W. Andy Knight
Full Text Available Transnational communities have flourished in the globalized era, creating a Diaspora and sojourners that are unlike earlier waves of migrants. This paper first examines the main theories currently used to describe and explain international migration and find them wanting. Through an examination of two case studies of ethnic Japanese migrants (the Brazilian Nikkeijin and Peruvian Nikkei who return to their homeland after living abroad for one or two generations, the paper goes on to demonstrate that the concept of international migrant’ needs further theorizing to account for the impact of globalization and globalism. To this end, the author calls for the development of new theoretical understandings of the evolution of transnational community formation that would be multi-variate and robust enough to guide future public policy and research.
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
both these suggestions obviously have some resonance, against them goes the observation that those who take up transnational strategies are active and most capable of succeeding and managing their lives in the receiving society. In other words, the transnational engagements of migrants...... to explain. It has been suggested that transnational strategies are applied as a safety net to substitute for prospects of a secure future in the receiving society. Solidarities or obligations, sometimes in the shape of a social contract between stayers and leavers of a family, are another suggestion. While......, and on the other women’s Islamic activism, carried out by young women of Moroccan descent. What are the motivations for these migrants to engage in transnational strategies? Are transnational activities a sort of escape from defeats in the receiving society for the migrants in question or could transnational...
Knight, W. Andy
Full Text Available EnglishTransnational communities have flourished in the globalized era, creating aDiaspora and sojourners that are unlike earlier waves of migrants. This paper first examines the maintheories currently used to describe and explain international migration and find them wanting. Throughan examination of two case studies of ethnic Japanese migrants (the Brazilian Nikkeijin and PeruvianNikkei who return to their homeland after living abroad for one or two generations, the paper goes onto demonstrate that the concept of 'international migrant' needs further theorizing to account for theimpact of globalization and globalism. To this end, the author calls for the development of newtheoretical understandings of the evolution of transnational community formation that would be multi-variate and robust enough to guide future public policy and research.FrenchA l'heure de la mondialisation, les communautés transnationales ont fleuri et donné naissance à une diaspora et à des personnes de passage qui différent des précédentes vagues de migrants. En premier lieu, cet article examine les principales theories selon lesquelles sont actuellement décrites et expliquées les migrations internationales et considère les failles de ces dernières. A travers deux études de cas de migrants japonais de deux ethnies (les Brésiliens Nikkeijin et les Péruviens Nikkei qui retournent chez eux après avoir vécu à l'étranger pendant une ou deux générations, l'article démontre que le concept de " migrant international " demande une théorisation plus poussée qui tienne compte de l'impact de la mondialisation et du mondialisme. Pour aller dans ce sens, les auteurs appellent au développement de nouveaux moyens théoriques qui permettent de comprendre l'évolution de la formation des communautés transnationales. Des moyens qui devraient être multidiversifiés et suffisamment robustes pour guider la politique publique et la recherche à venir.
Full Text Available Transnationalism as perspective study of new forms of migration has gained importance in recent decades, showing that many migrants have closed and sustained links with their home communities. Many transnational studies focus on the identification and enumeration of transnational activities of migrants to differentiate what is a transnational migration than it is not. We proceed from the assumption that transnational activity manifested does not necessarily match with the potential insofar as factors that influence it change. Among these factors is the Law and the rules on foreigners´ residence and stay permits. The article aims to substantiate the need to open a space for reflection and a solid line of research that focuses on the impact of the law on the creation or impeding the migrant transnationalism. To do this we rely on the information provided by a comprehensive study on the Andean population in the Basque Country (604 respondant survey and 35 interviews-in-depth which give us solid evidence to support further research. These findings show how there are migration decisions and activities transnational that migrants undertake forced by specific norms (induced trasnationalism; while in other cases, migrants would like to engage in transnational relations with origin (or third countries but the legal conditions surrounding them which prevent them from them (latent transnationalism.
Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Osideko, Anuolwaupo; Schwingel, Andiara
Dietary behaviors serve as determinants for chronic diseases such as hypertension across various ethnicities worldwide and within the USA. We investigated dietary perspectives specifically for US transnational African migrants, a migrant cohort subset of individuals who maintain cross-border ties with their indigenous communities of origin. Using PEN-3 model, focus group interviews with 14 transnational African migrants (seven males and seven females) were conducted in Chicago to explore the perceptions of dietary behavior in regard to chronic disease risk factors among our target population. The findings underscore that transnational African migrants maintain strong ties with their African community of origin, impacting dietary behaviors and attitudes. Further, transnational African migrants maintain traditional dishes through their connections. Despite the ability to import African traditional foods through personal connections, African migrants face a challenge in maintaining culture yet conforming to norms of acculturation. Results from this study serve to advocate for further exploration of the interaction between African migrant dietary behaviors and risk factors to chronic diseases.
Ramirez, Ricardo; Felix, Adrian
In the current period of international migration there is no consensus among analysts regarding the relationship between immigrant transnationalism and civic engagement in the United States. Focusing mainly on the transnational behaviors of Latin American migrants, three views predominate: critics argue that immigrant transnationalism hinders…
van Bochove, M.
Recently, scholars have argued that transnational political involvement among migrants is a rather marginal phenomenon. This conclusion is based on the fact that migrants' political activities are much more often directed to their country of settlement than to their country of origin. However, by
This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions
Transnational family literature has established that parent–child separations affect negatively on the emotional well-being of migrant parents. Less attention has been paid to other effects separation can have on these parents’ lives. Building on insights from transnational family studies and
Full Text Available This paper critically discusses the relation between human mobility and development. It moves away from conventional migration-development policy discussions that mainly focus on diaspora-like actors, who have established a stable and integrated socio-economic position in the destination countries. Instead, it looks at mobility-development dynamics in the context of less privileged and less integrated migrants; Nigerian migrants who are (or have been living in transit-like situations in the city of Istanbul (Turkey. Based on in-depth interviews with Nigerian migrants, it analyses migrants’ personal developments in the light of their migration trajectories. The analysis particularly shows how upward social mobility is not so much found in onward migration to Europe, but in getting involved in a different form of mobility; informally arranged transnational trade between Turkey and West Africa. It outlines the diverse roles of migrants in this informal trade sector and elaborates on their relations with fly in/fly out traders originating from Africa. With these empirical insights, I conclude that these migrants do not belong to settled diaspora communities, but nevertheless, act as bridges between “here” and “there” and contribute to the creation of (new development corridors.
Pita, Marianne D.; Utakis, Sharon
Suggests the increasingly transnational character of many immigrant communities necessitates changes in educational policy. Using the Dominican neighborhoods in New York City, examines the economic, political, social, cultural, and linguistic evidence of the transnationalism of this community. A case is made for bilingual, bicultural programs that…
Despite widespread scepticism in receiving societies, migrants often remain loyal to former homelands and stay active in their politics. Beyond Dutch Borders is about such ties. Combining extensive fieldwork with quantitative data, this book compares how transnational political involvement among
Klok, Jolien; van Tilburg, Theo G; Suanet, Bianca; Fokkema, Tineke; Huisman, Martijn
This research investigates how a sense of belonging functions as protective mechanism against loneliness. Inspired by the work of Berry (1980) on acculturation strategies (i.e. integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization), we distinguish migrants who feel a relatively strong or weak sense of belonging to larger society and those who feel a strong or weak belonging to the "own group." We expect that more national belonging contributes to less loneliness. We add a transnational perspective by arguing that feelings of belonging to the own group can take place in the country of settlement, but can also be transnational, i.e. a feeling of belonging to the country of origin. Transnational belonging can protect against loneliness, as it acknowledges the importance of place attachment. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam on older migrants aged 55-66, we employ latent class analysis and find five national belonging clusters, interpretable in terms of Berry's acculturation strategies. Further analyses reveal mixed evidence: some aspects of transnational belonging vary with belonging to the own group, but other aspects point to a third dimension of belonging. Regression analysis shows that those marginalized are loneliest and that a transnational sense of belonging contributes to more loneliness. We conclude that Berry's (1980) typology is useful for interpreting older migrants' national belonging and that a transnational sense of belonging is apparent among older migrants, but needs to be explored further.
García, Víctor; González, Laura
In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the
Horton, Sarah B
Because studies of migrants' 'medical returns' have been largely confined to the field of public health, such forms of return migration are rarely contextualized within the rich social scientific literature on transnational migration. Drawing on ethnographic interviews with Mexican migrants in an immigrant enclave in central California, I show that migrants' reasons for returning to their hometowns for care must be understood within the class disjunctures facilitated by migration. While migrants' Medicaid insurance confined them to public clinics and hospitals in the United States, their migrant dollars enabled them to visit private doctors and clinics in Mexico. Yet medical returns were not mere medical arbitrage, but also allowed migrants to access care that had previously been foreclosed to them as poor peasants in Mexico. Thus crossing the border enabled a dual class transformation, as Mexican migrants transitioned from Medicaid recipients to cash-paying patients, and from poor rural peasants to 'returning royalty.'
Isaksen, Lise Widding
This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads.
Fokkema, C.M.; Ambrosetti, E.; Cela, E.
Transnationalism of first-generation migrants, usually considered as the core element of their migratory projects, is taken nowadays to some extent for granted. Several migration scholars have mainly focused their research on demonstrating the complementarity or dualism between integration and
Villa-Torres, Laura; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Fleming, Paul J; González-González, Edgar Leonel; Infante-Xibille, César; Chavez, Rebecca; Barrington, Clare
Transnationalism explores social, economic and political processes that occur beyond national borders and has been widely used in migration studies. We conducted a systematic review to explore if and how transnationalism has been used to study migrants' health and what a transnational perspective contributes to understanding health practices and behaviors of transnational migrants. We identified 26 empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals that included a transnational perspective to study migrants' health practices and behaviors. The studies describe the ways in which migrants travel back and forth between countries of destination to countries of origin to receive health care, for reasons related to cost, language, and perceptions of service quality. In addition, the use of services in countries of origin is related to processes of social class transformation and reclaiming of social rights. For those migrants who cannot travel, active participation in transnational networks is a crucial way to remotely access services through phone or email, and to acquire medical supplies and other health-related goods (traditional medicine, home remedies). We conclude with recommendations for future research in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available MWithin the context of migrations and Spanish and Ecuadorian plans for return, this article focuses on the ambiguous role played by transnational social relations in the migration stages of the return and reintegration of Ecuadorian migrants. One result of the study carried out in Ecuador in 2008 is a typology of returned migrants; or rather, that of typical migratory periods of time which contribute to a greater understanding of the interactions between the social network and the migration process. The results also include some reflections on the innovative potential and conditions for sustainable return.
Full Text Available This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions found in this article include a leftist and a Kurdish women organization supporting the communist cause in the 1980s and the Kurdish struggle in the 1990s in Turkey, respectively. In both organizations gender equality was subordinated to broader ideologies of political parties in their homeland. Leftist activists in the cold war era supported a narrow definition of the "politics of redistribution," while and Kurdish activists, combined classical features of the latter with those of traditional identity politics.
In 2004 I embarked on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork that spanned a six year period with Congolese migrants in Muizenberg, Cape Town. During fieldwork it was necessary to identify these migrants either as diasporic or as a transnational community given the purchase of transnationalism in the migration field.
Schwarte, Christoph; Wilson, Emma
Big business and poor communities can make for an uneasy fit. Transnational corporations in oil, gas and mining, for instance, have come under fire from civil society organisations for adverse impacts on local environment and livelihoods. With international pressure for a solution growing, a number of these corporations are working towards inbuilt accountability. As the experience of some shows, corporate grievance and redress mechanisms can fill the gap left by weak governance structures in host countries. Yet will this ensure true accountability and, if so, how likely is it that TNCs will embrace them as good practice?.
This system seems to be obligatory and authoritarian in nature. Its approach is elitist and offers migrants an obligatory and conventional way of participating in a 'shared history of development' in their country of origin even though living in another country. Failure to participate in community development projects, migrant's ...
Mexican migrants organizations in the USA and their strategy for local development with a transnational approach: Advances and challenges / Las organizaciones de migrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos y su estrategia de desarrollo local con enfoque transnacional: avances y desafíos
Rodolfo García Zamora
Full Text Available The "Three for One" program of collective remittances in Mexico, with its variations, conflicts and difficulties, has been a major breakthrough as a trans-national, organizational effort for the promotion of social development in communities of origin. The key to its success lies in the solidarity of migrant organizations toward their home communities in association with the three levels of the Mexican Government. This transnational philanthropy began spontaneously in the 1960s and thirty years later it began to receive the gradual support of the different levels of the government, until its institutionalization as a federal program in 2002, reporting to the Ministry of Social Development. In 2010, after more than three decades of experience with solidarity projects, the migrant Mexican organizations are considering moving towards a new phase of local development -with a transnational approach- in their regions of origin, seeking greater impact on the economic and social structure.
Pannetier, Julie; Lert, France; Jauffret Roustide, Marie; du Loû, Annabel Desgrées
In Europe, migrants are at higher risk of common mental disorders or psychological distress than are natives. Little is known regarding the social determinants of migrant mental health, particularly the roles played by migration conditions and transnational practices, which may manifest themselves in different ways for men and for women. The goal of this paper was to understand the gendered roles of migration paths and transnational ties in mental health among sub-Saharan African migrants residing in the Paris, France, metropolitan area. This study used data from the Parcours study conducted in 2012-2013, which employed a life-event approach to collect data from a representative sample of migrants who visited healthcare facilities (n = 2468). We measured anxiety and depressive symptoms at the time of data collection with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). Reasons for migration, the living conditions in the host country and transnational ties after migration were taken into account by sex and after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that among sub-Saharan African migrants, mental health is related to the migratory path and the migrant's situation in the host country but differently for women and men. Among women, anxiety and depressive symptoms were strongly related to having left one's home country because of threats to one's life. Among men, residing illegally in the host country was related to impaired mental health. For both women and men, cross-border separation from a child less than 18 years old was not independently associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, social and emotional support from relatives and friends-both from the society of origin and of destination-were associated with lower anxiety and depressive symptoms. Migrant mental health may be impaired in the current context of anti-migrant policies and an anti-immigrant social environment in Europe.
Pethe, H.; Bontje, M.; Pelzer, P.
This report is a synthesis of three previous studies which analysed the attractiveness of the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (AMA) for three groups: creative knowledge workers and graduates, managers in selected creative knowledge industries and transnational migrants in the creative knowledge
Full Text Available In Europe, migrants are at higher risk of common mental disorders or psychological distress than are natives. Little is known regarding the social determinants of migrant mental health, particularly the roles played by migration conditions and transnational practices, which may manifest themselves in different ways for men and for women. The goal of this paper was to understand the gendered roles of migration paths and transnational ties in mental health among sub-Saharan African migrants residing in the Paris, France, metropolitan area. This study used data from the Parcours study conducted in 2012–2013, which employed a life-event approach to collect data from a representative sample of migrants who visited healthcare facilities (n = 2468. We measured anxiety and depressive symptoms at the time of data collection with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4. Reasons for migration, the living conditions in the host country and transnational ties after migration were taken into account by sex and after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that among sub-Saharan African migrants, mental health is related to the migratory path and the migrant’s situation in the host country but differently for women and men. Among women, anxiety and depressive symptoms were strongly related to having left one’s home country because of threats to one’s life. Among men, residing illegally in the host country was related to impaired mental health. For both women and men, cross-border separation from a child less than 18 years old was not independently associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, social and emotional support from relatives and friends—both from the society of origin and of destination—were associated with lower anxiety and depressive symptoms. Migrant mental health may be impaired in the current context of anti-migrant policies and an anti-immigrant social environment in Europe.
Karidakis, Maria; Arunachalam, Dharma
In this paper, we first explore the trends in the maintenance of migrant community languages among the first generation migrants and then the socio-economic variation in the shift in use of community languages. Our analysis showed that language shift to English among first generation migrants has not been uniform, with some migrant groups adopting…
Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel
Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.
de Bruine, E.; Hordijk, M.; Tamagno, C.; Sánchez Arimborgo, Y.
Transnationality—defined as maintaining a sense of familyhood across national borders—is a complex process. This article studies the complexities of transnationality by analysing remittance-sending and practices of connectivity between migrants and non-migrants from the Junín region in Peru, in
Full Text Available In the current work an analysis of the close relationship between violence in its different manifestations and typologies, with the transnational contexts generated by migration to the United States of America in Michoacán (Mexico is described. Which is not only present in the people who migrate, but also in their relatives who remain in the communities of origin, where they live injustice, imposition, domain, and control from the culture of the family and the community. All of these at the same time have influence in the place of destiny. Several examples of data obtained in different researches in Psychology and gender from the authors are presented. The attention is focused in the explanation of the violent dynamics related to gender inside the social organization of rural and transnational localities, from several methodological perspectives that lead us to expose some intervention proposals to diminish violence taking into account the promotion of the strengths, resources and capabilities of the people, in order to attenuate the effects of violent experiences.
Joaquín Beltrán Antolín
Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.
Full Text Available It is equivocal whether the transnationalism of refugees differs significantly from that of labor and family migrants. On the basis of a strategic case study of Burundian refugees in The Netherlands we demonstrate that migration motives undeniably matter for transnationalism. Transnationalism is not self-evident for Burundians, as they are driven by a motive of flight. Moreover, transnationalism is not automatically oriented towards compatriots and manifests itself differently in The Netherlands than in Belgium. Therefore, we conclude that the study of refugees is an essential complement to the prevailing research on the transnationalism of settled labor and family migrant communities.
Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the concept of transnational law and the way market forces affect the notion of community at the transnational level. Can the principle of ultima ratio operate in this context and how should this occur? Recent events, including the expansion of the anti-money laundering legislation and the measures enacted following the economic crisis, will be used as emblematic cases illustrating the development of transnational law and its impact on society. The analysis will also focus on a general discussion on whether the market can be considered an integral part of a transnational community and the extent to which principles and ideas generated in criminal law can contribute to a community-oriented approach. Este artículo pretende examinar el concepto de derecho transnacional y la forma en las fuerzas del mercado influyen en la noción de comunidad en el ámbito transnacional. ¿Puede el principio de ultima ratio operar en este contexto y cómo debería ocurrir? Los últimos acontecimientos, incluida la ampliación de la legislación contra el blanqueo de dinero y las medidas adoptadas a raíz de la crisis económica, se utilizarán como casos emblemáticos que ilustran el desarrollo del derecho transnacional y su impacto en la sociedad. El análisis se centrará también en un análisis general sobre si el mercado puede ser considerado como parte integrante de una comunidad transnacional y en qué medida los principios e ideas generadas en el derecho penal pueden contribuir a un enfoque orientado a la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200872
This paper critically discusses the relation between human mobility and development. It moves away from conventional migration-development policy discussions that mainly focus on diaspora-like actors, who have established a stable and integrated socio-economic position in the destination countries. Instead, it looks at mobility-development dynamics in the context of less privileged and less integrated migrants; Nigerian migrants who are (or have been) living in transit-like situations in the ...
Orathai - Srithongtham
Full Text Available The denial of difficult, dangerous and dirty work done by the Thai People has been the major cause of migrant substitution in Thailand which triggered the urgent need for proper health care. This study was aim to explain the burden and impact of providing health service to the trans-national migrant in community hospital at border area of Laos, Burma and Cambodia. Therefore survey research and data collecting was used through quantitative and qualitative methods. Results: Khemarat and Klong Yai hospital: the financial burden was high however Mae Sai hospital has strong income with less expenditure. The impact of three hospitals was 1 the only way of solving the financial burden is by using the hospital’s money. 2 No data system about trans-nation’s migrant health services has been applied so far by any hospitals here in Thailand 3 Man power of hospital is depended on the Thai people which doesn’t include the migrant which is approximately 50% 4 The language and the cultural had generated several obstacles to health service 5 Problem of prevention and control of Communicable disease such as Malaria, Dengue Hemorrhagic fever, Tuberculosis, and Elephantiasis, 6 No Referral system between Thailand and neighboring countries. Recommendations: it should be setting the strategy of AEC’s health system at nearby country, concern with the trans-national migrants, and develop the data system of health service of trans-national migrant.
Dekker, B.; Siegel, M.
This paper investigates the relationship between transnational practices and integration by testing whether they are substitutes or complements. For this purpose, we use a multidimensional transnationalism index. The index includes three dimensions of transnational practices, including migrants'
Coe, Cati; Shani, Serah
What does cultural capital mean in a transnational context? In this article, Cati Coe and Serah Shani illustrate through the case of Ghanaian immigrants to the United States that the concept of cultural capital offers many insights into immigrants' parenting strategies, but that it also needs to be refined in several ways to account for the…
Haus, L A
"This article seeks to enhance our understanding of why the United States resisted restrictionist [immigration] legislation in the late twentieth century during times when one may have expected a movement toward closure, as occurred in the 1920s.... The article will supplement a state-centric approach with insights from the perspective of complex interdependence--the significance of transnational relations and the blurring of foreign and domestic politics. I will argue that the societal groups that influence the formation of U.S. immigration policy contain a transnational component, which contributes to the maintenance of relatively open legislation.... More specifically, I will argue that the transnationalization of the labor market...blurs the boundaries between foreign and domestic constituents for unions, causing unions to resist those restrictionist immigration measures that impede organization of foreign-born workers. Hence, the pressures for restrictionism are weaker than anticipated by the conventional wisdom that expects labor to lobby for closure." excerpt
The aim of this article is to show the way in which concepts of abuse, danger, and security have informed recent U.K. legal and policy developments relating to the protection of women in transnational marriages from violence within families and communities. It also demonstrates the way in which the same concepts inform debates on violence against women in families in India to provide a greater understanding of the interaction between "polity" and "community" in transnational marriages.
While transnationalism has emerged as a growing area of interest in Writing Studies, the field has not fully examined how migrants' movement across national borders shapes their literacy practices. This article offers one answer to this question by reporting on an ethnographic study of the transnational religious literacies of a community of…
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa
The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.
J. Klok (Jolien); T.G. van Tilburg (Theo); B. Suanet (Bianca); T. Fokkema (Tineke); M. Huisman (Martijn)
textabstractThis research investigates how a sense of belonging functions as protective mechanism against loneliness. Inspired by the work of Berry (1980) on acculturation strategies (i.e. integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization), we distinguish migrants who feel a relatively
Klok, J.; Tilburg, T.G. van; Suanet, B.; Fokkema, T.; Huisman, M.
This research investigates how a sense of belonging functions as protective mechanism against loneliness. Inspired by the work of Berry (1980) on acculturation strategies (i.e. integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization), we distinguish migrants who feel a relatively strong or weak
Full Text Available This paper draws on research conducted in New Zealand from 2009 to 2011 with overseas-qualified social workers as members of a global profession experiencing both great international demand for their skills and unparalleled flows of professional transnationalism. In line with the international social work literature, this cohort of migrant professionals offers a range of needed skill and expertise as well as unique challenges to local employers, client communities, and the social work profession as a whole. With a specific focus on mixed-methods data dealing with participants' induction experiences and engagement with professional bodies, this paper argues that migrant social workers have created in New Zealand a transnational professional space that demands a response from local social work stakeholders.
Full Text Available The transnational communities, or in other terms, the migrant communities whowent to the US and the UK, or to any other European states had strong belief intheir religion in which they might not be contaminated by the secular ideology inthe Western countries. In this respect, the phenomenology of religion in internationalrelations is a relatively new and surprising. Accordingly, this paper aims atinvestigating the implications of the emergence of trans-national religious groupsfor international relations. The paper will argue that the rise of trans-nationalreligious groups has produced a profound impact on international relations. Thefactors that influenced this transformation in international relations is the contemporaryprocesses of globalization which scholars argue, are pivotal to bringingreligion to the centre stage of international relations. In order to deepen theunderstanding of this process, two case scenarios will be analyzed, namely, theSikh Diasporas and the imagined Islamic community, the umma. In this paper, ithas been argued that the rise of trans-national religious actors may affect statesovereignty in one way or another. Under secular ideology, the role of religion ismarginalized from the public sphere, in particular, the domain of politics and religion is being obviously separated. This separation, according to both groups,is problematic. It is therefore, the emergence of Islamic and Sikh communities isconsidered by some liberal democratic countries like India as a peril to its statesovereignty. In Islamic doctrines, the Muslims hold a principle in din wa dawla,the unity of state and religion, while in Sikhism, the Sikhs have to trust miri andpiri, the unification of religious and political institution.Masyarakat transnasional atau dalam terma lain disebut juga sebagai masyarakatmigran yang menetap di Amerika dan Inggris, atau ke negara-negara Eropalainnya memiliki keyakinan yang kuat terhadap agama mereka dan
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
-conscious transnational component in the village community, rather than to the polarization among migrants, producing on the one hand developers (of the hometown) and integration activists. Social remittances - ideas, norms and practices transferred by migrants to their sending society are not widely recognized...
Mary Alice Scott
Full Text Available While significant research addresses global chains of care work from the perspective of female migrant workers engaged in low-paid, unstable domestic labor in “receiving” communities, little research has focused on those who substitute for migrant workers to provide care in communities of origin. This article addresses that gap by focusing on the health consequences of care work for grandmothers in southern Veracruz, Mexico who assume the primary responsibility for caring for their grandchildren when the parents migrate out of the community. Based in the literature on care work and transnational families, this ethnographically-based article argues that grandmothers suffer consequences for their own health in three ways. They must deduct from their own health care resources – including time and money – to provide for their grandchildren. They must concede to the exploitation of already ill bodies to engage in the physical care of children and the household. Finally, they must transfer energy for self-care to caring for others thereby exacerbating their own existing health issues in order to meet the physical and emotional needs of their grandchildren. The article calls for further research in this area that aims to develop solutions to the problem of “care substitution” in transnational families.
Full Text Available La ampliamente publicitada campaña política transnacional de Andrés Bermúdez, que contendió como candidato para alcalde de Jerez, Zacatecas, es analizada en términos de un continuum de marcos teóricos sobre teoría y práctica de la democracia. Con base en intensivas entrevistas cualitativas con participantes importantes de la campaña, este estudio considera las siguientes cuestiones: ¿Hasta qué punto la candidatura de Bermúdez contribuye a la apertura del sistema político mexicano hacia la participación electoral de losmigrantes? ¿Qué implicaciones tienen los procesos políticos aquí mencionados para una implementación a gran escala de la doble ciudadanía, incluyendo el voto en el extranjero y las campañas transnacionales de migrantes mexicanos que viven en los Estados Unidos? ¿En qué contribuye el caso de Bermúdez para nuestro conocimiento teórico sobre el carácter y significado del transnacionalismo político de los migrantes en el momento presente? Las respuestas a estos cuestionamientos hacen posible determinar el papel que tuvo la campaña de Bermúdez en el proceso actual de democratización del México contemporáneo.
Rezaei, Shahamak; Marques, Denise Helena França
The complexity of family arrangements that constitute the return migration of Brazilians from Paraguay can be identified as an important element in maintaining the circularity between the two countries and the consolidation of transnational space Brasiguaio. This paper describes the changes...... in volume and composition of family arrangements of Brazilian returnees from Paraguay in the five-year periods 1986/1991, 1995/2000 and 2005/2010 and raise some points for reflection and discussion on the participation of transnational families in the migration process and circularity of these migrants....... Information from the Brazilian Demographic Censuses of 1991, 2000 and 2010 will be used to do so, and to estimate the direct and indirect effects of international migration return to that country....
Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Boateng, Reynolds; Beune, Erik
The African migrant communities in Europe face many challenges including poor health outcomes. Migrant community leaders can play a crucial role in addressing the health needs of their community members. In this paper, we described Sub-Saharan African migrant community leaders' action to improve the
Davis, Kathryn A.; Phyak, Prem; Bui, Thuy Thi Ngoc
Through viewing multicultural education as policy and planning that is enacted at national, regional, and local levels in Nepal and Vietnam, we explore the challenges and possibilities of engaging communities. We examine transnationalism, neoliberalism, and globalization as these impact national policies, community ideologies, regional/local…
This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…
Alvarado, John A.
This project documents and analyzes changing notions of masculinities in the Mixtec transnational community San Jerónimo Progreso. San Jerónimo is a small Mixtec speaking agencia municipal (town) in the municipality of Silacayoapan, and Region Mixteca of western Oaxaca, Mexico. Despite the town’s fragmented appearance (the majority people from San Jerónimo now live permanently outside of the town) San Jerónimo is by all accounts a transnational community; its members recreate their sense of ...
Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the breakdown of the East German Socialistgovernment, thousands of former contract workers from Vietnam stayedin the then reunified Germany. Due to their resulting precarious economicsituation, a large number of these migrants became engaged in small businessand petty trade. Some of them, women in particular, have become successfulentrepreneurs and wholesalers in recently built bazaars in the eastern parts ofBerlin. Most interestingly, parts of these urban spaces, former industrial areason the periphery of Germany’s capital, have been transformed into religiousplaces. This article explores the formation of female Vietnamese Buddhistnetworks on the grounds of Asian wholesale markets. It argues that transnationalmobilities in a post-socialist setting encourage border-crossing religious activities,linking people and places to various former socialist countries as well as to theSocialist Republic of Vietnam. Further, by considering political tensions betweenVietnamese in the eastern and western part of Berlin, this contribution illustratesthe negotiation of political sensitivities among diasporic Vietnamese in reunitedGermany. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among female lay Buddhists, itfocuses on entrepreneurship and investigates the relationship between business,migration and religious practices.
Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen
In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…
Cleland, Jennifer A; Watson, Margaret C; Walker, Leighton; Denison, Alan; Vanes, Neil; Moffat, Mandy
Effective communication by pharmacists is essential to ensure patient safety in terms of provision and use of medications by patients. Global migration trends mean community pharmacists increasingly encounter patients with a variety of first languages. The aim of this study was to explore community pharmacists' perceptions of communication barriers during the provision of care to A8 (nationals from central/Eastern European states) migrants. A qualitative face-to-face interview study of purposively sampled community pharmacists, North East Scotland. Participants (n = 14) identified a number of barriers to providing optimal care to A8 migrants including: communication (information gathering and giving); confidentiality when using family/friends as translators; the impact of patient healthcare expectations on communication and the length of the consultation; and frustration with the process of the consultation. Several barriers were specific to A8 migrants but most seemed pertinent to any group with limited English proficiency and reflect those found in studies of healthcare professionals caring for more traditional UK migrant populations. Further research is needed using objective outcome measures, such as consultation recordings, to measure the impact of these perceived barriers on pharmacist-patient consultations. Language and cultural barriers impact on the quality of pharmacist-patient communication and thus may have patient safety and pharmacist training implications. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Constanza Amézquita Quintana
Full Text Available This article aims to understand the dynamics of the political transnationalism of Colombian migrants in New York City and the northern area of New Jersey during the 1990-2010 period from the processes of contempt and moral suffering (social stigmatization, the implications of these processes in the migrants’ identity/autonomy (as generators of identity wounds and their search for social recognition. The paper begins with a characterization of the Colombian migration to that setting. Then it shows the experiences of moral contempt faced by Colombian migrants in the contexts of origin and arrival. In the context of origin such experiences were linked to social and political polarization, violence, inequality and strong barriers to upward mobility, while in the context of arrival these experiences were related to the stigma of drug trafficking, the dynamics of cultural racism, discrimination because of low English proficiency, and the absence of a legal immigration status. Finally, the article discusses the participation and mobilization (mainly at informal and collective levels of Colombian migrants in relation to the search for social recognition.
