively, so that CRT dominated TORS. In SA, primary CRT was almost always cost-effective up to a societal willingness-to-pay of $200,000/QALY, unless the locoregional recurrence risk after TORS was 30% to 50% lower, at which point it became cost effective at a willingness-to-pay of $50-100,000/QALY. Probabilistic SA confirmed the importance of locoregional recurrence risk, and the value of information in precisely knowing this parameter was more than $7M per year. If the long-term utility after TORS was 0.03 lower than CRT, CRT was cost-effective over nearly any assumption. Conclusions: Under nearly all assumptions, primary CRT was the cost-effective therapy for HPV-associated, clinical N2 OPC. However, in the hypothetical event of a large relative improvement in LRR with surgery and equivalent long-term utilities, primary TORS would become the higher-value treatment, arguing for prospective, comparative study of the 2 paradigms.
Conclusion: Endoscopic-ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy is safe and can be a good palliative option for advanced malignant biliary obstruction because it drains internally and is remote from the tumor site, promoting a long patency period of prosthesis and better quality of life.
McLaughlin, Eamon J; Cunningham, Michael J; Kazahaya, Ken; Hsing, Julianna; Kawai, Kosuke; Adil, Eelam A
To evaluate the feasibility of radiofrequency surgical instrumentation for endoscopic resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and to test the hypothesis that endoscopic radiofrequency ablation-assisted (RFA) resection will have superior intraoperative and/or postoperative outcomes as compared with traditional endoscopic (TE) resection techniques. Case series with chart review. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Twenty-nine pediatric patients who underwent endoscopic transnasal resection of JNA from January 2000 to December 2014. Twenty-nine patients underwent RFA (n = 13) or TE (n = 16) JNA resection over the 15-year study period. Mean patient age was not statistically different between the 2 groups (P = .41); neither was their University of Pittsburgh Medical Center classification stage (P = .79). All patients underwent preoperative embolization. Mean operative times were not statistically different (P = .29). Mean intraoperative blood loss and the need for a transfusion were also not statistically different (P = .27 and .47, respectively). Length of hospital stay was not statistically different (P = .46). Recurrence rates did not differ between groups (P = .99) over a mean follow-up period of 2.3 years. There were no significant differences between RFA and TE resection in intraoperative or postoperative outcome parameters. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Morimoto, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Kinji; Nakamura, Satoaki
The efficacy of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer remains controversial and its impact on prognosis has not been adequately discussed. We studied the use of endoscopic screening to detect esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients by analyzing the incidence, stage and prognosis. We included 64 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer who received radical radiotherapy at our institute. Chromoendoscopic esophageal examinations with Lugol dye solution were routinely performed at and after treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-eight esophageal cancers were detected in 28 (41%) patients (18 synchronous and 10 metachronous cancers). Of the 28 cancers, 23 were stage 0 or I cancer and 15 of these were treated with endoscopic resection. Local control was achieved in all of these 23 stage 0 or I cancers. The 5-year overall survival rates with esophageal cancer were 83% in stage 0, 47% in stage I and 0% in stage IIA-IVB. This study showed a strikingly high incidence of esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients. We suppose that the combination of early detection by chromoendoscopic examination and endoscopic resection for associated esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients improve prognosis and maintain quality of life. (author)
Herth, Felix J. F.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Criner, Gerard J.; Shah, Pallav L.
Interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) technologies for emphysema is consistently growing. In the last couple of months, several endoscopic options (e.g., endo-or intrabronchial valves, coil implants, and thermal vapor ablation) that have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials
D'Haens, G.; Geboes, K.; Rutgeerts, P.
The correlation between disease activity and endoscopic findings in Crohn's disease is poor. Corticosteroids induce symptom relief without consistent improvement of endoscopic lesions. Our aim was to examine the effect of azathioprine therapy on healing of inflammatory lesions in patients with
Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L
Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.
Jiang, Li; Ning, Deng; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Xiao-Ping
Endoscopic therapy and surgery are both conventional treatments to remove pancreatic duct stones that developed during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis. However, few studies comparing the effect and safety between surgery drainage and endoscopic drainage (plus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy, ESWL).The aim of this study was to compare the benefits between endoscopic and surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct for patients with calcified chronic pancreatitis. A total of 86 patients were classified into endoscopic/ESWL (n = 40) or surgical (n = 46) treatment groups. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Pain recurrence and hospital stays were similar between the endoscopic/ESWL treatment and surgery group. However, endoscopic/ESWL treatment yielded significantly lower medical expense and less complications compared with the surgical treatment. In selective patients, endoscopic/ESWL treatment could achieve comparable efficacy to the surgical treatment. With lower medical expense and less complications, endoscopic/ESWL treatment would be much preferred to be the initial treatment of choice for patients with calcified chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tytgat, G. N.; Mulder, C. J.; Brummelkamp, W. H.
Fifty patients with Crohn's disease were studied endoscopically 6 weeks to 6 months (median 9 weeks) after ileocecal or ileocolonic resection for evidence of non-resected abnormality. Only 8 of the 50 patients were endoscopically free of abnormalities. Microscopic examination of the surgical
Gostout, C. J.; Viggiano, T. R.; Ahlquist, D. A.; Wang, K. K.; Larson, M. V.; Balm, R.
The watermelon stomach is an uncommon but treatable cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. We report our experience with the clinical and endoscopic features of 45 consecutive patients treated by endoscopic Nd:YAG laser coagulation. The prototypic patient was a woman (71%) with an average age
Khanna, Reena; Zou, Guangyong; Stitt, Larry; Feagan, Brian G.; Sandborn, William J.; Rutgeerts, Paul; McDonald, John W. D.; Dubcenco, Elena; Fogel, Ronald; Panaccione, Remo; Jairath, Vipul; Nelson, Sigrid; Shackelton, Lisa M.; Huang, Bidan; Zhou, Qian; Robinson, Anne M.; Levesque, Barrett G.; D'Haens, Geert
The Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) and the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) are commonly used to assess Crohn's disease (CD) activity; however neither instrument is fully validated. We evaluated the responsiveness to change of the SES-CD and CDEIS using data
Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M L; Misra, Sarthak
Background: Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician's dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods: A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated based
Reilink, Rob; de Bruin, Gart; Franken, M.C.J.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Misra, Sarthak; Stramigioli, Stefano
In current video-assisted thoracic surgery, the endoscopic camera is operated by an assistant of the surgeon, which has several disadvantages. This paper describes a system which enables the surgeon to control the endoscopic camera without the help of an assistant. The system is controlled using
Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Misra, Sarthak
Background - Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician’s dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods - A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated
Geraci, G; Sciumè, C; Pisello, F; Li Volsi, F; Facella, T; Tinaglia, D; Modica, G
To review the indications, complications, and outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), that are placed routinely in patients unable to obtain adequate nutrition from oral feeding for swallowing disorders (neurological diseases, head and neck cancer, oesophageal cancer, psychological disorders). Retrospective review of patients referred for PEG placement from 2003 to 2005. Endoscopic Surgery in Section of General and Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Palermo, Italy. A total of 50 patients, 11 women and 39 men, referred our Section for PEG placement. Indications for PEG placement included various neurologic impairment (82%), oesophageal non-operable cancer (6%), cardia non-operable cancer (4%), cerebrovascular accident (2%), anorexia (2%), pharyngeal esophageal obstruction (2%), head and neck cancer (2%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics as short-term profilaxis. 51 PEGs were positioned in 50 patients. No major complications were registered; 45 patients (90%) were alive at 1 year follow-up and no mortality procedure-related was registered. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy removal had been performed on 2 patients as end-point of treatment, and 43 patients continued to have PEGs in use at 2006. Outpatients PEG placement using conscious sedation is a safe and effective method for providing enteral nutrition. This technique constitutes the gold standard treatment for enteral nutrition in patients with neurologic impairment or as prophylactic in patients affected by head and neck cancer who needs demolitive surgery. Patients should be carefully assessed, and discussion with the patient and their families should be held to determine that the patient is an appropriate candidate. The Authors feel prophylactic antibiotics lessened the incidence of cutaneous perigastrostomy infection.
Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed degloving soft tissue injury in which subcutaneous tissue is torn from the underlying muscular fascia. The tear leads to venolymphatic leak, and concomitant adipose tissue necrosis from the force of the trauma causes swelling and possible infection at the site of injury. The traditional treatment for the lesion is surgical drainage and debridement. In this report, an endoscopic method is described, which achieves the goal of an open surgical debridement but minimizes surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Studer's neobladder lithiasis is a rare but important long term complication of this orthotopic bladder substitute technique. We report a case of a 45 year-old male patient, submitted to a radical cystoprostatectomy with a Studer's orthotopic neobladder 4 years before, presenting bad compliance to recommended urinary habits, increased production of mucus and high post voiding residue. CT scan and urethrocystography showed a distended pouch with 2 major sacculations with narrow communication and a stone in each sacculation. A minimally invasive endoscopic technique was successfully used in the treatment of the 2 small calculus.
Atreja, Ashish; Rizk, Maged; Gurland, Brooke
Endoscopic electronic medical record systems (EEMRs) are now increasingly utilized in many endoscopy centers. Modern EEMRs not only support endoscopy report generation, but often include features such as practice management tools, image and video clip management, inventory management, e-faxes to referring physicians, and database support to measure quality and patient outcomes. There are many existing software vendors offering EEMRs, and choosing a software vendor can be time consuming and confusing. The goal of this article is inform the readers about current functionalities available in modern EEMR and provide them with a framework necessary to find an EEMR that is best fit for their practice.
Gill, Brijesh S.; Georgeson, Keith E.; Hardin, William D., Jr.
Laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery rely uniquely on high quality display of acquired images, but a multitude of problems plague the researcher who attempts to reproduce such images for educational purposes. Some of these are intrinsic limitations of current laparoscopic/endoscopic visualization systems, while others are artifacts solely of the process used to acquire and reproduce such images. Whatever the genesis of these problems, a glance at current literature will reveal the extent to which endoscopy suffers from an inability to reproduce what the surgeon sees during a procedure. The major intrinsic limitation to the acquisition of high-quality still images from laparoscopic procedures lies in the inability to couple directly a camera to the laparoscope. While many systems have this capability, this is useful mostly for otolaryngologists, who do not maintain a sterile field around their scopes. For procedures in which a sterile field must be maintained, one trial method has been to use a beam splitter to send light both to the still camera and the digital video camera. This is no solution, however, since this results in low quality still images as well as a degradation of the image that the surgeon must use to operate, something no surgeon tolerates lightly. Researchers thus must currently rely on other methods for producing images from a laparoscopic procedure. Most manufacturers provide an optional slide or print maker that provides a hardcopy output from the processed composite video signal. The results achieved from such devices are marginal, to say the least. This leaves only one avenue for possible image production, the videotape record of an endoscopic or laparoscopic operation. Video frame grabbing is at least a problem to which industry has applied considerable time and effort to solving. Our own experience with computerized enhancement of videotape frames has been very promising. Computer enhancement allows the researcher to correct several of the
Geenen, J E; Hogan, W J; Shaffer, R D; Stewart, E T; Dodds, W J; Arndorfer, R C
Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in 13 patients after cholecystectomy for retained or recurrent common bile duct calculi (11 patients) and a clinical picture suggesting papillary stenosis (two patients). Following endoscopic papillotomy, ten of the 11 patients spontaneously passed common bile duct (CBD) stones verified on repeated endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) study. One patient failed to pass a large CBD calculus; one patient experienced cholangitis three months after in inadequate papillotomy and required operative intervention. Endoscopic papillotomy substantially decreased the pressure gradient existing between the CBD and the duodenum in all five patients studied with ERCP manometry. Endoscopic papillotomy is a relatively safe and effective procedure for postcholecystectomy patients with retained or recurrent CBD stones. The majority of CBD stones will pass spontaneously if the papillotomy is adequate.
Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Ken; Shinga, Kotaro; Hattori, Soichi; Yamada, Shin; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Various surgical treatment procedures for plantar fasciitis, such as open surgery, percutaneous release, and endoscopic surgery, exist. Skin trouble, nerve disturbance, infection, and persistent pain associated with prolonged recovery time are complications of open surgery. Endoscopic partial plantar fascia release offers the surgeon clear visualization of the anatomy at the surgical site. However, the primary medial portal and portal tract used for this technique have been shown to be in close proximity to the posterior tibial nerves and their branches, and there is always the risk of nerve damage by introducing the endoscope deep to the plantar fascia. By performing endoscopic partial plantar fascia release under ultrasound assistance, we could dynamically visualize the direction of the endoscope and instrument introduction, thus preventing nerve damage from inadvertent insertion deep to the fascia. Full-thickness release of the plantar fascia at the ideal position could also be confirmed under ultrasound imaging. We discuss the technique for this new procedure.
Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N
Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.
Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence
Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of
A. L. Goncharov
Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.
Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M
Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (pcalculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (pcalculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (pcalculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Go, P M
The introduction of endoscopical surgery has among other things influenced technical developments in surgery. Owing to digitalisation, major progress will be made in imaging and in the sophisticated technology sometimes called robotics. Digital storage makes the results of imaging diagnostics (e.g. the results of radiological examination) suitable for transmission via video conference systems for telediagnostic purposes. The availability of digital video technique renders possible the processing, storage and retrieval of moving images as well. During endoscopical operations use may be made of a robot arm which replaces the camera man. The arm does not grow tired and provides a stable image. The surgeon himself can operate or address the arm and it can remember fixed image positions to which it can return if ordered to do so. The next step is to carry out surgical manipulations via a robot arm. This may make operations more patient-friendly. A robot arm can also have remote control: telerobotics. At the Internet site of this journal a number of supplements to this article can be found, for instance three-dimensional (3D) illustrations (which is the purpose of the 3D spectacles enclosed with this issue) and a quiz (http:@appendix.niwi. knaw.nl).
Mohammad Etezad Razavi
Full Text Available To circumvent the disadvantages of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy such as small rhinostomy size, high failure rate and expensive equipment, we hereby introduce a modified technique of non-endoscopic mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (NE-MEDCR. Surgery is performed under general anesthesia with local decongestion of the nasal mucosa. A 20-gauge vitrectomy light probe is introduced through the upper canaliculus until it touches the bony medial wall of the lacrimal sac. While directly viewing the transilluminated target area, a nasal speculum with a fiber optic light carrier is inserted. An incision is made vertically or in a curvilinear fashion on the nasal mucosa in the lacrimal sac down to the bone using a Freer periosteum elevator. Approximately 1 to 1.5 cm of nasal mucosa is removed with Blakesley forceps. Using a lacrimal punch, the thick bone of the frontal process of the maxilla is removed and the inferior half of the sac is uncovered. The lacrimal sac is tented into the surgical site with the light probe and its medial wall is incised using a 3.2 mm keratome and then excised using the Blakesley forceps. The procedure is completed by silicone intubation. The NE-MEDCR technique does not require expensive instrumentation and is feasible in any standard ophthalmic surgical setting.
Zenonos, Georgios A; Snyderman, Carl H; Gardner, Paul A
Objectives The current video presents the nuances of an endoscopic endonasal approach to a suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Design The video analyzes the presentation, preoperative workup and imaging, surgical steps and technical nuances of the surgery, the clinical outcome, and follow-up imaging. Setting The patient was treated by a skull base team consisting of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon, at a teaching academic institution. Participants The case refers to a 67-year-old man who presented with vision loss and headaches, and was found to have a suprasellar mass, with imaging characteristics consistent with a craniopharyngioma. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures consistent of the reversal of the patient symptoms (vision loss and headaches), the recurrence-free survival based on imaging, as well as the absence of any complications. Results The patient's vision improved after the surgery; at his last follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence on imaging. Conclusions The endoscopic endonasal approach is safe and effective in treating suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/p1VXbwnAWCo .
Storbeck, B.; Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.
Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.
Ali, M.; Usman, M.; Khan, Z.; Khan, K.M.; Hussain, R.; Khanzada, K.
To determine the success rate of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for treating obstructive hydrocephalus. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Neurosurgery Department of PGMI, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from May 2010 to November 2011. Methodology: Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, tectal and non-tectal tumour and already shunted patients for obstructive hydrocephalus presented with blocked shunt were included in the study. Patients with congenital hydrocephalus and secondary to meningitis were excluded. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed. Success, complications and mortality was noted. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17. Results: There were 155 patients including 72 males and 83 females with ratio of 1: 1.33. Success rate was 71%. Indication of surgery was obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, posterior fossa tumour, brain stem and CP angle tumour. Complications were seen in 18 patients including mortality in 3 patients. Conclusion: ETV is effective, safe and successful procedure in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. It may be used as replacement procedure of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt as initial line of management in selected patients. (author)
Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for colorectal cancer. However, due to technical difficulties and an increased rate of complications, ESD is not widely used in the colorectum. In some cases, endoscopic treatment alone is insufficient for disease control, and laparoscopic surgery is required. The combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection represents a new frontier in cancer treatment. Recent developments in advanced polypectomy and minimally invasive surgical techniques will enable surgeons and endoscopists to challenge current practice in colorectal cancer treatment. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR of the colon offers the potential to decrease the postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with segmental colectomy while enhancing the diagnostic yield compared to current endoscopic techniques. However, closure is necessary after EFTR and natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES. Innovative methods and new devices for EFTR and suturing are being developed and may potentially change traditional paradigms to achieve minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. The present paper aims to discuss the complementary role of ESD and the future development of EFTR. We focus on the possibility of achieving EFTR using the ESD method and closing devices.
Evans, Kimberly A; Clark, Colby W; Vogel, Stephen B; Behrns, Kevin E
Endoscopic therapy of acute and chronic pancreatitis has decreased the need for operative intervention. However, a significant proportion of patients treated endoscopically require definitive surgical management for persistent symptoms. Our aim was to determine which patients are likely to fail with endoscopic therapy, and to assess the clinical outcome of surgical management. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes for pancreatic disease as well as CPT codes for endoscopic therapy followed by surgery. Patients with documented acute or chronic pancreatitis treated endoscopically prior to surgical therapy were included (N = 88). The majority of patients (65%) exhibited chronic pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse. Common indicators for surgery were: persistent symptoms, anatomy not amenable to endoscopic treatment and unresolved common bile duct or pancreatic duct strictures. Surgical salvage procedures included internal drainage of a pseudocyst or an obstructed pancreatic duct (46%), debridement of peripancreatic fluid collections (25%), and pancreatic resection (31%). Death occurred in 3% of patients. The most common complications were hemorrhage (16%), wound infection (13%), and pulmonary complications (11%). Chronic pancreatitis with persistent symptoms is the most common reason for pancreatic surgery following endoscopic therapy. Surgical salvage therapy can largely be accomplished by drainage procedures, but pancreatic resection is common. These complex procedures can be performed with acceptable mortality but also with significant risk for morbidity.
Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.
Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis. 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation. 31 refs.
Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk
To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.
Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Arena, Monica; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Consolo, Pierluigi; Opocher, Enrico; Luigiano, Carmelo
Stents are tubular devices made of plastic or metal. Endoscopic stenting is the most common treatment for obstruction of the common bile duct or of the main pancreatic duct, but also employed for the treatment of bilio-pancreatic leakages, for preventing post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and to drain the gallbladder and pancreatic fluid collections. Recent progresses in techniques of stent insertion and metal stent design are represented by new, fully-covered lumen apposing metal stents. These stents are specifically designed for transmural drainage, with a saddle-shape design and bilateral flanges, to provide lumen-to-lumen anchoring, reducing the risk of migration and leakage. This review is an update of the technique of stent insertion and metal stent deployment, of the most recent data available on stent types and characteristics and the new applications for biliopancreatic stents. PMID:26862364
Barret, Maximilien; Cao, Dalhia Thao; Beuvon, Frédéric; Leblanc, Sarah; Terris, Benoit; Camus, Marine; Coriat, Romain; Chaussade, Stanislas; Prat, Frédéric
The possible benefit of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early neoplasia arising in Barrett's esophagus remains controversial. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ESD for the treatment of early Barrett's neoplasia. All consecutive patients undergoing ESD for the resection of a visible lesion in a Barrett's esophagus, either suspicious of submucosal infiltration or exceeding 10 mm in size, between February 2012 and January 2015 were prospectively included. The primary endpoint was the rate of curative resection of carcinoma, defined as histologically complete resection of adenocarcinomas without poor histoprognostic factors. Thirty-five patients (36 lesions) with a mean age of 66.2 ± 12 years, a mean ASA score of 2.1 ± 0.7, and a mean C4M6 Barrett's segment were included. The mean procedure time was 191 ± 79 mn, and the mean size of the resected specimen was 51.3 ± 23 mm. En bloc resection rate was 89%. Lesions were 12 ± 15 mm in size, and 81% (29/36) were invasive adenocarcinomas, six of which with submucosal invasion. Although R0 resection of carcinoma was 72.4%, the curative resection rate was 66% (19/29). After a mean follow-up of 12.9 ± 9 months, 16 (45.7%) patients had required additional treatment, among whom nine underwent surgical resection, and seven further endoscopic treatments. Metachronous lesions or recurrence of cancer developed during the follow-up period in 17.2% of the patients. The overall complication rate was 16.7%, including 8.3% perforations, all conservatively managed, and no bleeding. The 30-day mortality was 0%. In this early experience, ESD yielded a moderate curative resection rate in Barrett's neoplasia. At present, improvements are needed if ESD is to replace piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection in the management of Barrett's neoplasia.
Codd, Patrick J; Venteicher, Andrew S; Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Kahle, Kristopher T; Jho, David H
Acute subdural hematoma evacuations frequently necessitate large craniotomies with extended operative times and high relative blood loss, which can lead to additional morbidity for the patient. While endoscopic minimally invasive approaches to chronic subdural collections have been successfully demonstrated, this technique has not previously been applied to acute subdural hematomas. The authors report their experience with an 87-year-old patient presenting with a large acute right-sided subdural hematoma successfully evacuated via an endoscopic minimally invasive technique. The operative approach is outlined, and the literature on endoscopic subdural collection evacuation reviewed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Duodenal intramural hematoma (DIH usually occurs in childhood and young adults following blunt abdominal trauma. It may also develop in the presence of coagulation disorders and may rarely be an iatrogenic outcome of endoscopic procedures. Management of DIH is usually a conservative approach. A case of intramural duodenal hematoma that developed following endoscopic epinephrine sclerotherapy and/or argon plasma coagulation and that was nonresponsive to conservative therapy in a patient with chronic renal failure who died from sepsis is being discussed in this report. Clinicians should be aware of such possible complications after endoscopic hemostasis in patients with coagulation disorders.
Palmer, Orville; Moche, Jason A; Matthews, Stanley
Mucosal preservation is of paramount importance in the diagnosis and surgical management of the sinonasal tract. The endoscope revolutionized the practice of endoscopic nasal surgery. As a result, external sinus surgery is performed less frequently today, and more emphasis is placed on functional endoscopy and preservation of normal anatomy. Endoscopic surgery of the nose and paranasal sinus has provided improved surgical outcomes and has shortened the length of stay in hospital. It has also become a valuable teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vladimirov, B; Petkov, R; Viiachki, I; Damianov, D; Iarŭmov, N
Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with extraction of calculi is a basic method of treating choledocholithiasis in post-cholecystectomy patients (8, 9). Endoscopic treatment contributes to a considerable reduction of the indications for reoperation. The existing views concerning ES done in patients with preserved gallbladder, especially in the era of laparoscopic surgery, are still conflicting (3, 6). There are several options: cholecystectomy with removal of calculi in the common bile duct by ES in a subsequent stage, or vice versa-primary ES with ensuring cholecystectomy. The undertaking of independent surgical or endoscopic treatment is likewise practicable (2, 6).
of postoperative pulmonary function and less hypoxemia with endoscopic operation. The slight modification of surgical stress responses by endoscopic surgery is in contrast to the common, though not universal, demonstration of less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less morbidity after endoscopic surgery...... operations where differences are more likely to be found. The clinical consequences of these findings in relation to all over surgical outcome remain to be defined, but effective pain treatment, stress reduction by other techniques, and provision of an active rehabilitation program with early mobilization...
Singh, Rohit; Hazarika, Produl; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Balakrishnan, R; Gangwar, Navneeta; Hazarika, Manali
Nasal polyposis is often encountered in rhinology practice. Those who fail conservative management, a definitive surgery is essential to achieve sufficient ventilation and drainage of the affected sinuses by using either microdebrider or conventional instruments for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). A prospective study was conducted on 40 cases of nasal polypi in a tertiary care hospital. 20 cases were operated by conventional endoscopic instruments and 20 using the microdebrider. The study aimed at comparing the intra operative (blood loss, duration of surgery) and post operative results (crusting, scarring, discharge, symptoms, recurrence) between the two groups using Lund-Mackay scoring system and the data was statistically analysed. There was no statistically significant difference in surgical outcome for patients when either conventional endoscopic instruments or microdebrider was used. However, there was a significant symptomatic improvement in cases undergoing microdebrider FESS. Microdebrider assisted polypectomy is precise, relatively bloodless surgery though the precision depends on the surgeon's anatomical knowledge and operative skills. Study substantiates that these instruments are helpful but not a prerequisite for successful outcomes in FESS. The study re-emphasises the utility of the microdebrider to young learning FESS surgeons.
Lukens, J. Nicholas; Lin, Alexander; Gamerman, Victoria; Mitra, Nandita; Grover, Surbhi; McMenamin, Erin M.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Cohen, Roger B.; Orisamolu, Abimbola; Ahn, Peter H.; Quon, Harry
Purpose: A subset of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OP-SCC) managed with transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) developed soft tissue necrosis (STN) in the surgical bed months after completion of PORT. We investigated the frequency and risk factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis included 170 consecutive OP-SCC patients treated with TORS and PORT between 2006 and 2012, with >6 months' of follow-up. STN was defined as ulceration of the surgical bed >6 weeks after completion of PORT, requiring opioids, biopsy, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Results: A total of 47 of 170 patients (28%) had a diagnosis of STN. Tonsillar patients were more susceptible than base-of-tongue (BOT) patients, 39% (41 of 104) versus 9% (6 of 66), respectively. For patients with STN, median tumor size was 3.0 cm (range 1.0-5.6 cm), and depth of resection was 2.2 cm (range 1.0-5.1 cm). Median radiation dose and dose of fraction to the surgical bed were 6600 cGy and 220 cGy, respectively. Thirty-one patients (66%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Median time to STN was 2.5 months after PORT. All patients had resolution of STN after a median of 3.7 months. Multivariate analysis identified tonsillar primary (odds ratio [OR] 4.73, P=.01), depth of resection (OR 3.12, P=.001), total radiation dose to the resection bed (OR 1.51 per Gy, P<.01), and grade 3 acute mucositis (OR 3.47, P=.02) as risk factors for STN. Beginning May 2011, after implementing aggressive avoidance of delivering >2 Gy/day to the resection bed mucosa, only 8% (2 of 26 patients) experienced STN (all grade 2). Conclusions: A subset of OP-SCC patients treated with TORS and PORT are at risk for developing late consequential surgical bed STN. Risk factors include tonsillar location, depth of resection, radiation dose to the surgical bed, and severe mucositis. STN risk is significantly decreased with carefully avoiding a radiation dosage of >2 Gy/day to
Nichols, Anthony C; Kuruvilla, Sara; Chen, Jeff; Corsten, Martin; Odell, Michael; Eapen, Libni; Theurer, Julie; Doyle, Philip C; Wehrli, Bret; Kwan, Keith; Palma, David A; Yoo, John; Hammond, J Alex; Fung, Kevin; Winquist, Eric; Read, Nancy; Venkatesan, Varagur; MacNeil, S Danielle; Ernst, D Scott
The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ≤3 cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT ± chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS ± adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized comparison of the conventional strategy of primary RT
Zhang, Wen-Gang; Linghu, En-Qiang; Chai, Ning-Li; Li, Hui-Kai
To verify the hypothesis that the Ling classification describes the endoscopic progressive process of achalasia and determine the ability of successful peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) to prevent endoscopic progression of achalasia. We retrospectively reviewed the endoscopic findings, symptom duration, and manometric data in patients with achalasia. A total of 359 patients (197 women, 162 men) with a mean age of 42.1 years (range, 12-75 years) were evaluated. Symptom duration ranged from 2 to 360 mo, with a median of 36 mo. Patients were classified with Ling type I ( n = 119), IIa ( n = 106), IIb ( n = 60), IIc ( n = 60), or III ( n = 14), according to the Ling classification. Of the 359 patients, 349 underwent POEM, among whom 21 had an endoscopic follow-up for more than 2 years. Pre-treatment and post-treatment Ling classifications of these 21 patients were compared. Symptom duration increased significantly with increasing Ling classification (from I to III) ( P achalasia and may be able to serve as an endoscopic assessment criterion for achalasia. Successful POEM (Eckardt score ≤ 3) seems to have the ability to prevent endoscopic evolvement of achalasia. However, studies with larger populations are warranted to confirm our findings.
Fyock, Christopher J; Forsmark, Chris E; Wagh, Mihir S
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently gained great enthusiasm, but there is concern regarding the ability to endoscopically manage complications purely via natural orifices. To assess the feasibility of endoscopically managing enteral perforation during NOTES using currently available endoscopic accessories. Twelve pigs underwent transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic exploration. Full-thickness enterotomies were intentionally created to mimic accidental small bowel lacerations during NOTES. These lacerations were then closed with endoclips. In the blinded arm of the study, small bowel repair was performed by a second blinded endoscopist. Adequate closure of the laceration was confirmed with a leak test. Primary access sites were closed with endoclips or T-anchors. At necropsy, the peritoneal cavity was inspected for abscesses, bleeding, or damage to surrounding structures. The enterotomy site was examined for adequacy of closure, adhesions, or evidence of infection. Fifteen small bowel lacerations were performed in 12 animals. Successful closure was achieved in all 10 cases in the nonblinded arm. Survival animals had an uncomplicated postoperative course and all enterotomy sites were well healed without evidence of necrosis, adhesions, abscess, or bleeding at necropsy. Leak test was negative in all animals. In the blinded arm, both small intestinal lacerations could not be identified by the blinded endoscopist. Necropsy revealed open small bowel lacerations. Small intestinal injuries are difficult to localize with currently available flexible endoscopes and accessories. Endoscopic clips, however, may be adequate for closure of small bowel lacerations if the site of injury is known.
Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla'vio C.; Sakai, Paulo
To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.
Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel
Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.
Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla& #x27; vio C.; Sakai, Paulo [University of Saeo Paulo, Saeo Paulo (Brazil)
To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.
Rana, Surinder Singh; Vilmann, Peter
As endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the most sensitive imaging modality for diagnosing pancreatic disorders, it can demonstrate subtle alterations in the pancreatic parenchymal and ductal structure even before traditional imaging and functional testing demonstrate any abnormality. In spite...... of this fact and abundant literature, the exact role of EUS in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is still not established. The EUS features to diagnose CP have evolved over a period from a pure qualitative approach to more advanced and complicated scoring systems incorporating multiple parenchymal...... to define the exact role of these criteria. The measurement of strain ratio using quantitative EUS elastography and thus allowing quantification of pancreatic fibrosis seems to be a promising new technique....
Tan, Ke; Wang, Bin; Gao, Yuan
Endoscopy imaging is utilized to provide a realistic view about the surfaces of organs inside the human body. Owing to the damp internal environment, these surfaces usually have a glossy appearance showing specular reflections. For many computer vision algorithms, the highlights created by specular reflections may become a significant source of error. In this paper, we present a novel method for restoration of the specular reflection regions from a single image. Specular restoration process starts with generating a substitute specular-free image with RPCA method. Then the specular removed image was obtained by taking the binary weighting template of highlight regions as the weighting for merging the original specular image and the substitute image. The modified template was furthermore discussed for the concealment of artificial effects in the edge of specular regions. Experimental results on the removal of the endoscopic image with specular reflections demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method comparing to the existing methods.
Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
Choudhury, D; Tanner, M G; McAughtrie, S; Yu, F; Mills, B; Choudhary, T R; Seth, S; Craven, T H; Stone, J M; Mati, I K; Campbell, C J; Bradley, M; Williams, C K I; Dhaliwal, K; Birks, T A; Thomson, R R
Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units in the respiratory acini of an ex vivo ovine lung model. We also demonstrate that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation.
Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P
Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... initially used as Doppler signal enhancers, second-generation microbubble contrast agents are now used with specific contrast harmonic imaging techniques, which benefit from the highly nonlinear behavior of the microbubbles. Contrast-specific modes based on multi-pulse technology are used to perform...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...
Sergey A. Karpishchenko
Full Text Available Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS is an effective and safe surgical technique, which revolutionized the surgical management of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus diseases. The intimate connection between paranasal sinuses and the orbit places the orbital content at a risk of injury during sinus surgery, especially that of ethmoid sinuses. The orbit, the optic nerve, extraocular muscles and the lacrimal drainage system could be damaged during FESS. The risk of injury correlates to anatomical variations, degree and severity of disease, previous procedure results, and surgical experience. Ophthalmic complications can vary in severity from minor ones, such as localized hematomas, to extremely dangerous, such as optic nerve injury, that could lead to complete blindness. In order to minimize the risk of such complications, it is necessary to consider probable anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses and orbit, which are to be detected by CT scan before surgery.
Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Ryosuke; Mukai, Shuntaro
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requires deep biliary cannulation. When deep biliary cannulation is failed, the endoscopic ultrasonography rendezvous technique (EUS-RV) is a useful salvage method. From the previous 15 articles that included 382 EUS-RV cases, the overall success rate of EUS-RV is 81 % with a complication rate of 10 %. In EUS-RV, the bile duct is punctured under EUS guidance and a guidewire is advanced into the duodenum via the papilla. The EUS scope is then switched to a duodenoscope and inserted into the bile duct over the guidewire exiting the papilla, or the guidewire is grasped with forceps and passed through the working channel; the catheter can then be inserted through the papilla over the wire. There are three puncture routes for EUS-RV: transgastric puncture of the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD), transduodenal puncture of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) via the proximal duodenum (D1), and transduodenal puncture of the EHBD via the second portion of the duodenum (D2). The puncture route for each patient should be selected based on the patient condition. GW selection for EUS-RV is critical, a hydrophilic GW is useful for this procedure. Although EUS-RV is now performed relatively routinely in a few high-volume centers, procedure standardization and the development of exclusive devices for EUS-RV are still underway. The development of exclusive devices for EUS-RV and prospective comparative studies with other salvage methods are needed to truly evaluate the procedure's usefulness and safety.
Messerer, Mahmoud; Maduri, Rodolfo; Daniel, Roy Thomas
Objective Endoscopic transsphenoidal extended endoscopic approach (EEA) represents a valid alternative to microsurgery for craniopharyngiomas removal, especially for retrochiasmatic lesions without large parasellar extension. The present video illustrates the salient surgical steps of the EEA for craniopahryngioma removal. Patient A 52-year-old man presented with a bitemporal hemianopia and a bilateral decreased visual acuity. MRI showed a Kassam type III cystic craniopharyngioma with a solid component ( Fig. 1 , panels A and B). Surgical Procedure The head is rotated 10 degrees toward the surgeons. The nasal step is started through the left nostril with a middle turbinectomy. A nasoseptal flap is harvested and positioned in the left choana. The binostril approach allows a large sphenoidotomy to expose the key anatomic landmarks. The craniotomy boundaries are the planum sphenoidale superiorly, the median opticocarotid recesses, the internal carotid artery laterally and the clival recess inferiorly. After dural opening and superior intercavernous sinus coagulation, the tumor is entirely removed ( Fig. 2 , panels A and B). Skull base reconstruction is ensured by fascia lata grafting and nasoseptal flap positioning. Results Postoperative MRI showed the complete tumor resection ( Fig. 1 , panels C and D). At 3 months postoperatively, the bitemporal hemianopia regressed and the visual acuity improved. A novel left homonymous hemianopia developed secondary to optic tract manipulation. Conclusions The extended EEA is a valid surgical approach for craniopharyngioma resection. A comprehensive knowledge of the sellar and parasellar anatomy is mandatory for safe tumor removal with decreased morbidity and satisfactory oncologic results. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/NrCPPnVK2qA .
Conclusion: The endoscope technique offers simple, rapid access to the nasal septum, and excellent visualization; it is a safe, minimally invasive, efficient procedure for removing benign nasal septum tumors that leaves no scar on the face.
Hamed Mohamed El Darawany
Conclusions: Endoscopic primary realignment of posterior urethral rupture is less invasive and a safer procedure, without pelvic hemorrhage or additional injuries. It has low incidence of severe urethral stricture and avoids the need for delayed open urethral reconstruction.
measures before an endoscopic intervention are essential to decrease the morbidity and .... or tabs bisacodyl and castor oil or colostomy washout with 2 days dietary restriction .... sparing patients the trauma of open surgery. Hemorrhoids were.
Schwartz, Joseph S; Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N
Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant.