To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies—1 on problem drinking and the other on drug abuse—among transnational Mexican workers in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our model demonstrates that major reasons...
Sirilak, Supakit; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Wattanagoon, Yupaporn; Chatchaiyalerk, Surut; Tornee, Songpol; Siri, Sukhontha
This is the first report of the large-scale utilization of migrants as health volunteers in a migrant primary-healthcare program. The program recruited migrants who volunteered to serve their communities. This study explores the identities of these volunteers, their relationship with program management, and their attitudes. The study also investigates the impact of the volunteers, from the migrants' and healthcare workers' perspective. The study was conducted in two provinces, Tak (northern Thailand) and Samut Sakhon (central Thailand). Primary and secondary information was collected. Mixed methods, comprising in-depth interviews, observation and questionnaires, were used to gather primary data from three groups of participants-migrant volunteers, migrants and healthcare workers. Secondary data, and in-depth interviews with healthcare workers, showed that migrant volunteers made a significant contribution to the provision of both preventive and curative services. The quantitative study covered 260 migrant volunteers and 446 migrants. The results found that <5% of volunteers were selected by the community. Almost all attended a training course. Most were assigned to be health communicators; four stated they did nothing. Volunteers' attitudes were very positive. Most migrants reported that the volunteers' work was useful. It was concluded that the migrant health-volunteer program did help deal with migrant health problems. However, management of the program should be closely considered for more effective outcomes.
Rosado, Javier I; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; McGinnity, Kelly A; Cuevas, Jordan P
Childhood obesity has increased substantially among Latino children, placing them at risk for its related health consequences. Limited attention has been given to childhood obesity among Latino migrant farm-working communities. To examine, within a migrant farm-working community, (1) the prevalence of obesity among Latino children and parents and (2) parent perceptions of children's weight status and intentions to take corrective action. Structured interviews were completed with the parents of 495 children seen for well-child office visits in the pediatric department of a community health center during a 15-month period between 2010 and 2011. Medical chart reviews were completed for each child participant. Forty-seven percent of the children were overweight (20%) or obese (27%). In comparison to preschool-aged children, those in elementary and middle school were more likely to be obese. In elementary school, girls were more likely than boys to be overweight or obese. Child obesity was associated with parent obesity. Parental concern about their child's weight was associated with child obesity but not with child overweight. Parental concern was associated with parent intention to address the child's weight, particularly in older children. Analysis was completed in 2012. Interventions are needed that address both childhood obesity and parent weight status among Latino migrant farmworkers. Prevention programs that address the weight status of Latino children who are overweight, but not necessarily obese, are also needed, as their parents tend to be no more concerned about a child who is overweight than one who is normal weight. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Afulani, Patience A; Torres, Jacqueline M; Sudhinaraset, May; Asunka, Joseph
Recent scholarship has focused on the role that cross-border social and economic ties play in shaping health outcomes for migrant populations. Nevertheless, the extant empirical work on this topic has paid little attention to the health impacts of cross-border separation from close family members. In this paper we examine the association between cross-border ties-and cross-border separation-with the health of sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant adults living in metropolitan France using data from the nationally representative "Trajectoire et Origines" survey (n = 1980 SSA migrants). In logistic regression analyses we find that remitting money and having a child abroad are each associated with poor health among women, but not men. The effect of remittances on health is also modified by the location of one's children: remittance sending is associated with poor health only for SSA-migrants separated from their children. These findings underscore the importance of examining both cross-border connection and cross-border separation in studies of immigrant health, and also underscore the heterogeneous relationships between cross-border ties and health for men and women. This is the first study to our knowledge that examines the relationship between cross-border ties and health for migrants in Europe, with a focus on SSA-migrants in France. These findings have important implications for the health of the growing immigrant and refugee populations in Europe and around the globe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Communities of nationals living abroad are attracting the interest of sending countries, which are paying increasing attention to the way in which emigrants connect with their origin and the potential benefits of it. Focusing on the case of Colombia and analysing the initiatives under the Colombia Nos Une Program, this article examines the role that the proactive attitude of institutional actors is playing in the potential engagement of migrants with their country of origin and the creation of a transnational citizenship. Colombia, as a sending country, is looking at their emigrants in an attempt to take advantage of their economic and human capital in order to improve its development through networks of knowledge, entrepreneurship and socio-cultural initiative. An increasing knowledge of the way policies of origin are implemented and the impact they have on the migrants’ lives will give a more comprehensive framework to understand the effects of a transnational life and to conceptualize a transnational citizenship.
Nava, Pedro E.; Lara, Argelia
This article examines how the Education Leadership Foundation (a leadership development community based organization) in partnership with the Migrant Education Program use parent retreats for building leadership, and skill development of migrant farm-working families. Utilizing cooperative and community responsive practices, these retreats build…
Language revitalization efforts in Garifuna communities are complicated by their dispersion in Central America, St. Vincent, and the United States. Garifuna language and culture originated on the Caribbean island of St. Vincent, with the mixing of African and Arawakan languages. After the British conquered the island, they relocated thousands of…
To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies--1 on problem drinking and the…
Guo, Shibao; Maitra, Srabani
Under the new mobilities paradigm, migration is conceptualized as circulatory and transnational, moving us beyond the framework of methodological nationalism. Transnational mobility has called into question dominant notions of migrant acculturation or assimilation. Migrants no longer feel obligated to remain tied to or locatable in a…
Ferrer, Ilyan; Brotman, Shari; Grenier, Amanda
This article illustrates the concept of reciprocity in the context of immigrant families. It recommends that definition of reciprocity account for exchanges beyond the immediate family, and render visible the simultaneous location of older people as care recipients and providers, and care arrangements across generations, borders, community, and time. Adopting a critical ethnographic study on the aging and care experiences of older Filipinos in Canada, this article analyzes data from extended observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 older people, 6 adult children, and 13 community stakeholders. Findings highlight the unique configurations of care among the Filipino community whereby older people engage in care exchange as active participants across intergenerational, transnational, and fictive kin networks.
Abu El-Haj, Thea Renda; Bonet, Sally Wesley
In this article, the authors argue for examining more deeply the ways that youth from Muslim transnational communities are defining and engaging (or not engaging) in active citizenship practices, articulating a sense of belonging within and across national borders, and frequently developing and acting on critical perspectives on the politics of…
Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…
Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M
Despite reports of high levels of violence among women migrants in Central America, limited evidence exists regarding the health and safety of migrant sex workers in Central America. This study is based on 16 months of field research (November 2012-February 2014), including ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and focus groups conducted with 52 internal and international migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, key transit and destination communities for both international and internal migrants. The analysis explored migration-related determinants of susceptibility to violence experienced by migrant sex workers across different phases of migration. Violence in home communities and economic considerations were key drivers of migration. Unsafe transit experiences (eg undocumented border crossings) and negative interactions with authorities in destination settings (eg extortion) contributed to migrant sex workers' susceptibility to violence, while enhanced access to information on immigration policies and greater migration and sex work experience were found to enhance agency and resilience. Findings suggest the urgent need for actions that promote migrant sex workers' safety in communities of origin, transit, and destination, and programmes aimed at preventing and addressing human rights violations within the context of migration and sex work.
Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the component parts of re-socialisation (integration, assimilation and culturalisation), this paper analyses how the learning programmes and services provided in Shanghai's Zhabei District played a role in migrants' adaptation to their new community environment. The author conducted interviews with migrants of both rural and urban origin at two migrant clubs, and complemented her respondents' statements with formal and informal background research. Her findings indicate that participation in educational activity is only one aspect of migrants' re-socialisation. She demonstrates how educational activities merge into a larger community context and are mingled simultaneously with other activities which relate to employment, healthcare, setting up a business, etc. She argues that educational activity loses its backbone if the initial entry-level support given to migrants is not followed up with advanced development activities, such as providing migrants with lifelong learning opportunities tailored to their aptitudes and needs, motivating them to engage in learning which can serve as a pathway towards their career goals, and helping them improve their life circumstances.
This essay considers the potential of histories of transnational movements of people, and the erosion of boundaries between British domestic and imperial history, to expand and revise the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century British domestic life and work. Literatures on migration demonstrate how far the history of home involves transnational themes, including the recruitment of migrants and refugees who crossed national borders to do domestic work—in Britain and empire—and their deve...
Mouw, Ted; Chavez, Sergio; Edelblute, Heather; Verdery, Ashton
While the concept of transnationalism has gained widespread popularity among scholars as a way to describe immigrants' long-term maintenance of cross-border ties to their origin communities, critics have argued that the overall proportion of immigrants who engage in transnational behavior is low and that, as a result, transnationalism has little sustained effect on the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation. In this paper, we argue that a key shortcoming in the current empirical debate on transnationalism is the lack of data on the social networks that connect migrants to each other and to non-migrants in communities of origin. To address this shortcoming, our analysis uses unique bi-national data on the social network connecting an immigrant sending community in Guanajuato, Mexico, to two destination areas in the United States. We test for the effect of respondents' positions in cross-border networks on their migration intentions and attitudes towards the United States using data on the opinions of their peers, their participation in cross border and local communication networks, and their structural position in the network. The results indicate qualified empirical support for a network-based model of transnationalism; in the U.S. sample we find evidence of network clustering consistent with peer effects, while in the Mexican sample we find evidence of the importance of cross-border communication with friends.
Allison, Donald N.
Lack of health access and limited health care services are major concerns for those who provide healthcare for marginalized Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworker communities (MMSF). Health risks related to several deadly illnesses generate a significant challenge in providing services to this transnational population. In the United States,…
Molina, José Luis; Petermann, Sören; Herz, Andreas
Transnational social fields and transnational social spaces are often used interchangeably to describe and analyze emergent structures of cross-border formations. In this article, we suggest measuring two key aspects of these social structures: embeddedness and span of migrants' personal networks. While clustered graphs allow assessing…
Musgrave, Simon; Hajek, John
The language problems faced by migrants may be more complex when they come from a minority language group in their homeland. The new arrivals may find that there are few, or even no, speakers of their language in the community to which they have moved. Then decisions have to be made as to whether to attempt to maintain the native language and also…
This edited book resulted from two days of intensive seminar organized by the Centre of Development and International relations at Aalborg University. The seminar invited scholars from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The book rigorously examines the complex relationships between trans...... the paradoxes, ambiguities and contradictions characterising transnational NGOs at the national, international, transnational and civil society levels.......-nationality, development and global governance. Among the main influential actors of this trans-nationality include transnational NGOs that often provide remarkable humanitarian and developmental solutions at multiple levels in diverse societies around the world. At the same time transnational NGOs can also negatively...
Full Text Available The paper approaches the problem of the development mechanism of international migration at community level.Some empirical observations cumulated during several researches,at origin and destination area, regarding Romanian migration to Spain constitute the starting points. Appealing to the distinction introduced by Mark Granovetter in 1976 between weak and strongties, we find that, if initially migration develops almost exclusively based on social relations that could be assimilated to strong ties,there is a moment in the process of development when the departures on the base of weak ties, with important consequences on the migrant’s situation at destination, increase.The paper tries to clarify, preponderantly invoking theoretical arguments,in what measure the departures based on weak ties between migrant and non migrant are normal in the process of international migration development at community level. The study concludes that, because of cumulative effects, migration evolution to a phase when the departure is possible based on weak ties is explainable.Two mechanisms mainly contribute to this result: enhancement of incentives to migrate (because of quantitative and qualitative information increase; visibility of migration effects in the origin area;changes of relative deprivation at community level and migration costs and risk lowering, with the consequence of reduction of effective support that a non-migrant needs from one migrant in order to migrate.
Klausen, Julia Zhukova
The chapter investigates the genealogy of a transnational ethics. That is, in Foucauldian terms, how transnational living is constructed as an ethical substance, the modes through which the actors become invited to problematize their transnational conduct and the telos to which they are impelled...... to aspire. Using multimodal discourse analysis, the chapter uncovers the discursive technologies through which therapeutic practice (as well as the genres and institutions implicated in it) is employed in using the individual’s relationship to oneself to exercise and rationalise a transnational ethics...... associations. In doing so, the analysis makes visible how new agents and authorities become recruited for administering transnational conduct. The chapter argues that these assemblages and the transnational ethics made visible through the analysis prime the mechanisms of transnational governmentality...
The Migrant Suitcase is a metaphor to understand how social remittances are taken, brought back and transformed. Migrants bring with them different cultural norms, food and eating practices. In this paper I review the concept of social remittances in light of material culture, food and eating practices and examine the linkages between food, belonging, commensality and care and then provide empirical examples from the suitcases of Indian migrants. This paper is based on 30 in-depth interviews conducted among Indian migrants living in The Netherlands. The main themes from the data included food from home, cooking practices, food sharing and family relationships. Migrants' sense of belonging was intrinsically related to the food they brought from home and the memories it generates. The practices of cooking and sensorial experiences surrounding them demonstrate the place and home making processes. Commensality with co-ethnics led to a sense of community and stronger community bonds. Commensality with other non-Indian groups was perceived to be problematic. The exchanges of food, eating practices, and care create a sense of 'co-presence' in lives migrants and their transnational families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Migration research in Southern Africa has paid little attention to migrant men's involvement in the family, including their emotional and cognitive work, as well as associated gender transformations. Based on a qualitative study of six Zimbabwean migrant fathers in Johannesburg and three non-migrant women in Zimbabwe, this article argues that transnational migration at once presents opportunities for and obstacles to the reconstitution of gender-normative forms of parental involvement in migrant families. The analysis of the narratives of migrant men and their spouses demonstrates that, although maternal and paternal roles may become considerably indistinct in the context of transnational separations, non-migrant women may emphasize gender-normative expectations in their negotiations with distant fathers when faced with huge responsibilities at home. Such negotiations tend to reinforce gender-normative parenting in transnational split families. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502209
Rogerson Jayne M.
Full Text Available Transnational entrepreneurship is an evolving field of research which occupies an interface between social and regional sciences. The phenomenon of transnational entrepreneurship is driven by entrepreneurs that migrate from one country to another whilst maintaining business-related linkages with their former country of origin and the adopted country. The most critical distinguishing feature of transnational entrepreneurs is bifocality or the ability to function across two different business environments. Most writings on transnational entrepreneurship concentrate on business individuals from the global South operating enterprises in the global North. Absent are empirical studies of the nature and behaviour of transnational migrant entrepreneurs who operate across or between emerging or developing economies. This South-South gap in international research concerning transnational entrepreneurship is addressed in the paper which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of transnational entrepreneurship occurring in Southern Africa using evidence of Zimbabwean transnational entrepreneurs based in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard
should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how......An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how ‘issue...
Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at two ends of an intra- Africa migration flow (Mali and the Republic of Congo), in this article I examine the role of childrearing practices in the maintenance of transnationalism. I consider different approaches to transnational childrearing by migrant parents and their reasons for adopting them, and delineate three common modes. The most widespread and socially validated approach is to send children home from Congo to their parents' places of origin, where child fostering is widespread, to be raised by relatives for long periods; this approach increases the durability of transnational ties. I use childrearing approaches as an analytical lens to demonstrate the complementarity of multiple forms of domestic organization, mobility and settlement in the intergenerational production and transmission of durable transnational identities. By arguing for greater focus on phenomena such as transnational childrearing, I seek to promote a broader conceptualization of transnationalism.
Duke, Michael R.; Gómez Carpinteiro, Francisco J.
Although the financial remittances sent by male Mexican migrant workers residing in the United States can result in higher standards of living for their families and home communities, out-migration may lead to increased migrant problem drinking and sexual risk behaviors, which may in turn impact these same communities of origin. Based on semi-structured interviewing (n=60) and participant observation in a migrant sending community in central Mexico and a receiving community in the Northeastern United States, this paper explores the effects of out-migration on HIV risk and problem drinking among United States-based migrants from a small agricultural community in the Mexican state of Puebla. We argue that problem drinking and risky sexual behaviors among these migrant workers have had significant consequences for their home community in terms of diminished remittances, the introduction of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and loss of husbands or kinsmen to automobile accidents. Moreover, although rumor and gossip between the two communities serve as a form of social control, they may also contribute to increased problem drinking and sexual risk. PMID:20169008
Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus
variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters......This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...
O'Connor, Manjula; Colucci, Erminia
In many parts of the world, young adult women have higher levels of common mental disorders than men. The exacerbation of domestic violence (DV) by migration is a salient social determinant of poor mental health. Ecological models describe factors contributing to DV as operating at individual, family, cultural, and societal levels. We explored the interplay among these factors in an Indian community living in Melbourne, Australia, in a qualitative participatory action research study using a modified Forum Theater approach. We here present findings on connections between migration, societal factors, and social/family/cultural factors in DV. The study captured the voices of women living in the community as they describe how DV contributes to their emotional difficulties. Improved understanding of the sociocultural dynamics of DV and the associated social distress in this migrant Indian community can be used to guide the development of culturally sensitive prevention and response programs to assist migrant women from the Indian subcontinent who present with psychopathology and suicidal behaviors associated with DV. © The Author(s) 2015.
Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya
Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchr...... development of the research infrastructure of photon science. Taking into account the present programme structure of HORIZON2020, the European Synchrotron User Organization (ESUO) sees considerable dangers for the continuation of this successful collaboration in the future....... synchrotron radiation experiments for addressing the Societal Challenges promoted in HORIZON2020. In addition, by TNA all European users directly take part in the development of the research infrastructure of facilities. The mutual interconnection of users and facilities is a strong prerequisite for future...
Finlayson, Tracy L; Asgari, Padideh; Hoffman, Lisa; Palomo-Zerfas, Ana; Gonzalez, Martha; Stamm, Nannette; Rocha, Maria-Isabel; Nunez-Alvarez, Arcela
Oral health is a leading unmet health need among migrant families. This article describes the 1-year, community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach employed to plan and develop a Líder Communitario (lay community health worker)-led educational intervention for Mexican migrant adult caregivers and their families in three underserved, remote communities in North San Diego County, California. Four partner organizations collaborated, reviewed existing oral health curricula, and sought extensive input on educational topics and research design from key informants, migrant caregivers, and Líderes Communitarios. Based on community stakeholder input, partners developed a logic model and drafted educational intervention materials. Key informants ( n = 28), including several members from two community advisory boards, ranked program priorities and intervention subgroup population via online survey. Three focus groups were conducted with Líderes Communitarios ( n = 22) and three with migrant families ( n = 30) regarding the oral health program's design and content. Twelve Líderes Communitarios reviewed draft intervention materials during two focus groups to finalize the curriculum, and their recommended changes were incorporated. Formative research results indicated that community stakeholders preferred to focus on adult caregivers and their families. A 5-week educational intervention with hands on demonstrations and colorful visuals was developed, covering the following topics: bacteria and tooth decay, oral hygiene, nutrition, gum disease, and dental services. The CBPR process engaged multiple community stakeholders in all aspects of planning and developing the educational intervention.
Jocelyn SKOLNIK; Sandra LAZO DE LA VEGA; Timothy STEIGENGA
Entrevistas cualitativas realizadas en Jacaltenango (comunidad maya guatemalteca de emigrantes) y Júpiter (localidad de Florida que recibe inmigrantes jacaltecos) ilus tran el rol del chisme transnacional y sus efectos, condicionados por el género. Las esposas de los migrantes están sujetas a un riguroso escrutinio por parte de su familia y vecinos, quienes las acusan de ser infieles, criar mal a los niños y malgastar el dinero. Para evitar el chisme y sus posibles consecuencias, muchas mu...
Today, many families find that they are unable to fulfill the goal of maintaining a household by living together under the same roof. Some members migrate internationally. This article addresses the consequences of a transnational lifestyle for children who are left behind by migrant parents. Using ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with a…
Hu, S Y; Zhao, M
This article reviews the current government migrant management policy, migrant population characteristics, and their social adjustment in Shanghai, China. Data were obtained from the Chinese Internal Affairs Ministry and a fifth rural migrant survey in Shanghai City. China has over 80 million rural migrants. Big cities offer more employment opportunities and high incomes. City government and residents now tolerate migrants. Most rural migrants work as laborers or service workers. Only 3% of rural migrants have professional work. The current system of management in Shanghai City is ineffective and relies on the police department rather than resident committees. About 66% of rural migrants in Shanghai City are young laborers aged 15-34 years. Only 33% of migrants are women. Rural migrants in Shanghai City come from all parts of China, but 75% come from Jiangsu, Anhui, and Zhejiang provinces. 65.4% live in isolated suburban areas, and about 13.4% live in rural areas. Rural migrants in Shanghai City stay longer than other migrants. 33% of migrants have jobs, and 66% are still looking. 19.7% stay for less than 1 month, 30.8% stay for 1-6 months, 20.4% stay for 6-12 months, and 16.2% stay for 1-3 years. The average migrant works 55.5 hours/week; only 5% work fewer than 40 hours/week. Rural migrants hold different occupations than city residents. 43% go home once a year. Migrants have problems with crime, public health, education of children, family planning, and transportation. The authors make recommendations for improving management of rural migrants in Shanghai City.
Klein, Daniel J; Eckhoff, Philip A; Bershteyn, Anna
Migrant populations such as mine workers contributed to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We used a mathematical model to estimate the community-wide impact of targeting treatment and prevention to male migrants. We augmented an individual-based network model, EMOD-HIV v0.8, to include an age-dependent propensity for males to migrate. Migrants were exposed to HIV outside their home community, but continued to participate in HIV transmission in the community during periodic visits. Migrant-targeted interventions would have been transformative in the 1980s to 1990s, but post-2015 impacts were more modest. When targetable migrants comprised 2% of adult males, workplace HIV prevention averted 3.5% of community-wide infections over 20 years. Targeted treatment averted 8.5% of all-cause deaths among migrants. When migrants comprised 10% of males, workplace prevention averted 16.2% of infections in the community, one-quarter of which were among migrants. Workplace prevention and treatment acted synergistically, averting 17.1% of community infections and 11.6% of deaths among migrants. These estimates do not include prevention of secondary spread of HIV or tuberculosis at the workplace. Though cost-effective, targeting migrants cannot collapse generalized epidemics in their home communities. Such a strategy would only have been possible prior to the early 1990s. However, migrant-targeted interventions synergize with general-population expansion of HIV services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Keygnaert, Ines; Dialmy, Abdessamad; Manço, Altay; Keygnaert, Jeroen; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen
The European Union contracted Morocco to regulate migration from so-called “transit migrants” from Morocco to Europe via the European Neighbourhood Policy. Yet, international organisations signal that human, asylum and refugee rights are not upheld in Morocco and that many sub-Saharan migrants suffer from ill-health and violence. Hence, our study aimed at 1) investigating the nature of violence that sub-Saharan migrants experience around and in Morocco, 2) assessing which determinants they perceive as decisive and 3) formulating prevention recommendations. Applying Community-Based Participatory Research, we trained twelve sub-Saharan migrants as Community Researchers to conduct in-depth interviews with peers, using Respondent Driven Sampling. We used Nvivo 8 to analyse the data. We interpreted results with Community Researchers and the Community Advisory Board and commonly formulated prevention recommendations. Among the 154 (60 F-94 M) sub-Saharan migrants interviewed, 90% reported cases of multiple victimizations, 45% of which was sexual, predominantly gang rape. Seventy-nine respondents were personally victimized, 41 were forced to witness how relatives or co-migrants were victimized and 18 others knew of peer victimisation. Severe long lasting ill-health consequences were reported while sub-Saharan victims are not granted access to the official health care system. Perpetrators were mostly Moroccan or Algerian officials and sub-Saharan gang leaders who function as unofficial yet rigorous migration professionals at migration ‘hubs’. They seem to proceed in impunity. Respondents link risk factors mainly to their undocumented and unprotected status and suggest that migrant communities set-up awareness raising campaigns on risks while legal and policy changes enforcing human rights, legal protection and human treatment of migrants along with severe punishment of perpetrators are politically lobbied for. Sub-Saharan migrants are at high risk of sexual
Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.
Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…
Mutlu-Numansen, Sofia; Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.
This study seeks to understand a diaspora community narrative of rape and abduction suffered during the genocidal massacre of 1915 in the Ottoman Empire and its aftermath. Based on interviews with 50 Aramean, Assyrian and Chaldean migrants in Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands, whose families are
Leni Amalia Suek
Full Text Available The maintenance of community languages of migrant students is heavily determined by language use and language attitudes. The superiority of a dominant language over a community language contributes to attitudes of migrant students toward their native languages. When they perceive their native languages as unimportant language, they will reduce the frequency of using that language even though at home domain. Solutions provided for a problem of maintaining community languages should be related to language use and attitudes of community languages, which are developed mostly in two important domains, school and family. Hence, the valorization of community language should be promoted not only in family but also school domains. Several programs such as community language school and community language program can be used for migrant students to practice and use their native languages. Since educational resources such as class session, teachers and government support are limited; family plays significant roles to stimulate positive attitudes toward community language and also to develop the use of native languages.
Perez Baez, Gabriela
San Lucas Quiavini is a community of Zapotec (Otomanguean) speakers in Oaxaca, Mexico. Since the 1970s, the community has seen large-scale migration to Los Angeles, California, where about half the community now resides. Participant observation and interviews conducted over nine years in both locales, with a focus on interactional patterns in the…
Kohrt, Brieanne K; Barrueco, Sandra; Pérez, Catalina P
To examine the impact that domestic violence (DV) has on hindering the success of urban migrants in Peru and any association with maternal depression, impaired parenting, social capital, and child development. This was a cross-sectional study consisting of structured interviews with 97 mothers and their school-aged children in El Porvenir, a predominantly migrant area of the city of Trujillo, Peru. Data collection occurred in February-June 2011. Proven tools previously validated for use in Spanish were used to assess the following variables: maternal depression, social capital, domestic violence, parenting behaviors, child socioemotional development, and child cognitive development. Correlational, multiple regression, tests of interaction, and indirect/mediator models were used for analysis. Sixty-five percent of women reported currently experiencing DV. DV strongly predicted depression (P effects of DV on urban migrant communities across Latin America.
Levira, Francis; Gaydosh, Lauren; Ramaiya, Astha
Health professionals and public health experts in maternal and newborn health encourage women to deliver at health facilities in an effort to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. In the existing literature, there is scant information on how migration, family members and community influence facility delivery. This study addresses this knowledge gap using 10 years of longitudinal surveillance data from a rural district of Tanzania. Multilevel logistic regression was used to quantify the influence of hypothesized migration, family and community-level factors on facility delivery while adjusting for known confounders identified in the literature. We report adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Overall, there has been an increase of 14% in facility delivery over the ten years, from 63% in 2001 to 77% in 2010 (p characteristics play a role as well; women in communities with higher socioeconomic status and older women of reproductive age had increased odds of facility delivery; AOR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.88-2.98 and AOR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32 respectively. Although there has been an increase in facility delivery over the last decade in Rufiji, this study underscores the importance of female migrants, family members and community in influencing women's place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that future interventions designed to increase facility delivery must integrate person-to-person facility delivery promotion, especially through women of the community and within families. Furthermore, the results suggest that investment in formal education of the community and increased community socio-economic status may increase facility delivery.
Goodwin, Laura; Hunter, Billie; Jones, Aled
In 2015, 27.5% of births in England and Wales were to mothers born outside of the UK. Compared to their White British peers, minority ethnic and migrant women are at a significantly higher risk of maternal and perinatal mortality, along with lower maternity care satisfaction. Existing literature highlights the importance of midwife-woman relationships in care satisfaction and pregnancy outcomes; however, little research has explored midwife-woman relationships for migrant and minority ethnic women in the UK. A focused ethnography was conducted in South Wales, UK, including semi-structured interviews with 9 migrant Pakistani participants and 11 practising midwives, fieldwork in the local migrant Pakistani community and local maternity services, observations of antenatal appointments, and reviews of relevant media. Thematic data analysis was undertaken concurrently with data collection. The midwife-woman relationship was important for participants' experiences of care. Numerous social and ecological factors influenced this relationship, including family relationships, culture and religion, differing health-care systems, authoritative knowledge and communication of information. Marked differences were seen between midwives and women in the perceived importance of these factors. Findings provide new theoretical insights into the complex factors contributing to the health-care expectations of pregnant migrant Pakistani women in the UK. These findings may be used to create meaningful dialogue between women and midwives, encourage women's involvement in decisions about their health care and facilitate future midwifery education and research. Conclusions are relevant to a broad international audience, as achieving better outcomes for migrant and ethnic minority communities is of global concern. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available There is no doubt about an impact of corporate and business operations on human rights, both positive and negative. Growing influence of corporations, power shift between business and states, as well as the complex nature of corporate governance and transnational operations require international regulations. International community undertook numerous initiatives, the most significant and recent being the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights , embraced by States, corporations and civil society as a “milestone“ in business and human rights agenda. While being a useful comprehensive set of guidelines, Principles are lacking the legally binding force and any monitoring or complaints mechanism. Therefore, there are growing calls for a legally binding treaty to stipulate clearly human rights obligations of States/businesses vis-à-vis human rights and fill the protection gap for victims of corporate abuses. A newly established working group by the Human Rights Council has started to negotiate terms of reference of such a treaty in June 2015. However, meaningful negotiations are threatened by many factors, including the negative approach of US, EU and other developed States along with the corporate sector advocating for stronger implementation of Principles instead. This article aims to describe efforts of international community to prevent and eliminate a negative impact of corporate activities on human rights. It shows different approaches and highlights some challenges and dilemmas. It concludes that parallel efforts should be undertaken - to implement the Principles and to negotiate an international treaty – in order to improve protection against an adverse impact of corporate operations on human rights. As for the Czech Republic, it is suggested to embark on the elaboration of the National Action Plan, thus providing for an opportunity to discuss implementation of the Principles among all the
Caroline S. Archambault
Full Text Available While the Maasai have to be among sub-Saharan Africa’s most mobile population due to their traditional transhumant pastoral livelihood strategy, compared with other neighboring ethnic groups they have been relatively late to migrate in substantial numbers for wage labour opportunities. In the community of Elangata Wuas in Southern Kenya, international migration for employment abroad has been very rare but promises to increase in significant numbers with the dramatic rise in education participation and diversification of livelihoods. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research and the specific experiences of the few international migrant pioneers in Elangata Wuas, this paper explores how community members assess the impacts of international migration on community sustainable development. It appears that international migration facilitates, and even exacerbates, inequality, which is locally celebrated, under an ethic of inter-dependence, as sustainable development. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of social control employed by community members to socially maintain their migrants as part of the community so that these migrants feel continued pressure and commitment to invest and develop their communities. Such mechanisms are importantly derived from the adaptability and accommodation of culture and the re-invention of tradition.