Yip, Hon Chi; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun
In the past decade, there has been a progressive paradigm shift in the management of peri-pancreatic fluid collections after acute pancreatitis. Refinements in the definitions of fluid collections from the updated Atlanta classification have enabled better communication amongst physicians in an effort to formulate optimal treatments. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has emerged as the procedure of choice over surgical cystogastrostomy. The approach provides similar success rates with low complications and better quality of life compared with surgery. However, an endoscopic "step up" approach in the management of pancreatic walled-off necrosis has also been advocated. Both endoscopic and percutaneous drainage routes may be used depending on the anatomical location of the collections. New-generation large diameter EUS-specific stent systems have also recently been described. The device allows precise and effective drainage of the collections and permits endoscopic necrosectomy through the stents.
Malawi Medical Journal ... for alternative treatment options for hydrocephalus such as endoscopic third ... This paper explores the alternative views in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus and how they explain the effectiveness of ETV in ...
Apr 6, 2013 ... by introducing a colonoscopy quality assurance program. Ahmed Gado a, ... a Department of Medicine, Bolak Eldakror Hospital, Giza, Egypt .... An Initial assessment of our endoscopic polypectomy prac- tice in 2003 showed ...
V. N. Klimenko
Full Text Available Aim. To assess combined endoscopic approaches to the cardiac sphincter achalasia treatment. Results. There are preliminary results of treatment and methods of carrying out of combined endoscopic pneumocardiodilatation and injections of botulotoxin type A ‘Disport’ at achalasia cardia are described in the article. Aethio-pathogenetic aspects in the development of achalasia cardia, action of botulotoxin type A and balloon pneumocardiodilatation of the esophagus, were described. And modern roentgen-endoscopic classification of achalasia cardia was given. Prognostic estimation scale of possibility to implement further combined endoscopic or surgical treatment is defined and is being in subsequent working out. Conclusion. Described clinical cases most brightly demonstrate variety of clinical achalasia cardia manifestations and also determine of the earlier display of surgical treatment.
Pescarus, Radu; Shlomovitz, Eran; Swanstrom, Lee L
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for achalasia. Since the first modern human cases were published in 2008, around 2,000 cases have been performed worldwide. This technique requires advanced endoscopic skills and a learning curve of at least 20 cases. POEM is highly successful with over 90 % improvement in dysphagia while offering patients the advantage of a low impact endoscopic access. The main long-term complication is gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with an estimated incidence of 35 %, similar to the incidence of GER post-laparoscopic Heller with fundoplication. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of achalasia, more long-term data are clearly needed to further define its role in the treatment algorithm of this rare disease.
Conclusion: Unilateral PANDO has a higher incidence of ipsilaterally deviated nasal septum. This association is significant. Routine nasal endoscopic examination should be performed in cases undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy to better plan a concomitant septoplasty if needed.
Ye, L; Zhou, X; Li, J; Jin, J
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma may be successfully resected using endoscopic techniques. However, the use of coblation technology for such resection has not been described. This study aimed to document cases of Fisch class I juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with limited nasopharyngeal and nasal cavity extension, which were completely resected using an endoscopic coblation technique. We retrospectively studied 23 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who underwent resection with either traditional endoscopic instruments (n = 12) or coblation (n = 11). Intra-operative blood loss and overall operative time were recorded. The mean tumour resection time for coblation and traditional endoscopic instruments was 87 and 136 minutes, respectively (t = 9.962, p angiofibroma (Fisch class I), with good surgical margins and minimal blood loss.
had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.
Kovaleva, J.; Degener, J. E.; van der Mei, H. C.
The effects of peracetic acid-based (PAA) disinfectant with, and without, additional drying on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, isolated from contaminated flexible endoscopes, in single-and dual-species biofilms were studied. Biofilms
Sanyal, Arun J.
Gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic therapy is the mainstay of management of bleeding varices. It requires attention to technique and the appropriate choice of therapy for a given patient at a given point in time. Subjects must be monitored continuously after initiation of therapy for control of bleeding and second line definitive therapies introduced quickly if endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment fails. PMID:26142034
Hanson, P J; Gor, D; Jeffries, D J; Collins, J V
Concern about contamination of fibreoptic endoscopes with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has generated a variety of disruptive and possibly unnecessary infection control practices in endoscopy units. Current recommendations on the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes have been formulated without applied experimental evidence of the effective removal of HIV from endoscopes. To study the kinetics of elimination of HIV from endoscope surfaces, we artificially contaminated the suction-biopsy channels of five Olympus GIF XQ20 endoscopes with high titre HIV in serum. The air and water channels of two instruments were similarly contaminated. Contamination was measured by irrigating channels with viral culture medium and collecting 3 ml at the distal end for antigen immunoassay. Endoscopes were then cleaned manually in neutral detergent according to the manufacturer's recommendations and disinfected in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde (Cidex, Surgikos) for two, four, and ten minutes. Contamination with HIV antigens was measured before and after cleaning and after each period of disinfection. Initial contamination comprised 4.8 x 10(4) to 3.5 x 10(6) pg HIV antigen/ml. Cleaning in detergent achieved a reduction to 165 pg/ml (99.93%) on one endoscope and to undetectable levels (100%) on four. After two minutes in alkaline glutaraldehyde all samples were negative and remained negative after the longer disinfection times. Air and water channels, where contaminated, were tested after 10 minutes' disinfection and were negative. These findings underline the importance of cleaning in removing HIV from endoscope and indicate that the use of dedicated equipment and long disinfection times are unnecessary.
Juan J. Vila
Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD allows endoscopic, curative, en-bloc resection of superficial malignant or premalignant lesions. This procedure was conceived over 10 years ago in Japan, but has not experienced great expansion in Western countries for different reasons. This article reviews ESD indications and outcomes, and reflects on the reasons that prevent ESD from becoming common clinical practice in Western hospitals. Finally, recommendations on ESD training in our setting are made.
Full Text Available Vani JA Konda1, Kunal Dalal21Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus, are rapidly rising in incidence. This review serves to highlight the role of pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical intervention in the management of Barrett's esophagus, which requires acid suppression and endoscopic assessment. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may decrease acid exposure and delay the progression to dysplasia. Patients who require aspirin for cardioprotection or other indications may also benefit in terms of a protective effect against the development of esophageal cancer. However, without other indications, aspirin is not indicated solely to prevent cancer. A careful endoscopic examination should include assessment of any visible lesions in a Barrett's segment. An expert gastrointestinal pathologist should confirm neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. For those patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma, careful consideration of endoscopic therapy or surgical therapy must be given. All visible lesions in the setting of dysplasia should be targeted with focal endoscopic mucosal resection for both accurate histopathologic diagnosis and treatment. The remainder of the Barrett's epithelium should be eradicated to address all synchronous and metachronous lesions. This may be done by tissue acquiring or nontissue acquiring means. Radiofrequency ablation has a positive benefit-risk profile for flat Barrett's esophagus. At this time, endoscopic therapy is not indicated for nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Esophagectomy is still reserved for selected cases with evidence of lymph node metastasis, unsuccessful endoscopic therapy, or with high-risk features of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma.Keywords: Barrett's esophagus, high
Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J
10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....
While surgical tracheotomies are currently performed using state-of-the-art operative techniques, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is in a rapidly evolving state with regard to its technology and the number of techniques available. This has resulted in a range of new complications that are difficult to quantify on a scientific basis, given the fact that more than half of the patients who are tracheotomized in intensive care units die from their underlying disease. The new Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) is designed to help prevent serious complications in dilatational tracheotomies and facilitate their management. The endoscope has been specifically adapted to meet the require-ments of percutaneous dilatational tracheotomies. It is fully compatible with all current techniques of PDT. The method is easy to learn. The percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy with the Tracheotomy Endoscope is a seven-step procedure: Advantages of the Tracheotomy Endoscope: Injuries to the posterior tracheal wall ar impossible (tracheoesophageal fistulas, pneumothorax). Minor bleeding sites on the tracheal mucosa can be controlled with a specially curved suction-coagulation tube introudeced through the Tracheotomy Endoscope. In cases with heavy bleeding and a risk of aspiration, the rigid indwelling Tracheotomy Endoscope provides a secure route for reintubating the patient with a cuffed endotracheal tube. It also allows for rapid conversion to an open surgical procedure if necessary. All the parts are easy to clean and are autoclavable. This type of endoscopically guided PDT creates an optimal link between the specialties of intensive care medicine and otorhinolaryngology. The Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) increases the standard of safety in PDT.
Tokunaga, Masakazu; Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Sumitani, Daisuke; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Okajima, Masazumi; Ohdan, Hideki
This study aimed to verify whether the approaching time (the time taken to reach the target point from another point, a short distance apart, during point-to-point movement in endoscopic surgery), assessed using the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD), could distinguish the skill level of surgeons. Expert surgeons (who had performed more than 50 endoscopic surgeries) and novice surgeons (who had no experience in performing endoscopic surgery) were tested using the HUESAD. The approaching time, total time, and intermediate time (total time--approaching time) were measured and analyzed using the trajectory of the tip of the instrument. The approaching time and total time were significantly shorter in the expert group than in the novice group (p time did not significantly differ between the groups (p > 0.05). The approaching time, which is a component of the total time, is very mportant in the measurement of the total time to assess endoscopic surgical skills. Further, the approaching time was useful for skill assessment by the HUESAD for evaluating the skill of surgeons performing endoscopic surgery.
Full Text Available Background: The use of endoscope for the management of pituitary adenoma is not new. The better magnification and illumination provided by the endoscope gives better outcome than microscopic pituitary surgery. Objective: To find out the benefits of endoscope in relation to microscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: We performed 45 cases of pituitary adenoma surgery by endoscopic endonasal approach from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Forty five cases underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Gross total removal was done in 35 cases and subtotal removal was done in 10 cases. Residual tumours were seen in 10 cases (22% in postoperative follow-up MRI scan. Visual improvement was satisfactory, and hormonal improvement of functional adenoma was nice. Postoperative visual acuity and visual field were improved in 75% cases. There were 37% cases of temporary diabetes insipidus and about 4.5% cases of permanent diabetes insipidus. The average duration of follow-up was 20 months. One patient required reexploration to correct visual deterioration in the immediate postoperative period. There were 4.5% cases of CSF leak and 6.6% mortality. Mortality was due to electrolyte imbalance and improper management of infection and hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery now has become a gold standard surgery for most of the pituitary adenomas because of its better advantages in relation to microscopic surgery and less complications and less hospital stay.
Kamel, Reda H; Abdel Fattah, Ahmed F; Awad, Ayman G
Maxillary sinus inverted papilloma entails medial maxillectomy and is associated with high incidence of recurrence. To study the impact of prior surgery on recurrence rate after transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Eighteen patients with primary and 33 with recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma underwent transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Caldwell-Luc operation was the primary surgery in 12 patients, transnasal endoscopic resection in 20, and midfacial degloving technique in one. The follow-up period ranged between 2 to 19.5 years with an average of 8.8 years. Recurrence was detected in 8/51 maxillary sinus inverted papilloma patients (15.7 %), 1/18 of primary cases (5.5 %), 7/33 of recurrent cases (21.2 %); 3/20 of the transnasal endoscopic resection group (15%) and 4/12 of the Caldwell-Luc group (33.3%). Redo transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy was followed by a single recurrence in the Caldwell-Luc group (25%), and no recurrence in the other groups. Recurrence is more common in recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma than primary lesions. Recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma after Caldwell-Luc operation has higher incidence of recurrence than after transnasal endoscopic resection.
Sharma, Shilpee Bhatia; Janakiram, Trichy Narayanan; Baxi, Hina; Chinnasamy, Balamurugan
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign tumour which has propensity to erode the skull base. The tumour spreads along the pathways of least resistance and is in close proximity to the extracranial part of trigeminal nerve. Advancements in expanded approaches for endoscopic excision of tumours in infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa increase the vulnerability for the trigeminocardiac reflex. The manipulation of nerve and its branches during tumour dissection can lead to sensory stimulation and thus inciting the reflex. The aim of our study is to report the occurrence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endoscopic excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. To describe the occurence of trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic endonasal excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. We studied the occurrence of TCR in 15 patients (out of 242 primary cases and 52 revision cases) operated for endoscopic endonasal excision of JNA. The drop in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were observed and measured. To the best of our knowledge of English literature, this is the first case series reporting TCR as complication in endoscopic excision of JNA. occurence of this reflex has been mentioned in various occular, maxillofacial surgeries but its occurence during endoscopic excision of JNA has never been reported before. Manifestation of trigeminocardiac reflex during surgery can alter the course of the surgery and is a potential threat to life. It is essential for the anesthetist and surgeons to be familiar with the presentations, preventive measures and management protocols.
Desgranges, C.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Reichle, R.; Firdaouss, M.; Lipa, M.; Chantant, M.; Gardarein, J. L.; Saille, A.; Loarer, T.
Five endoscopes equipped with infrared cameras working in the medium infrared range (3-5 μm) are installed on the controlled thermonuclear fusion research device Tore-Supra. These endoscopes aim at monitoring the plasma facing components surface temperature to prevent their overheating. Signals delivered by infrared cameras through endoscopes are analysed and used on the one hand through a real time feedback control loop acting on the heating systems of the plasma to decrease plasma facing components surface temperatures when necessary, on the other hand for physics studies such as determination of the incoming heat flux . To ensure these two roles a very accurate knowledge of the absolute surface temperatures is mandatory. Consequently the infrared endoscopes must be calibrated through a very careful procedure. This means determining their transmission coefficients which is a delicate operation. Methods to calibrate infrared endoscopes during the shutdown period of the Tore-Supra machine will be presented. As they do not allow determining the possible transmittances evolution during operation an in-situ method is presented. It permits the validation of the calibration performed in laboratory as well as the monitoring of their evolution during machine operation. This is possible by the use of the endoscope shutter and a dedicated plasma scenario developed to heat it. Possible improvements of this method are briefly evoked.
Moore, Corey C; Bromwich, Matthew; Roth, Kathy; Matic, Damir B
Endoscopic repair of orbital blow-out fractures could become a predictable and efficient treatment alternative to traditional methods. However, maxillary sinus endoscopy provides a complex and disorienting view of the orbital floor. To be a useful and consistent technique for providing access to the orbital floor, specific knowledge of maxillary endoscopic anatomy is required. The purpose of the study was to provide an anatomic description of the orbital floor via the endoscopic approach. Objectives include defining consistent landmarks for use in endoscopic repair of orbital floor fractures. Using 0- and 30-degree rigid endoscopes, 6 fresh cadavers (12 maxillary sinuses) were examined via a standard Caldwell-Luc approach. Computed tomographic scans, plastic molds, and digital images were used to compare observable averages within bony anatomy. Potential bony landmarks were correlated with soft-tissue anatomy in fresh specimens. The maxillary ostium, orbital floor, and lateral ethmoid air cells were visualized, and their structures were described. Observations were made in relation to the anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus, including fracture pattern and force transmission pathways. An "orbitomaxillary" sinus bony thickening was identified and described for the first time. This study provides the basis for further refinement of surgical technique and opens the door for future clinical trials using endoscopic repair.
Full Text Available Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID have been associated with a sudden and sustained rise in the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcer complications. The aim of the study was to reveal the endoscopical abnormalities found in the duodenum & proximal jejunum due to NSAID. Thirty eight patients taking NSAID for their arthritis or rheumatism were included in this study. Gastro-duodeno-jejunoscopy was done with Olympus PCF-10. The endoscopical appearances of NSAID entero gastropathy were evaluated with a scoring system. The NSAID-entero-gastropathy appearances were endoscopically seen as hyperemia, erosion and ulcer. From all patient recruited, 7.9% complaint of diarrhea and 71.1% complaint of dyspepsia. Endoscopically, in the duodenal bulb we found 79% cases of hyperemia, 39.5% cases of erosion and 7.9% cases of ulcer. In the second part (descending part of the duodenum we found 28.9% cases of hyperemia, 15.8% cases of erosion and 2.6% case of ulcer. In the jejunum, we found 7.9% cases of hyperemia, 2.6% case of erosion and no ulcer. It is concluded that the most frequent abnormal endoscopical appearances in NSAID- enteropathy was hyperemia. The most frequent site of NSAID-enteropathy abnormal findings was in the duodenal bulb. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 225-9Keywords: NSAID-enteropathy, endoscopical appearances.
Sung Noh Hong
Full Text Available Long-standing intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD induces dysplastic change in the intestinal mucosa and increases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer. The evolving endoscopic techniques and technologies, including dye spraying methods and high-definition images, have been replacing random biopsies and have been revealed as more practical and efficient for detection of dysplasia in IBD patients. In addition, they have potential usefulness in detailed characterization of lesions and in the assessment of endoscopic resectability. Most dysplastic lesions without an unclear margin, definite ulceration, non-lifting sign, and high index of malignant change with suspicion for lymph node or distant metastases can be removed endoscopically. However, endoscopic resection of dysplasia in chronic IBD patients is usually difficult because it is often complicated by submucosal fibrosis. In patients with dysplasias that demonstrate submucosa fibrosis or a large size (≥20 mm, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD or ESD with snaring (simplified or hybrid ESD is an alternative option and may avoid a colectomy. However, a standardized endoscopic therapeutic approach for dysplasia in IBD has not been established yet, and dedicated specialized endoscopists with interest in IBD are needed to fully investigate recent emerging techniques and technologies.
Willingham, Field F; Brugge, William R
To review the current state of natural orifice surgery and examine the concerns, challenges, and opportunities presented by translumenal research. Translumenal endoscopic procedures have been the focus of extensive research. Researchers have reported natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery in a swine model in several areas involving the abdominal cavity. Diagnostic procedures have included endoscopic peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, lymphadenectomy, and abdominal exploration. Several gynecologic procedures including tubal ligation, oophorectomy, and partial hysterectomy have been demonstrated using current commercial endoscopes. Gastrointestinal surgical procedures, including gastrojejunostomy, cholecystectomy, splenectomy, and distal pancreatectomy have been performed successfully via transgastric and/or transcolonic approaches. There have been no studies of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery procedures published in humans. While fundamental questions about the emerging technology have not been scrutinized, limitations of the large animal model will pose a challenge to the development of large randomized trials. While natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery may represent a paradigm shift and may offer significant benefits to patients, rigorous testing of the techniques is lacking and current data have been drawn from case series.
Lee, J H; Kim, B K; Seol, D C; Byun, S J; Park, K H; Sung, I K; Park, H S; Shim, C S
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding recurs after appropriate endoscopic therapy in 10 % - 15 % of cases. The mortality rate can be as high as 25 % when bleeding recurs, but there is no consensus about the best modality for endoscopic re-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate clipping and detachable snaring (CDS) for rescue endoscopic control of nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage. We report a case series of seven patients from a Korean tertiary center who underwent endoscopic hemostasis using the combined method of detachable snares with hemoclips. The success rate of endoscopic hemostasis with CDS was 86 %: six of the seven patients who had experienced primary endoscopic treatment failure or recurrent bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis were treated successfully. In conclusion, rescue endoscopic bleeding control by means of CDS is an option for controlling nonvariceal UGI bleeding when no other method of endoscopic treatment for recurrent bleeding and primary hemostatic failure is possible. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Schijven, M. P.; Schout, B. M. A.; Dolmans, V. E. M. G.; Hendrikx, A. J. M.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.