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
When villages are marked by extensive out-migration and become transnationally extended, the dividing line between migrants and non-migrants becomes salient. But how deep do divisions run? In a cluster of Kurdish villages in central Turkey, notwithstanding continued social bonds, divisions betwee...
Concerted efforts have been made by the international community and individual States to curtail the effect of transnational environmental pollution. This note examines the liability of polluter States, and the legal challenges in establishing transnational responsibility for environmental pollution. Accordingly, effort is made to ...
Full Text Available Social network play an important role in both the decision to emigrate and the choice of location. Related to migrants and its social net, very little is known about patterns of integration and community participation in rural and low population density contexts in Spain. This article explores these issues and is based on a study, in the province of Teruel (Spain, using a sample of 324 Latin American migrants over the age of 18, selected by sex and place of residence. A standardised test - the Musitu and Gracia AC-90 Community Social Support Questionnaire and open questions were employed. ANOVAS analysis showed significant differences in community integration and participation in accordance with socioeconomic, motivational and social interaction variables.
Full Text Available Taiwan attracted a considerable number of marriage migrants from Southeast Asia and China through brokers in the late 1990s and early 2000s. With widely circulated, sensational news stories about foreign spouses being abused and advertisements of foreign brides as objects for sale, women involved in the business were gradually seen by the public as victims of transnational marriage brokerage. Under pressure from some women’s groups in Taiwan and the anti-trafficking campaign in the international community, the Taiwanese government eventually banned transnational commercial matchmaking in 2008. This article examines the gender politics behind the ban by reviewing the debate over this policy. It also provides an ethnographic study of women’s power relationships with other parties involved in the marriage business. By exposing the market and cultural logic that made this business blossom, this article challenges the binaries of perpetrator/victim and exploitation/freedom in the dominant representations of the transnational marriage market. It calls for a transnational and transclass perspective to understand these women’s “active submission” to the market and concludes that, without this consideration, the enforcement of the 2008 ban ends up serving only to save the international reputation of the host country and fulfill the liberal middle-class imaginary of moral order of the host society, rather than solving women’s problems per se.
Full Text Available The relationship between migratory processes and the diffusion, appropriation and hybridisation of cultural practices has been systematically documented in the scholarly literature. Within these processes there are highly mobile people whose frequent travels and short stays make them less visible as agents of cultural circulation. They often do not see themselves as migrants, nor they are classified as such by national bureaucracies. Therefore, their participation in the diffusion of cultural practices has not been fully considered. This article focuses on the ways in which journeying with a musical practice entails forms of informal transnational labour and, simultaneously, meanings of diffusion, promotion and cultivation of regional cultures that are valued by geographically dispersed communities of practitioners. This account is based on an ethnographic study on the circulation of a traditional musical practice between Mexico and the US. It specifically focuses on the case of a musician, workshop facilitator and luthier who travels several times a year between these two countries performing, teaching and selling handmade instruments. Although his journeying with a musical practice represents a way of making a living, a job, he does not perceive himself as a labour migrant, but as a teacher, performer and cultural promoter. Differing from the experiences of international migrants, this article shows how the meanings of his mobility exhibits a distinct form of existential mobility.
Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalization of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...
Visser, Sanne Siete; Bailey, Ajay; Meijering, Louise
This article explores how Ghanaian migrants in the Netherlands enhance their gendered social well-being. We provide an in-depth view of gender-specific places and relations that shape the social well-being of migrants, focusing on place-based lived experiences, by conducting in-depth interviews and
-productions has increased the distribution of original and often local stories in Europe. The article analyses examples of some successful European drama series, their audiences and reception. The analysis is discussed in the context of national and transnational media policy and the impact of globalisation...... in this development. The article concludes that encounters of the kind we find in different forms of TV drama will make Europe more diverse and richer for a much broader audience. The interaction between the particular and universal in “narratives” on our past and contemporary social and cultural order contribute...
Scott Nicholas Romaniuk
Full Text Available This book represents a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional exploration of Europe as an institutional and social conception. It systematically links understanding of the Europeanization of identities and public spheres with citizenship, nationalism, community and communication, EU (European Union enlargement, institution-building, and European democracy and politicization. As a hallmark of insightful and dynamic scholarship, Risse’s work draws inspiration from a variety of societal levels, including some of the most critical players in European political life today, and highly-praised and well-known political philosophers, and policymakers.
This study explores the teaching beliefs of Chinese language teachers who migrated from China to Australia and who have been teaching in Chinese Community Languages Schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. The thesis argues that the teaching beliefs of these migrant language teachers are strongly influenced by their previous learning and teaching experiences and that their choices of teaching content and practice in their current Australian classrooms reflect these beliefs. Because la...
Metivier, Sean; Stefanovic, Djordje; Loizides, Neophytos G.
We seek to explain the desire for community return by displaced persons in Bosnia. We find a key difference between the minorities displaced from the urban and rural parts of Bosnia. While the rural displaced tend to value community returns, the urban displaced are unlikely to do so; hence the generally low success rate of urban returns in post-war Bosnia. Family dynamics seems to influence community returns, as the decision to return often seems to be made by families, not isolated individua...
Paulette Kershenovich Schuster
Full Text Available Food is the cultural expression of society food as a marker of class, ethnic, and religious identity. What happens when the location changes? Does food continue to play such an important role or do other cultural nodes take over? Do layers of traditions, adaptation and cultural blends emerge? This seems to be the case with third and fourth generation Mexican Jews who have moved to Israel. Not only have they brought their spiritual and cultural connections from Mexico, their birth country; they have also brought the food experiences of their great-grandparents and grandparents who were they themselves immigrants. Jewish Mexicans have transplanted their sense of community to Israel and in doing so they have also brought overlooked cultural interactions and unique food experiences. Are these simply by-products of religious and migration patterns? Or are there other elements that have affected this cultural hybridity?
Nationality underwrites a great deal of the Danish asylum process, and of the refugee regime as a whole. The housing and care of asylum seekers, handled by the Danish Red Cross, is based on classifications by nationality. Bending a phrase from Benedict Anderson, these might be called "appointed...... communities". While the Danish asylum system in principle performs individual determination procedures for asylum seekers, granting refugee status on a case-by-case basis, in practice those identified as Iraqi or Afghani have had a very high acceptance rate. However, it is clearly the case that not all asylum...... seekers have citizenship of the countries they claim to come from, or indeed feel they come from the countries of which they have citizenship. In this context, we must enquire about the mechanics of determining nationality and about how asylum seekers themselves relate to national identities. I argue...
Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...
P. Mascini (Peter); A.M.E. Fermin; H. Snick
textabstractIt is equivocal whether the transnationalism of refugees differs significantly from that of labor and family migrants. On the basis of a strategic case study of Burundian refugees in The Netherlands we demonstrate that migration motives undeniably matter for transnationalism.
Kis, Adam Daniel
Contrary to expectation when compared with other migrant mining zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the nation of Guinea has a comparatively low and stable HIV rate. In addition, the regions with the largest gold, diamond, and bauxite mining operations report the lowest HIV rates within the country. This research set out to explain practices and beliefs within gold mining communities near Siguiri, Guinea--the highest-producing gold mining zone in the country--that may contribute to this phenomenon, particularly as they relate to the Abstinence, Be faithful, use a Condom approach to AIDS prevention. Structured interviews on a randomly selected sample of 460 adults and regular visitation to 16 pharmacies and health clinics within the mining zone yielded data showing that abstinence and condom use are minimally practiced for AIDS prevention. Instead, faithfulness to partners was overwhelmingly reported as the method of choice for AIDS avoidance. In addition, this research explored ways in which local conceptions of fidelity differed from those generally understood in other contexts, including engagement in short-term marriages at the gold mining sites.
Brieanne K. Kohrt
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact that domestic violence (DV has on hindering the success of urban migrants in Peru and any association with maternal depression, impaired parenting, social capital, and child development. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study consisting of structured interviews with 97 mothers and their school-aged children in El Porvenir, a predominantly migrant area of the city of Trujillo, Peru. Data collection occurred in February-June 2011. Proven tools previously validated for use in Spanish were used to assess the following variables: maternal depression, social capital, domestic violence, parenting behaviors, child socioemotional development, and child cognitive development. Correlational, multiple regression, tests of interaction, and indirect/mediator models were used for analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of women reported currently experiencing DV. DV strongly predicted depression (P < 0.001. Women who reported DV were less likely to be employed (P < 0.05, had lower cognitive social capital (P < 0.01, engaged in fewer caregiving activities (P < 0.05, had less maternal energy (P < 0.05, and were less warm (P < 0.05. DV was associated with internalizing behaviors in children (P < 0.01, with impaired parenting partially mediating this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: DV compromises women's mental health and parenting ability. High rates of DV among urban migrants affect the whole community by hindering employment potential and reducing trust among community members. Interventions targeting DV-related variables (e.g., substance abuse and limited job opportunities for men could reduce the deleterious effects of DV on urban migrant communities across Latin America.
Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Christian, Bradley; Gold, Lisa; Young, Dana; de Silva, Andrea; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Riggs, Elisha; Tadic, Maryanne; Hall, Martin; Gondal, Iqbal; Pradel, Veronika; Moore, Laurence
Objectives The Teeth Tales trial aimed to establish a model for child oral health promotion for culturally diverse communities in Australia. Design An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from migrant backgrounds. Mixed method, longitudinal evaluation. Setting The intervention was based in Moreland, a culturally diverse locality in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Families with 1–4-year-old children, self-identified as being from Iraqi, Lebanese or Pakistani backgrounds residing in Melbourne. Participants residing close to the intervention site were allocated to intervention. Intervention The intervention was conducted over 5 months and comprised community oral health education sessions led by peer educators and follow-up health messages. Outcome measures This paper reports on the intervention impacts, process evaluation and descriptive analysis of health, knowledge and behavioural changes 18 months after baseline data collection. Results Significant differences in the Debris Index (OR=0.44 (0.22 to 0.88)) and the Modified Gingival Index (OR=0.34 (0.19 to 0.61)) indicated increased tooth brushing and/or improved toothbrushing technique in the intervention group. An increased proportion of intervention parents, compared to those in the comparison group reported that they had been shown how to brush their child's teeth (OR=2.65 (1.49 to 4.69)). Process evaluation results highlighted the problems with recruitment and retention of the study sample (275 complete case families). The child dental screening encouraged involvement in the study, as did linking attendance with other community/cultural activities. Conclusions The Teeth Tales intervention was promising in terms of improving oral hygiene and parent knowledge of tooth brushing technique. Adaptations to delivery of the intervention are required to increase uptake and likely impact. A future cluster randomised controlled trial
Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Christian, Bradley; Gold, Lisa; Young, Dana; de Silva, Andrea; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Riggs, Elisha; Tadic, Maryanne; Hall, Martin; Gondal, Iqbal; Pradel, Veronika; Moore, Laurence
The Teeth Tales trial aimed to establish a model for child oral health promotion for culturally diverse communities in Australia. An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from migrant backgrounds. Mixed method, longitudinal evaluation. The intervention was based in Moreland, a culturally diverse locality in Melbourne, Australia. Families with 1-4-year-old children, self-identified as being from Iraqi, Lebanese or Pakistani backgrounds residing in Melbourne. Participants residing close to the intervention site were allocated to intervention. The intervention was conducted over 5 months and comprised community oral health education sessions led by peer educators and follow-up health messages. This paper reports on the intervention impacts, process evaluation and descriptive analysis of health, knowledge and behavioural changes 18 months after baseline data collection. Significant differences in the Debris Index (OR=0.44 (0.22 to 0.88)) and the Modified Gingival Index (OR=0.34 (0.19 to 0.61)) indicated increased tooth brushing and/or improved toothbrushing technique in the intervention group. An increased proportion of intervention parents, compared to those in the comparison group reported that they had been shown how to brush their child's teeth (OR=2.65 (1.49 to 4.69)). Process evaluation results highlighted the problems with recruitment and retention of the study sample (275 complete case families). The child dental screening encouraged involvement in the study, as did linking attendance with other community/cultural activities. The Teeth Tales intervention was promising in terms of improving oral hygiene and parent knowledge of tooth brushing technique. Adaptations to delivery of the intervention are required to increase uptake and likely impact. A future cluster randomised controlled trial would provide strongest evidence of effectiveness if appropriate to the community, cultural and
political conflict in Sri Lanka by examining Tamil and Sinhala transnational community networks in Canada and their nexus in Sri Lanka. Researchers will focus on political organizations, home village associations, the media, informal money ...
Hatch, S L; Gazard, B; Williams, D R; Frissa, S; Goodwin, L; Hotopf, M
Few studies have examined discrimination and mental health in the UK, particularly by migrant status and in urban contexts with greater demographic diversity. This study aims to (1) describe the prevalence of discrimination experiences across multiple life domains; (2) to describe associations between discrimination experiences and common mental disorder (CMD); (3) to determine whether or not the relationship between discrimination and CMD varies by migrant status and ethnicity. Data on major, anticipated and everyday discrimination and CMD symptoms were collected from an ethnically diverse prospective sample of 1052 participants followed up from 2008 to 2013 in the South East London Community Health study, a population-based household survey. With few exceptions, discrimination was most prevalent among those in the Black Caribbean group. However, those in the White Other ethnic group had similar or greater reporting major and anticipated discrimination to Black or mixed ethnic minority groups. The effects of discrimination on CMD were most pronounced for individuals who had recently migrated to the UK, an ethnically heterogeneous group, and for Black and Mixed ethnic minority groups in partially adjusted models. Prior CMD accounted for differences between the Mixed and White British ethnic groups, but the strength of the association for the most recent migrant group and the Black ethnic groups remained two or more times greater than the reference groups. The strength of the relationship suggests a need for more consideration of migration status along with ethnicity in examining the impact of discrimination on mental disorder in community and clinical samples.
Parrini, Rodrigo; Castañeda, Xóchitl; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ruiz, Juan; Lemp, George
This paper examines the construction of a homoerotic social scene among Mexican migrants in California. It analyses the discourses of migrant men in the cities of San Diego and Fresno who identify themselves as heterosexual and have not had sexual experiences with men and those of members of civil society organisations doing HIV prevention work with migrant men, to show how an identity-based model of sexuality used by the HIV prevention organisations is counter to the strategic, non-identity-based model constructed by migrant men. With this incongruence as its starting point, the paper offers a critique both of the epistemological factors underlying the category of 'men who have sex with men' and the logic running through HIV prevention discourses that adhere to the Foucauldian notion of the deployment of sexuality, which demands both truth and coherence in subjects' sexuality.
Mishra, Suchismita; Kusuma, Yadlapalli; Babu, Bontha
Background: In India, of the rural-urban migrants, a small segment of people migrated from tribal areas (hilly forest areas) and they possess more vulnerability due to their multiple disadvantage.Objective: To report immunization uptake of children of tribal migrants living in an urban city of Eastern India.Methods: Data were collected from 126 tribal households who migrated to the city during last 12 years. Data pertaining to the awareness of vaccines and reception of various vaccines were c...
Vatcharavongvan, Pasitpon; Hepworth, Julie; Lim, Joanne; Marley, John
This study explored the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Brisbane, Australia. Five focus groups with Thai migrants were conducted. The qualitative data were examined using thematic content analysis that is specifically designed for focus group analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) positive experiences in Australia, (2) physical health problems, (3) mental health problems, and (4) familial and social health problems. This study revealed key health needs related to chronic disease and mental health, major barriers to health service use, such as language skills, and facilitating factors, such as the Thai Temple. We concluded that because the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants were complex and culture bound, the development of health and community services for Thai migrants needs to take account of the ways in which Thai culture both negatively impacts health and offer positive solutions to problems.
Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...
Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational
Past studies of female drug users in South Asia tend to focus on their plights, for instance, how they have been driven to drug use and encounter more problems than their male counterparts, such as HIV/AIDS and sexual abuse. Few studies focus on their active role--how they actively make use of resources in the external environment to construct their desired femininity through drug consumption. Furthermore, little is known about the situation of female South Asian drug users who are living overseas. This paper is a study of transnational migration, drug use and gender--how transnational migration influences the drug use of female transnational migrants. An 18-month ethnography has been carried out in a Nepali community in Hong Kong and 13 informants were interviewed. Data were coded and analyzed by using the grounded-theory approach. Themes related to the drug use of the female Nepali heroin users were identified. The findings show that there are three important themes that significantly affect the drug use of female Nepali heroin users, which include (1) their relationships with intimate partners, (2) their means of support, and (3) their legal status in migration. The findings are consistent with the concept of post-structuralism in gender and transnationalism theories. Female Nepali heroin users in Hong Kong are neither active agents nor passive victims; their active/passive role is largely dependent on their reconfigured opportunities and constraints in transnational migration. Thus, transnationalism should be taken as an important perspective to study the situation of female drug users in a globalized context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andre M N Renzaho
parental use of children's increased knowledge of the new environment to navigate their new environment. Migrant families conceptualised family capital as the social solidarity, influence, and control governing obligations and expectations, intergenerational knowledge transmission and information flow, social norms, and cultural identity. The loss of family capital was characterised by children's refusal to associate with or meet family members, preferring to be alone in their rooms and private space. Migrant youth find themselves caught between and negotiating two cultures, with unwanted negative consequences at the family level in the form of intergenerational conflicts. The new found freedom among children and their rapid transition into the Australian society gives children an increased sense of agency, which in turn threatens parental authority, allowing children to exercise three forms of power: increased assertiveness due to legal protection of children against any corporal punishment; and English language fluency and greater understanding of the functioning of Australian social institutions.Our findings suggest the need for an inter-generational approach to healthy family dynamics within migrant communities when dealing with youth negotiating the complexity and sensitivity of forging their cultural identity.
Renzaho, Andre M N; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole
of children's increased knowledge of the new environment to navigate their new environment). Migrant families conceptualised family capital as the social solidarity, influence, and control governing obligations and expectations, intergenerational knowledge transmission and information flow, social norms, and cultural identity. The loss of family capital was characterised by children's refusal to associate with or meet family members, preferring to be alone in their rooms and private space. Migrant youth find themselves caught between and negotiating two cultures, with unwanted negative consequences at the family level in the form of intergenerational conflicts. The new found freedom among children and their rapid transition into the Australian society gives children an increased sense of agency, which in turn threatens parental authority, allowing children to exercise three forms of power: increased assertiveness due to legal protection of children against any corporal punishment; and English language fluency and greater understanding of the functioning of Australian social institutions. Our findings suggest the need for an inter-generational approach to healthy family dynamics within migrant communities when dealing with youth negotiating the complexity and sensitivity of forging their cultural identity.
Since the rise of the Internet, the act of border crossing has become a pursuit that must necessarily be conceptualized in both real and virtual terms. By using theories connected to virtual communities, new technologies, fan cultures and tourism, this paper seeks to show that the culturally productive activities of a transnational virtual…
A co-edited compilation of papers by major international scholars examining vampire narratives from transnational and postcolonial perspectives.......A co-edited compilation of papers by major international scholars examining vampire narratives from transnational and postcolonial perspectives....
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities.
, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants...
Full Text Available This study examines the images of transnational migrants represented in Taiwan’s mainstream newspapers. By observing the various facets of coverage on transnational migrants with different national and ethnic backgrounds in news media, the study intends to discuss how Taiwan’s society as a whole imagines foreigners coming from different regions of the world under the backdrop of increasing global migration. The study chose the online database of the four major newspapers – United Daily News, China Times, Liberty Times and Apple Daily News – as the main sources for data-gathering. News contents regarding transnational migrants within five-year time span (2007-2011 were collected, and a random sample of 466 news segments was selected for content analysis. The content analysis yields several significant findings. First, the study found that the majority of migrant news appears on local sections, and the length of coverage is mainly less than 600 words. Second, some discrepancies concerning the ways of coverage toward different groups of transnational migrants in news theme, news section, length of coverage, news tendency and news source are identified. Last, news coverage emphasizes more on the inner traits than external features when describing group characteristics of transnational migrants, which bears positive meanings for enhancing the overall images of transnational migrants.
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece
Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...
Agustin, Lise Rolandsen
Various organisations mobilise at the transnational, European level around gender and ethnicity issues, setting forward demands both by and on behalf of ethnic minority and migrant women. The organisations deal with diversity, in terms of gender and ethnicity, in different ways but they all...
Tulaeva, S.; Tysyachnyouk, M.
This article compares benefit sharing arrangements set up between indigenous people and Russian and transnational oil companies. It demonstrates that Russian oil companies interact with indigenous communities in a paternalistic way, while transnational consortiums, operated by Sakhalin Energy and
Lopez, Marcella J; Mintle, Rachel A; Smith, Sylvia; Garcia, Alicia; Torres, Vanessa N; Keough, Allie; Salgado, Hugo
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most common forms of violence against women worldwide. Among Mexican women, it is estimated that 15 to 71% have experienced physical or sexual abuse by an intimate male partner in their lifetime. This study examined the prevalence of four leading risk factors associated with IPV (alcohol consumption, education, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender roles) in adult women (n = 68) in a migrant farmworker community in México. Alcohol consumption among women was higher than the national average, and partner consumption was lower. Education level and SES were low, and women identified with a feminist ideology more than a traditional gender role. Results also revealed that 86.4% (n = 57) of participants identified violence against women as a common problem in the community, and the majority (94.0%, n = 62) of participants believe that IPV specifically is a problem within the community.
Full Text Available The issue of transnational class formation has figured centrally in recent debates on globalization. These debates revolve around the question of whether or not new patterns of cross-border trade and investment have established global circuits of capital out of which a transnational capitalist class has emerged. This paper takes up the notion of transnational class formation at the point of corporate directorship interlocks. Using Canada as a case study, it maps the changing network of directorship interlocks between leading firms in Canada and the world economy. In particular, the paper examines the role of transnational corporations (TNCs in the Canadian corporate network; the resilience of a national corporate community; and new patterns of cross-border interlocking amongst transnational firms. Through this empirical mapping, the paper finds a definite link between investment and interlocking shaping the social space of the global corporate elite. Corporations with a transnational base of accumulation tend to participate in transnational interlocking. While national corporate communities have not been transcended, transnational firms increasingly predominate within them, articulating national with transnational elite segments. This new network of firms reconstitutes the corporate power bloc and forms a nascent transnational capitalist class.
Smith-Estelle, Allison; Gruskin, Sofia
Human rights norms and standards can be applied to health issues as an analytical tool and as a framework to identify and shape interventions to reduce the impact of ill-health and improve the lives of individuals and populations. This article discusses how migration, health status, gender-based discrimination and access to education have an impact on HIV/STI vulnerability among rural women from migrant communities in Nepal. It is based on data from a clinic-based HIV/STI prevalence study with 900 women aged 15-49 from two rural communities in Kailali district, Western Nepal, and existing legal and policy data. Existing efforts to address HIV/STI vulnerability and risk in this population focus primarily on risk-taking behaviour and risk-generating situations, and largely fail to address contextual issues that create and facilitate risky behaviour and situations. Respecting, protecting and fulfilling the rights of individuals can reduce vulnerability to HIV/STI infection. Greater emphasis must be given to addressing the gender discrimination embedded in Nepalese culture, the acute lack of access to health care and education in rural areas, and the precarious economic, legal and social circumstances facing many migrants and their families.
Keegan, Patrick Joseph
In the context of transnational migration, schools are reimagining their role in preparing students to become democratic citizens. The qualitative research study described in this article explores the places where five Dominican transnational youth attending a New York City public high school for late-arriving migrants enacted their civic…
Michaël Da Cruz
This article examines the offshore bilingual (English/Spanish) call centers in Mexico City that serve as the entry into the labor market for young Mexican return migrants. Thanks to the English skills and cultural capital they gained from their experience in the United States, they are able to compete with more-skilled workers and are better suited to manage the cultural dimension of this transnational labor. Return migrants become stuck in this economic niche, however, owing to a lack of pro...
Full Text Available As a contribution to the burgeoning field of multidisciplinary globalization studies, this article evaluates how IR grand theories can conceptualize the phenomenon of global elite. It compares and synthesizes (neoliberalism, constructivism, feminism and neo-Marxism. Liberal approaches use the analytical tool of transnational actors or transnational networks. In constructivist’s perspective, part of global elite falls into the category of epistemic community. Feminists offer the term Davos Men. Neo-Marxist conceptualization revolves around the notion of transnational capitalist class. The paper concludes that neo-Marxist IR theory best accounts for the global elite and therefore, the debates on the transnational capitalist class are thoroughly and critically reviewed.
Fox, Fiona; Aabe, Nura; Turner, Katrina; Redwood, Sabi; Rai, Dheeraj
Increasing recognition of autism in Somali migrant communities means that appropriate support services are needed. Attitudes to autism and barriers related to help-seeking in these communities are poorly understood. We aimed to assess what families affected by autism need, and how health, education and social care services can support them. In partnership with the local Somali community the research team conducted 15 in-depth interviews with parents affected by autism. Two themes are reported...
Jørgensen, Martin Bak
within the Turkish minority in the three countries with special attention to the influence of transnational social transformation. Social communities and organisations such as trade unions, political parties or religious and cultural association have usually been ascribed the capability to enhance...... relations between individuals and to extend trust, values, identity and social belonging. Whether we focus on the individual and the value of face to face contact or we focus on the role of the organisation as an intervening institution between the state, the political system and the citizen...... in strengthening democracy, such types of engagement also will have an effect on the processes of integration of immigrants in the host society. The Dutch researchers Meindert Fennema & Jean Tillie have in relation to this claim stated quite provocatively that: “To have undemocratic ethnic organisations is better...
Chinese migrants have been emigrating to the Netherlands since 1911. Particularly after World War Two, female migrants outnumbered male migrants, yet their daily-life practices and transnational motherhood experiences have remained largely unknown. For this reason, my study pays attention to
Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Ronkainen, Noora
. The developmental transition from secondary to higher education was chosen as a key transition to classify the DC pathways. Additional insights into DC mobilization across international borders were gleaned by employing the typologies of sport migrants developed in the sport labor migration research. Results Three...... patterns of transnational DC were discerned from the narratives based on the direction of geographic mobility and the core migration motive underpinning the storyline. Within the present dataset, the taxonomies are: (1) Within EU mobility: the sport exile DC pathway; (2) Mobility to the U.S.A.: the sport...... mercenary DC pathway; and (3) Mobility to the U.S.A.: the nomadic cosmopolitan DC pathway. Conclusions The identified transnational DC paths are not exhaustive, and highlight possibilities of individual development, unfolding through the matrices of social structures in a given location. Further research...
Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn
Transnational litigation, PIL, IP, Choice of law, Arbitration, Jurisdiction, Recognition of judgments......Transnational litigation, PIL, IP, Choice of law, Arbitration, Jurisdiction, Recognition of judgments...
This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....
Raw, Anni; Mantecón, Ana Rosas
This paper draws on new research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City to discuss contextual influences on artists' practice, and whether a common practice model can be identified. The international comparison is used to interrogate whether such a practice model is transnational, displaying shared characteristics that transcend contextual differences. The study used multi-site ethnography to investigate the participatory practice of more than 40 artists. Participant observation and extended individual and group dialogues provided data on practice in a diverse range of art forms and settings, analysed using open coding and grounded theory principles. Findings locate differences in practitioners' motivations, and perceptions of the work's function; however, key similarities emerge across both sites, in practitioners' workshop methodologies and crucially in their creative strategies for catalysing change. A model is presented distilling the key elements of a common practice methodology, found across the study and across art forms. The discussion notes where divergences echo nationalities of contributors, drawing inferences about the level of influence of national context in this work, and concludes with the implications of these findings for potential international collaboration, to face challenges within the community arts and health sector globally.
Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni
Addressing complex transnational problems requires coordination from different professionals. The emergence of new actors and issues has been addressed by those interested in studies of organizations through concepts and methods that highlight the importance of communities, fields, and networks....... These approaches are important in identifying the sources of what becomes established, but less geared to identifying interactions that are emergent. This article extends a linked ecologies approach to emergence, arguing that interaction on transnational issues should first be understood by how...... they are conceptually linked by actors and organizations. A linked ecologies approach asks us to displace locating known actors within structures and instead pays attention to professional interactions on how ‘issue distinctions’ are made, the relationship between issue distinctions and professional tasks, and who...
Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo
This study examines factors associated with the physical health of Korea's growing immigrant population. Specifically, it focuses on the associations between ethnic networks, community social capital, and self-rated health (SRH) among female marriage migrants. For empirical testing, secondary analysis of a large nationally representative sample (NSMF 2009) is conducted. Given the clustered data structure (individuals nested in communities), a series of two-level random intercepts and slopes models are fitted to probe the relationships between SRH and interpersonal (bonding and bridging) networks among foreign-born wives in Korea. In addition to direct effects, cross-level interaction effects are investigated using hierarchical linear modeling. While adjusting for confounders, bridging (inter-ethnic) networks are significantly linked with better health. Bonding (co-ethnic) networks, to the contrary, are negatively associated with immigrant health. Net of individual-level covariates, living in a commuijnity with more aggregate bridging social capital is positively linked with health. Community-level bonding social capital, however, is not a significant predictor. Lastly, two cross-level interaction terms are found. First, the positive relationship between bridging network and health is stronger in residential contexts with more aggregate bridging social capital. Second, it is weaker in communities with more aggregate bonding social capital.
The paper concerns the specific transnational aspects of the ‘cartoons controversy' over the publication of 12 drawings of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. Transnationalism denotes the relationships that are not international (between states) or domestic (between stat...