BACKGROUND: Specific training in endoscopic skills and procedures has become a necessity for profession with embedded endoscopic techniques in their surgical palette. Previous research indicates endoscopic skills training to be inadequate, both from subjective (resident interviews) and objective
Matsuda, Dean K; Matsuda, Nicole A; Head, Rachel; Tivorsak, Tanya
Review of the English orthopaedic literature reveals no prior report of endoscopic repair of rectus abdominis tears and/or prepubic aponeurosis detachment. This technical report describes endoscopic reattachment of an avulsed prepubic aponeurosis and endoscopic repair of a vertical rectus abdominis tear immediately after endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for coexistent recalcitrant osteitis pubis as a single-stage outpatient surgery. Endoscopic rectus abdominis repair and prepubic aponeurosis repair are feasible surgeries that complement endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for patients with concurrent osteitis pubis and expand the less invasive options for patients with athletic pubalgia.
Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Angoules, Antonios G; Givissis, Panagiotis
Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy (TPED) is a minimally invasive technique mainly used for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation from a lateral approach. Performed under local anesthesia, TPED has been proven to be a safe and effective technique which has been also associated with shorter rehabilitation period, reduced blood loss, trauma, and scar tissue compared to conventional procedures. However, the procedure should be performed by a spine surgeon experienced in the specific technique and capable of recognizing or avoiding various challenging conditions. In this review, pitfalls that a novice surgeon has to be mindful of, are reported and analyzed.
Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.
Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)
Tchaka, Kevin; Pawar, Vijay M.; Stoyanov, Danail
In minimally invasive surgery, image quality is a critical pre-requisite to ensure a surgeons ability to perform a procedure. In endoscopic procedures, image quality can deteriorate for a number of reasons such as fogging due to the temperature gradient after intra-corporeal insertion, lack of focus and due to smoke generated when using electro-cautery to dissect tissues without bleeding. In this paper we investigate the use of vision processing techniques to remove surgical smoke and improve the clarity of the image. We model the image formation process by introducing a haze medium to account for the degradation of visibility. For simplicity and computational efficiency we use an adapted dark-channel prior method combined with histogram equalization to remove smoke artifacts to recover the radiance image and enhance the contrast and brightness of the final result. Our initial results on images from robotic assisted procedures are promising and show that the proposed approach may be used to enhance image quality during surgery without additional suction devices. In addition, the processing pipeline may be used as an important part of a robust surgical vision pipeline that can continue working in the presence of smoke.
Kamata, Ken; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Miyata, Takeshi; Minaga, Kosuke; Yamao, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Kudo, Masatoshii [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
Peretti, G.; Cappiello, J.; Renaldini, G.; Antonelli, A.R.; Villanacci, V.; Marocolo, D.
Histological diagnosis of laryngeal epithelial abnormalities may range from mucosal aberration, without risk of progressing into invasive neoplasm, to in situ or invasive carcinoma. Precise identification of epithelial abnormalities of laryngeal mucosa requires biopsy and microscopic evaluation. Random biopsies are frequently inadequate, since they are not representative for the entire lesion. Excisional Biopsy, allowing removal of lesion together with a rim of healthy tissue is ideal for both diagnosis and treatment. If completely removed, the cancer should not require further treatment; if the margins are not free of disease, re-excision or radiotherapy is considered as alternative options. Laser excision represents an extension of the clinical application of endoscopy, allowing the laryngologist to perform an accurate and bloodless surgery. Endoscopic laser treatment for selected glottic SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) has been shown to provide an excellent alternative to radiotherapy or open neck surgery in terms of cure rate and functional results. Preliminary results are presented with the purpose of stressing the role of EB with CO2 laser in diagnosis and treatment of selected glottic carcinoma. (author). 16 refs
Vasiliadis, Haris S; Georgoulas, Petros; Shrier, Ian; Salanti, Georgia; Scholten, Rob J P M
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive neuropathy of the upper extremity. It is caused by increased pressure on the median nerve between the transverse carpal ligament and the carpal bones. Surgical treatment consists of the release of the nerve by cutting the transverse carpal ligament. This can be done either with an open approach or endoscopically. To assess the effectiveness and safety of the endoscopic techniques of carpal tunnel release compared to any other surgical intervention for the treatment of CTS. More specifically, to evaluate the relative impact of endoscopic techniques in relieving symptoms, producing functional recovery (return to work and return to daily activities) and reducing complication rates. This review fully incorporates the results of searches conducted up to 5 November 2012, when we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted trial authors. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials. We performed a preliminary screen of searches to November 2013 to identify any additional recent publications. We included any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) with any other surgical intervention for the treatment of CTS. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Twenty-eight studies (2586 hands) were included. Twenty-three studies compared ECTR to standard open carpal tunnel release (OCTR), five studies compared ECTR with OCTR using a modified incision, and two studies used a three-arm design to compare ECTR, standard OCTR and modified OCTR.At short-term follow-up (three months or less), only one study provided data for overall improvement. We found no differences on the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) (scale zero to five) (five studies, standardised mean
Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon; Chun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin Ho; Song, In Hye; Kim, Yong-Gil
Gastrointestinal involvement in vasculitis may result in life-threatening complications. However, its variable clinical presentations and endoscopic features, and the rarity of the disease, often result in delayed diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and histopathological findings were reviewed from medical records. Of 6,477 patients with vasculitis, 148 were diagnosed as primary vasculitis with upper gastrointestinal involvement. Of these, 21 cases (14.2%) were classified as large-vessel vasculitis, 17 cases (11.5%) as medium-vessel vasculitis, and 110 cases (74.3%) as small-vessel vasculitis. According to the specific diagnosis, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was the most common diagnosis (56.8%), followed by Takayasu arteritis (14.1%), microscopic polyangiitis (10.1%), and polyarteritis nodosa (6.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 113 subjects (76.4%), with abdominal pain (78.8%) the most common symptom. Erosion and ulcers were striking endoscopic features, and the second portion of the duodenum was the most frequently involved site. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 124 patients, and only eight (5.4%) presented histopathological signs of vasculitis. Diagnosis of vasculitis involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Because of the widespread use of endoscopy, combining clinical features with endoscopic findings may facilitate making appropriate diagnoses; however, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic biopsy is low.
Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Stahl, Scott J; McBride, Michael; Stedman, Nancy L
To establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for collection of liver biopsy specimens from lizards by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice. Prospective study. 11 subadult male green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Each lizard was anesthetized, and right-sided coelioscopic examination of the right liver lobe and gallbladder was performed. Three liver biopsy specimens were collected from each lizard by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope and 1.7-mm (5-F) biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Ten days following surgery, all iguanas were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination. For all 11 iguanas, the right liver lobe and gallbladder were successfully examined endoscopically, and 3 biopsy specimens of the liver were collected without complications. Mean +/- SD durations of anesthesia and surgery were 24 +/- 7 minutes and 6.8 +/- 1.0 minutes, respectively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of trauma or disease associated with the skin or muscle entry sites, liver, or any visceral structures in any iguana. All 33 biopsy specimens were considered acceptable for histologic interpretation; in most samples, the extent of crush artifact was considered minimal. By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, liver biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and easily in green iguanas. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. For evaluation of the liver and biopsy specimen collection in lizards, endoscopy is recommended.
Yu, Huanxin; Liu, Gang
To evaluate the effectiveness of transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach for the surgery of pituitary abscess. Eighteen pathologically diagnosed pituitary abscess were resected through transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach at Tianjing Huanhu hospital between January 2000 and December 2011.Retrospective analysis was done upon clinical presentations and imaging features. There were 6 males and 12 females. The average age was 48.5 years old and the average disease course was 5.8 years. The typical clinical manifestations included headache (13 cases), pituitary dysfunction (10 cases), Diabetes Insipidus (4 cases) visual interference (8 cases) and fever (4 cases). All cases were resected by transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach with general anesthesia. The postoperative symptoms and follow-up results were recorded. All patients were followed up from 6 months to 6 years. Postoperatively, headache was recovered in 13 cases, visual was improved in 6 cases, hypopituitarism was relieved in 8 cases and polyuria was disappeared in 3 cases. One case was recurrent and cured by transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach. Transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach for the surgery of pituitary abscess is effective.
Baradaranfar M. H
Full Text Available Inverted papilloma is an uncommon benign neoplasm originating from lateral nasal wall. It commonly invades paranasal sinuses and sometimes invasion to orbit and intracranial structures are seen. There are many surgical methods for its treatment, one of them is endoscopic transnasal approach."nMaterials and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 11 patients with this tumor were operated in Amiralam hospital in Tehran and Shahid Rahnemun in Yazd. Nine patients were operated by endoscopic transnasal route and two patients by combined Caldwell-luc and endoscopic transnasal routes."nResults: Tumors were on the right side in 3 patients, on the left side in 7 patients, and bilateral in one patient. There were no intracranial or orbital extensions. No pathologic report of malignancy was made. Surgical technique included complete tumor resection, anterior and posterior ethomidectomies, sphenoidectomy, frontal recess tumor resection and wide maxillary antrostomy, in cases in whom tumor was attached to lamina papyracea, the lamina was removed without any manipulation to orbital periosteum. Mean follow-up time was 29.8 months. There was no recurrence in 82% of cases. Tumor recurred in 18% of cases. No complications were seen."nConclusion: Although the standard treatment for this tumor is medial maxillectomy but endoscopic resection is an effective method in surgery of this tumor. It seems that if tumor does not extend to areas unreachable by endoscopic surgery, due to lower morbidity and excellent visualization of tumor, this method is preferable.
Májovský, Martin; Masopust, Václav; Netuka, David; Beneš, Vladimír
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with an increasing incidence. Standard treatment of CSDHs is surgical evacuation. The objective of this study is to present a modification of standard burr-hole hematoma evacuation using a flexible endoscope and to assess the advantages and risks. Prospectively, 34 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSDH were included in the study. Epidemiological, clinical and radiographical data were collected and reviewed. All patients underwent a burr-hole evacuation of CSDH. A flexible endoscope was inserted and subdural space inspected during surgery. The surgeon was looking specifically for the presence of septations, draining catheter position and acute bleeding. Thirty-four patients underwent 37 endoscope-assisted surgeries. Presenting symptoms were hemiparesis (79%), decreased level of consciousness (18%), gait disturbances (15%), headache (12%), aphasia (6%), cognitive disturbances (6%) and epileptic seizure (3%). Average operative time was 43 min, and the average increase in operative time due to the use of the endoscope was 6 min. Recurrence rate was 8.8%, and clinical outcome was favorable (defined as mRS ≤ 2) in 97% of the cases. To our knowledge, the present cohort of 34 patients is the largest group of patients with CSDH treated using an endoscope. This technique allows decent visualization of the hematoma cavity while retaining the advantages of a minimally invasive approach under a local anesthesia. The main advantages are correct positioning of the catheter under visual control, identification of septations and early detection of cortex or vessel injury during surgery.
Ruiz-Clavijo, David; de la Higuera, Belen González; Vila, Juan J
Treatment of pancreatic collections has experienced great progress in recent years with the emergence of alternative minimally invasive techniques comparing to the classic surgical treatment. Such techniques have been shown to improve outcomes of morbidity vs surgical treatment. The recent emergence of endoscopic drainage is noteworthy. The advent of endoscopic ultrasonography has been crucial for treatment of these specific lesions. They can be characterized, their relationships with neighboring structures can be evaluated and the drainage guided by this technique has been clearly improved compared with the conventional endoscopic drainage. Computed tomography is the technique of choice to characterize the recently published new classification of pancreatic collections. For this reason, the radiologist's role establishing and classifying in a rigorously manner the collections according to the new nomenclature is essential to making therapeutic decisions. Ideal scenario for comprehensive treatment of these collections would be those centers with endoscopic ultrasound and interventional radiology expertise together with hepatobiliopancreatic surgery. This review describes the different types of pancreatic collections: acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pancreatic pseudocysts, acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis; the indications and the contraindications for endoscopic drainage, the drainage technique and their outcomes. The integrated management of pancreatic collections according to their type and evolution time is discussed.
Gastrointestinal neoplasms can be cured by local resection as long as the lesions are in the early stage and have not metastasized. Endoscopic resection is a minimally invasive treatment for early-stage gastrointestinal neoplasms, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is one type of endoscopic resection that has been developed in the past 10 years. For ESD to be a reliable, curative treatment for gastrointestinal neoplasms, it is necessary for the endoscopist to detect the lesion early, make a precise pretreatment diagnosis, ensure that the patient has the correct indication for endoscopic resection, and have the skill to perform ESD. For early lesion detection, endoscopists should pay attention to subtle changes in the surface structure, the color of the mucosa and the visibility of underlying submucosal vessels. Chromoendoscopy and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the margin of the lesions for pretreatment diagnosis, and endoscopic ultrasonography and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the depth of invasion. For ESD to be successful, local injection of sodium hyaluronate helps maintain mucosal elevation during dissection. Selecting the appropriate knife, using transparent hoods wisely, employing a good strategy that uses gravity, and having good control of bleeding are all needed to make ESD reliable.
Full Text Available Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer.
Coppola, Franco; Gaia, Silvia; Rolle, Emanuela; Recchia, Serafino
Idiopathic achalasia is a motor disorder of the esophagus of unknown etiology caused by loss of motor neurons determining an altered motility. It may determine severe symptoms such as progressive dysphagia, regurgitations, and pulmonary aspirations. Many therapeutic options may be offered to patients with achalasia, from surgery to endoscopic treatments such as pneumatic dilation, botulinum injection, peroral endoscopic myotomy, or endoscopic stenting. Recently, temporary placement of a stent was proposed by Cheng as therapy for achalasia disorders, whereas no Western authors have dealt with it up to date. The present study reports our preliminary experience in 7 patients with achalasia treated with a temporary stent. Partially covered self-expanding metallic stents (Micro-Tech, Nanjin, China) 80 mm long and 30 mm wide were placed under fluoroscopic control and removed after 6 days. Clinical follow-up was scheduled to check endoscopic success, symptoms release, and complications. The placement and the removal of the stents were obtained in all patients without complications. Mean clinical follow-up was 19 months. Five out of 7 patients referred total symptoms release and 2 experienced significant improvement of dysphagia. The procedure was not time consuming and was safe; no mild or severe complications were registered. In conclusion, our results may suggest a possible safe and effective endoscopic alternative treatment in patients with achalasia; however, further larger studies are necessary to confirm these promising, but very preliminary, data.
Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Sung Koo; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan
Background/Aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be an effective treatment for bile leakage after liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in liver transplantation in patients who developed bile leaks. Methods Forty-two patients who developed bile leaks after liver transplantation were included in the study. If a bile leak was observed on ERCP, a sphincterotomy was performed, and a nasobiliary catheter was then inserted. If a bile leak was accompanied by a bile duct stricture, either the stricture was dilated with balloons, followed by nasobiliary catheter insertion across the bile duct stricture, or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was performed. Results In the bile leakage alone group (22 patients), endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 19 (86.4%) and clinically successful in 17 (77.3%) cases. Among the 20 patients with bile leaks with bile duct strictures, endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 13 (65.0%) and clinically successful in 10 (50.0%) cases. Among the 42 patients who underwent ERCP, technical success was achieved in 32 (76.2%) cases and clinical success was achieved in 27 (64.3%) cases. Conclusions ERCP is an effective and safe therapeutic modality for bile leaks after liver transplantation. ERCP should be considered as an initial therapeutic modality in post-liver transplantation patients. PMID:25717048
Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer.
Didden, P; Bruno, M; Poley, J W
The aim of endoscopic therapy of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is to treat pain by draining the pancreatic duct or managing loco-regional complications. Recent decennia were characterized by continuous improvement of endoscopic techniques and devices, resulting in a better clinical outcome. Novel developments now also provide the opportunity to endoscopically treat refractory CP-related complications. Especially suboptimal surgical candidates could potentially benefit from these new developments, consequently avoiding invasive surgery. The use of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been explored in pancreatic and CP-related biliary duct strictures, resistant to conventional treatment with plastic endoprotheses. Furthermore, endosonography-guided transmural drainage of the main pancreatic duct via duct-gastrostomy is an alternative treatment option in selected cases. Pancreatic pseudocysts represent an excellent indication for endoscopic therapy with some recent case series demonstrating effective drainage with the use of a fully covered SEMS. Although results of these new endoscopic developments are promising, high quality randomized trials are required to determine their definite role in the management of chronic pancreatitis.
Tazi, Hicham; Ouali, Mohammed; Lrhorfi, My Hfid; Moudouni, Saïd; Tazi, Karim; Lakrissa, Ahmed
To analyse the long-term results of treatment of posterior urethral disruptions with endoscopic realignment, and to assess the efficacy, simplicity and benefit of this technique. Between 1989 and 2001, thirty six patients were treated by endoscopic realignment for traumatic rupture of the posterior urethra. The analysis of the results took in consideration the quality of urinary stream, the continence and the erectile function. With a mean follow-up of thirty four months (12 to 72 months), the 36 patients treated by endoscopic realignment are continent and urinate with a satisfactory urine output. This result was obtained after internal urethrotomy in 13 patients (36.1%), and after transperineal urethroplasty in two patients. Only 7 patients (19.4%) developed an impotence. The endoscopic realignment can be considered like initial treatment of all post-traumatic rupture of the posterior urethra. This simple and little aggressive technique doesn't compromise the recourse to another type of ulterior treatment and resulted in negligible morbidity. The secondary urethral strictures are short and accessible to an endoscopic urethrotomy.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa.
Plzák, Jan; Kratochvil, Vít; Kešner, Adam; Šurda, Pavol; Vlasák, Aleš; Zvěřina, Eduard
OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas) and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma) that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa. PMID:29069259
Bourke, Michael J; Neuhaus, Horst; Bergman, Jacques J
Endoscopic submucosal dissection was developed in Japan, early in this century, to provide a minimally invasive yet curative treatment for the large numbers of patients with early gastric cancer identified by the national screening program. Previously, the majority of these patients were treated surgically at substantial cost and with significant risk of short- and long-term morbidity. En-bloc excision of these early cancers, most with a limited risk of nodal metastasis, allowed complete staging of the tumor, stratification of the subsequent therapeutic approach, and potential cure. This transformative innovation changed the nature of endoscopic treatment for superficial mucosal neoplasia and, ultimately, for the first time allowed endoscopists to assert that the early cancer had been definitively cured. Subsequently, Western endoscopists have increasingly embraced the therapeutic possibilities offered by endoscopic submucosal dissection, but with some justifiable scientific caution. Here we provide an evidence-based critical appraisal of the role of endoscopic submucosal dissection in advanced endoscopic tissue resection. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hong, H.S. [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, H.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: email@example.com; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G.H. [Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.J. [Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours.
Hong, H.S.; Ha, H.K.; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G.; Lee, G.H.; Kim, M.J.
Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours
XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng
Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.
Katic, N; Dupré, G
Although endoscopic surgery entered its "golden era" in the mid-1980s, it is still advancing at a tremendous pace. Novel surgical techniques and devices are continuously developed and applied, and new indications (and/or contraindications) for the use of endoscopic surgery are routinely reported in the literature and subjected to systematic assessments. Although endoscopic surgery (laparoscopy in particular) has already become established as the gold standard in human medicine, it has yet to be proven as a viable alternative to open surgery in the field of veterinary medicine. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery include better intra-operative visualization, reduced postoperative pain, reduced scar formation and increased postoperative mobility. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the application of this will continue to expand. Small animal reproduction, a field within the broad discipline of veterinary medicine, has already recognized and begun to reap the benefits of endoscopic surgery. Herein, we retrospectively review the most recent successful novel applications of endoscopic surgery in the small animal reproduction system to provide small animal reproductive surgeons with important knowledge to help improve their own veterinarian medical practice. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Ercan Karacaoglu, MD
Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.
Christensen, Merete; Reinert, Rebekka; Rasmussen, Verner
OBJECTIVE: To find out if drugs, position, and endoscopic manipulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) influence the changes in the variability of heart rate. DESIGN: Single-blind randomised trial. SUBJECTS: 10 volunteers given butyscopolamine, glucagon, or saline...
Raczynski, Susanne; Teich, Niels; Borte, Gudrun; Wittenburg, Henning; Mössner, Joachim; Caca, Karel
Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic acute and chronic pseudocysts and pancreatic necrosectomy have been shown to be beneficial for critically ill patients, with complete endoscopic resolution rates of around 80%. Our purpose was to describe an improved endoscopic technique used to treat pancreatic necrosis. Case report. University hospital. Two patients with large retroperitoneal necroses were treated with percutaneous transgastric retroperitoneal flushing tubes and a percutaneous transgastric jejunal feeding tube by standard percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy access in addition to endoscopic necrosectomy. Intensive percutaneous transgastric flushing in combination with percutaneous normocaloric enteral nutrition and repeated endoscopic necrosectomy led to excellent outcomes in both patients. Small number of patients. The "double percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy" approach for simultaneous transgastric drainage and normocaloric enteral nutrition in severe cases of pancreatic necroses is safe and effective. It could be a promising improvement to endoscopic transgastric treatment options in necrotizing pancreatitis.
Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes
Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright Â© 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Locatelli, D; Pozzi, F; Agresta, G; Padovan, S; Karligkiotis, A; Castelnuovo, P
Objectives We illustrate a suprasellar craniopharyngiomas treated with an extended endoscopic endonasal approach (EEEA). Design Case report of a 43-year-old male affected by cerebral lesion located in suprasellar region involving the third ventricle and compressing the neurovascular structures, causing an anterosuperior dislocation of the chiasma. There is a complete disruption of the pituitary stalk that can explain the clinical finding of partial anterior hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinemia. The lesion is characterized by a solid and cystic component. Considering the absence of lateral extension and the suprasellar location of the lesion, an EEEA is preferred. Setting University Hospital "Ospedale di Circolo," Department of Neurosurgery, Varese, Italy. Participants Neurosurgical and ENT Skull Base Team. Main Outcome Measures A bilateral parasagittal approach is performed using a four-hand technique. The first step of the surgery is the preparation of the Hadad's flap. The approach is extended to the planum sphenoidalis to expose the suprasellar region. The lesion is completely removed employing also an ultrasound aspirator. Skull base reconstruction is performed with three-layer technique: graft of fat tissue, fascia lata, and nasoseptal flap. Results No postoperative complications occurred. In the post-op, the patient presents a panhypopituitarism and an improvement in neurological status. The visual deficit remains stable. Post-op magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year documents the complete absence of pathological contrast enhancement. Conclusions EEEA is a feasible approach in treating craniopharyngioma with suprasellar extension. The advantages include optimal visualization, good resection rate, and absence of brain retraction. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/IYm-8P1jbBo .
Todeschini, Alexandre B; Montaser, Alaa S; Shahein, Mostafa; Revuelta, Juan Manuel; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L; Prevedello, Daniel M
We present the case of a 57-year-old male who presented with progressive right side vision loss whose workup revealed a large suprasellar lesion with invasion of the third ventricle. The pituitary stalk was not visible. Hormonal panel showed no hormonal deficits. The initial diagnosis was of a type II transinfundibular craniopharyngioma (as classified by Kassam et al). An endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach was done using a standard binostril four-hand technique, with the patient positioned supine with the head turned to the right side and tilted to the left, fixed in a three-pin head clamp, under imaging guidance. The tumor was carefully dissected away from the optic apparatus while preserving the vessels, mainly the superior hypophyseal artery. The stalk was identified around the tumor and preserved. The third ventricle was entered and inspected at the end of the procedure and a near-total resection (a small residual in the right hypothalamus) with decompression of the optic apparatus was achieved. Reconstruction was done in a multilayered fashion, using collagen matrix and a nasoseptal flap. Patient had an uneventful postoperative stay and was discharged on POD 4, neurologically stable with no hormonal deficits. Pathology confirmed an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Due to a small growth of the residual, patient underwent fractionated stereotactic radiation (50.4Gy in 28 sessions). He presented with panhypopituitarism 2 years after radiation therapy. At 3-month follow-up, his vision was back to normal and 6-year postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed no signs of recurrence. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/chG7XIz7a_A .
Tsapaki, V.; Paraskeva, K.; Mathou, N.; Aggelogiannopoulou, P.; Triantopoulou, C.; Karagianis, J.; Giannakopoulos, A.; Paspatis, G.; Voudoukis, E.; Athanasopoulos, N.; Lydakis, I.; Scotiniotis, H.; Georgopoulos, P.; Finou, P.; Kadiloru, E.
Purpose: Extensive literature exists on patient radiation doses in various interventional procedures. This does not stand for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) where the literature is very limited. This study compares patient dose during ERCP procedures performed with different types of X-ray systems. Methods and Materials: Four hospitals participated in the study with the following X-ray systems: A) X-ray conventional system (X-ray tube over table), 137 pts, B) X-ray conventional system (X-ray tube under table), 114 pts, C) C-arm system, 79 pts, and D) angiography system, 57 pts. A single experienced endoscopist performed the ERCP in each hospital. Kerma Area Product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (T) and total number of X-ray films (F) were collected. Results: Median patient dose was 6.2 Gy.cm 2 (0.02-130.2 Gy.cm 2 ). Medium linear correlation between KAP and T (0.6) and F (0.4) were observed. Patient doses were 33 % higher than the reference value in UK (4.15 Gy.cm 2 with a sample of 6089 patients). Median KAP for each hospital was: A) 3.1, B) 9.2, C) 3.9 and D) 6.2 Gy.cm 2 . Median T was: A) 2.6, B) 4.1, C) 2.8 and D) 3.4 min. Median F was: A) 2, B) 7, C) 2 and D) 2 films. Conclusion: Patient radiation dose during ERCP depends on: a) fluoroscopy time and films taken, b) the type of the X-ray system used, with the C arm and the conventional over the couch systems carrying the lower patient radiation dose and the angiography system the higher. (authors)
Maluf-Filho, Fauze; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Mendonça, Ernesto Quaresma; Carbonari, Augusto; Maciente, Bruno Antônio; Salomão, Bruno Chaves; Medrado, Bruno Frederico; Dotti, Carlos Marcelo; Lopes, César Vivian; Braga, Cláudia Utsch; M Dutra, Daniel Alencar; Retes, Felipe; Nakao, Frank; de Sousa, Giovana Biasia; de Paulo, Gustavo Andrade; Ardengh, Jose Celso; Dos Santos, Juliana Bonfim; Sampaio, Luciana Moura; Okawa, Luciano; Rossini, Lucio; de Brito Cardoso, Manoel Carlos; Ribeiro Camunha, Marco Antonio; Clarêncio, Marcos; Lera Dos Santos, Marcos Eduardo; Franco, Matheus; Schneider, Nutianne Camargo; Mascarenhas, Ramiro; Roda, Rodrigo; Matuguma, Sérgio; Guaraldi, Simone; Figueiredo, Viviane
At the time of its introduction in the early 80s, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was indicated for diagnostic purposes. Recently, EUS has been employed to assist or to be the main platform of complex therapeutic interventions. From a series of relevant new topics in the literature and based on the need to complement the I Brazilian consensus on EUS, twenty experienced endosonographers identified and reviewed the pertinent literature in databases. The quality of evidence, strength of recommendations, and level of consensus were graded and voted on. Consensus was reached for eight relevant topics: treatment of gastric varices, staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer, biliary drainage, tissue sampling of subepithelial lesions (SELs), treatment of pancreatic fluid collections, tissue sampling of pancreatic solid lesions, celiac neurolysis, and evaluation of the incidental pancreatic cysts. There is a high level of evidence for staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer; biopsy of SELs as the safest method; unilateral and bilateral injection techniques are equivalent for EUS-guided celiac neurolysis, and in patients with visible ganglia, celiac ganglia neurolysis appears to lead to better results. There is a moderate level of evidence for: yield of tissue sampling of pancreatic solid lesions is not influenced by the needle shape, gauge, or employed aspiration technique; EUS-guided and percutaneous biliary drainage present similar clinical success and adverse event rates; plastic and metallic stents are equivalent in the EUS-guided treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst. There is a low level of evidence in the routine use of EUS-guided treatment of gastric varices.
Iwasa, Tsutomu; Nakadate, Ryu; Onogi, Shinya; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Arata, Jumpei; Oguri, Susumu; Ogino, Haruei; Ihara, Eikichi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto
Difficulties in endoscopic operations and therapeutic procedures seem to occur due to the complexity of operating the endoscope dial as well as difficulty in performing synchronized movements with both hands. We developed a prototype robotic-assisted flexible endoscope that can be controlled with a single hand in order to simplify the operation of the endoscope. The aim of this study was to confirm the operability of the robotic-assisted flexible endoscope (RAFE) by performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Study 1: ESD was performed manually or with RAFE by an expert endoscopist in ex vivo porcine stomachs; six operations manually and six were performed with RAFE. The procedure time per unit circumferential length/area was calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Study 2: We evaluated how smoothly a non-endoscopist can move a RAFE compared to a manual endoscope by assessing the designated movement of the endoscope. Study 1: En bloc resection was achieved by ESD using the RAFE. The procedure time was gradually shortened with increasing experience, and the procedure time of ESD performed with the RAFE was not significantly different from that of ESD performed with a manual endoscope. Study 2: The time for the designated movement of the endoscope was significantly shorter with a RAFE than that with a manual endoscope as for a non-endoscopist. The RAFE that we developed enabled an expert endoscopist to perform the ESD procedure without any problems and allowed a non-endoscopist to control the endoscope more easily and quickly than a manual endoscope. The RAFE is expected to undergo further development.
Chuah, Seng-Kee; Wu, Keng-Liang; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chi-Sin
Pneumatic dilation (PD) is considered to be the first line nonsurgical therapy for achalasia. The principle of the procedure is to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter by tearing its muscle fibers by generating radial force. The endoscope-guided procedure is done without fluoroscopic control. Clinicians usually use a low-compliance balloon such as Rigiflex dilator to perform endoscope-guided PD for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. It has the advantage of determining mucosal injury during the dilation process, so that a repeat endoscopy is not needed to assess the mucosal tearing. Previous studies have shown that endoscope-guided PD is an efficient and safe nonsurgical therapy with results that compare well with other treatment modalities. Although the results may be promising, long-term follow-up is required in the near future. PMID:20101764
Lepera, Davide; Volpi, Luca; Facco, Carla; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Bernasconi, Barbara; Piski, Zalán; Freguia, Stefania; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Bignami, Maurizio
The extra-skeletal form is an unusual type of Ewing sarcoma (ES) arising from soft tissue and in the literature there are reports of less than 50 patients describing the tumor in the paranasal sinuses and skull base. The histological diagnosis is crucial to plan the correct treatment and the molecular confirmation is mandatory in equivocal patients. A multimodality treatment with chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy improved the outcomes of these diseases during the last decades and a free-margin resection with the endoscopic transnasal technique is one of the most recent ways to manage these pathologies in selected patients, reducing the morbidities of the external approaches and preserving the quality of life of the patient.Here, the authors present the first patient of primary sinonasal ES free from disease after 5 years of follow-up and treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach and a second patient of sinonasal metastases of ES treated with and endoscopic transnasal approach.
Matsuda, Dean K; Sehgal, Bantoo; Matsuda, Nicole A
Osteitis pubis is a common form of athletic pubalgia associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy was developed as a less invasive option than open surgical curettage for recalcitrant osteitis pubis. This technical note demonstrates the use of the anterior and suprapubic portals in the supine lithotomy position for endoscopic burr resection of pubic symphyseal fibrocartilage and hyaline endplates. Key steps include use of the suprapubic portal for burr resection of the posteroinferior symphysis and preservation of the posterior and arcuate ligaments. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy is a minimally invasive bone-conserving surgery that retains stability and may be useful in the treatment of recalcitrant osteitis pubis or osteoarthritis. It nicely complements arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement and may find broader application in this group of co-affected athletes.
Oosthuizen, Johannes Christiaan
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric blunt laryngeal trauma is a rare and potentially life-threatening entity. External injuries can be misleading, and a high index of suspicion, as well as early intervention, is essential to achieve the best possible outcome. The authors of this report review the management of blunt laryngeal trauma in the pediatric population and describe the endoscopic management of posttraumatic supraglottic stenosis. METHODS: Methods used were case report from a tertiary referral institution and review of the literature. RESULTS: We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl whom developed supraglottic stenosis following blunt laryngeal trauma. Innovative endoscopic techniques were used in the successful management of this exceedingly rare entity. CONCLUSION: Early recognition and intervention are of paramount importance if successful endoscopic management of blunt laryngeal trauma is to be considered.
Y. M. Harry Ng
Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.
Full Text Available Esophageal perforation due to transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE during cardiac surgery is rare. A 72-year-old female underwent TEE during an operation for aortic valve replacement. Further, the patient presented hematemesis. Gastroscopy revealed an esophageal bleeding ulcer. Endoscopic therapy was successful. Although a CT scan excluded perforation, the patient became febrile, and a second gastroscopy revealed a big perforation at the site of ulcer. The patient's clinical condition required endoscopic intervention with a new OTSC® clip (Ovesco Endoscopy, Tübingen, Germany. The perforation was successfully sealed. The patient remained on intravenous antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and parenteral nutrition for few days, followed by enteral feeding. She was discharged fully recovered 3 months later. We clearly demonstrate an effective, less invasive treatment of an esophageal perforation with a new endoscopic clip.
D. V. Perlin
Full Text Available Introduction. Endoscopic radical prostatectomy is a highly effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. Intrafascial prostate dissection ensures early recovery of urine continence function and erectile function. This article sums up our own experience of performing intrafascial endoscopic prostatectomy.Materials and methods. 25 patients have undergone this procedure. 12 months after surgery 88.2 % of the patients were fully continent, 11.7 % had symptoms of minimal stress urinary incontinence. We encountered no cases of positive surgical margins and one case of bio-chemical recurrence of the disease.Conclusion. Oncologically, intrafascial endoscopic radical prostatectomy is as effective as other modifications of radical prostatectomy and has the benefits of early recovery of urine continence function and erectile function.
Poshataev, V K; Shimansky, V N; Tanyashin, S V; Karnaukhov, V V
During the period of 2010-2012, 33 patients with cerebellopontine angle tumors were operated on at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia) using different types of endoscopic assistance. All patients were operated on via the retrosigmoid suboccipital approach in semi-sitting and prone positions. 30° and 70° endoscopes were used during the surgery. Endoscopic assistance allowed us to increase the completeness of tumor removal and to reduce the risk of postoperative complications by retaining the anatomic integrity of cranial nerves and vascular structures in the base of the posterior cranial fossa. These benefits made it possible to maintain and improve quality of life in patients with CPA tumors in the postoperative period.
Ip, Wing-Yuk Josephine; Sweed, Tamer Ahmed; Fung, Kwok Keung Boris; Tipoe, George L; Pun, Tze Shing
Since the first description of endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) in 1987 by Okutsu many endoscopic techniques have been developed, but the majority of the literature on ECTR has dealt with the Chow and Agee techniques. ECTR is indicated for carpal tunnel syndrome that is not responding to conservative treatment for 6 months. This new technique of ECTR is a single-portal technique using instruments originally designed for endoscopic cubital tunnel release, with no disposable instruments used. It also has the advantage of performing the release with the median nerve protected under direct vision. Ten cases were operated with this technique after performing the procedure on 8 hands of 4 fresh frozen cadavers. There were no neurovascular or tendon injuries with this technique and patients were satisfied with the results.
Full Text Available Nasopalatine duct cysts are the most common non-odontogenic cysts in the maxilla, and are conventionally treated through a sublabial or palatine approach. Recently, the endoscopic approach has been used, but experience is extremely limited. We treated a 29-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst by endoscopic marsupialization, but paresthesia of the incisor region occurred after surgery. This paresthesia gradually remitted within 6 months. The nasopalatine nerve, which innervates the upper incisor region, enters two lateral canals separately at the nasal floor and exits the central main canal at the palate. Damage to the bilateral nasopalatine nerves might lead to paresthesia, so we recommend careful examination for nerve fibers during endoscopic surgery, especially if fenestration is performed on both sides.
Mondal, Utpal; Henkes, Nichole; Patel, Sandeep; Rosenkranz, Laura
Elastography is a newer technique for the assessment of tissue elasticity using ultrasound. Cancerous tissue is known to be stiffer (hence, less elastic) than corresponding healthy tissue, and as a result, could be identified in an elasticity-based imaging. Ultrasound elastography has been used in the breast, thyroid, and cervix to differentiate malignant from benign neoplasms and to guide or avoid unnecessary biopsies. In the liver, elastography has enabled a noninvasive and reliable estimate of fibrosis. Endoscopic ultrasound has become a robust diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the management of pancreatic diseases. The addition of elastography to endoscopic ultrasound enabled further characterization of pancreas lesions, and several European and Asian studies have reported encouraging results. The current clinical role of endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the management of pancreas disorders and related literature are reviewed.