María Guadalupe Ramírez Contreras
Full Text Available It was estimated in 2009 that 11,500.0 millions Mexican immigrants were living in the United States (Pew Hispanic Center, 2009. However, such immigrants can’t take their families with them to the US breaking-up of the family unit. Therefore, immigrants and their families become members of a transnational family. In order to cope with such family break-up, members of such families try to balance themselves through developing an emotional intimacy using communication technologies. However, what kind of emotional support is offered when one of the members of the transnational family is a senior citizen and chronically ill? What kind of emotions do these transnational families experience? Which communication technologies do they use to be in touch? How these communication technologies are related to the emotional support? In order to answer these research questions, I explored previous studies in which I found that they only included the immigrants’ point of view. To overcome this limitation in this study, I included the point of view of all members of transnational families. I conducted a qualitative study. It took place in Sahuayo, Michoacan. I interviewed members of 15 transnational families during 2012 and 2013. The results showed that emotional support was identified as: a contacting relatives in Mexico, initiated by immigrants, b exchanging daily life experiences; c solving issues and conflicts; and d immigrants supporting, participating or being virtually in special celebrations. Immigrants also used communication technologies in order to maintain emotional ties and give emotional support to their parents. The communication help immigrants to provide the emotional support to their parents and also to express their feelings. I recommend studying national migrants and rural populations, in order to analyse any differences between them and my sample.
Feldt, Jakob Egholm
and normativity.Transnationalism and the Jews directly relates ideas about transnationalism and cultural pluralism to Jewish historical experience. It shows how the Jews and ‘Jewishness’ has been a problematic issue for cultural thought since the Enlightenment, and how this problem produced the alternative ideas......The concept of transnationalism has been widely used for many years to describe mobility and cross-border relations in the modern, globalized world. Most uses of the concept of transnationalism neglect its historical trajectory and largely ignore the networks that constructed its meaning...... of culture and identity that are widely accepted today. It argues that Jewish experience and ‘Jewishness’ helped produced the modern concept of transnationalism and cultural pluralism...
Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Onyenekwu, Ifeyinwa; Schwingel, Andiara; Iwelunmor, Juliet
Lack of physical activity participation has been identified as a determinant for negative health outcomes across various ethnicities worldwide and within the USA. We investigated the perceptions of the prospects of promoting dancing within hometown associations as a form for improving physical activity participation for Nigerian Transnational Immigrants (NTIs) in the USA: a migrant cohort subset of individuals who maintain cross-border ties with their indigenous communities of origin. Using PEN-3 cultural model, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 transnational African migrants (11 males and 13 females) living in Chicago to explore culturally sensitive strategies to promote physical activity participation among our target population. The findings revealed positive perceptions related to dancing that might help to promote physical activity (PA) among NTI, existential or unique perceptions related to Nigerian parties that may also play a role with PA promotion, and negative perception in the form of limited discussions about PA in Nigerian hometown associations in the USA. Results from this study highlight the need for further investigation on culturally sensitive strategies to improve physical activity and participation in diverse Black immigrant populations, specifically in the form of cultural dance and activities such as parties in which this population frequently participate in. Furthermore, hometown associations may also serve as a platform for the implementation of PA programs due to its large reach to a rather covert group.
Hershberg, Rachel M.; Lykes, M. Brinton
This exploratory narrative inquiry examines the lives of four Central American females with one or more U.S.-based undocumented migrant parents. Each participant is between 10 and 16 years old and is part of a transnational family living between the U.S. and Central America. Their narratives provide a window into transnational girls' experiences at the intersections of gender, ethnicity, family role, and legal status. Specifically, through thematic narrative analysis we learn about each girl'...
Full Text Available An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity.
Lovelock, Kirsten; Martin, Greg
To document and explore the experience of migrant care workers providing health and social care to the elderly in institutional care settings and in the homes of the elderly in the community in New Zealand with a particular focus on the affective components of care work. This qualitative study involved conducting face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interviews with 29 migrant care workers in the eldercare sector in the cities of Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through various agencies focusing on aged care and engaged with migrant eldercare workers and snowballing through participant referral. Sample size was determined when saturation was reached. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, themes were identified and then analysed drawing on a body of theoretical work in the fields of emotional anthropology and moral geography and the international empirical literature addressing migrant eldercare workers. As with the international research in this field we found that these workers were vulnerable to exploitation, the workforce is largely feminised and stereotypical understandings of racial groups and national characteristics informed recruitment and the workplace experience. Here attributing gradients of affect to particular migrant groups in the workforce was the main mechanism employed to establish worker worth and difference. Identifying with these gradients of affect enabled these eldercare workers to demonstrate that they met the moral and ethical requirements of permanent residency and ultimately citizenship. Eldercare workers in the home were vulnerable to 'blurred emotional boundaries' and care recipient demand for greater emotional commitment. The migrant eldercare workers in this study all shared vulnerable residential status and many feared they would never obtain permanent residency or citizenship. All had family who remained in the Philippines and towards whom they had an obligation to substitute
Davis, K.E.; Lutz, Helma; Schiebel, Martina; Tuider, Elisabeth
In this chapter, I will analyse the recent revival of Argentinean tango as an example of a transnational cultural space. Based on biographical research with tango dancers both within and outside Argentina, I show how these dancers participate locally in what is also a global dance culture and what
Murphy, Eleanor J; Mahalingam, Ramaswami
Immigration scholars have demonstrated the increasing importance of transnational activities among contemporary immigrants. While much of the previous research has emphasized social and economic outcomes, very little attention has been paid to psychological well-being or mental health. Using a community sample of West Indian immigrants, we developed an empirical measure of the nature and frequency of transnational practices. The resulting Transnationalism Scale is examined for psychometric properties using an exploratory principal components factor analysis, and bivariate correlations with pre-existing measures of psychological well-being, perceived social support, and ethnic identity. Results reveal five factors, some of which are significantly correlated with measures of psychological well-being, social support, and ethnic identity. Findings suggest that transnationalism, as a construct, is a valid measure for this population. We argue that transnational ties shape various aspects of immigrants' lives.
Tran, Ly Thi; Pham, Lien
International students' connectedness with their peers, institutions and the broader community significantly affects their learning and wellbeing. It is important to understand their multiple desires for intercultural connectedness in order to nurture it. This paper analyses the motives and nature of international students' intercultural…
Full Text Available Background: The ability of couples to migrate together or to reunify in the destination country is increasingly limited because family reunification laws are becoming more stringent, especially for those moving from the Global South to the North. However, little is known regarding migrants' reunification behavior. Objective: We examine the prevalence of couples living-apart-together-across-borders (LATAB, the duration of their separation, and under which conditions they remain transnational or reunify in the destination country. Methods: Using data from the MAFE-Ghana project, we focus on LATAB couples among Ghanaian migrants living in the Netherlands and the UK (n=291. Event history analyses are used to examine the probability of reunification. We consider characteristics of the migrant, the left-behind spouse, their relationship, and the receiving country context. Results: Couples remain separated for extended periods of time. Just over half of the couples in the Netherlands and the UK reunified: approximately half did not. Reunification is less likely in the Netherlands than the U.K. and is less likely since 2004, when reunification policies became stricter. Spouse's education is a significant factor in explaining reunification, but, surprisingly, legal status is not. Being able to maintain transnational ties through short return visits increases the likelihood of LATAB. Conclusions: Findings reveal that LATAB relationships are a common, long-term arrangement among Ghanaian migrants. Comments: These results emphasize the relevance of including partner characteristics at both origin and destination. Furthermore, comparing two destination countries shows that destination country context is important in understanding migrants' decisions to live transnationally or reunify.
Lee, Susan K; Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl R; Thompson, Sandra C
Although the challenges of working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups can lead to the exclusion of some communities from research studies, cost effective strategies to encourage access and promote cross-cultural linkages between researchers and ethnic minority participants are essential to ensure their views are heard and their health needs identified. Using bilingual research assistants is one means to achieve this. In a study exploring alcohol and other drug service use by migrant women in Western Australia, bilingual workers were used to assist with participant recruitment and administration of a survey to 268 women who spoke more than 40 different languages. Professional interpreters, bilingual students, bilingual overseas-trained health professionals and community sector bilingual workers were used throughout the research project. For the initial qualitative phase, professional interpreters were used to conduct interviews and focus group sessions, however scheduling conflicts, inflexibility, their inability to help with recruitment and the expense prompted exploration of alternative options for interview interpreting in the quantitative component of the study. Bilingual mature-age students on work placement and overseas-trained health professionals provided good entry into their different community networks and successfully recruited and interviewed participants, often in languages with limited interpreter access. Although both groups required training and supervision, overseas-trained health professionals often had existing research skills, as well as understanding of key issues such as confidentiality and referral processes. Strategies to minimise social desirability bias and the need to set boundaries were discussed during regular debriefing sessions. Having a number of workers recruiting participants also helped minimise the potential for selection bias. The practical and educational experience gained by the bilingual workers was regarded as
Background Although the challenges of working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups can lead to the exclusion of some communities from research studies, cost effective strategies to encourage access and promote cross-cultural linkages between researchers and ethnic minority participants are essential to ensure their views are heard and their health needs identified. Using bilingual research assistants is one means to achieve this. In a study exploring alcohol and other drug service use by migrant women in Western Australia, bilingual workers were used to assist with participant recruitment and administration of a survey to 268 women who spoke more than 40 different languages. Discussion Professional interpreters, bilingual students, bilingual overseas-trained health professionals and community sector bilingual workers were used throughout the research project. For the initial qualitative phase, professional interpreters were used to conduct interviews and focus group sessions, however scheduling conflicts, inflexibility, their inability to help with recruitment and the expense prompted exploration of alternative options for interview interpreting in the quantitative component of the study. Bilingual mature-age students on work placement and overseas-trained health professionals provided good entry into their different community networks and successfully recruited and interviewed participants, often in languages with limited interpreter access. Although both groups required training and supervision, overseas-trained health professionals often had existing research skills, as well as understanding of key issues such as confidentiality and referral processes. Strategies to minimise social desirability bias and the need to set boundaries were discussed during regular debriefing sessions. Having a number of workers recruiting participants also helped minimise the potential for selection bias. The practical and educational experience gained by the bilingual
Kokab, Farina; Greenfield, Sheila; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Sidhu, Manbinder; Tait, Lynda; Gill, Paramjit
The objective of this research was to synthesise qualitative literature about the perceived influence and experience of social support, in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in migrant Pakistani communities. Articles were systematically reviewed, critically appraised, and analysed using an adapted meta-ethnography approach. Sixteen qualitative studies on health behaviours related to CVD prevention were included. include four sub-themes under two substantive thematic areas that focus on: 1) family dynamics and 2) community dynamics influenced by discrimination. For members of the Pakistani community, gendered family dynamics and discrimination from outside and within community networks influenced behaviour change. The authors of the synthesis developed multi-layered, contextualised interpretations of the care needs of an established multi-generational community. Future qualitative studies taking an intersectional approach to interpreting the role of social networks in migrant communities should take into account gender, identity, culture and faith. Health care providers should focus on cultural awareness and sensitivity during consultations. In particular, general practitioners can benefit from the insight they gain from patient experiences, allowing for more appropriate recommendations. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contribution to the Forum: Unpacking the Deep Structures of Global Governance: How Transnational Professionals Can Make Global Governance Intelligible.......Contribution to the Forum: Unpacking the Deep Structures of Global Governance: How Transnational Professionals Can Make Global Governance Intelligible....
Yllmaz, Gulsen; Schmid, Monika S.
This study explores the extent to which first language (L1) versus second language (L2) use and attachments to native versus majority language and culture influence the proficiency in the L2 Dutch among the Turkish-Dutch bilinguals. The community under investigation is of particular significance
Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"
van der Zwan, Roos; Bles, Per; Lubbers, M.
This research presents a new perspective on migrant integration. It questions the extent that established migrants perceive threats from new migrants, and how that is influenced by natives’ perceived migrant threat. We hypothesized about an acculturation pattern that established migrants will be
Zwan, R. van der; Bles, P.H.; Lubbers, M.
This research presents a new perspective on migrant integration. It questions the extent that established migrants perceive threats from new migrants, and how that is influenced by natives' perceived migrant threat. We hypothesized about an acculturation pattern that established migrants will be
Michaël Da Cruz
Full Text Available This article examines the offshore bilingual (English/Spanish call centers in Mexico City that serve as the entry into the labor market for young Mexican return migrants. Thanks to the English skills and cultural capital they gained from their experience in the United States, they are able to compete with more-skilled workers and are better suited to manage the cultural dimension of this transnational labor. Return migrants become stuck in this economic niche, however, owing to a lack of professional possibilities outside of the sector.
José Gpe. Vargas Hernández
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the development of capitalism since its beginning until reaching the highest stage in the processes of neoliberal economic globalization and its version of New Economy supported by information and communication technologies. By exposing the development from a perspective of critical analysis, the impacts and effects on individuals, communities and the Nation State are evaluated. Posteriorly the reaches of the transnational neoliberal capitalist model impositions are questioned and finally the conclusion is that a cultural revolution is needed to not accept the forms of domination, power and alienation of globalizing capitalism and to reconstruct the identity of communities through individual and collective action which asserts self-determination, independence and self-management.
Harker, Richard J. W.
Museums Connect is a program funded by the US Department of State and administered by the American Alliance of Museums that sponsors transnational museum partnerships. This program provides one model for teaching public history in a transnational context, and this article analyzes the experiences of two university-museums—the Museum of History and Holocaust Education (MHHE) in the United States and the Ben M’sik Community Museum (BMCM) in Morocco—during two grants between 2009 and 2012. In ex...
Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise
research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....
Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther
The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes......, supranational nor totally denationalised. It is neither arbitrary nor accidental that we present our inquiries into this phenomenon in the series of International Studies on Private Law Theory....
Kjaer, Poul F.
by a protracted dual movement where the expansion and densification of statehood and autonomous forms of transnational ordering gradually emerged in a mutually constitutive fashion. One implication of this is that neither the concept of the state nor the concept of nonstate transnational entities is adequately...... of the law of normative orders has been introduced, specifying them as respectively oriented towards establishing internal condensation of a given normative order and external compatibility between different normative orders. With this background, a framework for the analysis of constitutional frameworks...
Kjær, Poul F.
by a protracted dual movement where the expansion and densification of statehood and autonomous forms of transnational ordering gradually emerged in a mutually constitutive fashion. One implication of this is that neither the concept of the state nor the concept of nonstate transnational entities is adequately...... of the law of normative orders has been introduced, specifying them as respectively oriented towards establishing internal condensation of a given normative order and external compatibility between different normative orders. With this background, a framework for the analysis of constitutional frameworks...
Kari M. Bail
Full Text Available Migrant farmworkers represent one of the most marginalized and underserved populations in the United States. Acculturation theory cannot be easily mapped onto the transnational experience of migrant farmworkers, who navigate multiple physical and cultural spaces yearly, and who are not recognized by the state they constitute, “the Citizen’s Other” (Kerber, 2009. This paper utilizes narrative analysis of a case study to illustrate, through the relationship of the narrator to migrant farmworkers and years of participant observation by the coauthors, how isolation from family and community, as well as invisibility within institutions, affect the health and well-being of migrant farmworkers in southeastern Georgia. Invisibility of farmworkers within institutions, such as health care, the educational system, social services, domestic violence shelters, and churches contribute to illness among farmworkers. The dominant American discourse surrounding immigration policy addresses the strain immigrants put on the social systems, educational system, and the health care system. Nurses who work with farmworkers are well positioned to bring the subjective experience of farmworkers to light, especially for those engaged with socially just policies. Those who contribute to the abundant agricultural produce that feeds Americans deserve the recognition upon which social integration depends.
Full Text Available Migrants have organized transnational support for non-migrants, stay-at-homes, citizens and noncitizens, as well as for developmental or integrationist nation state projects for decades. These solidarities have been framed as “cultural programs,” “autochthone support of hometowns,” “development aid” or “diaspora politics.” Since the turn of the century especially those projects that could be framed as “development aid” have gained a lot of interest from official development aid and its agencies. More and more programs have been launched to coordinate and professionalize the transnational support labor of migrants under the aegis of development. This is what I call the hype about migration&development. In this article, I want to show why the notion of “migrant development aid” used in the hype falls short of what is at stake when it comes to transnational migrant solidarities. Thereby, I want to argue that looking at migration through its governance and through migration or development politics is short-sighted and insensitive towards the desires, ethics and politics of migration. This is the reason that a perspective of migration—such as that propagated by the autonomy of migration approach—needs to be brought into debates on migration&development.
Pakistani migrants in Denmark have achieved a level of prosperity and social mobility that first-generation migrants could only dream of before they emigrated in the 1960s. However, their success has come at a price. Currently, migrant families are experiencing a period of radical social change...... abuse) religious counselling in dealing with the contingencies of everyday life. The quest for wellbeing is not only related to the pain and suffering of ‘the individual body’, but it is also related, to a large extent, to ‘the social body’ of family and kinship relations, and seems to outline a new...
Hein de Haas
Full Text Available While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alternative theoretical interpretations, return migration can also be the outflow of successful integration in receiving countries. Drawing on a data set of four African immigrant groups in Spain and Italy, this articlereviews these conflicting hypotheses by assessing the effects of integration and transnational ties on return migration intentions. The results of the analysis suggest that socio-cultural integration has a negative effect on return migration intentions, while economic integration and transnational ties have more ambiguous and sometimes positive effects. The results provide mixed support for the different hypotheses but question theoretical perspectives that unequivocally conceptualizereturn migration and transnationalism as causes and/or consequences of "integration failure".
This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
The question of population migration and Diaspora transnationalism in the age of globalization is an area of social sciences deserving much more attention than it has received. This book deals with the advent of new ideological currents based on an assumed “Clash of Civilizations” increasingly...
Dhar, V Erica
This article concerns how globalization and the aging of the world's population are affecting the already complex issue of intergenerational transnational caregiving. Globalization has caused an increase in workforce mobility with large numbers of individuals seeking employment overseas. This, coupled with increased longevity globally, has resulted in many workers leaving their elderly parents in need of care in their home countries. This has spawned caregiving across national borders, or caring for family relations across nations. Currently in the United States, not enough emphasis is given to family caregiving. Data compiled by AARP and the National Alliance for Caregiving estimate the economic value for this group of family caregivers in 2007 to be $375 billion, accounting for 34-52 million family caregivers per given year. This does not include those families who are transnational caregivers. The seminal work in this emerging field has been done by social anthropologists Loretta Baldassar, Cora Velekoop Baldock, and Raelene Wilding, who have defined the components of transnational caregiving based on an ethnographic study using qualitative data to study nine immigrant communities in Western Australia. Although their research focused on caregiving from a distance, additional work has been added to the discussion by introducing the element of "care drain" and further cultural perspectives. Therefore, this research is an exploratory study on intergenerational transnational caregiving within the context of the changing world and its demographics. Within the context of globalization and global aging, the following questions are addressed: What is the significance of family caregiving? What is a transnational? How has technology changed "transnationalism" today? What are the elements that comprise transnational caregiving? How does culture play a role in transnational caregiving? What are some of the national initiatives undertaken by governments to aid in workforce
Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P
Many parents from South-East Asia who go overseas to work are motivated by a desire to secure a better future for their children, yet the health consequences for children who stay behind are poorly understood. This study is the first cross-country comparison to explore the relationships between parental migration and the risk of undernutrition (stunting) for primary school-aged children. The analysis uses data from the CHAMPSEA Project for children aged 9 to 11 years in the Philippines (N = 480) and Vietnam (N = 482). A series of logistic regression models compares outcomes for children living in transnational households and children living with both parents in non-migrant households in the same communities. We find no general advantage of having a migrant parent. Rather there is a reduced risk of stunting only for some left-behind children in the Philippines, whereas having a caregiver with low educational attainment is a major risk factor for all children. The findings point to a complex set of relationships between parental migration and child nutrition, possibly reflecting differential opportunities for accumulating household wealth through overseas earnings. Moreover, differences between the two countries caution against generalizing across national or cultural groups. We conclude by considering the implications of the findings for theories of transnationalism and for the UN Millennium Development Goal of reducing childhood undernutrition.
Catherine A. Solheim
Full Text Available This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documentation. Functional solidarity was expressed through financial support to parents. This involved remittances sent to parents. However, it should be noted that it was often migrants’ siblings in Mexico who managed these remittances. Affectual solidarity was expressed through statements of love and concern for one another. Normative solidarity and consensual solidarity reflected the value of familismo through financial support and the desire to live together. Several dimensions of intergenerational solidarity are interconnected. This study provides evidence for the relevance of the intergenerational solidarity framework in transnational families and suggests that geographic context is relevant when studying intergenerational relationships.
Fox, Fiona; Aabe, Nura; Turner, Katrina; Redwood, Sabi; Rai, Dheeraj
Increasing recognition of autism in Somali migrant communities means that appropriate support services are needed. Attitudes to autism and barriers related to help-seeking in these communities are poorly understood. We aimed to assess what families affected by autism need, and how health, education and social care services can support them. In partnership with the local Somali community the research team conducted 15 in-depth interviews with parents affected by autism. Two themes are reported; 'Perceptions of Autism' and 'Navigating the System'. Our research shows the importance of understanding cultural views of autism and the need to raise awareness, reduce stigma and provide support to encourage families not to delay seeking help for their children.
Full Text Available Romania, Romanian economic agents have become in recent years present evermore active in world trade. Association agreements agreed with the EuropeanUnion and beyond, opening Romania and Romanian participants ininternational trade relations, prospects of major deep involvement in the worldflow of values and knowledge. But it also means aligning our trade laws toEuropean legislation profile, with priority to Community law and assimilationregulatory provisions of international conventions ratified across Romania aspart of national law rules. Transnational corporations, which operate in morethan one country or nation at a time, have become some of the most powerfuleconomic and political entities in the world today. The United Nations hasjustly described these corporations as “the productive core of the globalizingworld economy.
Ramnarine, Carol Anne
This report describes and evaluates a program to improve the dental health of Hispanic migrant children in a Los Angles County school district. Difficulties in providing dental health care to this population included the high cost of dental care, limited access to dental services, poor nutrition, and lack of parental involvement. The 3-month…
Magalhaes, Lilian; Carrasco, Christine; Gastaldo, Denise
It is estimated that there are 30-40 million undocumented workers worldwide. Although undocumented migration has become an issue of high international relevance, it has been strikingly understudied in Canada, especially with respect to its impact on health. The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of undocumentedness in Canada through a scoping review of peer-reviewed and grey literature written in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish between 2002 and 2008. The specific aims are to: (i) summarize and disseminate current academic and community-based findings on the health, service access and working conditions of undocumented migrants in Canada; (ii) examine the sources and use of evidence; (iii) identify significant gaps in existing knowledge; (iv) set recommendations for policy and research, including considerations on transnationalism, ethics, interdisciplinary approaches, gender differences, resilience, and impact on the children of non-status parents.
Strange, Michael Stewart
The article traces the complex series of relations that are constitutive of transnational campaigning through empirical research, focusing on political campaigning critical of the WTO's General Agreement on Trade-in-Services. Applying the methodology of post-structuralist discourse theory...... to both situate transnational campaigns within the context of other political phenomena - characterised by collective action - whilst highlighting the historically-contingent communicative devices central to the ‘transnational' character of such campaigns....
Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei
With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....
Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.
This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very
In ancient time as well as in the contemporary world the transnational entrepreneurship has been a product of intelligent design, often facilitated or directly involving the state. The aim of this research is to investigate the role of the state in facilitating and utilising the transnational...... entrepreneurship, offering educational purpose, as well as creating inspirations to enhance policies towards transnational entrepreneurship, nonetheless targeting to exchange students whom can be seen as a group possessing tremendous potentials to develop and get involved in transnational entrepreneurial...... activities. This study will further on the basis of empirical investigations and identification of best practices developme theories that can inspire to policy improvements....
Zhukova Klausen, Julia
The paper deals with the social and discursive aspects of transnational living and participation. By introducing the notion of transnational networking it articulates transnational participation as a type of social and discursive connecting through which places, practices, aspects of identities...... national and cultural memberships and demonstrates how transnational participation is organized not from one national terrain to anbother but across diverse social and discursive practices....... become represented, categorized and enacted across and beyond symbolic and geo-political national terrains. The multimodal, social-semiotic, discourse analysis focuses on semiotic shifts and discursive transformations through which the actors categorize symbols, artefacts and accounts across and beyond...
Full Text Available The importance of transnational migration projects for international development has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Migrants who move from the Global South or East to work in low-wage sectors such as construction, agriculture or domestic services in wealthier countries may contribute both to growth in the receiving countries and socio-economic development in their countries of origin. Parallel to scholarship on migration and development, research on the transnationalization of domestic work generally assumes that growing care needs and increasing demand for private household services in Western societies imply a continuing demand for migrant labour. However, since the global financial crisis broke out in 2008, unemployment among migrant workers has increased dramatically in many immigrant-receiving countries, Spain being among the most severely affected. Job destruction has so far been lower in the domestic sector than in other sectors occupying large numbers of migrant workers. Yet, we find that migrant domestic workers in Spain are affected by the recession both in terms of unemployment or underemployment and deteriorating job conditions, with transnational consequences such as loss of remittances. Many migrants find themselves in a situation of “standby,” trying to subsist while waiting for the recession to end.
Pedersen, Ove Kaj; Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per
This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...
Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.
This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...
Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore how international migration changed rural communities and social mobility trajectories. I show how the intense structural changes following the socio-economic transition in Romania supported the emergence and growth of labour migration. I look at migration instances that reveal positive changes of the quality of life, housing, educational and occupational opportunities of migrants. I posit that migration changes social mobility trajectories and shapes “rurban” villages where standards of living and lifestyles merge old and new ways of life. These communities gradually begin to resemble more to host countries and to urban localities in Romania than to the traditional rural spaces.
Full Text Available This article presents the first results of a community census (December 2001 on temporary external migration at the level of all Romanian villages. Local key informants filled in the questionnaire on international temporary migration and its sociodemographic profile. As function of the key destinations, the Romanian villages cluster into six major migration fields: Germany, Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Spain. At a more detailed level, considering multiple destinations, those fields break into 15 regions of migration.Village-level analysis of the phenomenon indicates a strong selectivity of migration depending on village characteristics. About 4 percent of the total villages of the country account for more than 60 percent of the total return migration from abroad. These are villages of a high probability of transnationalism. Circular or transnational migration is shown to be connected with the basic characteristics of the migration system of the country: the villages where village to city commuting declined sharply after 1990 and where return migration from cities was high recorded a higher propensity for circular migration abroad. A set of about 2700 villages of high migration prevalence is described as «probable transnational communities».
impact of Cameroonian migrants on their home communities was the subject of a collaborative research project .... Fleischer (2006) has argued with regard to Cameroonians living in Germany, the family plays a significant .... communication problems, as only few made an attempt to learn Chinese before leaving. Cameroon.
Karen E. Richman
Full Text Available Focusses on how since the arrival of Haitians in South Florida since 1979 many of these increasingly joined and converted to Haitian evangelical Protestant churches, and came to disavow the combined Catholic and Vodou beliefs they adhered to. Author points out how this echoes trends in Haiti since the 1970s of increased conversions to evangelical Protestantism, with these localized/Haitianized Protestant churches later also moving to Florida. She further examines the motivations behind and meanings of these conversions, and argues that poor Haitian migrants construe conversion as a rhetoric and set of behaviours for mastering a model of individual, social, and economic success in the US. At the same time, she shows how this Protestant evangelical practice offers converts an escape route from familial and other obligations and interdependence connected to traditional, transnational domestic and ritual ties, that are also spiritually and magically enforced. Author however indicates that while the pastors model for their flock an assertive, separatist disposition, central to Protestantism's historical appeal, combined with a modern, ascetic approach, underneath this is often an instrumental logic aimed at instant money and private ambition. As these traditionally were illicit rewards of sorcery and magic, the pastors are seen by some as renewed and successful sorcerers. Author further examines the conversions relating these to the moral dialectic from Vodou, known as Guinea and Magic, mediating the conflicts between individualism and community, and gives examples of often pragmatic motivations for conversion. She thus concludes that Haitians' interpretations of their conversions are unique in that they are filled with their cultural concerns, images, and morality.
Seo, Bo Kyeong
For transnational migrant populations, securing birth documents of newly born children has crucial importance in avoiding statelessness for new generations. Drawing on discussions of sovereignty and political subjectivization, I ask how the fact of birth is constituted in the context of transnational migration. Based on ethnographic data collected from an antenatal clinic in Thailand, this article describes how Shan migrant women from Myanmar (also known as Burma) utilize reproductive health services as a way of assuring a safe birth while acquiring identification documents. Paying close attention to technologies of inscription adopted for maternal care and birth registration, I argue that enacting bureaucratic documents offers a chance for migrant women to bridge the interstice between human and citizen. Birth certificates for migrant children, while embodying legal ambiguity and uncertainty, epitomize non-citizen subjects' assertion of their political relationship with the state. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn
Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...
To contribute for an improved understanding oft transnational entrepreneurship as an area of interest, we conducted a single case study of a Romanian TE with a base in France. We found that through a specific combination of resources the transnational entrepreneur was able to profit from speciali......To contribute for an improved understanding oft transnational entrepreneurship as an area of interest, we conducted a single case study of a Romanian TE with a base in France. We found that through a specific combination of resources the transnational entrepreneur was able to profit from...... internationalized his firm and expanded into new business activities. Taking this case as an example, we discuss how transnational entrepreneurs can create and leverage resources to create sustainable competitive advantage. Moreover, this case depicts a form of internationalization which differs from those...... typically discussed in the literature about international new ventures. I argue that study of transnational entrepreneurs and international new ventures in general can profit from a better understanding of diversity found in transnational entrepreneurship. The way a transnational entrepreneur recognises...
Subreenduth, Sharon; Rhee, Jeong-eun
As im/migrant researchers of color working and living in the USA, we begin this article by discussing how our own transnational selves and research have created tensions with the normalized use of socially constructed and theorized categories and differences in US qualitative research practices. We theorize an alternative reflexive mode of…
Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Rosario-Ramos, Enid
This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships…
Miller, Aaron S; Lin, Henry C; Kang, Chang-Berm; Loh, Lawrence C
Objective. For decades, Haitian migrant workers living in bateyes around La Romana, Dominican Republic, have been the focus of short-term volunteer medical groups from North America. To assist these efforts, this study aimed to characterize various health and social needs that could be addressed by volunteer groups. Design. Needs were assessed using semistructured interviews of community and professional informants, using a questionnaire based on a social determinants of health framework, and responses were qualitatively analysed for common themes. Results. Key themes in community responses included significant access limitations to basic necessities and healthcare, including limited access to regular electricity and potable water, lack of health insurance, high out-of-pocket costs, and discrimination. Healthcare providers identified the expansion of a community health promoter program and mobile medical teams as potential solutions. English and French language training, health promotion, and medical skills development were identified as additional strategies by which teams could support community development. Conclusion. Visiting volunteer groups could work in partnership with community organizations to address these barriers by providing short-term access to services, while developing local capacity in education, healthcare, and health promotion in the long-term. Future work should also carefully evaluate the impacts and contributions of such volunteer efforts.