Rozeboom, Esther; Reilink, Rob; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Fockens, Paul; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes
Background and study aims: Endoscopic interventions require accurate and precise control of the endoscope tip. The endoscope tip response depends on a cable pulling system, which is known to deliver a significantly nonlinear response that eventually reduces control. It is unknown whether the current
Rozeboom, Esther D.; Reilink, Rob; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Fockens, Paul; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.
Background and study aims: Endoscopic interventions require accurate and precise control of the endoscope tip. The endoscope tip response depends on a cable pulling system, which is known to deliver a significantly nonlinear response that eventually reduces control. It is unknown whether the current
van den Broek, Frank J C; de Graaf, Eelco J R; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Reitsma, Johannes B; Haringsma, Jelle; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas L A M; Gerhards, Michael F; Consten, Esther C J; Schwartz, Matthijs P; Boom, Maarten J; Derksen, Erik J; Bijnen, A Bart; Davids, Paul H P; Hoff, Christiaan; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Heine, G Dimitri N; van der Linde, Klaas; Jansen, Jeroen M; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie C H; Breumelhof, Ronald; Geldof, Han; Hardwick, James C H; Doornebosch, Pascal G; Depla, Annekatrien C T M; Ernst, Miranda F; van Munster, Ivo P; de Hingh, Ignace H J T; Schoon, Erik J; Bemelman, Willem A; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien
Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications.The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas. Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma > or = 3 cm, located between 1-15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2) number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3) major and minor morbidity; 4) disease specific and general quality of life; 5) anorectal function; 6) health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures. Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR of 3.3% and considering an upper-limit of 10
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM. If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas. Methods/design Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma ≥ 3 cm, located between 1–15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2 number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3 major and minor morbidity; 4 disease specific and general quality of life; 5 anorectal function; 6 health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures. Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR
Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Karmarkar, Vikram S; Shah, Nishit; Vashu, Ravindran; Patil, Rahul; Mohanty, Chandan; Shaikh, Salman
Craniopharyngiomas are dysontogenic tumors with benign histology but aggressive behavior. The surgical challenges posed by the tumor are well recognized. Neuroendoscopy has recently contributed to its surgical management. This study focuses on our experience in managing craniopharyngiomas in recent years, highlighting the role of combined endoscopic trans-ventricular and endonasal approach. Ninety-two patients have been treated for craniopharyngioma from 2000 to 2016 by the senior author. A total of 125 procedures, microsurgical (58) and endoscopic (67), were undertaken. Combined endoscopic approach was carried out in 18 of these patients, 16 children and 2 young adults. All of these patients presented with a large cystic suprasellar mass associated with hydrocephalus. In the first instance, they were treated with a transventricular endoscopic procedure to decompress the cystic component. This was followed by an endonasal transsphenoidal procedure for excision within the next 2 to 6 days. All these patients improved after the initial cyst decompression with relief of hydrocephalus while awaiting remaining tumor removal in a more elective setting. Gross total resection could be done in 84% of these patients. Diabetes insipidus was the most common postsurgical complication seen in 61% patients in the immediate period but was persistent in only two patients at 1-year follow-up. None of the children in this group developed morbid obesity. There was one case of CSF leak requiring repair after initial surgery. Peri-operative mortality was seen in one patient secondary to ventriculitis. The patients who benefit most from the combined approach are those who present with raised intracranial pressure secondary to a large tumor with cyst causing hydrocephalus. Intraventricular endoscopic cyst drainage allows resolution of hydrocephalus with restoration of normal intracranial pressure, gives time for proper preoperative work up, and has reduced incidence of CSF leak after
Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, K. A.R.; Baloch, A.
To assess the demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS). Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit-III, Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2009 to June 2012. Methodology: Patients with SRUS, based on characteristic endoscopic and histological findings, were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had other causes of the rectal lesions (neoplasm, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and trauma). Endoscopically, lesions were divided on the basis of number (solitary or multiple) and appearance (ulcerative, polypoidal/nodular or erythematous mucosa). Demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of subjects were evaluated. Results: Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 21 (47.7%) were females and 23 (52.3%) were males with overall mean age of 33.73 ±13.28 years. Symptom-wise 41 (93.2%) had bleeding per rectum, 39 (88.6%) had mucous discharge, 34 (77.3%) had straining, 34 (77.3%) had constipation, 32 (72.7%) had tenesmus, 5 (11.4%) had rectal prolapse and 2 (4.5%) had fecal incontinence. Twelve (27.27%) patients presented with hemoglobin less 10 gm/dl, 27 (61.36%) with 10 - 12 gm/dl and 05 (11.36%) subjects had hemoglobin more than 12 gm/dl. Endoscopically, 26 (59.1%) patients had mucosal ulceration, 11 (25.0%) had mucosal ulceration with polypoid characteristics; while only polypoid features were found in 7 (15.9%) subjects. Conclusion: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome affects adults of both genders with diverse clinical presentation and nonspecific endoscopic features. (author)
Park, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyungkil; Bang, Byongwook; Kwon, Kyesook; Shin, Youngwoon
Abstract Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the first-choice imaging modality for predicting the invasion depth of early gastric cancer (EGC), the prediction accuracy of EUS is significantly decreased when EGC is combined with ulceration. The aim of present study was to compare the accuracy of EUS and conventional endoscopy (CE) for determining the depth of EGC. In addition, the various clinic-pathologic factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of EUS, with a particular focus on endoscopic ulcer shapes, were evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed data from 236 consecutive patients with ulcerative EGC. All patients underwent EUS for estimating tumor invasion depth, followed by either curative surgery or endoscopic treatment. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS and CE was evaluated by comparing the final histologic result of resected specimen. The correlation between accuracy of EUS and characteristics of EGC (tumor size, histology, location in stomach, tumor invasion depth, and endoscopic ulcer shapes) was analyzed. Endoscopic ulcer shapes were classified into 3 groups: definite ulcer, superficial ulcer, and ill-defined ulcer. The overall accuracy of EUS and CE for predicting the invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was 68.6% and 55.5%, respectively. Of the 236 patients, 36 patients were classified as definite ulcers, 98 were superficial ulcers, and 102 were ill-defined ulcers, In univariate analysis, EUS accuracy was associated with invasion depth (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.034), and endoscopic ulcer shapes (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there is a significant association between superficial ulcer in CE and EUS accuracy (odds ratio: 2.977; 95% confidence interval: 1.255–7.064; P = 0.013). The accuracy of EUS for determining tumor invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was superior to that of CE. In addition, ulcer shape was an important factor that affected EUS accuracy. PMID:27472672
Full Text Available Cholesterol granulomas are rare round or ovoid cysts. They contain cholesterol crystals surrounded by foreign bodies of giant cells and are characterized by chronic inflammation. Large cholesterol granuloma can compress surrounding tissue especially cranial nerves. There are several types of surgery for the resection of cholesterol granuloma. We describe 4 cases of cholesterol granuloma operated on via transnasal endoscopic approach. In this report, we describe radiologic and pathologic features of this lesion and explain the advantages and disadvantages of transsphenoidal endoscopic approach for these rare lesions.
Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi
Inverted papilloma (IP) is a benign tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that is unilateral in most cases. Bilateral IP, involving both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, is extremely rare. This paper describes a large IP that filled in both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, mimicking association with malignancy. The tumor was successfully treated by bilateral endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM). The patient is without evidence of the disease 24 months after surgery. If preoperative diagnosis does not confirm the association with malignancy in IP, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) should be selected, and ESS, including EMM, is a good first choice of the treatment for IP. PMID:22953103
Kumar, Vikas; Bodeliwala, Shaam; Singh, Daljit
The best management of hydrocephalus is still controversial in the twenty-first century. Shunt treatment for hydrocephalus is the most common procedure performed in neurosurgical practice and is associated with the highest complications rate. But during the last 2 decades, the treatment of hydrocephalus has improved with better shunt devices available today, increased facilities for investigations and newer approaches like endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The recent advances in development of better endoscopes have provided the patient and treating doctor with an option for an alternative surgery for treatment of hydrocephalus.
Mizutani, Taro; Tadauchi, Akimitsu; Arinobe, Manabu; Narita, Yuji; Kato, Ryuji; Niwa, Yasumasa; Ohmiya, Naoki; Itoh, Akihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Honda, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Minoru; Goto, Hidemi
Recently, novel endoscopic surgery, including endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), was developed to resect a large superficial gastrointestinal cancer. However, circumferential endoscopic surgery in the esophagus can lead to esophageal stricture that affects the patient's quality of life. This major complication is caused by scar formation, and develops during the two weeks after endoscopic surgery. We hypothesized that local administration of a controlled release anti-scarring agent can prevent esophageal stricture after endoscopic surgery. The aims of this study were to develop an endoscopically injectable anti-scarring drug delivery system, and to verify the efficacy of our strategy to prevent esophageal stricture. We focused on 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) as an anti-scarring agent, which has already been shown to be effective not only for treatment of cancers, but also for treatment of hypertrophic skin scars. 5-FU was encapsulated by liposome, and then mixed with injectable 2% atelocollagen (5FLC: 5FU-liposome-collagen) to achieve sustained release. An in vitro 5-FU releasing test from 5FLC was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Inhibition of cell proliferation was investigated using normal human dermal fibroblast cells (NHDF) with 5FLC. In addition, a canine esophageal mucosal resection was carried out, and 5FLC was endoscopically injected into the ulcer immediately after the operation, and compared with a similar specimen injected with saline as a control. 5-FU was gradually released from 5FLC for more than 2 weeks in vitro. The solution of 5-FU released from 5FLC inhibited NHDF proliferation more effectively than 5-FU alone. In the canine model, no findings of stricture were observed in the 5FLC-treated dog at 4 weeks after the operation and no vomiting occurred. In contrast, marked esophageal strictures were observed with repeated vomiting in the control group. Submucosal fibrosis was markedly reduced histologically in the 5FLC
Sato, Taku; Kishida, Yugo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tani, Akiko; Tada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takamitsu; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Sakuma, Jun; Omori, Koichi; Saito, Kiyoshi
We evaluated the effectiveness of intraoperative topical application of fluorescein to detect the leakage point of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)rhinorrhea. Three patients with CSF rhinorrhea were treated with an endoscopic endonasal technique. Ten percent fluorescein was topically used for intraoperative localization of the leak site. A change of the fluorescein color from brown to green due to dilation of CSF were recognized as evidence of CSF rhinorrhea. We repeated the procedure to detect any small defects. All CSF rhinorrheas were successfully repaired by this endoscopic endonasal approach. Topical application of fluorescein is simple and sensitive for identifying intraoperative CSF rhinorrhea.
Minami, Hitomi; Inoue, Haruhiro; Isomoto, Hajime; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Nakao, Kazuhiko
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has been widely used for evaluating the nature of diseases of various organs. The possibility of applying EUS for esophageal motility diseases has not been well discussed despite its versatility. At present, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia and related diseases has brought new attention to esophageal diseases because POEM provides a more direct approach to the inner structures of the esophageal wall. In the present study, we discuss the clinical utility of EUS in evaluating and treating esophageal motility diseases such as esophageal achalasia and related diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato
. Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients......, EUS - FNA and EUS - FNM were performed. The marked lymph node was isolated during surgery for histological examination. RESULTS: The marked lymph node was isolated for separate histological examination in 56 patients, of whom 22 (39 %) had malignant lymph nodes and 34 (61 %) had benign lymph nodes...... - FNM technique enabled the identification of a specific lymph node and thereby the use of histology as gold standard. ESE and ESE-strain ratio were no better than standard EUS in differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes in patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal cancer....
Armellino, Donna; Cifu, Kelly; Wallace, Maureen; Johnson, Sherly; DiCapua, John; Dowling, Oonagh; Jacobs, Mitchel; Browning, Susan
A pilot initiative to assess the use of remote video auditing in monitoring compliance with manual-cleaning protocols for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) endoscopes was performed. Compliance with manual-cleaning steps following the initiation of feedback was measured. A video feed of the ERCP reprocessing room was provided to remote auditors who scored items of an ERCP endoscope manual-cleaning checklist. Compliance feedback was provided in the form of reports and reeducation. Outcomes were reported as checklist compliance. The use of remote video auditing to document manual processing is a feasible approach and feedback and reeducation increased manual-cleaning compliance from 53.1% (95% confidence interval, 34.7-71.6) to 98.9% (95.0% confidence interval, 98.1-99.6). Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar
The literature reflects a resurgence of interest in endoscopic and keyhole endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches as alternatives to conventional microsurgical approaches in carefully selected cases. The aim of this study was to assess the technical challenges of neuroendoscopy, and the scope for technological innovations to overcome these barriers. All full members of the Society of British Neurosurgeons (SBNS) were electronically invited to participate in an online survey. The open-ended structured survey asked three questions; firstly, whether the surgeon presently utilises or has experience with endoscopic or endoscope-assisted approaches; secondly, what they consider to be the major technical barriers to adopting such approaches; and thirdly, what technological advances they foresee improving safety and efficacy in the field. Responses were subjected to a qualitative research method of multi-rater emergent theme analysis. Three clear themes emerged: 1) surgical approach and better integration with image-guidance systems (20%), 2) intra-operative visualisation and improvements in neuroendoscopy (49%), and 3) surgical manipulation and improvements in instruments (74%). The analysis of responses to our open-ended survey revealed that although opinion was varied three major themes could be identified. Emerging technological advances such as augmented reality, high-definition stereo-endoscopy, and robotic joint-wristed instruments may help overcome the technical difficulties associated with neuroendoscopic approaches. Results of this qualitative survey provide consensus amongst the technology end-user community such that unambiguous goals and priorities may be defined. Systems integrating these advances could improve the safety and efficacy of endoscopic and endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches.
Di Rocco, Federico; Jucá, Carlos Eduardo; Zerah, Michel; Sainte-Rose, Christian
The management of hydrocephalus associated with a posterior fossa tumor is debated. Some authors emphasize the advantages of an immediate tumor removal that may normalize the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. However, in clinical practice, the mere excision of the lesion has been demonstrated to be accompanied by a persisting hydrocephalus in about one third of the cases. Preoperative endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) offers several advantages. It may control the intracranial pressure (ICP), avoid the necessity of an emergency procedure, allow appropriate scheduling of the operation for tumor removal, and eliminate the risks related to the presence of an external drainage. The procedure also reduces the incidence of postoperative hydrocephalus. A final advantage, more difficult to weight, but obvious to the neurosurgeon, is the possibility to remove the lesion with a relaxed brain and normal ICP. In the postoperative phase, ETV can be used in case of persisting hydrocephalus, both in patients who underwent only the excision of the tumor and in those whose preoperative ETV failed as a consequence of intraventricular bleeding with secondary closure of the stoma (redoETV). The main advantage of postoperative ETV is that the procedure is carried out only in case of persisting hydrocephalus; its use is consequently more selective than preoperative ETV. The disadvantage consists in the common use of an external CSF drainage in the first few postoperative days, which is necessary to control the pressure and for ruling out those cases that reach a spontaneous cure of the hydrocephalus. The authors review the criteria for patient selection and the results of ETV performed in case of hydrocephalus secondary to a posterior fossa tumor. Preoperative ETV constitutes an effective procedure for controlling the hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa tumors. It might lower the rate of persistent postoperative hydrocephalus and result in a short hospital stay. Low
Heriot, A G; Tilney, H S; Simson, J N L
We describe the case of a 52-year woman with a 17-year history of obstructed defecation in whom all other standard treatments had failed and the patient had refused a colostomy. Her symptoms were controlled by percutaneous endoscopic colostomy with antegrade colonic irrigation. A percutaneous endoscopic colostomy tube was placed in the sigmoid colon endoscopically using a colonoscope and the patient irrigated two liters of water through the percutaneous endoscopic colostomy twice each day and was able to successfully evacuate her rectum without excess straining or discomfort. Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy is an alternative option to colostomy in the management of obstructed defecation.
Herz, P. R.; Chen, Y.; Aguirre, A. D.; Schneider, K.; Hsiung, P.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Madden, K.; Schmitt, J.; Goodnow, J.; Petersen, C.
A distally actuated, rotational-scanning micromotor endoscope catheter probe is demonstrated for ultrahigh-resolution in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The probe permits focus adjustment for visualization of tissue morphology at varying depths with improved transverse resolution compared with standard OCT imaging probes. The distal actuation avoids nonuniform scanning motion artifacts that are present with other probe designs and can permit a wider range of imaging speeds. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic imaging is demonstrated in a rabbit with micromotor endoscope catheter probe promises to improve OCT imaging performance in future endoscopic imaging applications.
Gubler, Christoph; Bauerfeind, Peter
OBJECTIVE: Optimal endoscopic treatment of gastric varices is still not standardized nowadays. Actively bleeding varices may prohibit a successful endoscopic injection therapy of Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present a large single-center cohort over 7 years with a standardized EUS-guided sclerotherapy o...
Yang, Min Jae; Kim, Jin Hong; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo; Kim, Soon Sun; Lim, Sun Gyo; Won, Je Hwan
The rendezvous approach is a salvage technique after failure of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). In certain circumstances, percutaneous-endoscopic rendezvous (PE-RV) is preferred, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) is difficult to perform. We aimed to evaluate PE-RV outcomes, describe the PE-RV techniques, and identify potential indications for PE-RV over EUS-RV.Retrospective analysis was conducted of a prospectively designed ERC database between January 2005 and December 2016 at a tertiary referral center including cases where PE-RV was used as a salvage procedure after ERC failure.During the study period, PE-RV was performed in 42 cases after failed therapeutic ERC; 15 had a surgically altered enteric anatomy. The technical success rate of PE-RV was 92.9% (39/42), with a therapeutic success rate of 88.1% (37/42). Potential indications for PE-RV over EUS-RV were identified in 23 cases, and either PE-RV or EUS-RV could have effectively been used in 19 cases. Endoscopic bile duct access was successfully achieved with PE-RV in 39 cases with accessible biliary orifice using one of PE-RV cannulation techniques (classic, n = 11; parallel, n = 19; and adjunctive maneuvers, n = 9).PE-RV uses a unique technology and has clinical indications that distinguish it from EUS-RV. Therefore, PE-RV can still be considered a useful salvage technique for the treatment of biliary obstruction after ERC failure.
Jung, Hwoon Yong
Endoscopic resection (Endoscopic mucosal resection [EMR] and endoscopic submucosal dissection [ESD]) is already established as a first-line treatment modality for selected early gastric cancer (EGC). In Korea, the number of endoscopic resection of EGC was explosively increased because of a National Cancer Screening Program and development of devices and techniques. There were many reports on the short-term and long-term outcomes after endoscopic resection in patients with EGC. Long-term outcome in terms of recurrence and death is excellent in both absolute and selected expanded criteria. Furthermore, endoscopic resection might be positioned as primary treatment modality replacing surgical gastrectomy. To obtain these results, selection of patients, perfect en bloc procedure, thorough pathological examination of resected specimen, accurate interpretation of whole process of endoscopic resection, and rational strategy for follow-up is necessary.