Aaron S. Miller
Full Text Available Objective. For decades, Haitian migrant workers living in bateyes around La Romana, Dominican Republic, have been the focus of short-term volunteer medical groups from North America. To assist these efforts, this study aimed to characterize various health and social needs that could be addressed by volunteer groups. Design. Needs were assessed using semistructured interviews of community and professional informants, using a questionnaire based on a social determinants of health framework, and responses were qualitatively analysed for common themes. Results. Key themes in community responses included significant access limitations to basic necessities and healthcare, including limited access to regular electricity and potable water, lack of health insurance, high out-of-pocket costs, and discrimination. Healthcare providers identified the expansion of a community health promoter program and mobile medical teams as potential solutions. English and French language training, health promotion, and medical skills development were identified as additional strategies by which teams could support community development. Conclusion. Visiting volunteer groups could work in partnership with community organizations to address these barriers by providing short-term access to services, while developing local capacity in education, healthcare, and health promotion in the long-term. Future work should also carefully evaluate the impacts and contributions of such volunteer efforts.
Decker, Arnim; Riddle, Liesl; Lucas, Steven
Our paper investigates the modes of business model innovation (BMI) that transna-tional entrepreneurs pursue when operating in emerging economy context. Drawingon a sample of 32 African diaspora entrepreneurs, we investigate how entrepreneurs leverage transnational social networks to adapt business......-technological, relating to products, services and/or processes. Transnational entrepreneurs are rooted in two (or more) environments, allowing them to draw on a richer diversity of resources (technological, organizational or market knowledge, as well as social capital). In emerging economies, transnational entrepreneurs...... find new ways to tackle conditions of resource scarcity. In environments that are characterized by varieties of voids, transnational entrepreneurs must find novel ways of collaborating with outside partners to create new opportunities for value creation. They may also be in need of novel ways...
Virginia Maria Fuentes Gutiérrez
Full Text Available In this paper we outline some of the research results of a larger work which studies the Bolivian migration from a gender perspective, as well as the impact of the institutional practices that determine the transnational experience. In a global scene of restrictive rules concerning the human mobility, we notice how control and dominance strategies are present in ideologies and symbolic mechanisms. Women options in the migration process are trapped through them. We propose to recognize the symbolic and institutional violence that pressures migrants during their migration journey, focusing on understanding the ideological content — sexism and marianism — in which they are based on. We present an analysis of the instrumented ways of applying violence against Bolivian migrant women and its families from the social action practices implemented at origin and destination (transnational perspective.
Gonzalez, Ramon; Garcia, Jose D.
Written in Spanish and English for project personnel, parents, and others interested in migrant education, the booklet summarizes general concepts and requirements behind Title I-Migrant activities in Oregon, which has been allocated $4,439,341 in Title I-Migrant funds for fiscal year 1980. Following brief definitions of important terms,…
Dieu Donné HACK-POLAY
Full Text Available This article deals with the antagonism between the need for migrant communities to maintain their native culture and the necessity to integrate in the dominant community in order to achieve social harmony and socio-economic promotion. The article found thatcultural isolation could alienate some migrants who may see in the establishment of the community organisation a way of leading a migrant life that requires neither increased contacts with indigenous groups nor specific training. The migrants find themselves locked in menial jobs and do not experience upward social mobility. The situation points to a need to rethink the management of community organisations and support systems.
Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.
This article explores the relationship between lesbian independent cinema and transnational cinema in Europe. The first part of the article outlines two main directions--one thematic and the other aesthetic--in which independent lesbian films in Europe utilize aspects of transnational cinema. The next section considers how these films articulate lesbian desire in relation to new discourses of sexual citizenship and immigration in Europe. The third part of the article examines lesbian independent films that seek to underscore the violence of immigration controls in Fortress Europe. What is significant about this group of films is that they encourage us to rethink the issue of sexual citizenship from a transnational perspective.
Lindert, Jutta; Brähler, Elmar; Wittig, Ulla; Mielck, Andreas; Priebe, Stefan
In 2006 there were about 200 millions of transnational "voluntary" migrants like labor migrants and "involuntary migrants" like refugees and asylum seekers worldwide. Depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in general populations and is reported to be highly prevalent among migrants. We aimed to assess and compare syndromes and symptoms of depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees; and to examine whether the prevalence rates are associated with study methods' and study quality. We systematically searched in the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published from 1994 - 2007. Studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria are 1) systematically described: 2) and evaluated with 15 quality criteria. The literature search generated 348 results; and 37 fulfilled our inclusion criteria (35 populations) with n = 24 681 migrants (labor migrants: n = 16 971; refugees: n = 7710). Size of studies varies from a minimum of n = 55 participants to a maximum of n = 4558 participants (Median: n = 338). Prevalence rates for depression vary between 3 % and 47 % (labor migrants) and between 3 % and 81 % (refugees); for anxiety between 6 % and 44 % (labor migrants) and between 5 % and 90 % (refugees) and for PTSD between 4 % and 86 %. No study fulfilled all 15 quality criteria. Migrants are a heterogeneous group and prevalence rates vary widely between studies. There is a need of high-quality representative studies on migrants' mental health to adequately plan health and social care.
Sigad, Laura I; Eisikovits, Rivka A
Families are increasingly dispersed across national borders. Americans in Israel are one migrant group that represents the worldwide phenomenon of transnationalism. Grandparents separated geographically from their grandchildren develop new means of communication with them and new kinds of relationships. This study uses ethnographic interviews with the grandparents of transnational, American-Israeli children and youth to offer an in-depth examination of the experience of grandparenting across borders. We find that grandparenting children who are both geographically distant and raised in a foreign culture necessitates the development of new ways of maintaining relationships with grandchildren. This study considers the impact of transnational migration on the extended family, on those left behind, who struggle with redefining their roles as grandparents and with the sense of being deprived of the roles they had expected to play. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes transnational Romanians’ stories about their first trip abroad. The concept of physical mobility is seen in a broader framework for understanding transnational and cosmopolitan behaviours as well as international migration. In order to distinguish between different types of travelling for the first trip abroad the article is constructed keeping in mind the structural changes and constraints regarding physical mobility for Romanian citizens. During the process of transition from a communist country to the status of EU member, Romanian citizens’ stories about travelling abroad for the first time fundamentally changed. Labour migrants, asylum seekers, business travellers, students or tourists left the countries with different expectations and faced different problems at destination. Their attitudes toward origin and destination framed their images about the first trip abroad. Using a qualitative approach and samples of Romanians who live in Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, the analysis emphasizes certain differences between different types of travelling for the first time abroad and reconstructs how Romanians started their transnational careers
-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all...
Honig, Benson; Drori, Israel; Carmichael, Barbara
Transnational entrepreneurs are individuals who migrate from one country to another, concurrently maintaining business-related linkages with their countries of origin and their adopted countries and communities. Once thought of as contributing primarily to ethnic enterprise and small business, they
Vertesi, Janet; Lindtner, Silvia; Shklovski, Irina
, but as evolving in relation to global processes, boundary crossings, frictions and hybrid practices. In doing so, we expand upon existing research in HCI to consider the effects, implications for individuals and communities, and design opportunities in times of increased transnational interactions. We hope...
Nogueron, Silvia Cecilia
In this study, I investigate the digital literacy practices of adult immigrants, and their relationship with transnational processes and practices. Specifically, I focus on their conditions of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their life trajectories, their conditions of learning in a community center, and their…
North America , Europe and the Middle East. But the under-development of human resources in Pakistan is...social and political development at the systemic level. For instance, drug traffi cking in Latin America or transnational terrorism in South Asia have...identity, both among diaspora communities and host countries. Immigration , emigration and stifl ed migration all have potentially disruptive effects
Vamos, Cheryl A; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Proctor, Sara; Wells, Kristen J; Daley, Ellen M
This study explored narrative responses following abnormal Pap tests among Hispanic migrant farmworkers ( N = 18; ages 22-50 years) via in-depth interviews in Florida. Qualitative analyses utilized health literacy domains (obtain/process/understand/communicate) as a conceptual framework. Participants described how they (1) obtained information about getting a Pap test, (2) processed positive and negative reactions following results, (3) understood results and recommended health-promoting behaviors, and (4) communicated and received social support. Women had disparate reactions and understanding following an abnormal Pap result. Health literacy was a meaningful conceptual framework to understand assets and gaps among women receiving an abnormal Pap test result. Future interventions should incorporate health literacy domains and facilitate patient-provider communications and social support to assist women in decision-making and health-promoting behaviors, ultimately decreasing cancer disparities.
Transnational migration flows have revitalised the interest in ethnicity in social sciences. The ethnic boundary approach (Barth, Wimmer) argues for a non-essentialist understanding of ethnicity and calls for detecting the factors that turn migrants into ethnic minorities. Based on ethnographic
reforms in the regulatory treatment of large financial institutions deemed ‘too big to fail’. Actors debating and developing policy on ‘too big to fail’ may have formal defined constituencies, as regulators, academics or lobbying organisations, but in their transnational interactions they are also...... informed by a diffuse constituency of peers through their multiple associations within policy communities. These interactions determine which policy ideas are permissible and how they are adopted. The ‘too big to fail’ case shows how reform activity to curtail the risks posed by large financial...... institutions may also inadvertently strengthen their position as transnational veto players...
reforms in the regulatory treatment of large financial institutions deemed ‘too big to fail’. Actors debating and developing policy on ‘too big to fail’ may have formal defined constituencies, as regulators, academics or lobbying organisations, but in their transnational interactions they are also...... informed by a diffuse constituency of peers through their multiple associations within policy communities. These interactions determine which policy ideas are permissible and how they are adopted. The ‘too big to fail’ case shows how reform activity to curtail the risks posed by large financial...... institutions may also inadvertently strengthen their position as transnational veto players....
Approach to migration rights and the transnational citizenship. The case of the Mexican migrants and theirs political rights Acercamiento al derecho de la migración y la ciudadanía transnacional. El caso de los emigrantes mexicanos y sus derechos políticos
José Francisco PARRA
Full Text Available The traditional concept of citizenship (linked to the nation-State expressed in the theoretical works of T. H. Marshall and defined as an array of rights (civil, political and social is not enough to help us understand the migration and political rights phenomenon. Several works have surpassed the theoretical understandings of Marshall, as a result, concepts such as «cosmopolitan citizenship», «differentied citizenship», «democratic citizenship», multicultural citizenship » and «postnational citizenship», have emerged to help us understand in liberal perspectivs citizenship in a context of globalization (migration being an important part of it. At the same time, the latter concepts have been translated into public policies of inclusion, however, both the concepts and the policies were built in terms of only the migration-receiving countries. In an effort to fill this theoretical vacuum, the concept of «transnational citizenship» has recently emerged in the works of some authors. This new approach to citizenship, which stresses cultural and economic links to justify why emigrants living in a country different to their own still retain their right to be a citizen in their countries of origin, can help us understand cases as Mexico and its 8,5 million nationals who currently live outside its boundaries: Mexico has denied political citizenship to these people for they have no Mexican political rights, for example, they can not vote abroad. The purpose of this paper is to try to explain how the transnationalism help us to understand why the Mexican State (partisan and political elites, promotes or limits the rights of mexican migrants depending either on restrictic notion of citizenship or on particular political calculations. El concepto tradicional de ciudadanía (ligado al Estado-nación y expresado teóricamente en los trabajos de T. H. Marshall y definidos como una serie de derechos agregados –civiles, políticos y sociales– es
Full Text Available This paper inquires whether video games, as cultural artefacts stemming from the digital environment, can be interpreted from the angle of transnational literature. As such, two main hypotheses are reviewed: first, that video games are transnational in content, recycling in a syncretic manner the themes and archetypes that were once rooted in local, nationalized mythologies, but that are now decontextualized and revaluated in a transnational narrative space; and secondly, that video games create transnational communities with specific social morphologies, where both authors and readers can each become the immigrant who plays without (outside of national borders. The conclusions that we may draw hereof do not concern game studies alone. Indeed, they may very well lead us to believe that in video games, transnational literature can and does find its most accomplished expression – a literature that not only places itself between national borders, but that also transcends these borders altogether.
of the NGOs have a lot of international experience (mainly in Denmark and Germany) as partners in different co-operation projects. Almost all the NGOs have recognized the important role of the scientific information in their activity. NGOs also feel the need for an easy access to required information...... for transnational co-operation like: an investigation/project concerning the driving forces behind urban development,or a co-operation in the field of wastewater reuse and minimization of wastewater loads and discharge, or a service page (internet) to search for potential partners. The governmental institutions...... in order to improve transnational cooperation are identified to be: • Search for national/international project partners • Access to existent co-operation projects or networks • Develop in common project proposals on themes requested by community groups • Exchange information/good operational practices...
Sledjeski, Eve M.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa
Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to (1) describe the prevalence of child maltreatment among migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican families and (2) identify socio-demographic and cultural (i.e., acculturation pattern, familismo) predictors of maltreatment within these two samples. Method: Representative community samples of…
Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
The paper discusses an empirical analysis which highlights the multimodal nature of identity construction. A documentary on transnational adoption provides real life incidents as research material. The incidents involve (or from them emerge) various kinds of multimodal resources and participants...
Full Text Available This essay suggests, first of all, that the power of transnational studies lies in its fundamentally dialectical approach, and, secondly, that this approach opens the way to a fresh consideration of the human subject of history. In the kind of transnational studies highlighted here, the focus is less strictly on the movements of people and capital across national borders and more on the implicitly other-oriented interactions between and among nations, making them mutually contingent phenomena, a situation which in turn entails intersubjective and intertextual events and calls for a fresh philosophy of the subject. Doyle draws on the thinking of Frantz Fanon, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Louis Althusser to explore one such possible "transnational philosophy." The second half of the essay pursues the idea that literature offers a micro-world of the dialectics of both transnational history and existential intersubjectivity. Doyle interprets Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative in relation to each other as well as in relation to transnational Atlantic history. Such readings model a method for transnational literary studies, one grounded in philosophy as well as history.
Full Text Available
This essay suggests, first of all, that the power of transnational studies lies in its fundamentally dialectical approach, and, secondly, that this approach opens the way to a fresh consideration of the human subject of history. In the kind of transnational studies highlighted here, the focus is less strictly on the movements of people and capital across national borders and more on the implicitly other-oriented interactions between and among nations, making them mutually contingent phenomena, a situation which in turn entails intersubjective and intertextual events and calls for a fresh philosophy of the subject. Doyle draws on the thinking of Frantz Fanon, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Louis Althusser to explore one such possible "transnational philosophy." The second half of the essay pursues the idea that literature offers a micro-world of the dialectics of both transnational history and existential intersubjectivity. Doyle interprets Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative in relation to each other as well as in relation to transnational Atlantic history. Such readings model a method for transnational literary studies, one grounded in philosophy as well as history.
Jørgensen, Claus Møller
The aim of this article is to take stock of nineteenth-century transnational urban history. After a short introduction to transnational history, general urban histories are analysed with respect to the ways in which transnational perspectives are incorporated into the narratives. Specific...... contributions to urban history in a transnational perspective are analysed. Approaches to urban planning history that focus on transnational linkages and international organization are discussed. Approaches to urban history within enlarged geographical scales that go beyond the nation-state framework......, with a particular focus on cities as nodes in translocal networks, are analysed. The article concludes with a critical discussion of nineteenth-century transnational urban history....
This article scrutinises language discourse in transnational culture and considers theories on "reflexive modernity" (Beck et al. 2003) for analysis. I introduce symbolic meanings of language in transnational Communities of Practice constituted by salsa dance, where, depending on dance styles and on local, national and transnational…
Full Text Available The present article, developed out of a research project which lasted several years, analyses the tensions between, on one side, Romanian Roma back-and-forth migrants, and on the other side, Geneva's police. In the last decade, these tensions are mostly linked to begging (an activity which provides small daily incomes to the majority of the 250 Romanian Roma living in the city, that is since 2007 a crime. These tensions between police officers and Roma are part of a wider European punishing-the-poor urban governance model, and bring to the exclusion of other actors from the public action. Through the interaction between the moral and symbolic violence linked to police intervention, the high visibility of Roma in public place and their reconnection with previous experiences, such tensions re-create the ethnic divide between Roma and non-Roma. As a consequence, Roma who have their roots in rural and peri-urban Transylvania use their “village making” practices to perform a symbolic and social appropriation of the town notwithstanding “anti-Gypsy” repression. The “village making” of the Roma becomes thus a specific form of response in a context (Geneva and more generally Switzerland where the occupation of urban and peri-urban territory through the “camps” experienced in other European towns does not exist.
Full Text Available In a period characterized by weak public consent over European integration, the purpose of this article is to analyze images created by transnational activists who aim to politicize the social question and migrants' subjectivity in the European Union (EU. I will explore the content of posters and images produced by social movement activists for their local and joint European protest actions, and shared on blogs and homepages. I suspect that the underexplored visual dimension of emerging transnational public spaces created by activists offers a promising field of analysis. My aim is to give an empirical example of how we can study potential "visual dialogues" in transnational public spaces created within social movements. An interesting case for visual analysis is the grassroots network of local activist groups that created a joint "EuroMayday" against precarity and which mobilized protest parades across Europe. I will first discuss the relevance of "visual dialogues" in the EuroMayday protests from the perspective of discursive theories of democracy and social movements studies. Then I discuss activists' transnational sharing of visual images as a potentially innovative cultural practice aimed at politicizing and re-interpreting official imaginaries of citizenship, labor flexibility and free mobility in Europe. I also discuss the limits on emerging transnational "visual dialogues" posed by place-specific visual cultures. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002308
Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even
Krause Hansen, Hans; Porter, Tony
This study examines how numbers in transnational governance constitute actors, objects, and relationships, including relationships of power. We review the existing literatures on numbers for insights relevant to their role in transnational governance, including the ontology of numbers, the histor...
Merry, Lisa; Pelaez, Sandra; Edwards, Nancy C
To synthesize the recent qualitative literature and identify the integrative themes describing the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We searched seven online databases for the period January 2006 to February 2017. We included English and French published peer-reviewed articles and graduate-level dissertations, which qualitatively examined the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We summarized study characteristics and performed a thematic analysis across the studies. One hundred thirty eight studies met inclusion criteria. All but three were conducted in high-income countries, mainly in the US. Migrants studied were mostly undocumented from Latin America and refugees from Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost all studies (93%) included mothers; about half (47%) included fathers; very few (5%) included extended family members. We identified three integrative themes: 1) experiencing hardship and/or loss in the context of precarious migration and past traumas; 2) building resilience and strength by bridging language, norms and expectations; and 3) living transnationally: obligations, challenges and resources. Each theme contributed to shaping the parenthood experience; the transnationalism theme intersected with the themes on hardship and loss and resilience and strength. More research is needed with fathers, extended family members, asylum-seekers and in the LMIC context. A transnational lens needs to be applied to programs, policies and future research for refugee, asylum-seeker and undocumented migrant parents. Addressing transnational concerns (family separation and reunification), acknowledging transnational resources, fostering a transnational family identity and conducting transnational and longitudinal studies are potentially pivotal approaches for this sub-population of parents.
Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Sipan, Carol L.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo
We conducted a probability-based survey of migrant flows traveling across the Mexico–US border, and we estimated HIV infection rates, risk behaviors, and contextual factors for migrants representing 5 distinct migration phases. Our results suggest that the influence of migration is not uniform across genders or risk factors. By considering the predeparture, transit, and interception phases of the migration process, our findings complement previous studies on HIV among Mexican migrants conducted at the destination and return phases. Monitoring HIV risk among this vulnerable transnational population is critical for better understanding patterns of risk at different points of the migration process and for informing the development of protection policies and programs. PMID:25602882
Full Text Available “Locas al Rescate: The Transnational Hauntings of Queer Cubanidad” (originally published in Cuba Transnational offers a significant contribution both to transnational American Studies and to gender studies. In telling the insider story of the alternative identity formation, practices, and forms of “rescue” initiated by the affective activism of the Cuban American society in drag in 1990s Miami/South Beach, Lima resuscitates the liberatory gestures of a subculture defined by its pursuit of its own acceptance, value, and freedom. With their aesthetic and political life on a raft, the gay micro-communities inside Cuban America asserted their own islandic space, Lima observes, performing “takeovers” in and of parks and bars and beaches—creating a post-Habermasian sphere of public activism focused on private parts, saving themselves from AIDS, from the disaffection and disaffiliation of the right-wing Cuban immigrant community, and from the failure of their own yearning to belong, to be wanted, to be embodied as the figure of their compelling Cubanidad. Against the hegemony of the invented collective politics of the sacrificing immigrants whose recognition of the queer side of being (of a being constituted by identity loss is yet to come, Lima suggests a spectral return—a personal and transnational reckoning of those whose lives the dream of freedom drowned.
Knudsen, Ann-Christina; Gram-Skjoldager, Karen
The ‘transnational turn’ has been one of the most widely debated historiographical directions in the past decade or so. This article explores one of its landmark publications: The Palgrave dictionary of transnational history (2009), which presents around 400 entries on transnational history written...... across the social sciences and the humanities such as international relations, governance, and globalization studies....
This article discusses the statement of the UN International Office of Migration (IOM) delivered at the Fourth World Congress on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The Beijing Platform of Action identified migrants as comprising an estimated 125 million people. Half of the international migrants live in developing countries, and at least 50 million are women. Another 500 million are internal female migrants. Migration programs tend to marginalize female migrants and to ignore women's special needs and experiences. The Third World Conference in Nairobi in 1985 indicated that women migrants were more likely to suffer deprivation, hardship, isolation, loss of status, and discrimination. Women bear the burden of a family's daily life, are more vulnerable than men, and face additional problems in the work force. Women migrants are identified as dependents and must be sponsored for admission to the host country; they are often subjected to physical and sexual abuse and must face discrimination in a foreign environment. The special needs of migrant women must be addressed at every stage of the migration process: the decision making stage, the integration into host communities, and the reintegration upon return. Women must be empowered. IOM recently established the International Center for Migration and Health. This center will focus on special problems faced by women migrants and on migrants' rights. Between the Nairobi and Beijing conferences the plight of migrant women was not prominently addressed. Migration references were made in Beijing's Platform of Action in scattered places in the text. Governments need to provide gender-sensitive human rights education and training for public officials in order to fulfill the Beijing Platform. The IOM technical assistance to Argentina illustrates what cooperative ventures are possible. IOM has made important progress in implementing Beijing's Platform.
Parikh, Kavita; Marein-Efron, Gabriela; Huang, Shirley; O'Hare, Geraldine; Finalle, Rodney; Shah, Samir S
The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic undernutrition rates before and after the introduction of a food-supplementation program as an adjunct to routine health care for children of migrant workers in the Dominican Republic. The cross-sectional study was conducted in five rural communities in the Dominican Republic. Children 18 years and younger were eligible if they received routine health care from local mobile clinics. Data were obtained before (2005) and after (2006) initiation of a food-supplementation program. chi(2) or Fisher exact tests were used for analysis. Among 175 children in 2005, 52% were female, and 59% were supplementation program. Rates of chronic undernutrition decreased from 33% to 18% after the initiation of the food-supplementation program (P = 0.003). Food supplementation in the context of routine health-care visits improved the nutritional status of children, and it warrants further exploration as a way to reduce childhood undernutrition in resource-scarce areas.
Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard
that guide how they actually work. In this paper we outline how professionals and organizations operate in two-level networks through a focus on issue control over issues of transnational governance. As such, this interdisciplinary paper brings together insights from Organization Studies and International...... Relations to discuss how professionals and organizations battle over issue control through the designation of tasks and the creation of overlapping networks. We outline the emergence of ‘issue professionals’ and how they attempt network management. We do so via a case on transnational sustainability...
Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn
Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...
Simon-Kumar, Rachel; Kurian, Priya A; Young-Silcock, Faith; Narasimhan, Nirmala
Studies on domestic violence in ethnic minority communities highlight that social norms, family structures and cultural practices are among the key triggers of violence against women. Not surprisingly, most anti-violence interventions in these communities aim to redeem women from the oppressive features of these cultures. More recently, however, emergent scholarship advocates mobilising, rather than erasing, culture within existing anti-violence strategies. This paper explores the nature of culturally informed interventions used by front-line workers. It presents the findings of a small-scale qualitative study in Aotearoa/New Zealand, where around 13% of the population are currently deemed to be from minority ethnic communities. Interviews and one focus group were conducted with nine practitioners - including social workers, counsellors and the police - in Hamilton, Aotearoa in 2013-2014. Based on thematic analysis, the paper identifies two core strands: (a) the distinctive profile of ethnic violence and (b) the strategies that mobilise culture in anti-violence interventions. Specifically within the former strand, it was found that violence in the ethnic community was distinctive for the following reasons: the heightened sense of stigma surrounding disclosure and the consequent silence by women who suffer from it; the lack of trust in authority; and the fear of conventional safety plans necessitating longer time periods for rapport-building. Among the strategies that mobilise culture, the study found that practitioners used a family approach; engaged men in their interventions, at times reinforcing gendered roles; utilised micro-interventions; and deployed cultural tropes, especially around spirituality, as a strategy. The conclusion points to the gap between interventions that challenge and mobilise cultures. While anecdotally, the latter are perceived to be relevant and effective in anti-violence interventions, there is need for a fuller assessment and better
Lee, Susan K; Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl R; Thompson, Sandra C
Background Although the challenges of working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups can lead to the exclusion of some communities from research studies, cost effective strategies to encourage access and promote cross-cultural linkages between researchers and ethnic minority participants are essential to ensure their views are heard and their health needs identified. Using bilingual research assistants is one means to achieve this. In a study exploring alcohol and other drug servic...
Mellors-Bourne, Robin; Jones, Elspeth; Woodfield, Steve
Internationalisation and employability development are important themes for UK higher education (HE) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA). One aspect of many UK HE institutions' internationalisation strategies has been to increase the number and range of UK programmes delivered "offshore" as transnational education (TNE)--through…
Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.
Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level
Many immigrants vote, invest, and support families back home while starting businesses, establishing churches, and joining parent-teacher associations in the United States. Today savvy organizations recognize this growing transnationalism and collaborate across borders to reduce problems in two countries simultaneously.
Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Swane, Christine E.; Algreen-Petersen, Eva
Nursing home negotiations and narrations in challenging, transnational situations In the city of Copenhagen a public nursing home is developing a new profile that aims at attracting older migrants and refugees together with other ethnic Danes in order to spend their last months or years...... in an institutional setting. For more than 100 years Denmark has offered public nursing homes to frail older persons and hence represents a culture where institutional caretaking is accepted and expected. Today, the major part of homecare and nursing homes in Denmark are public or subsidised by state...... and municipalities. However, the migration populations in Denmark do not utilize public help and care in old age at any significant level.This is the reason why the municipality of Copenhagen is developing a specific ‘diversity profile’ in an existing public nursing home in Copenhagen; Peder Lykke Centeret...
Full Text Available Transnational migration is a vast social phenomenon that has become a valid option for many Romanians since 1989. Romania is an emigration country and the favourite destinations of its citizens are Italy and Spain. This is the context in which I present my work, which focuses on the formation of transnational migration patterns from a village in the southern region of Romania. The data were generated during field research conducted in August 2012, and the empirical material consisted of field notes and interview transcripts corresponding to recorded conversations with local migrants, authority representatives and people without migration experience. In this particular community, two patterns of migration were identified, for which variables such as ethnicity (Roma/Romanian and religious orientation (Orthodoxy/Adventism appear to have explanatory power. My inquiry takes as its starting point the identification of this variety of migration patterns and concentrates on analysing them in the regional and national contexts based on the scholarly framework provided by network theory. Two major differences exist between them: the time frame of living and working abroad (clearly demarcated as three months, six months or indefinite and the nature of the work environment (departures based on a work contract between the migrant and a company located at the destination and departures accompanied by uncertainty regarding workplace concerns upon arrival. Making sense of these life strategies and their local configurations are the objectives of this paper.
Full Text Available This study traces the transnational interactions that contributed to introducing the low-carbon economy agenda into Chinese policymaking. A microprocessual two-level analysis (outside-in as well as inside-access is employed to analyse transnational and domestic exchanges. The study provides evidence that low-carbon agenda-setting – introduced by transnational actors, backed by foreign funding, promoted by policy entrepreneurs from domestic research institutes, propelled by top-level attention, but only gradually and cautiously adopted by the government bureaucracy – can be considered a case of effective transnational diffusion based on converging perceptions of novel policy challenges and options. Opinion leaders and policy-brokers from the government-linked scientific community functioned as effective access points to the Chinese government’s policy agenda.