Despite of a number of techniques in the armentarium of the paediatric surgeon, the management of pancreatic pseudocysts remains a challenge. We report on a case of a 5-year-old child with a post-traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst who was successfully treated with endoscopic ultrasound-guided transgastric approach.
Song, Chul Gyu; Lee, Young Mook; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Won Ky; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Myoung Ho
Endoscopy has become a crucial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in clinical areas. Over the past four years, we have developed a computerized system to record and store clinical data pertaining to endoscopic surgery of laparascopic cholecystectomy, pelviscopic endometriosis, and surgical arthroscopy. In this study, we developed a computer system, which is composed of a frame grabber, a sound board, a VCR control board, a LAN card and EDMS. Also, computer system controls peripheral instruments such as a color video printer, a video cassette recorder, and endoscopic input/output signals. Digital endoscopic data management system is based on open architecture and a set of widely available industry standards; namely Microsoft Windows as an operating system, TCP/IP as a network protocol and a time sequential database that handles both images and speech. For the purpose of data storage, we used MOD and CD- R. Digital endoscopic system was designed to be able to store, recreate, change, and compress signals and medical images. Computerized endoscopy enables us to generate and manipulate the original visual document, making it accessible to a virtually unlimited number of physicians.
Verbeek, Renate J.; Heep, Axel; Maurits, Natalia M.; Cremer, Reinhold; Hoving, Eelco W.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Sival, Deborah A.
AIM: Our aim was to compare the effect of prenatal endoscopic with postnatal myelomeningocele closure (fetally operated spina bifida aperta [fSBA]) versus neonatally operated spina bifida aperta [nSBA]) on segmental neurological leg condition. METHOD: Between 2003 and 2009, the fetal surgical
van der Stap, N.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Luo, Xiongbiao; Reichl, Tobias; Mirota, Daniel; Soper, Timothy
Robotizing flexible endoscopy enables image-based control of endoscopes. Especially during high-throughput procedures, such as a colonoscopy, navigation support algorithms could improve procedure turnaround and ergonomics for the endoscopist. In this study, we have developed and implemented a
Ruiter, Jeroen; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes
In therapeutic flexible endoscopy a team of physician and assistant(s) is required to control all independent translations and rotations of the flexible endoscope and its instruments. As a consequence the physician lacks valuable force feedback information on tissue interaction, communication errors
Videler, Ward J. M.; Wreesmann, Volkert B.; van der Meulen, Freerk W.; Knegt, Paul P.; Fokkens, Wytske J.
OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is considered to be the golden standard for surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. However, there is still a small group of patients unresponsive despite repetitive surgery. Radical surgery aimed at reduction of the
Georgalas, C.; Kania, R.; Guichard, J.-P.; Sauvaget, E.; Tran Ba Huy, P.; Herman, P.
Surgery for cholesterol granulomas involving the petrous apex has traditionally been performed via a lateral skull base approach. We present a case-series of four cholesterol granulomas treated through the endoscopic-transsphenoid approach over the last 10 years. Drainage was successful and
Teng, Stephanie E; Paul, Benjamin C; Brumm, John D; Fritz, Mark; Fang, Yixin; Myssiorek, David
The purpose of this study is to describe an endoscope-assisted surgical technique for the excision of branchial cleft cysts and compare it to the standard approach. Retrospective case series review. Twenty-seven cases described as branchial cleft excisions performed by a single surgeon at one academic medical center were identified between 2007 and 2014. Twenty-five cases (8 endoscopic, 17 standard approach) were included in the study. Cases were excluded if final pathology was malignant. Patient charts were reviewed, and two techniques were compared through analysis of incision size, operative time, and surgical outcomes. This study showed that the length of incision required for the endoscopic approach (mean = 2.13 ± 0.23) was significantly less than that of the standard approach (mean = 4.10 ± 1.46, P = 0.008) despite the fact that there was no significant difference in cyst size between the two groups (P = 0.09). The other variables examined, including operative time and surgical outcomes, were not significantly different between the two groups. This transcervical endoscope-assisted approach to branchial cleft cyst excision is a viable option for uncomplicated cases. It provides better cosmetic results than the standard approach and does not negatively affect outcomes, increase operative time, or result in recurrence. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1339-1342, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Objective: To evaluate the results of endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVBL) in the local set-up. Design: Retrospective analysis of data of all patients who had EVBL. Setting: Patients having EVBL at the office endoscopy suite. The Nairobi Hospital, the Aga Khan Hospital and M.P Shah Hospital. Methods: The varices were ...
Full Text Available Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Felix JF Herth,1,2 Maren Schuhmann1 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, 2Translational Lung Research Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. Keywords: lung emphysema, valve treatment, collateral ventilation, patient selection, outcome
Bournet, Barbara [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Center Rangueil, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Pointreau, Adeline; Delpu, Yannick; Selves, Janick; Torrisani, Jerome [INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Buscail, Louis, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Center Rangueil, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Cordelier, Pierre [INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France)
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is a safe and effective technique in diagnosing and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However its predictive negative value does not exceed 50% to 60%. Unfortunately, the majority of pancreatic cancer patients have a metastatic and/or a locally advanced disease (i.e., not eligible for curative resection) which explains the limited access to pancreatic tissue specimens. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is the most widely used approach for cytological and histological material sampling in these situations used in up to two thirds of patients with pancreatic cancer. Based on this unique material, we and others developed strategies to improve the differential diagnosis between carcinoma and inflammatory pancreatic lesions by analysis of KRAS oncogene mutation, microRNA expression and methylation, as well as mRNA expression using both qRT-PCR and Low Density Array Taqman analysis. Indeed, differentiating pancreatic cancer from pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis remains very difficult in current clinical practice, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy analysis proved to be very helpful. In this review, we will compile the clinical and molecular advantages of using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy in managing pancreatic cancer.
Wyse, Jonathan M; Battat, Robert; Sun, Siyu
OBJECTIVES: The objective of guideline was to provide clear and relevant consensus statements to form a practical guideline for clinicians on the indications, optimal technique, safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN). METHODS: Six important clinical...
Wyse, J.M. (Jonathan M.); Battat, R. (Robert); Sun, S. (Siyu); A. Saftoiu (Adrian); Siddiqui, A.A. (Ali A.); Leong, A.T. (Ang Tiing); Arias, B.L.A. (Brenda Lucia Arturo); Fabbri, C. (Carlo); Adler, D.G. (Douglas G.); Santo, E. (Erwin); Kalaitzakis, E. (Evangelos); Artifon, E. (Everson); Mishra, G. (Girish); Okasha, H.H. (Hussein Hassan); J.-W. Poley (Jan-Werner); Guo, J. (Jintao); Vila, J.J. (Juan J.); Lee, L.S. (Linda S.); Sharma, M. (Malay); Bhutani, M.S. (Manoop S.); M. Giovannini (Marcello); Kitano, M. (Masayuki); Eloubeidi, M.A. (Mohamad Ali); Khashab, M.A. (Mouen A.); Nguyen, N.Q. (Nam Q.); Saxena, P. (Payal); Vilmann, P. (Peter); Fusaroli, P. (Pietro); Garg, P.K. (Pramod Kumar); Ho, S. (Sammy); Mukai, S. (Shuntaro); Carrara, S. (Silvia); Sridhar, S. (Subbaramiah); S. Lakhtakia (S.); Rana, S.S. (Surinder S.); Dhir, V. (Vinay); Sahai, A.V. (Anand V.)
textabstractObjectives: The objective of guideline was to provide clear and relevant consensus statements to form a practical guideline for clinicians on the indications, optimal technique, safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN). Methods: Six important
Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex are rare lesions that pose challenging surgical decisions and approaches when attempting surgical drainage. In this article we present 2 cases of successful surgical management using an endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach and review the requirements and considerations ...
Minami, Hitomi; Isomoto, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko
Background and Study Aims Endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal achalasia lacking typical endoscopic features can be extremely difficult. The aim of this study was to identify simple and reliable early indicator of esophageal achalasia. Patients and Methods This single-center retrospective study included 56 cases of esophageal achalasia without previous treatment. As a control, 60 non-achalasia subjects including reflux esophagitis and superficial esophageal cancer were also included in this study. Endoscopic findings were evaluated according to Descriptive Rules for Achalasia of the Esophagus as follows: (1) esophageal dilatation, (2) abnormal retention of liquid and/or food, (3) whitish change of the mucosal surface, (4) functional stenosis of the esophago-gastric junction, and (5) abnormal contraction. Additionally, the presence of the longitudinal superficial wrinkles of esophageal mucosa, “pinstripe pattern (PSP)” was evaluated endoscopically. Then, inter-observer diagnostic agreement was assessed for each finding. Results The prevalence rates of the above-mentioned findings (1–5) were 41.1%, 41.1%, 16.1%, 94.6%, and 43.9%, respectively. PSP was observed in 60.7% of achalasia, while none of the control showed positivity for PSP. PSP was observed in 26 (62.5%) of 35 cases with shorter history achalasia were 83.8%, 64.7%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion “Pinstripe pattern” could be a reliable indicator for early discrimination of primary esophageal achalasia. PMID:25664812
Minami, Hitomi; Isomoto, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko
Endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal achalasia lacking typical endoscopic features can be extremely difficult. The aim of this study was to identify simple and reliable early indicator of esophageal achalasia. This single-center retrospective study included 56 cases of esophageal achalasia without previous treatment. As a control, 60 non-achalasia subjects including reflux esophagitis and superficial esophageal cancer were also included in this study. Endoscopic findings were evaluated according to Descriptive Rules for Achalasia of the Esophagus as follows: (1) esophageal dilatation, (2) abnormal retention of liquid and/or food, (3) whitish change of the mucosal surface, (4) functional stenosis of the esophago-gastric junction, and (5) abnormal contraction. Additionally, the presence of the longitudinal superficial wrinkles of esophageal mucosa, "pinstripe pattern (PSP)" was evaluated endoscopically. Then, inter-observer diagnostic agreement was assessed for each finding. The prevalence rates of the above-mentioned findings (1-5) were 41.1%, 41.1%, 16.1%, 94.6%, and 43.9%, respectively. PSP was observed in 60.7% of achalasia, while none of the control showed positivity for PSP. PSP was observed in 26 (62.5%) of 35 cases with shorter history achalasia were 83.8%, 64.7%, and 100%, respectively. "Pinstripe pattern" could be a reliable indicator for early discrimination of primary esophageal achalasia.
Romano, Antonio; Orabona, Giovanni D A; Abbate, Vincenzo; Maglitto, Fabio; Solari, Domenico; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi
The keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KCOT) represents a rare and benign but locally aggressive developmental cystic lesion usually affecting the posterior aspect of the mandible bone, the treatment of which has always been raising debate, since Philipsen first described it as a distinct pathological entity in 1956.Recent studies have proposed the use of endoscope-assisted surgical technique, due to the possibility given by the endoscope of improving the effectiveness of the treatment of these lesions thanks to a better visualization of operative field and though a better understanding of the pathology. In this article, we would like to present our experience with the endoscope-assisted treatment of KCOT of the posterior region of the mandible.From April 2000 to April 2012, 32 patients treated for KCOT were enrolled in our retrospective study: patients were divided in 2 groups according to the type of treatment, that is, 18 were treated with traditional enucleation surgery (TES), and 14 patients underwent endoscopic assisted enucleation surgery (EES).Fischer exact test and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the outcomes between the 2 focusing on the recurrence and complication rates. In the TES group, patients we found a higher recurrence rate (39%) and higher postoperative complication rate at 5-year follow-up.Our data suggested, though, that EES seems to be a feasible alternative for the treatment of posterior mandibular KCOT. Further studies and larger series are needed to confirm these results.
van Dongen, K. W.; van der Wal, W. A.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; Schijven, M. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.
INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been developed to train basic endoscopic surgical skills outside of the operating room. An important issue is how to create optimal conditions for integration of these types of simulators into the surgical training curriculum. The willingness of
Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian
Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...
intrathecal midazolam versus fentanyl as an adjunct to bupivacaine for endoscopic urology surgery. Methods: Sixty adult ASA grade I–II patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate or bladder tumor under spinal block. Postoperative analgesia was provided with intravenous diclofenac. The onset and duration of ...
Knabe, Mate; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian
The incidence of early esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing significantly in recent decades. Prognosis depends greatly on the choice of treatment. Early cancers can be treated by endoscopic resection, whereas advanced carcinomas have to be sent for surgery. Esophageal resection is associated with high perioperative mortality (1-5%) even in specialized centers. Early diagnosis enables curative endoscopic treatment option. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a familial risk for esophageal cancer should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. High-definition endoscopes have been developed with technical add-on that helps endoscopists to find fine irregularities in the esophageal mucosa, but interpreting the findings remains challenging. In this review we discussed novel and old diagnostic procedures and their values, as well as our own recommendations and those of the authors discussed for the diagnosis and treatment of early Barrett's carcinoma. Endoscopic resection is the therapy of choice in early esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is mandatory to perform a subsequent ablation of all residual Barrett's mucosa to avoid metachronous lesions. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Cottom, James M; Baker, Joseph S
When conservative therapy fails for chronic plantar fasciitis, surgical intervention may be an option. Surgical techniques that maintain the integrity of the plantar fascia will have less risk of destabilizing the foot and will retain foot function. Endoscopic debridement of the plantar fascia can be performed reproducibly to reduce pain and maintain function of the foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Samimi, Seyyed Hadi; Bakhshaee, Mehdi
Introduction: In recent years, the surgical management of angiofibroma has been greatly influenced by the use of endoscopic techniques. However, large tumors that extend into difficult anatomic sites present major challenges for management by either endoscopy or an open-surgery approach which needs new technique for the complete en block resection. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational study we developed an endoscopic transnasal technique for the resection of angiofibroma via pushing and pulling the mass with 1/100000 soaked adrenalin tampons. Thirty two patients were treated using this endoscopic technique over 7 years. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. The main outcomes measured were tumor staging, average blood loss, complications, length of hospitalization, and residual and/or recurrence rate of the tumor. Results: According to the Radkowski staging, 23,5, and 4 patients were at stage IIC, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. Twenty five patients were operated on exclusively via transnasal endoscopy while 7 patients were managed using endoscopy-assisted open-surgery techniques. Mean blood loss in patients was 1261± 893 cc. The recurrence rate was 21.88% (7 cases) at two years following surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 3.56 ± 0.6 days. Conclusion: Using this effective technique, endoscopic removal of more highly advanced angiofibroma is possible. Better visualization, less intraoperative blood loss, lower rates of complication and recurrence, and shorter hospitalization time are some of the advantages. PMID:24505571
Mojtaba Mohammadi Ardehali
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, the surgical management of angiofibroma has been greatly influenced by the use of endoscopic techniques. However, large tumors that extend into difficult anatomic sites present major challenges for management by either endoscopy or an open-surgery approach which needs new technique for the complete en block resection. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational study we developed an endoscopic transnasal technique for the resection of angiofibroma via pushing and pulling the mass with 1/100000 soaked adrenalin tampons. Thirty two patients were treated using this endoscopic technique over 7 years. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. The main outcomes measured were tumor staging, average blood loss, complications, length of hospitalization, and residual and/or recurrence rate of the tumor. Results: According to the Radkowski staging, 23,5, and 4 patients were at stage IIC, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. Twenty five patients were operated on exclusively via transnasal endoscopy while 7 patients were managed using endoscopy-assisted open-surgery techniques. Mean blood loss in patients was 1261± 893 cc. The recurrence rate was 21.88% (7 cases at two years following surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 3.56 ± 0.6 days. Conclusion: Using this effective technique, endoscopic removal of more highly advanced angiofibroma is possible. Better visualization, less intraoperative blood loss, lower rates of complication and recurrence, and shorter hospitalization time are some of the advantages.
João Manoel Silva, Jr.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Currently, endoscopic medicine is being increasingly used, albeit not without risks. Therefore, this study evaluated the factors associated with perioperative complications in endoscopic surgery with intraoperative irrigation. Method: A cohort study of six months duration. Patients aged ≥ 18 years undergoing endoscopic surgery with the use of irrigation ﬂuids during the intraoperative period were included. Exclusion criteria were: use of diuretics, kidney failure, cognitive impairment, hyponatremia prior to surgery, pregnancy, and critically ill. The patients who presented with or without complications during the perioperative period were allocated into two groups. Complications evaluated were related to neurological, cardiovascular and renal changes, and perioperative bleeding. Results: In total, 181 patients were enrolled and 39 excluded; therefore, 142 patients met the study criteria. Patients with complications amounted to 21.8%, with higher prevalence in endoscopic prostate surgery, followed by hysteroscopy, bladder, knee, and shoulder arthroscopy (58.1%, 36.9%, 19.4%, 3.8%, 3.2% respectively. When comparing both groups, we found association with complications in univariate analysis: age, sex, smoking, heart disease, ASA, serum sodium at the end of surgery, total irrigation ﬂuid administered, TURP, and hysteroscopy. However, in multiple regression analysis for complications, only age (OR = 1.048, serum sodium (OR = 0.962, and volume of irrigation ﬂuid administered during surgery (OR = 1.001 were independent variables. Keywords: Anesthesia, Endoscopy, Hyponatremia, Postoperative Complications, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors.
J. Boender (Johannes)
textabstractIn 1986 the departments of Radiology and Internal Medicine II/Gastroenterology initiated a prospective study of therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (TERCP). The project was designed to obtain information which could be used to evaluate immediate and medium-term
Christensen, M; Hendel, H W; Rasmussen, V
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Previous studies have shown that up to 50% of healthy patients may develop ST-segment changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate myocardial blood flow in patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP...
Bournet, Barbara; Pointreau, Adeline; Delpu, Yannick; Selves, Janick; Torrisani, Jerome; Buscail, Louis; Cordelier, Pierre
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is a safe and effective technique in diagnosing and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However its predictive negative value does not exceed 50% to 60%. Unfortunately, the majority of pancreatic cancer patients have a metastatic and/or a locally advanced disease (i.e., not eligible for curative resection) which explains the limited access to pancreatic tissue specimens. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is the most widely used approach for cytological and histological material sampling in these situations used in up to two thirds of patients with pancreatic cancer. Based on this unique material, we and others developed strategies to improve the differential diagnosis between carcinoma and inflammatory pancreatic lesions by analysis of KRAS oncogene mutation, microRNA expression and methylation, as well as mRNA expression using both qRT-PCR and Low Density Array Taqman analysis. Indeed, differentiating pancreatic cancer from pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis remains very difficult in current clinical practice, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy analysis proved to be very helpful. In this review, we will compile the clinical and molecular advantages of using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy in managing pancreatic cancer
Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a safe way for enteral nutrition in selected patients. Generally, complications of this procedure are very rare but due to patients general health condition, delayed diagnosis and treatment of complications can be life threatening. In this study, we present a PEG-related massive pneumoperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema in a patient with neuro-Behçet.