Full Text Available While sub-Saharan African migrants are the second largest group affected by HIV in Europe, sound HIV prevalence estimates based on representative samples of these heterogeneous communities are lacking. Such data are needed to inform prevention and public health policy.This community-based, cross-sectional study combined oral fluid HIV testing with an electronic behavioral survey. Adopting a two-stage time location sampling HIV prevalence estimates for a representative sample of adult sub-Saharan African migrants in Antwerp, Belgium were obtained. Sample proportions and estimated adjusted population proportions were calculated for all variables. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis explored factors independently associated with HIV infection.Between December 2013 and October 2014, 744 sub-Saharan African migrants were included (37% women. A substantial proportion was socially, legally and economically vulnerable: 21% were probably of undocumented status, 63% had financial problems in the last year and 9% lacked stable housing. Sexual networks were mostly African and crossed national borders, i.e. sexual encounters during travels within Europa and Africa. Concurrency is common, 34% of those in a stable relationship had a partner on the side in the last year. HIV prevalence was 5.9%(95%CI:3.4%-10.1% among women and 4.2% (95%CI:1.6%-10.6% among men. Although high lifetime HIV testing was reported at community level (73%, 65.2% (CI95%:32.4%-88.0% of sub-Saharan African migrants were possibly undiagnosed. Being 45 years or older, unprotected sex when travelling within Europe in the last year, high intentions to use condoms, being unaware of their last sexual partners' HIV status, recent HIV testing and not having encountered partner violence in the last year were independently associated with HIV infection in multivariable logical regression. In univariable analysis, HIV infection was additionally associated to unemployment
Giambi, Cristina; Del Manso, Martina; Dalla Zuanna, Teresa; Riccardo, Flavia; Bella, Antonino; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Baka, Agoritsa; Caks-Jager, Nuska; Melillo, Tanya; Mexia, Ricardo; Petrović, Goranka; Declich, Silvia
Over the last three years an unprecedented flow of migrants arrived in Europe. There is evidence that vaccine preventable diseases have caused outbreaks in migrant holding centres. These outbreaks can be favored by a combination of factors including low immunization coverage, bad conditions that migrants face during their exhausting journey and overcrowding within holding facilities. In 2017, we conducted an online survey in Croatia, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Slovenia to explore the national immunization strategies targeting irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. All countries stated that a national regulation supporting vaccination offer to migrants is available. Croatia, Italy, Portugal and Slovenia offer to migrant children and adolescents all vaccinations included in the National Immunization Plan; Greece and Malta offer only certain vaccinations, including those against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Croatia, Italy, Malta and Portugal also extend the vaccination offer to adults. All countries deliver vaccinations in holding centres and/or community health services, no one delivers vaccinations at entry site. Operating procedures that guarantee the migrants' access to vaccination at the community level are available only in Portugal. Data on administered vaccines is available at the national level in four countries: individual data in Malta and Croatia, aggregated data in Greece and Portugal. Data on vaccination uptake among migrants is available at national level only in Malta. Concluding, although diversified, strategies for migrant vaccination are in place in all the surveyed countries and generally in line with WHO and ECDC indications. Development of procedures to keep track of migrants' immunization data across countries, development of strategies to facilitate and monitor migrants' access to vaccinations at the community level and collection of data on vaccination uptake among migrants should be
Garabiles, Melissa R; Ofreneo, Mira Alexis P; Hall, Brian J
Many Filipinos experience poverty and poor employment opportunities. In order to alleviate poverty and provide sufficient resources for their families, numerous mothers leave the Philippines to become domestic workers. The present study aimed to build a model of family resilience for transnational families. A total of 33 participants consisting of Filipino transnational families, domestic workers, and key informants participated in a series of focus group discussions and interviews. A new model of resilience among transnational families of Filipina domestic helpers was created using a constructivist grounded theory approach. The model highlighted how temporal and spatial elements are embedded in collective migration experiences. Family narratives begin with the sacrifice of separation, where mothers leave their families for a chance to solve economic problems. To successfully adapt to their separation, the families undergo five relational processes. First, families communicate across space using technology to bridge relational distance. Second, families restructure across space through role sharing and the validation of each other's efforts in their family roles. Third, families rebuild ties through temporary family reunification that bridge physical and relational distance. Fourth, families have the collective goal of permanent family reunification by ending migration to become complete again. Fifth, they strive to commit to their families by prioritizing them instead of succumbing to difficulties. Family resilience for transnational migrants is a collectivistic process, negotiated by each family member.
Widerberg, O.E.; Pattberg, P.H.
This article discusses challenges to accountability in the context of transnational climate governance. It argues that the emergence of a distinct transnational regime complex and the increasingly integrated structure of international and transnational climate governance create new challenges for
Velazquez, Loida C.
Migrant workers have the highest school dropout rate, larger than any other major sub-group, in the United States, and a very low rate of participation in adult basic education programs. This paper reports on an ethnographic study exploring the early schooling, education, and family support for learning in a migrant community in North Carolina.…
Honari, A.; van Bezouw, M.J.; Namazie, Pari
In light of increasing migration in Europe, the aim of the current study is to gather a better understanding of the societal position, societal and political participation, and embeddedness of migrants in Western European countries. The Iranian migrant community is used as a case study. The research
Böcker, Anita; Hunter, Alistair
Transnational ageing presents fundamental challenges to nationally bounded welfare states, which historically have tended to be organised according to a logic of solidarity among nationals and permanent residents of a given state territory. Nonetheless, the Dutch and French governments have taken steps to break this link between solidarity and territorially bounded consumption of welfare, by providing lifelong income security for older migrants who return to countries of origin on a permanent or semi-permanent basis. This article asks what motivated policymakers to initially develop these novel policy tools for transnational ageing which contradict the territorial logic of the welfare state. Based on interviews with key stakeholders and available official documents, we find that in both France and the Netherlands, policymakers' initial motivations can be characterised as rather benign, if not beneficent: to facilitate return for those who are willing but unable to afford it. However, two types of obstacle have impeded the delivery of such policies. Non-discrimination clauses and free movement rights in EU law may make it difficult to implement policies for specific categories of older migrants. Electoral realpolitik may also lead policymakers to shelve policies which benefit older migrants, in a European context where public opinion on immigration is less and less favourable. Nonetheless, opposition may be neutralised by the budgetary advantages of these schemes, since older returnees do not consume public services such as healthcare.
Bray, Yvonne; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Gott, Merryn
Social and emotional challenges of migration and integration include managing memories and perceptions of country of birth, leaving loved relatives behind, and the challenges of maintaining traditions, such as cultural food and practices. For many migrants, the strong connection with their birth country is never completely severed, which may become pertinent at particular events and stages in life with inherent emotional impact. This may be particularly the case for end-of-life experience. We undertook a systematic review of published evidence of research to identify the lived experience of migrants dying in a country different from their country of birth. The search terms [transnationals OR migran* OR immigran*] AND [emotions OR belonging OR acculturation OR national identity] AND [dying OR end-of-life OR contemplation of dying] AND [palliative care OR terminal care] were used on the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, EBSCO, Geobase, PsychINFO, and Scopus to the end date of January 2014. No date limit was imposed. All research methodologies were included. The search was restricted to human subjects and English language. Seven qualitative studies met the criteria. Thematic analysis of these studies identified three main themes: sense of dual identity, importance of traditions from their country of origin, and dying preferences. Findings have implications for the provision of palliative end-of-life care for dying transnationals, particularly in relation to providing support for migrants who are dying to resolve social and emotional issues.
Conducting transnational programs can be a very rewarding activity for a School, Faculty or University. Apart from increasing the profile of the university, the conduct of transnational programs can also provide the university with openings for business opportunities, consultative activities, and collaborative research. It can also be a costly exercise placing an enormous strain on limited resources with little reward for the provider. Transnational ventures can become nonviable entities in a very short period of time due to unanticipated global economic trends. Transnational courses offered by Faculties of Business and Computing are commonplace, however, there is a growing number of health science programs, particularly nursing that are being offered transnational. This paper plans an overview of several models employed for the delivery of transnational nursing courses and discusses several key issues pertaining to conducting courses outside the host university's country.
Padovan-Özdemir, Marta; Bauer, Angela
One strand of migration research deals with state management of the flows and lives of migrants. Another strand of migration research criticizes this statist perspective for falling into the pitfall of methodological nationalism and instead, argues for a human and transnational perspective...... with? What methodological implications do different concepts of the migrant like foreigner, non-citizen, seasonal worker, or illegal immigrant hold for migration research? How can research results based on different concepts be compared? Is it at all possible to study (post)modern migration...... and incorporation without referring to the state? Is the migrant not substantially a matter of the continuous realization of the state through its inherent boundary work? Another way of framing the discussion of the theoretical and historical relation between the state and the migrant could be to turn the research...
Full Text Available A large literature studies the views and discourses of Western, and especially American, conservative Christians with respect to homosexuality; only a few examine the discourse of Christians in non-Western countries, and none focuses on non-Western Christians with advanced, overseas education and careers. This paper examines the discourse of South Korean Evangelical women with overseas, educational or career experiences. I draw on 15 in-depth interviews with current and former members of a Seoul-based, Evangelical mega-church. Transnational, evangelical women show comparatively mild-minded and tolerant views toward homosexuality and LGBT persons. The women illustrated two pathways to reconcile their conflicting beliefs in conservative religion and human rights: first, the values of equity and meritocracy; and second, personal contacts with LGBT persons. This study suggests that for transnational migrants, traditional religiosity is challenged and constrained by sustained experiences in liberal, pluralistic societies.
Nina Clara Tiesler
Full Text Available Abstract Mobile players in men's football are highly skilled professionals who move to a country other than the one where they grew up and started their careers. They are commonly described as migrants or expatriate players. Due to a much less advanced stage of professionalism and production of the game in women's football mobility projects are different. At describing the cases of Brazil, Equatorial Guinea, Mexico, Colombia and Portugal, the aim of this paper is to conceptualise an umbrella category for mobile players that can include current realities in the women's game, namely the transnational player who has gained and displays transnational football experience in different countries and socio-culturally contexts. Furthermore, analyses allow introducing two new subcategories besides the “expatriate”, namely diaspora players and new citizens.
New Keywords Collective
Full Text Available The article highlights the fundamentally misleading and unstable nature of the distinctions between the terms ”refugees”, “asylum-seekers”, and “migrants”, all of whom experience the precariousness produced by the EU’s exclusionary politics on asylum – due to juridical instability and geographical hyper-mobility of migrants subjects. The “hotspot” system, first launched in May 2015, represents the restructuring of mechanisms of capture and identification in response to the migration “turmoil” at the external frontiers of Europe. On the other hand, transit zones such as the Eidomeni camp at the Greek-Macedonian border or the makeshift self-organized refugee / migrant camp at Calais operate informally as de facto “hotspots.” What is commonly called “the migrant crisis” or “the refugee crisis” actually reflects the frantic attempt by the EU and European nation-states to control, contain, and govern people’s (“unauthorized” transnational and inter-continental movements. Naming it a “refugee/migrant crisis” appears to be a device for the authorization of exceptional or “emergency” governmental measures – and then their normalization. The very terms “migrant crisis” and “refugee crisis” tend to personalize “crisis” and relocate “crisis” in the body and person of the figurative migrant / refugee, as if s/he is the carrier of a disease called “crisis,” and thus carries the contagion of “crisis” wherever she may go. The article calls for attention to the new spaces of “transit” opened up by the migrants and refugees themselves, and consequently the ways in which these “irregular” human mobilities have scrambled and re-shuffled the social and political geography of “Europe.”
Holmes, Seth M
This paper utilizes eighteen months of ethnographic and interview research undertaken in 2003 and 2004 as well as follow-up fieldwork from 2005 to 2007 to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the interactions and barriers between U.S. biomedical professionals and their unauthorized Mexican migrant patients. The participants include unauthorized indigenous Triqui migrants along a transnational circuit from the mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico, to central California, to northwest Washington State and the physicians and nurses staffing the clinics serving Triqui people in these locations. The data show that social and economic structures in health care and subtle cultural factors in biomedicine keep medical professionals from seeing the social determinants of suffering of their unauthorized migrant patients. These barriers lead clinicians inadvertently to blame their patients--specifically their biology or behavior--for their suffering. This paper challenges the focus of mainstream cultural competency training by showing that it is not the culture of the patient, but rather the structure and culture of biomedicine that form the primary barriers to effective multicultural health care. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why......' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non...
This research aims to examine how migrant families living in England establish their family language policy and practice. It is set within a context of increased levels of transnational migration and globalisation (OECD, 2015). The number of migrant families in which parents have different language backgrounds is increasing on a European level (Lanzieri, 2012) and in London one in three families is thought to be multilingual (OECD, 2010). This has implications for research into the role of la...
Krejsler, John Benedicto; Ulf, Olsson; Kenneth, Petersson
of modern nations, if they are to succeed in “an increasingly competitive global race among knowledge economies.” In the case of the Bologna Process, the transformative effects are often rather direct. More often, however, effects touch upon national educational agendas in indirect ways, in terms...... of an emerging, overarching logic and governance technologies like comparisons, stocktaking, standards, performance indicators, benchmarking, and best practice. These transnational templates make national teacher education programs comparable. They are fueled by mutual peer pressure among competing nations....... Consequently, Danish teacher education discourse has emerged from a distinctly national vocational seminary tradition, into a modernized university college discourse that increasingly fits the transnational templates of comparability, albeit at a slower pace than her Swedish neighbor. It is often difficult...
D. Munk, Martin
This paper analyses the acquisition of informational capital, e.g. academic capital, measured as student mobility, and understood as transnational investments in prestigious foreign educational institutions. In the 1990s, educational “zones of prestige” have especially been the United States......) are more likely than students from other social classes to pursue transnational investments, even though students from the middle and working classes have now entered the competition. This result is also recently found in an analysis of Danish academic emigrants. All in all, the studies confirm...... the hypothesis that students from upper classes are more likely than others to invest in specific informational capital in the field of education, in national environments but also in international settings....
Hamilton, Erin R; Hale, Jo Mhairi
Historically, undocumented Mexican farm workers migrated circularly, leaving family behind in Mexico on short trips to the United States. Scholars have argued that border militarization has disrupted circular migration as the costs of crossing the border lead to longer stays, increased settlement, and changing transnational family practices. Yet, no study has explored changes in the transnational family structures of Mexico-U.S. migrants that span the era of border militarization. Using data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey, we document a dramatic shift away from transnational family life (as measured by location of residence of dependent children) among undocumented Mexican farm workers and a less dramatic shift among documented Mexican farm workers in the United States between 1993 and 2012. These trends are not explained by changes in the sociodemographic characteristics of farm workers or by changing demographic conditions or rising violence in Mexico. One-half of the trend can be accounted for by lengthened duration of stay and increased connections to the United States among the undocumented, but none of the trend is explained by these measures of settlement among the documented, suggesting that some Mexican farm workers adopt new family migration strategies at first migration. Increases in border control are associated with lower likelihood that children reside in Mexico-a finding that holds up to instrumental variable techniques. Our findings confirm the argument that U.S. border militarization-a policy designed to deter undocumented migration-is instead disrupting transnational family life between Mexico and the United States and, in doing so, is creating a permanent population of undocumented migrants and their children in the United States.
Full Text Available Trans-national identity is a composite of individual and group identity development, construction and negotiation. It is of importance to the collective and to the individual. Its significance extends from collective national action through its influences on governmental policy to the individual who simply asks, "Who am I?" Globalization and modern labor movements between countries with diasporic populations complicate the already complex rapidly changing interdependencies of cultural-ethnic identities comprising individual and collective trans-national identity. This paper utilizes an instrument for assessing, comparing and tracking the changing composite cultural-ethnic identities of individuals and groups that comprise trans-national identity. The instrument is the Cultural Index (Boufoy-Bastick, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008; a two-item ipsative scale capable of being grounded in each group's definition of their own identity. Jamaican respondents (N=126 participated in a one-on-one Mall interrupt survey to assess the relative contributions of Jamaican, African and Anglo-American cultures to their trans-national identity. Gender and age comparisons, tested for both construct and concurrent validity, showed that Anglo-American culture currently has a significantly smaller impact on Jamaican's collective trans-national identity than do both African and Jamaican cultures. The research is important for monitoring the intrusions of Globalization on the trans-national identities of diasporic communities.
Petersen, Anne Ring
of their art. This article addresses the issue of how transnational cultural memory is articulated in works by migrant artists, as well as how to access it analytically. After outlining the general issues concerning the impact of migration on contemporary art, the article explores the usefulness of three...... conceptual frameworks: hybridity (Homi Bhabha, Stuart Hall); migratory aesthetics (Mieke Bal); and the notion of the work of art as a migrant’s event (Syed Manzurul Islam). Taking British Palestinian artist Mona Hatoum as my example, it is my contention that her exhibition ‘Interior Landscape’ (Venice, 2009...
Maynes, J. O. (Rocky)
Arizona's Migrant Child Education Program was initiated late in 1966 under the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I. The State Plan is designed to provide assistance to improve the instructional, nutritional, and health status of the migrant children in kindergarten through high school. Program components are career education…
. It is pointed out that while the system facilitated speedy entry to the job market, the lack of inclusion in the Gulf economies of the migrants, the lack of long-term prospects of residing in the countries and the highly asymmetric power balance between sponsor and migrant, provides few incentives...
Hua, Zhu; Wei, Li
Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on "within" such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday…
Homburg, Christian; Kiedaisch, Ingo; Cannon, Joseph P.
Empirical research on buyer-supplier relationships has almost exclusively examined domestic (both firms from the same country) exchange. The growing importance of international marketing and global sourcing suggest a need to understand relationships across national boundaries -- transnational business relationships. Drawing on theories of governance, the authors hypothesize differences in governance between domestic and transnational business relationships. They examine the use...
Jensen, Pia Majbritt
because it challenges existing theories on global media geography, import/export of audio-visual content, transnational media reception and the importance of transnational TV viewing. According to these theories, non-Anglophone audio-visual content rarely exports outside its geo-linguistic region...
van Apeldoorn, E.B.
Although transnational relations is a frequently employed phrase in international relations (IR) since the early debates of the 1970s, the literature in fact still shows surprisingly little theorization of the concept. Seeking to theorize 'the transnational' beyond what is currently on offer in
Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55... Transgovernmentalism , Intergovernmentalism, Regionalism, Effectiveness, International Police Cooperation Organizations 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY
Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…
Giulianotti, Richard; Brownell, Susan
This paper introduces the special issue of the British Journal of Sociology on the subject of the transnational aspects of Olympic and world sport. The special issue is underpinned by the perspective that because sport provides a space for the forging of transnational connections and global consciousness, it is increasingly significant within contemporary processes of globalization and the making of transnational society. In this article, we examine in turn eight social scientific themes or problems that are prominent within the special issue: globalization, glocalization, neo-liberal ideologies and policies, transnational society, securitization, global civil society, transnational/global public sphere, and fantasy/imagination. We conclude by highlighting five 'circles' of future research inquiry within world sport that should be explored by social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.
Transnational families are, as the term suggests, social structures existing across national borders. Thus, individuals belonging to these families are in geographical terms separated by space. However, the practices of transnational families often provide a sense of proximity and emotional...... attachment. This article, by seeing space as inherently relational, discusses the fields within which families establish themselves and move transnationally. Transnational family spaces are, for example, arenas where young people meet and where marriages are arranged. This article includes the life...... and marriage stories of two individuals who have married transnationally, based on their family relationships, and further analyses how these marriages are element in the practices that families engage in to uphold a sense of closeness - an endeavour that is sometimes successful, sometimes not. Finally...
Full Text Available Europe is home to a globally unique area where the barriers of transnational migration have been largely removed. This article focuses on Finnish highly skilled, intra-European migrants and their labour market situation immediately following the economic crisis of 2008. Based on two consecutive online surveys (carried out in spring 2008 and summer 2010 of tertiary educated Finns living in other EU countries, the article examines the effects of the global economic downturn on the careers of these highly skilled migrants. Only 16 per cent of the respondents report that their labour market situation had worsened. A higher percentage (24% felt that their situation had improved and the majority (54% had either experienced no change in their situation or stated that their reasons for changing jobs or moving had nothing to do with the crisis. The article concludes that these migrants were protected from the full force of the crisis by their high human capital, flexibility of alternating between studying and work, employment in international workplaces and their intra-European migrant status.
Full Text Available Transnational indigenous Latino immigrants today seem to live multiple lives across multiple borders. Based on a 3-year Mix methods research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript describes the experiences of Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs living in the United States, specifically pedagogies of survival based on fluid social identities. The indigenous women who took part in this study had to adopt fluid unknown identities both in the home for cultural survival, and also outside the home (external identities for physical and social survival, often in hostile environments. In addition, it raises questions about the ways multilingualism affects border mobility and transnationality as well as how indigenous Latina immigrants become Camaleónas guerreras (Chameleon Warriors who use “critical survival tools” as a transnational bridge to facilitate their survival in a hostile US environment, the community, and in schools.
Dalgas, Karina Märcher; Olwig, Karen Fog
moral and contractual obligations and expectations associated with these varying family relations, the power asymmetries with which they are linked, and the agency that the au pairs display as they seek to position themselves in the most favourable way in relation to the multi-directional ties in which...... as transnational family relations in which these women are embedded as au pairs, and the opportunities and restraints that they present. We use anthropological theory to conceptualize family and kinship in terms of notions and practices of relatedness. This offers a useful framework for elucidating the different...
Femke van Noorloos
Full Text Available Current patterns of “move-in move-out” hypermobility are perfectly exemplified by residential tourism: the temporary or permanent mobility of relatively well-to-do citizens from mostly western countries to a variety of tourist destinations, where they buy property. The mobility of residential tourists does not stand alone, but has broader chain effects: it converts local destinations into transnational spaces, leading to a highly differentiated and segmented population landscape. In this article, residential tourism’s implications in terms of local society in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, are examined, starting from the idea that these implications should be viewed as complex and traveling in time and space. Mobile groups, such as residential tourists, can have an important local participation and involvement (independently of national citizenship, although recent flows of migrants settle more into compatriot social networks. The fact that various migrant populations continually travel back and forth and do not envision a future in the area may restrict their opportunities and willingness for local involvement. Transnational involvement in itself is not a problem and can be successfully combined with high local involvement; however, the great level of fragmentation, mobility, temporariness and absenteeism in Guanacaste circumscribes successful community organizing. Still, the social system has not completely dissolved.
Wang, Lu; Kwak, Min-Jung
The paper analyzes the healthcare-seeking behavior of South Korean immigrants in Toronto, Canada, and how transnationalism shapes post-migration health and health-management strategies. Built upon largely separate research areas in ethnicity and health, health geography, and transnationalism, the paper conceptualizes immigrant health as influenced by individual characteristics, the migration and resettlement experience, and place effects at both a local and a transnational scale. A mixed-method approach is used to capture insights into health status and experiences in accessing local and transnational healthcare among South Korean immigrants - a fast growing visible minority group in Canada. Statistical analysis of data from the Canadian Community Health Survey discloses patterns and trends in health and healthcare use among the Korean Canadian, overall foreign-born, and native-born populations. Focus groups reveal in-depth information on the decline of Korean immigrants' health status and the array of sociocultural, economic and geographic barriers in accessing healthcare in Canada, which gave rise to their transnational use of health resources in the home country. The transnational strategies included traveling to South Korea for medical examinations or treatment, importing medications from South Korea to Canada, and consulting health resources in South Korea by phone or email. The results provide timely knowledge on how a recent immigrant group adapts to Canada in the domain of health and adds a transnational perspective to the literature on ethnicity and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In recent years, various sources have indicated a surge in the volume of remittances sent by international migrants to kin in the country of origin. Some observers have argued that these remittances constitute not only a vital tool for boosting the economic development of sending countries, but also a key element of a new model of social relations. Associated with the term «transnationalism», the idea is that those migrants who fare relatively well in the host society will tend to engage increasingly in cross-border social and economic practices. In this article, survey data regarding the immigrant population in Andalusia are used to empirically verify the relationship between remittance sending and integration in the host society. Results point to a substantial decrease of remittance sending among the most integrated migrants, in comparison to those who have been living just a few years in Andalusia. This finding suggests that as their social situation improves, migrants tend to focus increasingly on the needs of self and kin in the host country.
Full Text Available This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not suggest general, empirically investigated patterns. Two case studies on the policy of noise abatement around airports and the policy of contaminated land show that different venues in which transnational communication takes place may induce different types of policy change at the national level.
Full Text Available This article is a reflection upon the exercising of transnational citizenship as a consequence of international migration, applied to Latin Americans resident in Portugal. In order to do this we have adopted the concept of transnational citizenship, as its malleability allows us to consider the whole concept of countries of origin and destination and the influence of bilateral and international relations. We ask how transnational citizenship is exercised in the European Union, Ibero-American and, particularly, Portuguese spaces, and whether it is affected by the economic crisis in Europe and, in particular, Portugal, by analysing the cases of Argentines, Brazilians and Uruguayans living in Portugal.
Elaine Lynn-Ee Ho
Full Text Available By considering the return migration of Mainland Chinese migrants who had immigrated to Canada, this contribution focuses on the way transnational families navigate citizenship regimes in two legal systems. It argues that despite their strong legal position in Canada, members of transnational families experience de facto deskilling and integration barriers. This prompts return migration decisions by the lead migrant, resulting in transnational family separation as the rest of the family remains behind in Canada for children’s schooling and to fulfil the residency requirements for citizenship status. However, the difficulties of transnational family separation result in later return by the remaining family members as well, usually after naturalising in Canada. The remainder of the article examines the immigration issues they face in China as naturalised Canadian citizens and further explores their intentions for sustained transnationalism. Al tener en cuenta la migración de retorno de los emigrantes de China continental que habían emigrado a Canadá, esta contribución se centra en la forma en que las familias transnacionales navegan entre regímenes de ciudadanía en dos sistemas legales. La autora sostiene que a pesar de su fuerte posición legal en Canadá, los miembros de las familias transnacionales experimentan, de facto, barreras de integración y desprofesionalización. Esto lleva a que el emigrante principal decida retornar, lo que da lugar a la separación trasnacional de la familia, ya que el resto de la familia permanece en Canadá para la escolarización de los hijos y para cumplir con los requisitos de residencia para obtener el estatus de ciudadanía. Sin embargo, las dificultades de la separación de la familia transnacional dan como resultado un retorno más tardío de los miembros restantes de la familia y, por lo general, después de la naturalización en Canadá. El resto del artículo analiza los problemas de inmigraci
Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia
The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population's, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing-in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care-as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective.
informed by a diffuse constituency of peers through their multiple associations within policy communities. These interactions determine which policy ideas are permissible and how they are adopted. The ‘too big to fail’ case shows how reform activity to curtail the risks posed by large financial...... reforms in the regulatory treatment of large financial institutions deemed ‘too big to fail’. Actors debating and developing policy on ‘too big to fail’ may have formal defined constituencies, as regulators, academics or lobbying organisations, but in their transnational interactions they are also...
Skogstad, Grace Darlene
Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...
Romein, A.; Trip, J.J.; Zonneveld, W.A.M.
Report written in the context of the INTERREG IVB project Creative City Challenge. Based on a series of international expert meetings the report discusses various themes in relation to creative city policy, and analyses the process of transnational learning itself.
Full Text Available This essay discusses the religious upbringing experiences and reflections upon them articulated by 53 Muslim American youth who were interviewed as part of a larger sociological study of Arab American teenagers living transnationally. On extended sojourns in their parents’ homelands, these youth—most were born in the US although some migrated to the US at a young age—were taken “back home” to Palestine and Jordan by their parents so they could learn “their language, culture, and religion”. They were asked about learning to be Muslim in the US and overseas in the context of a much larger set of questions about their transnational life experiences. The data provide insights into the various types of early religious learning experiences Muslims have access to in a US Christian-majority context. The essay then examines how these youth later experienced and interpreted being Muslim in a place where Muslims are a majority. The study found that while a majority of youth said they learned more about their faith, almost half (42% said that it was the same as in the US, that they did not learn more, or that the experience contributed both positively and negatively to their religious understanding. Key to these differences was the character of their experiences with being Muslim in the US. A majority of girls and of youth who attended full-time Islamic schools and/or were part of a vibrant Muslim community in the US gave one of the latter responses. On the other hand, most of the boys who grew up isolated from other Muslims in the US reported learning more about Islam. They were especially pleased with the convenience of praying in mosques and with being able to pray in public without stares. The data show that living where one is part of the dominant religious culture does not necessarily make for a deeper experience of religion. What seems to matter more is the type of experience with being Muslim each youth brings into the situation, as it
Stones, Rob; Botterill, Kate; Lee, Maggy; O'Reilly, Karen
The paper is based on original empirical research into the lifestyle migration of European migrants, primarily British, to Thailand and Malaysia, and of Hong Kong Chinese migrants to Mainland China. We combine strong structuration theory (SST) with Heideggerian phenomenology to develop a distinctive approach to the interplay between social structures and the lived experience of migrants. The approach enables a rich engagement with the subjectivities of migrants, an engagement that is powerfully enhanced by close attention to how these inner lives are deeply interwoven with relevant structural contexts. The approach is presented as one that could be fruitfully adopted to explore parallel issues within all types of migration. As is intrinsic to lifestyle migration, commitment to a better quality of life is central to the East Asian migrants, but they seek an uncomplicated, physically enhanced texture of life, framed more by a phenomenology of prosaic well-being than of self-realization or transcendence. In spite of possessing economic and status privileges due to their relatively elite position within global structures the reality for a good number of the lifestyle migrants falls short of their prior expectations. They are subject to particular kinds of socio-structural marginaliszation as a consequence of the character of their migration, and they find themselves relatively isolated and facing a distinct range of challenges. A comparison with research into various groups of migrants to the USA brings into relief the specificities of the socio-structural positioning of the lifestyle migrants of the study. Those East Asian migrants who express the greatest sense of ease and contentment seem to be those who have responded creatively to the specific challenges of their socio-structural situation. Often, this appears to have been achieved through understated but active involvements with their new settings and through sustaining focused transnational connections and
Rutten, M.; Patel, P.J.
This article discusses the social linkages between Gujarati migrants in Britain and their family members in India. It considers the home and the migrant community in the same unit of analysis rather than as separate communities. It is based on fieldwork conducted in 1998 among members of the Patidar
Zhu, H.; Li, W.
Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on within such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday life; how they cope with the new and ever-changing environment, and how they construct their identities and build social relations. In this article, we start f...