Background: Endoscopic otorhinolaryngological procedure is quicker, safer and cheaper than open surgery because of its less invasive nature. It is constantly being practiced in the developed nations and the Middle East. The indications abound in our environment. However, very few hospitals have the facilities for these ...
Conclusion: For patients with achalasia, POEM offers the efficacy of surgery with the lower cost and morbidity of an endoscopic procedure. Prevention of aspiration and carbon dioxide insufflation-related complications are the two aspects that demand vigilance from the anesthesiologist.
Conclusion: A majority of pediatric EGD in Taiwan was performed under sedation and applied more often to younger children. Endoscopists were more satisfied during EGD when practicing sedation. This survey should help formulate updated practice guidelines and policies regarding endoscopic sedation.
Eliza I-Lin Sin
Full Text Available Introduction: Duodenal duplication cysts are rare congenital foregut anomalies, accounting for 2%–12% of all gastrointestinal tract duplications. Surgical excision entails risk of injury to the pancreaticobiliary structures due to proximity or communication with the cyst. We present a case of duodenal duplication cyst in a 3 year-old boy who successfully underwent endoscopic decompression. Case report: AT is a young boy who first presented at 15 months of age with abdominal pain. There was one subsequent episode of pancreatitis. Ultrasonography showed the typical double wall sign of a duplication cyst and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography showed a large 5 cm cyst postero-medial to the second part of the duodenum, communicating with the pancreaticobiliary system and causing dilatation of the proximal duodenum. He subsequently underwent successful endoscopic ultrasound guided decompression at 3 years of age under general anesthesia, and had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Conclusion: Endoscopic ultrasound guided assessment and treatment of gastrointestinal duplication cysts is increasingly reported in adults. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of endoscopic treatment of duodenal duplication cyst, in an older child, has been reported thus far in the paediatric literature. In this paper, we review the current literature and discuss the therapeutic options of this rare condition.
Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Shah, Pallav L.; Theron, Johan; Dheda, Keertan; Allwood, Brian W.; Herth, Felix J. F.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The disease is generally managed with pharmacotherapy, as well as guidance about smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation. Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) has been proposed
Nestal Zibo, Heleia; Miller, Ene
Enucleation of large cysts in the jaws is an invasive method that might be associated with complications. Marsupialization is a less invasive alternative method but it involves a prolonged and uncomfortable healing period. This study addresses a contemporaneous and less invasive surgical technique for treating larger mandibular cysts. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A 48-year-old woman presented with a large mandibular apical cyst involving the left parasymphysis, body, ramus and condylar neck, with involvement of the alveolar inferior nerve. The cystic lesion was enucleated using a 30° 4.0 mm endoscopic scope and endoscopic instruments through two small accesses: the ostectomy site of previously performed marsupialization and the alveolus of the involved third molar extracted of the time of the enucleation of the cyst. RESULTS. The endoscopic scope provided good visualization of the whole cystic cavity allowing the removal of any residual pathologic tissue and preservation of the integrity of the involved inferior alveolar nerve. The morbidity of the surgical procedure was extremely reduced. At a 6-month follow-up the patient did not present any symptom of inflammation and a panoramic X-ray showed good bone repair and remodelation. CONCLUSIONS. Endoscopically assisted enucleation proved to be effective method of treating a large mandibular cyst, providing total enucleation with a minimal invasive technique.
Hucl, T.; Saglová, A.; Beneš, M.; Kocík, M.; Oliverius, M.; Valenta, Zdeněk; Špičák, J.
Roč. 18, č. 15 (2012), s. 1800-1805 ISSN 1007-9327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery * patient perception * physician perception * appendectomy * laparoscopy Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2012
Ugenti, Ippazio; Travaglio, Elisabetta; Lagouvardou, Elpiniki; Caputi Iambrenghi, Onofrio; Martines, Gennaro
Gastric bezoars are a rare condition associated with situations of gastric dysmotility and prior gastric surgery, though sometimes they can present without any risk factor. We describe the first successful treatment in medical literature of a large gastric bezoar in the outpatient setting through endoscopic fragmentation. A 76-year-old man was referred to our outpatient endoscopy clinic because of dyspepsia and epigastric pain. Upper GI endoscopy with a standard endoscope revealed a 10-cm-diameter gastric phytobezoar with necrotic pressure ulcer of the angulus. We fragmentized the bezoar into smaller pieces, with complete dissolution and without any complication. The patient was then promptly discharged home with a medical therapy. Follow-up endoscopy at 6 months showed the total disappearance of any residual fibers. Different types of bezoars are described in literature, of which phyto- and trychobezoars are the most frequent. They can be absolutely asymptomatic or can arise with epigastric pain, pressure ulcer bleeding, gastrointestinal perforation or small bowel obstruction. The treatment is debated though endoscopic removal or fragmentation with the help of Coca-Cola lavages has showed the best success rate. The main experiences in literature concern hospitalized patients or describe treatment techniques which require overnight stays. An effective and rapid treatment in the outpatient setting is described in our experience, without short- or long-term complications. The endoscopic fragmentation of large gastric bezoars in the outpatient setting is safe with a good clinical course. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Buss, A. J.; Been, M. H.; Borgers, R. P.; Stokroos, I.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Peters, F. T. M.; Limburg, A. J.; Degener, J. E.
Background and study aims: Several endoscopy-related outbreaks of infection have been reported in recent years. For early recognition of inadequate disinfection of endoscopes we designed a microbiological surveillance system to evaluate the efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection procedure, and to
Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Rana, Surinder Singh; Nanda, Mohit; Chandail, Vijant Singh; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Kang, Mandeep; Kalra, Navin; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Nagi, Birinder; Singh, Kartar
There is paucity of data on endoscopic management of pseudocysts at atypical locations. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic transpapillary nasopancreatic drain (NPD) placement in the management of pseudocysts of pancreas at atypical locations. Eleven patients with pseudocysts at atypical locations were treated with attempted endoscopic transpapillary nasopancreatic drainage. On endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP), a 5-F NPD was placed across/near the site of duct disruption. Three patients each had mediastinal, intrahepatic, and intra/perisplenic pseudocysts and one patient each had renal and pelvic pseudocyst. Nine patients had chronic pancreatitis whereas two patients had acute pancreatitis. The size of the pseudocysts ranged from 2 to 15 cm. On ERP, the site of ductal disruption was in the body of pancreas in five patients (45.4%), and tail of pancreas in six patients (54.6%). All the patients had partial disruption of pancreatic duct. The NPD was successfully placed across the disruption in 10 of the 11 patients (90.9%) and pseudocysts resolved in 4-8 weeks. One of the patients developed fever, 5 days after the procedure, which was successfully treated by intravenous antibiotics. In another patient, NPD became blocked 12 days after the procedure and was successfully opened by aspiration. The NPD slipped out in one of the patient with splenic pseudocyst and was replaced with a stent. There was no recurrence of symptoms or pseudocysts during follow-up of 3-70 months. Pancreatic pseudocysts at atypical locations with ductal communication and partial ductal disruption that is bridged by NPD can also be effectively treated with endoscopic transpapillary NPD placement.
Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Imaeda, Avlin B; Thompson, Christopher C
The Gastroenterology Core Curriculum and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy provide guidelines for endoscopic training. Program adherence to these recommendations is unclear. This study aims to assess endoscopic training experience during fellowship. Questionnaire study. The questionnaire was circulated to US fellowship programs, with the assistance of the American Gastroenterological Association. Graduating third-year fellows. Seventy-three fellows returned the questionnaire. Nearly all fellows met the required numbers for esophagoduodenoscopy (98%) and colonoscopy (100%), with fewer meeting requirements for PEG (73%) and non-variceal hemorrhage (75%). The majority of fellows did not meet minimum numbers for variceal banding (40%), esophageal dilation (43%), capsule endoscopy (42%). Fellows rated training in cognitive aspects of endoscopy as 3.86 [1 (inadequate), 5 (excellent)] and reported greatest emphasis on interpreting endoscopic findings and least on virtual colonography. Quality indicators of endoscopy received little emphasis (rating of 3.04; p = 0.00001), with adenoma detection rate being least emphasized. Fifty-six percent of fellows reported having routine endoscopy conferences. Half of the programs have endoscopic simulators, with 15% of fellows being required to use simulation. Following direct hands-on experience, fellows rated external endoscopy courses (64%) as the next most useful experience. Many fellows do not meet required numbers for several endoscopic procedures, and quality indicators receive little emphasis during training. Most programs do not provide simulation training or hold regular endoscopy conferences. Fellowship programs should perform internal audits and make feasible adjustments. Furthermore, it may be time for professional societies to revisit training guidelines.
Lafosse, T; Masmejean, E; Bihel, T; Lafosse, L
Shoulder endoscopy is evolving and becoming extra-articular. More and more procedures are taking place in the area of the brachial plexus (BP). We carried out an anatomical study to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the BP and the technique used to dissect and expose the BP endoscopically. Thirteen fresh cadavers were dissected. We first performed an endoscopic dissection of the BP, using classical extra-articular shoulder arthroscopy portals. Through each portal, we dissected as many structures as possible and identified them. We then did an open dissection to corroborate the endoscopic findings and to look for damage to the neighboring structures. In the supraclavicular area, we were able to expose the C5, C6 and C7 roots, and the superior and middle trunks in 11 of 13 specimens through two transtrapezial portals by following the suprascapular nerve. The entire infraclavicular portion of the BP (except the medial cord and its branches) was exposed in 11 of 13 specimens. The approach to the infraclavicular portion of the BP led directly to the lateral and posterior cords, but the axillary artery hid the medial cord. The musculocutaneous nerve was the first nerve encountered when dissecting medially from the anterior aspect of the coracoid process. The axillary nerve was the first nerve encountered when following the anterior border of the subscapularis medially from the posterior aspect of the coracoid process. Knowledge of the endoscopic anatomy of the BP is mandatory to expose and protect this structure while performing advanced arthroscopic shoulder procedures. Copyright © 2015 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ruttkay, Tamas; Czesla, Markus; Nagy, Henrietta; Götte, Julia; Baksa, Gabor; Patonay, Lajos; Doll, Nicolas; Galajda, Zoltan
An increasing number of experimental beating heart animal studies describe simple transapical mitral valve repairs based on the direct endoscopic visualization of the left ventricle. The aim of our human cadaveric study was to develop a method for more complex transapical endoscopic procedures by on-pump heart operations. After preparation of 20 human fresh cadavers, a standard left anterolateral minithoracotomy was performed in the fifth intercostal space and the pericardium was entered. A rigid 0 degree endoscope and the instruments were introduced through a silicon apical port. To restore the natural form of the left heart, CO2 was insufflated. To test the mitral valve competence, the left ventricle was pressure-injected with saline after each step. After transecting the chords of the A2 segment of the anterior mitral leaflet before the experimental mitral valve repair, the tendinous chord was replaced using an especially designed clip chord. The second part of the experiment consisted of a segmental excision of the P2 segment of the posterior mitral leaflet followed by a standard valvuloplasty and suture annuloplasty. With the help of the described transapical endoscopic mitral valve repair technique, we gained direct visual information of the coaptation line of the mitral leaflets as well as the anatomy and function of the subvalvular apparatus. Using intracardiac imaging, we could perform successful transapical complex mitral repair in each case. The minimally invasive transapical endoscopic method has the potential to offer advantages for on-pump mitral valve repair procedures even in complex mitral valve repair cases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ochalski, Pawel; Chivukula, Srinivas; Shin, Samuel; Prevedello, Daniel; Engh, Johnathan
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional open surgical management strategies offer limited benefit except for the most superficial hemorrhages in select patients. Recent reports suggest that endoscopic approaches may improve outcomes, particularly for deep subcortical hemorrhages. However, the management of these patients remains controversial. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic port surgery to identify characteristics that may predict acceptable outcomes. We completed a retrospective chart and imaging review of patients who underwent endoscopic port surgery for evacuation of spontaneous ICH at a single center. Data were gathered regarding patient demographics, hemorrhage locations, operative findings, and clinical outcomes. From 2007 to 2011, 18 patients underwent evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas using an endoscopic port. The mean age in years was 62 years (range, 43-84 years). Six of 18 patients (33%) died before discharge, and 2 others (11%) died after at least 1 month of survival. Of 12 initial survivors, all were discharged to a rehabilitation or nursing facility. Complete hematoma evacuation was achieved in 7 of 18 patients, with the remaining 11 having a partial evacuation. The patients who died (n = 6) before discharge were statistically more likely to have a left-sided hemorrhage, partial evacuation, or older age than the survivors; death at least 1 month after evacuation was additionally associated with greater preoperative hematoma volumes. Our series demonstrates that endoscopic port surgery for acute intracerebral hematoma evacuation has the ability to achieve significant decompression of large and deep-seated hematomas. Patient age, extent of evacuation, laterality, and preoperative hematoma volume appear to influence patient outcome. Most overall outcomes remain poor. Future studies are necessary to determine if surgical evacuation is in fact superior to best
Full Text Available Background: Cholangioscopy is a useful tool for the study and treatment of biliary pathology. Ultrathin upper endoscopes allow direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPC but have some drawbacks. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the success rate of DPC with an ultrathin endoscope using a balloon catheter to reach the biliary confluence. Material and methods: Prospective observational study. An ultrathin endoscope (Olympus XP180N, outer diameter 5.5 mm, working channel 2 mm was used. To access the biliary tree, free-hand technique was used. To reach the biliary confluence an intraductal balloon catheter (Olympus B5-2Q diameter 1.9 mm and a 0.025 inch guide wire was used. In all cases sphincterotomy and/or sphincteroplasty was performed. The success rate was defined as the percentage of cases in which the biliary confluence could be reached with the ultrathin endoscope. Results: Fifteen patients (8 men/7 women were included. Mean age was 77.7 ± 10.8 years (range 45-91. The indications for cholangioscopy were suspected bile duct stones (n = 9, electrohydraulic lithotripsy for the treatment of difficult choledocholithiasis (n = 5 and evaluation of biliary stricture (n = 1. Access to the bile duct was achieved in 14/15 cases (93.3 %. Biliary confluence was reached in 13/15 cases (86.7 %. One complication was observed in one patient (oxigen desaturation. Conclusions: DPC with an ultrathin endoscope can be done with the free-hand technique. Intraductal balloon-guided DPC allows full examination of the common bile duct in most cases.
Wolfsberger, Stefan; Neubauer, André; Bühler, Katja; Wegenkittl, Rainer; Czech, Thomas; Gentzsch, Stephan; Böcher-Schwarz, Hans-Gerd; Knosp, Engelbert
Virtual endoscopy (vE) is the navigation of a camera through a virtual anatomical space that is computationally reconstructed from radiological image data. Inside this three-dimensional space, arbitrary movements and adaptations of viewing parameters are possible. Thereby, vE can be used for noninvasive diagnostic purposes and for simulation of surgical tasks. This article describes the development of an advanced system of vE for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and its application to teaching, training, and in the routine clinical setting. The vE system was applied to a series of 35 patients with pituitary pathology (32 adenomas, three Rathke's cleft cysts) operated endoscopically via the transsphenoidal route at the Department of Neurosurgery of the Medical University Vienna between 2004 and 2006. The virtual endoscopic images correlated well with the intraoperative view. For the transsphenoidal approach, vE improved intraoperative orientation by depicting anatomical landmarks and variations. For planning a safe and tailored opening of the sellar floor, transparent visualization of the pituitary adenoma and the normal gland in relation to the internal carotid arteries was useful. According to our experience, vE can be a valuable tool for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for training purposes and preoperative planning. For the novice, it can act as a simulator for endoscopic anatomy and for training surgical tasks. For the experienced pituitary surgeon, vE can depict the individual patient's anatomy, and may, therefore, improve intraoperative orientation. By prospectively visualizing unpredictable anatomical variations, vE may increase the safety of this surgical procedure.
Effect of endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage with/without endoscopic sphincterotomy on post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in patients with biliary stricture (E-BEST): a protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
Kato, Shin; Kuwatani, Masaki; Sugiura, Ryo; Sano, Itsuki; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Ono, Kota; Sakamoto, Naoya
The effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy prior to endoscopic biliary stenting to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the non-inferiority of non-endoscopic sphincterotomy prior to stenting for naïve major duodenal papilla compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy prior to stenting in patients with biliary stricture. We designed a multicentre randomised controlled trial, for which we will recruit 370 patients with biliary stricture requiring endoscopic biliary stenting from 26 high-volume institutions in Japan. Patients will be randomly allocated to the endoscopic sphincterotomy group or the non-endoscopic sphincterotomy group. The main outcome measure is the incidence of pancreatitis within 2 days of initial transpapillary biliary drainage. Data will be analysed on completion of the study. We will calculate the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the incidence of pancreatitis in each group and analyse weather the difference in both groups with 95% CIs is within the non-inferiority margin (6%) using the Wald method. This study has been approved by the institutional review board of Hokkaido University Hospital (IRB: 016-0181). Results will be submitted for presentation at an international medical conference and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The University Hospital Medical Information Network ID: UMIN000025727 Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Hirdes, Meike M. C.; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Koornstra, Jan J.; Timmer, Robin; Leenders, Max; Weersma, Rinse K.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wiezer, Renee; Bergman, Jaques G. H. M.; Vleggaar, Frank P.; Fockens, Paul; Siersema, Peter D.
Benign anastomotic strictures are often difficult to treat. We assessed the efficacy of adding corticosteroid injections to endoscopic dilation therapy with Savary bougienage. In a multicenter, double-blind trial, 60 patients (mean age, 63 +/- 9 years; 78% male) with an untreated cervical
Hirdes, Meike M. C.; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Koornstra, Jan J.; Timmer, Robin; Leenders, Max; Weersma, Rinse K.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Henegouwen, Mark I. van Berge; Plukker, John T. M.; Wiezer, Renee; Bergman, Jaques G. H. M.; Vleggaar, Frank P.; Fockens, Paul; Siersema, Peter D.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Benign anastomotic strictures are often difficult to treat. We assessed the efficacy of adding corticosteroid injections to endoscopic dilation therapy with Savary bougienage. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind trial, 60 patients (mean age, 63 +/- 9 years; 78% male) with an
Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Shah, Pallav L.; Herth, Felix J. F.; Valipour, Arschang
Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) is being adopted as a treatment option for carefully selected patients suffering from severe emphysema. ELVR with the one-way endobronchial Zephyr valves (EBV) has been demonstrated to improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in