Purba, A. Zen Umar
Today business transactions transcending national borders need a new concept, namely transnational business transactions. It deals not only with private, but also with public issues; This in line with the birth of transantional law, as firstly expressed by Judge Jessup Philip in 1956. This article aims to discuss the importance of including the International bussiness transactions (“IBT”) course in Indonesia's legal education. It concludes that transnational law, as reflected by IBT is nowada...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmanaged urban growth in southern and eastern Africa has led to a growth of informal housing in cities, which are home to poor, marginalised populations, and associated with the highest HIV prevalence in urban areas. This article describes and reflects on the authors’ experiences in designing and implementing an HIV intervention originally intended for migrant men living in single-sex hostels of inner-city Johannesburg. It shows how formative research findings were incorporated into project design, substantially shifting the scope of the original project. Methods Formative research activities were undertaken to better understand the demand- and supply-side barriers to delivering HIV prevention activities within this community. These included community mapping, a baseline survey (n = 1458 and client-simulation exercise in local public sector clinics. The intervention was designed and implemented in the study setting over a period of 18 months. Implementation was assessed by way of a process evaluation of selected project components. Results The project scope expanded to include women living in adjacent informal settlements. Concurrent sexual partnerships between these women and male hostel residents were common, and HIV prevalence was higher among women (56% than men (24%. Overwhelmingly, hostel residents were internal migrants from another province, and most felt ‘alienated’ from the rest of the city. While men prioritised the need for jobs, women were more concerned about water, sanitation, housing and poverty alleviation. Most women (70% regarded their community as unsafe (cf. 47% of men. In the final intervention, project objectives were modified and HIV prevention activities were embedded within a broader health and development focus. ‘Community health clubs’ were established to build residents’ capacity to promote health and longer term well-being, and to initiate and sustain change within their
Ferrara, Brian J; Townsley, Elizabeth; MacKay, Christopher R; Lin, Henry C; Loh, Lawrence C
The possibility of encountering rare tropical disease presentations is commonly described as a benefit derived by developed world medical trainees participating in clinical service-oriented short-term global health experiences in the developing world. This study describes the health status of a population served by a short-term experience conducted by a North American institute, and the results of a retrospective review are used to identify commonly encountered diseases and discuss their potential educational value. Descriptive analysis was conducted on 1,024 encounter records collected over four unique 1-week-long trips by a North American institution serving Haitian migrant workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. The top five diagnoses seen in the clinic were gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hypertension (HTN), upper respiratory infections, otitis media, and fungal skin infection. On occasion, diagnoses unique to an indigent tropical population were encountered (e.g., dehydration, malnutrition, parasites, and infections.). These findings suggest a similarity between frequently encountered diagnoses on a short-term clinical service trip in Dominican Republic and primary care presentations in developed world settings, which challenges the assumption that short-term service experiences provide exposure to rare tropical disease presentations. These findings also represent additional data that can be used to better understand the health and healthcare planning among this vulnerable population of Haitian migrant workers. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Migrant farmworker students have been underrepresented in research studies. Many scholars have written about Latinos and immigrants in higher education (Becerra, 2010; Mendiola, Watt, & Huerta, 2010; Nevarez, 2001) but little literature relates to how farmworker students are able to enter into higher education. Using community cultural wealth…
Gerritsen, Debby; Maier, Robert
This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on "migrants" at present. The integration of young "migrants" have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands.…
The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns
Soong, Hannah; Stahl, Garth; Shan, Hongxia
This article argues for a more nuanced view of mobility through education within an era of increased globalisation. We explore questions of transnational mobility through the lens of underexplored Bourdieusian concepts, specifically transnational habitus and habitus clivé. Our analysis shows how one's perception of a "better life" and…
Full Text Available My own experience as a young Spanish migrant in London drove me to consider the importance that Spanish food has for emigrants and to consider its role within the community. This article presents food as a metaphor of the youth migration process to London during the economic crisis, and is based on three elements: how they construct their identity, their transition to adulthood and their condition as transmigrants.
the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...... who do not.Furthermore, it investigates the role of the coach-created sporting environment in the acculturation process within those participating in sport. The results revealed significant differences regarding the level of acculturative stress with migrant participants engaging in sports scoring...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...
International student migration is increasingly treated as a sub-class of global talent mobility by states, regions and cities competing in the globalising knowledge economy, where a highly educated workforce is seen as a prerequisite for sustaining growth. This is leading to mobilisation of states......’ agendas for internationalisation of higher education and talent attraction to boost national competitiveness. Concurrently, convergence is happening between migration management regimes, albeit with persistent variations in actual regulations, when it comes to attracting skilled migrants, while reducing...... the in-flow of ‘unwanted’ migrants. In this context, international students’ status transition to foreign workers is influenced by their simultaneous position as talents and as migrants. This PhD project analyses how the goal of attracting skilled labour is met through international student recruitment...
Agergaard, Sine; Michelsen la Cour, Annette; Gregersen, Martin Treumer
a case study of an intervention that provides sporting activities in holiday periods for migrant children and adolescents living in so-called socially disadvantaged areas (DGI Playground). The analysis highlights the rationality that the leisure time of migrant youth is a potentially dangerous time slot...... and they must be engaged in organized sports; that is not only healthy but also civilizing and character forming leisure time activities. Techniques of monitoring the intervention are developed in a partnership between public institutions, regional umbrella organizations and local sports clubs leading to a need...... for employment of welfare professionals. Furthermore, the article illustrates that in the discursive construction of subject positions for the target group, migrant youth tend to become clients and recipients of public services rather than potential members of civil sports clubs. These findings are supported...
Full Text Available The 'Emotional Geographies of the Uncanny' section of Cultural Studies Review aims to read transnational spaces constructed and inhabited by Italian migrants and settlers to Australasia as emotional spaces of uncanny perceptions, memories, narratives and identities. Drawing inspiration from the Freudian suggestions about the uncanny (das unheimliche, and later interpretations by Heiddeger, Derrida, Kristeva, Bhabha, Žižek, and Ahmed, we refer to the uncanny as the emotional reaction to something that is, at the same time, familiar and unfamiliar, homely and unhomely. The uncanny then becomes an aesthetic frame through which experiences of migration and colonialism can be read and interpreted. How have Italians experienced the strange un/familiarity of the places to which they have migrated or that they have colonised in Australasia? And, in the process of familiarising the unfamiliar, how have they perceived the strange familiarity of the newly emerged 'Italian' spaces that they have first constructed and then inhabited, outside the boundaries of the Italian Nation, and often within the space of other essentialist Nations? Furthermore, how have they related to the places they have left in Italy: the places to which they have progressively become strangers yet have continued to constitute a central element of their subjectivity?
Bailey, A.; Channakki, H.R.; Hutter, I.
This article describes how migrants make places in host communities by inscribing these places with parts of their culture. The place making discussion in this article is situated within the cultural-temporal framework of liminality. Data are drawn from fieldwork carried out among migrant and mobile
... Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations By the authority vested in me as President by the... America, find that the activities of significant transnational criminal organizations, such as those... of international political and economic systems. Such organizations are becoming increasingly...
Ian M. Kysel
Full Text Available The rights and movement of people crossing international borders remain inadequately governed and incompletely protected by a fragmented patchwork of institutions and norms. In recent years, debates regarding migration law and practice globally have been focused on subcategories of migrants, such as refugees, or on particular migration contexts, such as migration as a result of crisis or climate change. In response, a transnational initiative housed at the Georgetown University Law Center has drafted a soft-law bill of rights — the International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR — that seeks to elaborate the law protecting all migrants, regardless of the cause of their movement across an international border. The bill draws its content from human rights, refugee, and labor law, among other areas, and is drafted to be a comprehensive and declarative tool that articulates a core set of rights to protect migrants and to apply in the migration context.This article articulates how such a tool could be used to promote the recognition and protection of the rights of all migrants, in law and in practice. It argues that a soft-law bill of rights could be leveraged to fill significant gaps and promote an improved normative and institutional infrastructure that better protects all migrants worldwide. Section I provides a brief overview of the gap that a soft-law bill of rights can address. Section II provides a brief overview of the history and content of the bill of rights and IMBR Initiative. Section III describes, specifically, how making use of a soft-law bill of rights stands to improve the recognition and protection of fundamental rights that protect all migrants — and how soft law can help fill specific protection gaps.
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“Locas al Rescate: The Transnational Hauntings of Queer Cubanidad” (originally published in Cuba Transnational offers a significant contribution both to transnational American Studies and to gender studies. In telling the insider story of the alternative identity formation, practices, and forms of “rescue” initiated by the affective activism of the Cuban American society in drag in 1990s Miami/South Beach, Lima resuscitates the liberatory gestures of a subculture defined by its pursuit of its own acceptance, value, and freedom. With their aesthetic and political life on a raft, the gay micro-communities inside Cuban America asserted their own islandic space, Lima observes, performing “takeovers” in and of parks and bars and beaches—creating a post-Habermasian sphere of public activism focused on private parts, saving themselves from AIDS, from the disaffection and disaffiliation of the right-wing Cuban immigrant community, and from the failure of their own yearning to belong, to be wanted, to be embodied as the figure of their compelling Cubanidad. Against the hegemony of the invented collective politics of the sacrificing immigrants whose recognition of the queer side of being (of a being constituted by identity loss is yet to come, Lima suggests a spectral return—a personal and transnational reckoning of those whose lives the dream of freedom drowned.
Full Text Available This article deals with the use of ICTs in national and transnational mobilizations. The case study under investigation is the Euro Mayday Parade (EMP against precarity, which occurred at both the national and transnational level. The articles focus on three aspects of social movement activities. First, organizational processes in which ICTs are used at both the national and transnational level of the EMP in combination with face-to-face interactions, which play an important role in sustaining protest planning. Second, identification processes in which ICTs have a more important impact at the transnational level than at the national level of the EMP. Third, ICTs are not only seen as opportunities but also as challenges that activist groups involved in the EMP had to deal with in the preparation of the EMP. In presenting these results, the article suggests that a comparison between the national and transnational level of the same protest campaign could highlight new aspects in the use of ICTs, which deserve further investigation.
Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.
Leuprecht, Christian; Aulthouse, Andrew; Walther, Olivier
Why is transnational organized crime so difficult to dismantle? While organized crime networks within states have received some attention, actual transnational operations have not. In this article, we study the transnational drug and gun trafficking operations of the Shower Posse, a violent inter...
by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....
Vleuten, Erik van der; Lagendijk, Vincent
Recent transnational blackouts exposed two radically opposed interpretations of Europe's electricity infrastructure, which inform recent and ongoing negotiations on transnational electricity governance. To EU policy makers such blackouts revealed the fragility of Europe's power grids and the need of a more centralized form of governance, thus legitimizing recent EU interventions. Yet to power sector spokespersons, these events confirmed the reliability of transnational power grids and the traditional decentralized governance model: the disturbances were quickly contained and repaired. This paper inquires the historic legacies at work in these conflicting interpretations and associated transnational governance preferences. It traces the power sector's interpretation to its building of a secure transnational power grid from the 1950s through the era of neoliberalization. Next it places the EU interpretation and associated policy measures against the historical record of EU attempts at transnational infrastructure governance. Uncovering the historical roots and embedding of both interpretations, we conclude that their divergence is of a surprisingly recent date and relates to the current era of security thinking. Finally we recommend transnational, interpretative, and historical analysis to the field of critical infrastructure studies.
Creighton, Mathew J; Goldman, Noreen; Teruel, Graciela; Rubalcava, Luis
The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to assess the link between migrant networks and becoming overweight or obese and 2) to explore the pathways by which migrant networks may contribute to the increasing overweight and obese population of children in Mexico. Using two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS), we find that children and adolescents (ages 3 to 15) living in households with migrant networks are at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese over the period of observation, relative to their peers with no migrant networks. Sedentary behavior and household-level measures of economic wellbeing explain some of the association between networks and changes in weight status, but the role of extended networks remains significant. Community-level characteristics related to migration do not account for any of the observed relationship between household-level networks and becoming overweight or obese. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.
Li, Xing; Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Empirically recent global developments have shown that transnational NGOs operate in between civic mobilization dimension to organizational and institutional dimensions depending on the particular contextual event. NGOs have demonstrated capabilities to move between civic mobilization grass root...... orientations and top down organizational platforms (Stachursky, 2013). In this regard the state remains significant in the process of NGO activities. Although globalizations in the form of mobility and technological advancement diminished state monopoly, NGOs continue to struggle overcoming national priorities...... not just for acquiring funds but also for engaging in an increasingly complex but still state centric world. We can nonetheless agree on the point that Transnational NGOs as non-state actors and have the capacity to simultaneously operate local, global and transnational. On one way these are competent...
Jensen, Pia Majbritt
Over the last five years, the near global reach of Danish TV drama has made Denmark the darling of the international TV industry and made Danish broadcasters and producers benefit both financially and status-wise. This is not just unprecedented. It is also interesting from an academic point of view...... because it challenges existing theories on global media geography, import/export of audio-visual content, transnational media reception and the importance of transnational TV viewing. According to these theories, non-Anglophone audio-visual content rarely exports outside its geo-linguistic region...... with audio-visual content removed from their own (cultural) context as would be the case with international audiences engaging with Danish series – and instead emphasized the importance of geo-linguistic, national or ‘resident’ viewing. Even in cases when transnational viewing has been theorized...
economically active to a lesser extent compared to the domicile elderly population, while the major differences between the two subgroups of the population are observed among the economically inactive persons. There is a noticeable smaller share of pensioners and a significantly higher share of persons who perform only housework in their households of elderly forced migrants than for the domicile aging population, largely owing to the female population. This can be explained by the lower level of female employment of forced migrants in countries of origin but could also result from the circumstances of exile. Single person elderly households of forced migrants are twice as vulnerable in economic terms than the domicile one, which confirms the high dependence of these groups of older migrants on financial aid. The lack of income of one part of the elderly forced migrants is a consequence of the unresolved issue of pension payments from Croatia, as most of the older forced migrants in Serbia are people from that former republic of Yugoslavia. The older forced migrants in Serbia from the former Yugoslav republics are relatively few in number, but a sensitive population that has legally integrated into the community since 2001 and is facing the same challenges as the local elderly population. Due to the circumstances of refugeeism in Serbia, these persons, as opposed to older migrants in other countries, have no linguistic or cultural barriers that could potentially hinder their integration within society but also within the social welfare and health care. However, although they have all legal rights as the local population, refugeeism gives a specific earmark to the social aspects of aging of these persons, and hinders their integration into economic and social life.
Yasin, Yesim; Biehl, Kristen; Erol, Maral
This paper reviews the experience of the Istanbul Tuberculosis Aid Program, which targeted tuberculosis (TB) disease in the growing irregular migrant populations of Istanbul. This experience illustrated the importance of community-based public health interventions when dealing with an infectious disease like TB among vulnerable groups. Our data is derived primarily from a qualitative study carried out with program stakeholders. We summarize lessons for success of ITAP as: (1) Strengthening impact and outreach of TB intervention among irregular migrant communities through involvement of multiple stakeholders (2) Increasing TB awareness through a community targeted approach (3) Increasing TB contact tracing and treatment success among infected irregular migrants, and, (4) Improving overall health seeking behavior of irregular migrants through empowerment and trust. Given these particularities we list our policy suggestions for revision of regulations regarding TB control and healthcare needs of irregular migrant populations.
Richard J. W. Harker
Full Text Available Museums Connect is a program funded by the US Department of State and administered by the American Alliance of Museums that sponsors transnational museum partnerships. This program provides one model for teaching public history in a transnational context, and this article analyzes the experiences of two university-museums—the Museum of History and Holocaust Education (MHHE in the United States and the Ben M’sik Community Museum (BMCM in Morocco—during two grants between 2009 and 2012. In exploring the impact of the program on the staff, faculty, and students involved and by analyzing the experiences and reflections of participants, I argue that this program can generate positive pedagogical experiences. However, in addition to the successes of the MHHE and BMCM during their two grants, the participants encountered significant power differentials that manifested themselves in both the processes and products of the grants. It is the conclusion of this article that both partners in a public history project need to address and confront potential power issues at the outset in order to achieve a more balanced, collaborative partnership.
Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.
Gao, Yunjiao; Atkinson-Sheppard, Sally; Liu, Xing
Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the prevalence of maltreatment between migrant and local adolescents, and also to explore risk factors associated with the psychological and physical maltreatment in both groups. The results showed that parent-to-child abuse was more prevalent among migrant than local adolescents, with migrant adolescents 1.490 and 1.425 times more likely to be psychologically and physically abused by their parents than their local counterparts. Low academic performance, delinquent behavior, family economic adversity and low parent attachment put migrant adolescents at increased risk of both psychological and physical maltreatment, and neighborhood disorganization was significantly related to psychological aggression among migrant adolescents. The findings confirm that child abuse perpetuated by parents is a serious problem in Mainland China, especially among migrant families, and implications for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong
Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…
Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…
HARRIS, ALTON E.
THE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT 3467 CONDUCTED A SUMMER REMEDIAL PROGRAM FOR 121 MIGRANTS AND 19 NON-MIGRANTS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE LEOTI COMMUNITY SERVICES AND THE LOCAL OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY. THE PROJECT OFFERED A HEALTH AND FOOD SERVICE IN ADDITION TO THE EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM. THE CURRICULUM FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH 6 WAS…
Naz Foundation, London (England).
The Naz Foundation sponsors a project on HIV and AIDS education, prevention, and support among South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities in Europe. As immigrants, ethnic minorities, and refugees, these people are not isolated from the societies in which they live, and are just as vulnerable as any other community to AIDS. A conference on…
International student migration is increasingly treated as a sub-class of global talent mobility by states, regions and cities competing in the globalising knowledge economy, where a highly educated workforce is seen as a prerequisite for sustaining growth. This is leading to mobilisation of states...... the in-flow of ‘unwanted’ migrants. In this context, international students’ status transition to foreign workers is influenced by their simultaneous position as talents and as migrants. This PhD project analyses how the goal of attracting skilled labour is met through international student recruitment...... by examining the management of the status transition of international students’ into foreign workers in the host country context. It takes its point of departure in understanding international student migration as a phenomenon evolving in the cross field between the global competition for talent...
Drori, Israel; Honig, Benson; Wright, Mike
This article introduces the reader to the scope, boundaries, variation, and theoretical lenses of transnational entrepreneurship (TE) research. We discuss issues concerning why, how, and when individuals and/or organizations pursue new business ventures, often in far less attractive environments,
as a transnational state initiative to secure general material conditions for capitalist growth in a manner that is profoundly shaped by power relations. The infrastructure problem was allowed to grow during neoliberalism because of the hegemony of finance; the push is a result of and reflects a weakening of finance...
This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…
Miguel FERNÁNDEZ LABAYEN
Full Text Available This article studies the industrial and aesthetic dynamics of transnational film remakes. If by «transnational remake» we understand that which «consists in making again a film in a different national context from the original one» (Berthier, 2007, p. 338, this research analyses both the production and circulation strategies and the narrative adaptation tactics involved in the remake process from a transnational perspective. In order to do so, we will examine the films ¿Quién mató a Bambi? (Santi Amodeo, 2013, remake of the Mexican film Matando Cabos (Alejandro Lozano, 2004 and Kiki, love to love (Paco León, 2016, a version of the Australian The Little Death (Josh Lawson, 2014. These cases operate as examples of adaptation processes in the Spanish context as well as tokens of remake fluxes beyond Hollywood. Attention to these films allows us to consider the existence of a potential transnational model of producing film remakes, while attending to the complex network of agents at play in buying and selling remake rights. Finally, the article reflects on the importance of industrial and academic uses of concepts such as «auteur», «film genre» or «national cinema», all of them key categories within industrial and aesthetic dynamics of contemporary film remakes.
Clarke, Angela; Johal, Terry; Sharp, Kristen; Quinn, Shayna
Transnational education is now essential to university international development strategies. As a result, tertiary educators are expected to engage with the complexities of diverse cultural contexts, different delivery modes, and mixed student cohorts to design quality learning experiences for all. To support this transition we developed a…
Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.
In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the
Thetransnational companies are considered to be the most complex and modern formamong the companies, however it has certain factors that makes it more obligedcomparing to other ones as well. Beforewe overview the structure and factors of transnational companies we shouldreview all forms of companies and determine its general definitions.
This article examines an adolescent's music literacy education across Caribbean and U.S. schools using qualitative research methods and theories of multimodality, transnationalism, and global cultural flows. Findings include that the youth's music literacy practices continuously shifted in response to the cultural practices and values of the…
Metcalfe, Amy Scott
Transnational academic mobility is often characterized in relation to terms such as "brain drain", "brain gain", or "brain circulation"--terms that isolate researchers' minds from their bodies, while saying nothing about their political identities as foreign nationals. In this paper, I explore the possibilities of a…
This article is concerned with the emotional dynamics of transnationalism and migration and the impact on education. This impact is discussed in terms of how the movement of people involves complex emotional processes that have important consequences for educational policy, practice and research. The purpose of the author is to theorise how…
Petrón, Mary A.; Greybeck, Barbara
This reflective article is based on an ethnographic case study of five transnational teachers of English in Mexico. These teachers had acquired English as children of Mexican immigrants to the U.S. At the time of the study, they were living and teaching in their parents' place of origin in rural Mexico. The intent of the article is to examine how…
Mihr, A.; Schmitz, Hans-Peter
Transnational human rights activism occupies today a significant place in the practice and scholarship of current global affairs. This article reviews the past successes and limits of this activism and suggests Human Rights Education (HRE) as a strategic tool currently underutilized by activists and
King, Kendall A.
The study of what has come to be known as family language policy has evolved and expanded significantly over the last hundred years, from its early beginnings in the diary studies of Ronjat and Leopold, to the interdisciplinary and transnational research found in this thematic issue of the "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural…
Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education--This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper…
Full Text Available This article explores forms of migrant families’ reorganization within a (new global economic crisis and the hardening of migration control in Europe; based on the cases of Dominican and Brazilian migration to Spain.Our goal is not to characterize the wholeness of strategies from these collectives, instead visualize its heterogeneity. Displacement of Dominican and Brazilian population to Spain shares the role of women as the first link of migration chains. In both cases women are the economic support of transnational families and they lead reunification's processes. Nevertheless, differences in the time spent in the destination country, migratory status, origin (rural-urban, level of education, class and labor insertion in destination country, affect differently, the planning and start up of migration projects, the organization of care and family reunification strategies. These findings question the predominant place granted to national origin in the study of international migration.
Using the scholarship on transnationalism and citizenship, this paper examines the politics of difference in HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in the United States and their impact on Haitian migrants and immigrants. It finds that there is a tremendous amount of complex movement of knowledge production and expertise among various constituents who work in the field of HIV/AIDS, and these individuals circulate ideas and technologies of HIV/AIDS across different fields in multiple ways. Through these circulations, information about HIV/AIDS becomes entangled in the debates about relevant knowledge bases, and as a result, questions over culture and modernity. This paper traces how such discourses become framed under the rubric of risk and difference and operate at the level of situated experience. Through ethnographic fieldwork observations and interviews, this paper argues that notions of individual responsibility in HIV/AIDS risk management often become inseparable from notions of racial, ethnic and immigrant identity.
Full Text Available This article aims to approach the construction of gender in transnational spacesby focusing on the ritual practice of African Pentecostal migrants in Europeand in Africa. One dimension of African Pentecostalism is its insistence on thepractice of exorcism called ‘deliverance’ where malevolent spirits are expelledfrom one’s body. Within the Pentecostal demonology, several categories ofspirits carry implications for how gender is constructed. This article will analyseeffects of the appearance of these spirits on the construction of genderamong Ghanaian and Congolese Pentecostal churches in Geneva and in Accra.It will show that variations in the appearance of spirits within rituals can beinterpreted as a negotiation of gender roles in a migratory context. Shifts inPentecostal demonology can therefore be interpreted as a response to thereconfiguration of gender roles associated with the broader gender contextand work opportunities in Europe.
Remittances, the money sent by migrants to their families back home, are situated outside ‘traditional’ categories of space in several ways. Not only do these smallscale financial transactions span the transnational space beyond the nation-state; they also move largely outside the institutional spaces of the formal banking sector. Taking the case of financial markets in Mexico and building on recent empirical findings on the impact of migrants’ remittances on the financial sector of the receiving countries, this article explores how remittances may lead to a transformation of local spaces by reducing some of the market failures that prevail, especially in rural financial markets.
Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lee, Fang-Hsin; Lin, Miao-Ling; Lin, Pei-Chao
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a theory-based intervention designed to promote increased health empowerment for marriage migrant women in Taiwan. The rapid increase of international marriage immigration through matchmaking agencies has received great attention recently because of its impact on social and public health issues in the receiving countries. A participatory action research (PAR) and in-depth interviews were adopted. Sixty-eight women participated in this study. Eight workshops of the health empowerment project were completed. Through a PAR-based project, participants received positive outcomes. Four outcome themes were identified: (a) increasing health literacy, (b) facilitating capacity to build social networks, (c) enhancing sense of self-worth, and (d) building psychological resilience. PAR was a helpful strategy that enabled disadvantaged migrant women to increase their health literacy, psychological and social health, and well-being. The findings can be referenced by the government in making health-promoting policies for Southeast Asian immigrant women to increase their well-being. Community health nurses can apply PAR strategies to plan and design health promotion intervention for disadvantaged migrant women. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Full Text Available Drawing on the examples of the neo-Zapatista movement and the pro-immigrant marches of 2006, this article analyzes images of Emiliano Zapata, a Mexican national hero intricately tied to postrevolution nation rebuilding, as used within transnational movements that “de/territorialize” his image. At the same time that people in these movements have felt the negative effects of globalization, they have also benefited from certain recent technological developments associated with globalization, especially “technoscapes” and “mediascapes” that have launched the “local” discourse of Revolutionary nationalism across borders and onto the world stage through a variety of national and international (cyberspaces, creating transnational heterotopias or “other spaces” for cultural and political expression that transgress national boundaries. Analyzing examples of Zapata imagery from the post-revolutionary era (1920s–1930s against the neo-Zapatista movement of the 1990s and 2000s and the 2006 migrant protests in the United States, the paper explores the ways in which the formation of transnational “imagined communities” can destabilize traditional concepts of the nation-state.
Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita
Objective Latino immigrants live in an increasingly global world where maintaining contact with kin in the home country is easier than ever. We examined: (a) the annual distribution of remittances burden (percentage of remittances/household income) and visits to the home country; (b) the association of these transnational ties with odds of a past-year major depressive episode (MDE); and (c) moderation by Latino sub-ethnicity or gender. Methods We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses with the Latino immigrant subsample (N=1614) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Results Mexican and Other Latino immigrants had greater remittances burden than Puerto Rican migrants. Cuban immigrants made fewer visits back home than Puerto Rican migrants. After adjustment for socio-demographics and pre-migration psychiatric history, a percentage increase in remittances burden decreased odds of MDE (OR=0.80 [95%CI:0.67–.0.98]), whereas visits back home increased odds of MDE (OR=1.04 [95%CI:1.01–1.06]). Latino sub-ethnicity was not a significant moderator. Visits back home were more strongly linked to depression among women than men. Conclusions The distribution of transnational ties differs by Latino subgroup, although its association with depression is similar across groups. Monetary giving in the form of remittances might promote a greater sense of self-efficacy, social integration, and caregiving for relatives back home that positively affect mental health. Visits back home, especially for women, might signal social stress from strained relationships with kin/spouses/children left behind, or increased caregiving demands that negatively affect mental health. Clinical practice with immigrants should routinely assess the social resources and strains that fall outside national borders. PMID:25090146
Urrieta, Luis, Jr.
This article presents ethnographic data of US Mexican-indigenous heritage children's transnational experiences during return visits to Mexico. US-born children and youth's acquisition of transnational diasporic community knowledge, in this article, is studied as a form of "smartness." Diasporic community knowledge is defined as the…
Full Text Available Recent demographic changes such as ageing, low-fertility, and large out-migration from Eastern European countries, brought into discussion the vivid question of the future of intergenerational solidarity within families. In the context of increasing geographical mobility of young people in search for better paid jobs, the unmet need for personal assistance among the elderly, the underdeveloped system of care services, Romania knows new dynamics of intergenerational support. Contrary to perspectives that consider spatial proximity between adult children and their elder parents the indisputable enabling factor for intergenerational support transfers (Rossi and Rossi, 1990, emerging literature on transnational families highlights that such tight kinship relations continue to exist even across borders (Baldassar et al., 2007. Using recent data from the nationwide survey “The Impact of Migration on Older Parents Left Behind in Romania” (2011, this paper examines the complex dynamics of intergenerational solidarity involving adult children as transnational migrants and their elder parents who remain at home. The statistical models used indicate the migrants’ role as providers of remittances, but also the ways in which other forms of support are distributed among the dyads. Despite a possible presupposition that parents who were left at home might only be beneficiaries of support, the data show the opposite: elderly persons, depending on their age, were active providers of help as well.
Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S A; Wattie, Anna Marie
Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother's absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother.
Anitha, Sundari; Roy, Anupama; Yalamarty, Harshita
Based on life history narratives of 57 women in India and interviews with 21 practitioners, we document the neglect, abuse, and instrumental deprivation of women's rights through the process of transnational abandonment. While gendered local sociocultural milieus and economic norms contribute to these harms, they are crucially enabled and sustained by transnational formal-legal frameworks. Widening the explanatory lens for understanding domestic violence beyond the family and community, we argue that in a globalized world, (inter)state policies serve to construct these women as a subordinate category of citizens-"disposable women"-who can be abused and abandoned with impunity.
Abstract Over the last decade both national and local actors in Spain have picked up on international trends encouraging a policy framework of migration and development. Policies of codevelopment are tied in with issues of migration management in the sense of linking current and future migration flows with processes of development in the country of origin. However, this article demonstrates how codevelopment policies and initiatives of local governments in Catalonia also relate to ...
This paper critically discusses the relation between human mobility and development. It moves away from conventional migration-development policy discussions that mainly focus on diaspora-like actors, who have established a stable and integrated socio-economic position in the destination countries.
Paterson, Janet M.
A literatura contemporânea é caracterizada por uma variedade de representações da identidade pessoal. Desde os anos 1960, a presença do sujeito narrativo no discurso literário é ubíqua. Neste artigo, discuto três modelos subjacentes à representação dos personagens ficcionais na ficção do Quebec: pós-modernismo, literatura imigrante e cultura transnacional. O princípio norteador da análise é que o sujeito literário é fortemente condicionado por mudanças sociológicas e epistemológicas. Dizer Eu...
Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.; Triandafyllidou, A.
Family migration and integration are intimately related concepts in contemporary policy discourses in major migrant receiving countries. In these discourses, both family related migration as such and the migrant family as an institution are problematised with regard to their relation to integration.
Korogodova Olena O.
Full Text Available The article provides the concepts of both the transnational and the multinational corporations. The main types of transnational companies have been defined and characterized. A retrospective of development of the transnational structures has been carried out considering the multinational, global and specific marketing strategies of the production-commercial activities of companies at different stages of formation. The main benefits for globalization of companies have been defined. The level of the global investment flows has been provided. A top-ten of the leading transnational companies according to the Global Fortune 500 has been allocated, the quantitative changes in the geographical structure of the leaders as to the home countries have been determined. The degree of influence of the transnational structures on the world level of scientific, technological developments, as well as commercializing the market for high-tech products has been defined. The objectives of creating the strategic transnational alliances have been determined.
Transnational history emerged strongly as globalization intensified in the 1990s, questioning national historiographies and creating new research agendas. Business history has not been part of this, but recent calls within the field to engage more visibly and authoritatively with debates on the history of globalization warrant a closer inspection of transnational history. The article draws on key concepts from transnational history and discusses their application in the work of, among others,...
This article studies transnational marriages among the second generation and analyses the processes through which transnational marriages shape second-generation women’s attachment to work. Based on in-depth interviews with second-generation women of Pakistani descent in Norway, along with some of their husbands, the article identifies three processes through which transnational marriages can shape women’s attachment to work: 1) conflicting expectations concerning childcare and women’s employ...
Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong
This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago
The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community.
The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. © 2014 Ariza et al.
Full Text Available The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community.
Abma, T.A.; Heijsman, A.M.
A health promotion programme focusing on the meaning of everyday activities was implemented and evaluated to test its usefulness for community-dwelling seniors in the Netherlands. To evaluate how senior migrants with a Surinamese-Hindustani background and professionals received the programme, and
Browne, Catherine; Khanom, Shaina; Evans, Jason T.; Smith, E. Grace; Hawkey, Peter M.; Kunst, Heinke; Welch, Steven B.; Dedicoat, Martin J.
To determine if local transmission was responsible for rising tuberculosis incidence in a recently dispersed migrant community in Birmingham, UK, during 2004–2013, we conducted enhanced epidemiologic investigation of molecular clusters. This technique identified exact locations of social mixing and chains of apparent recent transmission, which can be helpful for directing resources. PMID:25695328
Overall, does gender impact on the integration of migrants into the host community? To answer these questions, this paper used Gilroy's discourse on conviviality and the theory of core-focused feminism to do a gender disaggregated analysis of the results of a previous study which investigated diverse networks/ties ...
International migration benefits both acceptor and sender countries. Skilled migrants bring economic vitality to many of the wealthy nations facing an extreme shortage of workers while their migration helps to ease their native land's overpopulation. There are currently between 20 and 22 million economically active migrants around the world; most are Asian or Latin American and migrate to the US, Canada, Australia, or new Zealand. The US takes in the largest number of legal immigrants yearly at 600,000, Australia admits 93,000, Canada 84,000, and New Zealand 35,000. Because of the rising unemployment rates, Canada allows 37,000 fewer entrants yearly today than in 1982, while New Zealand allows 11,000 fewer. 4 million legal immigrants entered the US between 1980 and 1986, and about 3.5 million illegal immigrants in 1987 alone. Asians account for about 45% of all US immigrants, while Europeans account for only 17%. 32% of all entrants claimed to be technicians or managers compared to about 2% in 1911. About 15% of Canada's population is foreign-born, while Australia's population is about 20% foreign-born. Some poor countries like Pakistan, South Korea, and Turkey send workers abroad so that they can collect remittances. Such an opening of global immigration policy can ease demographic imbalances, skills transfers, and economic development.
James N Mitchell
Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas
Exporting is embedded in transnational networks and other networks around entrepreneurs. We hypothesise that exporting is constrained by networking in the private sphere, but promoted by networking in the public sphere, and benefitting especially from networking in the transnational environment....... This dynamic unfolds in the context of culture, which expectedly moderates benefit of networks for exporting. Networking for advice was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in 61 societies with 52,968 entrepreneurs. Exporting greatly benefits from transnational networks around entrepreneurs and also...... generalises to the entrepreneurs in the world, and is a first to account for embedding of exporting in transnational advisory networks in combination with culture....
Stone, Elizabeth; Gomez, Erica; Hotzoglou, Despina; Lipnitsky, Jane Y
Family stories have long been recognized as a vehicle for assessing components of a family's emotional and social life, including the degree to which an immigrant family has been willing to assimilate. Transnationalism, defined as living in one or more cultures and maintaining connections to both, is now increasingly common. A qualitative study of family stories in the family of those who appear completely "American" suggests that an affiliation with one's home country is nevertheless detectable in the stories via motifs such as (1) positively connotated home remedies, (2) continuing denigration of home country "enemies," (3) extensive knowledge of the home country history and politics, (4) praise of endogamy and negative assessment of exogamy, (5) superiority of home country to America, and (6) beauty of home country. Furthermore, an awareness of which model--assimilationist or transnational--governs a family's experience may help clarify a clinician's understanding of a family's strengths, vulnerabilities, and mode of framing their cultural experiences.
Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders....... This book offers a conceptual framework as well as numerous empirical explorations capable of increasing our understanding of regulatory hybridization. A number of central dichotomies are deconstructed: national vs. transnational law; international vs. transnational law; convergence vs. divergence; … read...... moresoft law vs. hard law; territorial vs. non-territorial, ‘top-down’ vs. ‘bottom-up’ globalization and national vs. global just as the implications of regulatory hybridization for the question of choice of court and conflict of laws are analyzed....
Ellison, George T H; de Wet, Thea
The aim of the present study was to assess the relative importance of individual- and household-level indicators of poverty to the self-reported health of residents and recent migrants in South Africa's most urbanised province (Gauteng). Univariate and multivariable statistical analyses were undertaken on data from the 2014 Quality of Life household survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey generated data on a representative sample of n = 27 490 respondents. At the individual-level the odds for disability or health-limiting work/social activities was significantly lower amongst younger, better educated and employed respondents, and amongst both transnational and internal migrants. At the household-level, the absence of some basic services and household assets (particularly mains electricity, telecommunications and a television) were significantly associated with a lower odds of health-limiting work/social activities. Variation in sociodemographic and economic predictors of self-reported health at the individual- and household-level partly explain the lower odds of disability and health-limiting work/social activities of migrants, since migrants were less likely to be disabled and tended to be younger, with higher educational attainment and better employment status than residents, yet were also more likely to be living in households with fewer services and assets.
Jasna Čapo Žmegač
Full Text Available Using the ethnographic approach, the article describes three modalities of family arrangements practiced by Croatian migrants in Germany over the past thirty years. In all three, family members were divided between two localities in physical space, which were situated in different states – Croatia or Bosnia-Herzegovina and Germany: in one case only the father was a migrant while his wife and children stayed in the native country; in another the couple left for Germany leaving the child in Croatia; in the third the couple lived with some of their children in Germany while other children were living in Croatia. Some of these families were dispersed across international borders during the entire life and migration course (thirty years or more, while some experienced shorter or longer periods of separation followed by reunion of all or some family members, who crossed borders in one or another direction. It follows from this presentation that, rather than being a temporary phase aimed at reintegration of the family at a higher economic level, bilocality, viewed from a diachronic perspective, is a more or less continuous family arrangement and a way of life of migrant families. The question remains open as to whether transnational families are units in which emotional ties and closeness between its members are maintained. The data might point in this direction but might also lead to a hypothesis that, precisely because it is dispersed across long distances, the family needs to construct its unity (emotional if not physical and therefore narratively presents itself as integrated and reconfigured.
Maida Mušović; Azra Ćatović; Aferdita Crnišanin
Evidence of globalization can be seen everywhere: at home, at work, in major department stores, newspapers and business journals, the monthly government statistics, and academic literature. These processes have led to a global understanding of the business and the concept of transnational development. This paper will put emphasis on the impact of globalization on business in the world and on markets in the region, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of globalization politics in terms ...
Mortensen, Tore; Knudsen, Knud
Jazz as Transnational Popular Culture. The Perspective of a Local Biotope In the article, we explore the "diaspora of jazz", inspired by Bruce Johnson's critique of traditional historiography of jazz, portraying it solely as a history of the musical development of jazz. The argument is that jazz...... should not only be seen as a musical practice but also as a social and a cultural practice....
This paper identifies some of the major policies adopted by the public authorities of both the oil importing and oil exporting countries, as well as the business strategies followed by the major energy corporate groups. The significance of governmental policies and business strategies are often reflected in transnational political or economic relations, market structures and price formation. The focus of this paper is to ascertain the impact of those policies and strategies. 1 ref., 1 fig
Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos
This study examines predictors of transnational dental care utilization, or the use of dental care across national borders, over a 4-year period among immigrants to Canada. Data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC, 2001-2005) were used. Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' transnational dental care utilization. Approximately 13% of immigrants received dental care outside Canada over a period of 4 years. Immigrants lacking dental insurance (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.55-2.70), those reporting dental problems (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.12-1.88), who were female (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.22-2.08), aged ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.45-3.64), and who were always unemployed (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.39) were more likely to report transnational dental care utilization. History of social assistance was inversely correlated with the use of dental services outside Canada (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30-0.83). It is estimated that roughly 11 500 immigrants have used dental care outside Canada over a 4-year period. Although transnational dental care utilization may serve as an individual solution for immigrants' initial barriers to accessing dental care, it demonstrates weaknesses to in-country efforts at providing publicly funded dental care to socially marginalized groups. Policy reforms should be enacted to expand dental care coverage among adult immigrants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth
Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.
Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth
Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910
Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education - This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper investigates how globalisation processes are constructed as policy problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. The author's main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments worldwide to overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalises learning experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalisation to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, she presents the conceptual and methodological framework of her analysis. The author then examines the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy objective at transnational level, and unpacks the specific problem "representations" that are substantiated by these organisations. She argues that UNESCO and EU processes assign specific values and meanings to globalisation, and that these reflect a limited understanding of the complexity of globalisation. Finally, she considers two of the effects produced by these problem representations.
Gardeazabal, Javier; Sandler, Todd
Abstract This paper investigates the role that International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) surveillance—the Mobile INTERPOL Network Database (MIND) and the Fixed INTERPOL Network Database (FIND)—played in the War on Terror since its inception in 2005. MIND/FIND surveillance allows countries to screen people and documents systematically at border crossings against INTERPOL databases on terrorists, fugitives, and stolen and lost travel documents. Such documents have been used in the past by terrorists to transit borders. By applying methods developed in the treatment‐effects literature, this paper establishes that countries adopting MIND/FIND experienced fewer transnational terrorist attacks than they would have had they not adopted MIND/FIND. Our estimates indicate that, on average, from 2008 to 2011, adopting and using MIND/FIND results in 0.5 fewer transnational terrorist incidents each year per 100 million people. Thus, a country like France with a population just above 64 million people in 2008 would have 0.32 fewer transnational terrorist incidents per year owing to its use of INTERPOL surveillance. This amounts to a sizeable average proportional reduction of about 30 percent.
In order to help parents and community members participate more effectively and better understand the importance of their involvement in the planning and administration of migrant education programs in Oregon, the English-Spanish booklet suggests general procedures for organizing, leading, and training Parent Advisory Committees (PACs), required…
Mullan, B P
This paper postulates that there is a continuous exchange of information and knowledge between those who share the common bond of having migrated to the US. The individual components of this information exchange constitute social networks. The 2 hypotheses tested are 1) immediate social networks and people known in the US facilitate the flow of information both to new migrants and between established migrants, thus promoting upward social mobility; and 2) access to broader network ties, organization membership, extra-ethnic friendships, and familiarity with established institutions smooths the transition process, resulting in increased social position. The data used comes from a study conducted in 1982-1983 in 4 Mexican sending communities (2 rural, 2 urban), for a total of 440 migrants. Results show that migrants in every socioeconomic bracket reported access to some or all social network characteristics. There was contact with either a family member or acquaintances from the migrants' town of origin. Over 50% of migrants reported knowing many fellow townspeople. Twice as many migrants belong to a sports club as to a social or religious organization. Very few rural migrants report knowing no townspeople, while 32% of urban migrants claim no knowledge of fellow migrants from their town of origin. Urban origin migrants report more contacts with those of other ethnicity than rural migrants. Those employed in agriculture are least acquainted with social information and contacts, while those in skilled and service sectors are well acquainted with them. The results of fact and analysis show that 1) access to personal US networks results in an average 4.4 point advantage in occupational prestige scores over no access, and 2) utilizing institutional US networks combined with any cumulative US experience gives a migrant a 5 point advantage over a fellow migrant with identical experience level but no institutional network contacts. This is also true for institutional
Yi, Yingying; Liang, Ying
This article sought to explore the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on intra-provincial and interprovincial migrants' mental health by constructing the Bayesian structural equation model. A total of 14,584 migrants aged 15-59 years living in eight cities of China were selected. It was found that the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on mental health were converse for these two groups. And the manifest variables coefficients of socioeconomic status and social inclusion were also converse. Therefore, governments should make some policies to further improve the mental health of migrants, including strengthening the community cohesion, social atmosphere, and governmental support.
de la Sierra-de la Vega Luz A
Full Text Available Abstract Background A total of 12.7 million Mexicans reside as migrants in the United States, of whom only 45% have health insurance in this country while access to health insurance by migrants in Mexico is fraught with difficulties. Health insurance has been shown to impact the use of health care in both countries. This paper quantifies hospitalizations by migrants who return from the US seeking medical care in public and private hospitals in the US-Mexico border area and in communities of origin. The proportion of bed utilization and the proportion of hospitalizations in Mexico out of the total expected by migrants in the US were estimated. Methods The universe included 48 Ministry of Health and 47 private hospitals serving municipalities of high or very high migration in Mexico, where 17% of remittance-receiving households are located, as well as 15 public and 159 private hospitals in 10 Mexican cities along the border with the US. Hospitals were sampled through various methods to include 27% of beds. Patients and staff were interviewed and data triangulated to quantify migrants that returned to Mexico seeking medical care. Official hospital discharge statistics and secondary data from migration databases and published statistics were analyzed to identify bed occupancy, general migrant hospitalization rates and the size of the migrant population that maintains close relationships with households in communities of origin. Results Up to 1609 migrants were admitted to public hospitals (76.6% and 492 to private hospitals (23.4% serving municipalities of high and very high migration intensity in 2008. Up to 0.90% of public hospital capacity was used. In the border area up to 908 and 2416 migrants were admitted to public (27.3% and private (72.7% hospitals, respectively. Up to 1.18% of public hospital capacity was used. Between 2.4% and 20.4% of the expected hospitalization needs of migrants with dependent households are satisfied through these
24 juin 2015 ... des affaires locales se retrouve désormais aux mains des élus communaux, dont certains sont d'anciens migrants. Pour ces édiles à la recherche de partenaires, les migrants ont été identifiés comme des interlocuteurs privilégiés. Considérés soit comme des bailleurs, soit comme des relais susceptibles de ...
Full Text Available This paper focuses on how migrant youth in Melbourne with experience of direct or indirect migration negotiate cross-cultural engagements and tensions between family, community and the greater society in which they are supposed to participate as political subjects. It examines whether the meaning and interpretation of citizenship in Australia allows migrant youth to act as full and active citizens with all the contradictions and difficulties inherent in acting as “a bridge between two worlds”. By voicing the personalised journeys of young people dealing with uneasy questions of displacement, identity and belonging, this paper examines the complex ways through which migrant youth negotiate and in some cases bridge intercultural tensions within a multicultural society.
Full Text Available The globalisation of the world markets has paved the way for the movement of people with scarce skills such as teachers across national boundaries with relative ease. This paper focuses on the migration of teachers from South Africa to the UK using a qualitative, ethnographic approach. It argues that there are socio-cultural complexities in the transnational migration of SA teachers. It begins by identifying the reasons for teachers exiting the SA teaching fraternity to work in schools in London in the UK. Teachers’ experiences in the UK schools are then explored. The study revealed that teachers leaving SA had multiple reasons for going abroad. The migration of teachers from SA to the UK was influenced by the declining economic status of teaching as a profession in SA, and global labour market conditions. The majority of the migrant teachers who were interviewed had an existing social network in the UK, either friends or relatives. However, the gravity of teaching in a foreign country without next of kin took its toll and teachers spoke at length of the loneliness of being apart from immediate family. An overwhelming majority of migrant teachers experienced a culture shock in UK classrooms, especially discipline problems. Migrant teachers felt powerless, as UK policies tend to protect children, even if they misbehaved in the classroom. The paper concludes by highlighting the commodification of teachers; those who are able to trade their skills in a global market in return for socio-economic and career gains. The arrival of this breed of teacher is also facilitated by what D. Harvey terms the “time-space compression” of global society.
Bakhtiar Rana, Mohammad; Sørensen, Olav Jull
In case of TNC’s management and strategies, two focal spaces are highlighted; one is the institutions in which home and the host contexts are prioritized; and two is the transnational firm in which a central focus is given to the spaces emerged from the global governance structure and the networks...... organizations having been connected by normative and regulative nodes create some spaces, third, how cognitive level of the migrants (diaspora, expatriates) or the people of the TNCs are linked with different spaces (contexts) and schools of thoughts (ideological similarities). These all three components...
Athena K. Ramos
Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest.
Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica; McIntyre, Ana María; Chepo, Macarena
To investigate the perceptions of primary health workers (PHW) about the challenges of health care for migrants. A qualitative multicase study was conducted in eight communes of Chile, using the snowball technique, where 101 PHW and local authorities were recruited. Semi-structured interviews and focal groups were conducted, achieving information saturation. The findings were grouped into two major thematic axes: 1. Technical and administrative difficulties, and 2. Perception of cultural barriers. According to the PHW, although regulations have been established and health care strategies have been generated for the migrant population, these are mostly not stable or known to all PHW. They are also not easy to implement in the various realities investigated. The absence of records on the number of migrants accessing the health system makes it difficult to design specific interventions. Additionally, health care has complications, and the PHW do not necessarily have tools that allow them to provide a care that is culturally sensitive to the needs of the migrant community. The findings put into question the new challenges in health that Chile is facing in the face of the growing migrant population. The needs perceived by PHW are: stability and clarity in the regulations in force in relation to access and provision of services, training in regulations and the concrete way in which they should operate, and sensitization in cultural competence.
Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera
Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are
Spitzer, Denise L
"Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...
Spitzer, Denise L
.... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...
Full Text Available As states increasingly use detention as a means of controllingmigration flows, sexual minority migrants find themselves in detentionfacilities where they may face multiple violations of their human rights.
Watkins, R. E.; Plant, A. J.
In industrialized countries migrants remain a high-risk group for tuberculosis (TB). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the ability of indicators of TB incidence in the country of birth to predict the incidence of TB among migrants in Australia during 1997. World Health Organization total case notifications, new smear-positive case notifications and the estimated incidence of TB by country of birth explained 55, 69 and 87% of the variance in TB incidence in Australia, respectively. Gross national income of the country of birth and unemployment level in Australia were also significant predictors of TB in migrant groups. Indicators of the incidence of TB in the country of birth are the most important group-level predictors of the rate of TB among migrants in Australia. PMID:12558347
Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina
Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376
In 2014, Boaventura de Sousa Santos awoke the global sociological community to the need to privilege ‘humanization’ in the exploration of transnational solidarities. This article presents the cultural consumption of a football club – Liverpool FC – to understand the common ‘love’, ‘suffering’, ‘care’ and ‘knowledge’ that fans who are part of the ‘Brazil Reds’ or ‘Switzerland Reds’ (although not all fans engaged in such communities are ‘from’ Brazil or Switzerland) experience. The argument is ...
Archer, Simon; McLeay, Stuart
Two issues related to transnational financial reporting are examined: (1) the extent to which the professional registers of accounting and finance in different countries exhibit semantic equivalence, and (2) strategies of communications that are adopted in transnational reporting when straightforward mappings cannot be performed. (14 references)…
The purpose of this paper is to consider the complex relations of transnational academic mobility, internationalization and interculturality in higher education. It is argued that, in the contemporaneous relations of the triad, "interculturality" disappears and the other two--transnational academic mobility and internationalization--are…
The construct of transnationalism has been used to describe and examine how people maintain connections with their homeland while learning about and participating in the practices of the receiving context. This notion has influenced a great deal of research that seeks to capture how transnational connections are created and sustained--and also how…
Mügge, L.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.
This chapter reviews the state of the art of scholarship on the transnationalism-integration nexus. It examines the view emanating from the existing literature on the relation between immigrants’ transnational activities and ties to the country of origin, on the one hand, and "integration" in the
Sarroub, Loukia K.
In this paper, I examine the ways in which young Yemeni and Iraqi immigrant and refugee women and men strive to become literate as they negotiate transnational spaces. I investigate the social and literate connections they forge as they search for the appropriate spouses. Transnationalism, the phenomenon of living locally with global connections,…
Kim, Sujin; Slapac, Alina
This article addresses challenges of multicultural education in the context of increasing transnational mobility and growing diversity in schools, and suggests ways to convert these challenges into new resources in education. We start with a brief overview of the contemporary transnationalism and new understanding of space and culture (Levitt…
The industrial activities of a neighbouring State which generate substances in the air, water, and land sharing boundaries are felt across borders. The pollution emanating from this state gives raise to Transnational Environmental Pollution.1 Transnational responsibility is embedded in the rule that a state takes liability for its ...
This article explores transnational activism within Education for All (EFA), looking specifically at the strategic use of information and research by transnational advocacy organizations. Through a comparative case-study examination of two prominent civil society organizations within the EFA movement--the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic…
Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 186-199 ISSN 1321-6597 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21829S Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : China * domestic structure * Public diplomacy * transnational societal space * transnationalism studies Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences OBOR OECD: Political science
Bol, Roland; Marsh, Jen; Heaton, Tim H E
Relationships between recent migration and hair delta(18)O values were examined for 40 people living in a rural community in SW England. The isotopic contents of 35 'local' hair samples were compared with those of 5 recently arrived individuals (from Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany and the USA). The hair delta(18)O values of these 'visitors' were +7.9 (Omaha, USA), +11.2 (Jena, Germany), +12.1 (Osorno, Chile), +12.6 (Montreal, Canada) and +14.3 per thousand (Adelaide, Australia). The hair value for the USA visitor (+7.9 per thousand) fell outside the range for the 33 local adult residents, +10.5 to +14.3 per thousand (+12.7 +/- 0.8 per thousand). Hair delta(18)O values did not identify the individuals from Adelaide, Montreal and Osorno as 'visitors', but hair delta(13)C or delta(34)S data did. Combining the hair delta(18)O, delta(13)C and delta(34)S values using principal components analysis (two components explained 89% of the overall variation among the 40 subjects) helped to more clearly distinguish European from non-European individuals, indicating the existence of global overall isotope (geo-origin) relationships. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mainil, Tomas; Van Loon, Francis; Dinnie, Keith; Botterill, David; Platenkamp, Vincent; Meulemans, Herman
Within European cross-border health care, recent studies have identified several types of international patients. Within the Anglo-Saxon setting, the specific terminology of medical tourism is used. The analytical purpose of the paper is to resolve this semantic difference by suggesting an alternative terminology, 'transnational health care' that is understood as a 'context-controlled and coordinated network of health services'. For demand-driven trans-border access seekers and cross-border access searchers, there is a need to opt for regional health-policy strategies. For supply-driven sending context actors and receiving context actors, there would be organizational benefits to these strategies. Applying the terminology of trans-border access seekers, cross-border access searchers, sending context and receiving context actors results in a transnational patient mobility typology of twelve types of international patients, based on the criteria of geographical distance, cultural distance and searching efforts, public/private/no cover and private/public provision of health services. Finally, the normative purpose of the paper is to encourage the use of this terminology to promote a policy route for transnational health regions. It is suggested that the development of transnational health regions, each with their own medical and supportive service characteristics, could enhance governmental context-controlled decision power in applying sustainable health destination management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fleischman, Yonina; Willen, Sarah S; Davidovitch, Nadav; Mor, Zohar
More than 150,000 irregular migrants reside in Israel, yet data regarding their utilization of and perceived barriers to health care services are limited. Drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 irregular migrant adults between January and September 2012, this article analyzes the role of migration as a social determinant of health for irregular migrants, and especially asylum seekers. We analyze two kinds of barriers faced by migrants when they attempt to access health care services: barriers resulting directly from their migration status, and barriers that are common among low-income communities but exacerbated by this status. Migration-related barriers included a lack of clear or consistent legislation; the threat of deportation; the inability to obtain work permits and resulting poverty and harsh living and working conditions; and discrimination. Barriers exacerbated by migrant status included prohibitive cost; poor and confusing organization of services; language barriers; perceived low quality of care; and social isolation. These findings support recent arguments that migrant status itself constitutes a social determinant of health that can intersect with other determinants to adversely affect health care access and health outcomes. Findings suggest that any meaningful effort to improve migrants' health will depend on the willingness of clinicians, public health officials, and policymakers to address the complex array of upstream political and socio-economic factors that affect migrants' health rather than focusing on narrower questions of access to health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the history and current situation of Mexican hometown associations (HTAs in the United States with a special emphasis on Chicago-based Mexican hometown associations and federations. It presents empirical evidence of new forms of binational engagement among Mexican migrant communities in the United States leading to the creation of a Mexican migrant civil society.
Findlay, Allan; McCollum, David
Migrant labour has been particularly significant in the British rural agribusiness sector, where employers often struggle to source labour regardless of economic conditions. While most research on East-Central European migration has focused on the experiences of members of the migrant community, this paper is one of a small number of studies that…
Ennser-Kananen, Johanna; Pettitt, Nicole
This article contributes to scholarship on migrant women's second language (L2) education in North America and Europe. Questioning reductionist understandings of the relationship between female migrants, their receiving communities and L2 education, the authors consider existing literature as well as their own qualitative work to investigate the…
Using tenets of postcolonial theory, this paper interrogates the different perspectives from which the lives of African women migrants to the United States of America are affected by sustained or unsustained connections with their countries of origin in some of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's stories in The Thing Around Your ...
Ondanks het heersende grote wantrouwen van het gastland, blijven migranten vaak trouw aan hun land van herkomst en blijven actief in de politiek. Door uitgebreid veldwerk te combineren met kwantitatieve gegevens vergelijkt de auteur de manier waarop transnationale politieke betrokkenheid zich heeft
The practices and qualities that constitute a successfully married couple are both difficult to identify, and difficult to embody. Melding two lives into one family requires synchronization of expectations and needs, of communication and understandings, of livelihoods and care. A marriage emerges
M.E. van Bochove (Marianne)
textabstractIf scholars of migration had to pick one word to describe the nature of contemporary migration flows and immigrant populations, many of them would probably choose terms like “diversified,” “differentiated,” or “fragmented” (e.g. Alba and Nee 2003: 213; Castles and Miller 2003: 8;
health measurements were improved with more years of residence. Moreover, our results show that two aspects of social integration, economic integration and self-identity, were significantly associated with health status. Subjective feeling of relative social status levels were more associated with health, which prompted the attention to social fairness and the creation of a fair and respectful culture. More interventions could be experimented, such as encouraging internal migrants to participate in community activities more actively, educating local registered residents to treat internal migrants more equally, and developing self-identity among internal migrants. Better social, economic, and cultural environment can benefit internal migrants' health statuses.
Texas has a diverse population with many underserved communities and a dentist-to-population ratio only 80% of the national average. Currently dentists trained in other countries can be licensed after completing four years of dental school and passing either the Western or Central Regional Testing Association's examination or by completing a graduate program in an ADA-accredited specialty. Although there have been careful and lengthy analyses of comparability of training across countries, a fundamental issue is that standards for education are developed by a national voluntary organization (Commission on Dental Accreditation) and standards for licensure are determined by individual states in the United States. Elsewhere in the world, the federal government performs these roles.
Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal violence (IPV is associated with higher risk of depression. Female Chinese rural-to-urban migrants may experience greater depression following exposure to IPV due to lack of social support and integration within their receiving communities. The current study estimated the prevalence of IPV among rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China, and evaluated the moderating effects of social resources on migrant's depression symptoms. Method: We recruited 1,368 women (1,003 migrants and 365 local-born of childbearing age from population and family planning centers in two districts using a quota sampling method matched to the 2012 population census. Chinese versions of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale measured IPV, depression, and social support. Social integration was measured with a locally derived scale. Results: Migrants reported a similar prevalence for IPV (41.20% to local women (39.20%. Bivariate comparisons demonstrated that migrants reported greater depression (11.8±8.9 vs. 10.0±8.8, t=−3.27, p<0.001 and less social support (22.2±5.1 vs. 27.1±5.5, t=14.84, p<0.001. Regression analysis indicated that the effect of violence on depression symptoms for migrant women was moderated by social integration. Women who experienced violence and had greater integration in their community reported less depression than women who experienced violence but reported less social integration. Conclusion: A high prevalence of IPV was reported in our sample. Social integration is a key risk factor for migrant mental health. Social services aimed to reduce IPV and integrate migrants in their new communities are needed.
Teng, Pan; Hall, Brian J; Li, Ling
Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with higher risk of depression. Female Chinese rural-to-urban migrants may experience greater depression following exposure to IPV due to lack of social support and integration within their receiving communities. The current study estimated the prevalence of IPV among rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China, and evaluated the moderating effects of social resources on migrant's depression symptoms. We recruited 1,368 women (1,003 migrants and 365 local-born) of childbearing age from population and family planning centers in two districts using a quota sampling method matched to the 2012 population census. Chinese versions of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale measured IPV, depression, and social support. Social integration was measured with a locally derived scale. Migrants reported a similar prevalence for IPV (41.20%) to local women (39.20%). Bivariate comparisons demonstrated that migrants reported greater depression (11.8±8.9 vs. 10.0±8.8, t=-3.27, peffect of violence on depression symptoms for migrant women was moderated by social integration. Women who experienced violence and had greater integration in their community reported less depression than women who experienced violence but reported less social integration. A high prevalence of IPV was reported in our sample. Social integration is a key risk factor for migrant mental health. Social services aimed to reduce IPV and integrate migrants in their new communities are needed.
Krejsler, John B.; Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth
This article reveals how templates that emerge from opaque albeit often inclusive policy processes in transnational forums (EU, OECD & the Bologna Process) affect education reform policy in Scandinavian countries, such as Denmark and Sweden. The open method of coordination is the mother template...... of the political technologies (standards, performance indicators, scorecards, best practices) that are instrumental in fashioning reforms. This template commits countries in consensus-making ways to comparison, and normalizes the competitive incentive of mutual peer pressure. The authors draw on post...
Haack, Patrick; Rasche, Andreas
This paper examines the social construction of transnational governance schemes (TGSs hereafter), inter-organizational networks comprising public and/or private actors that jointly regulate global public policy issues, such as the protection of global ecosystems. We focus on the UN Global Compact...... (UNGC), one of the largest and most prominent TGSs. We create a data set of publically available documents on the UNGC, analyze how UNGC advocates and UNGC critics publically conceptualize and (de-)legitimize the UNGC, and examine how this process develops over time. By now, we have compiled a data base...
In 2010, the G20, in cooperation with major international organisations, launched a comprehensive effort – here labelled the infrastructure push – to promote infrastructure investments around the world. Using selected transnationalised elements from historical materialism, this is explained...... as a transnational state initiative to secure general material conditions for capitalist growth in a manner that is profoundly shaped by power relations. The infrastructure problem was allowed to grow during neoliberalism because of the hegemony of finance; the push is a result of and reflects a weakening of finance...
Full Text Available Depuis la fin de la guerre (1990 l’importation d‘une main-d’œuvre peu qualifiée majoritairement féminine est devenue massive au Liban. Qu’ils soient en situation régulière ou non, des migrants non arabes dits « temporaires » ou « en transit », mais dont certains sont là depuis une dizaine d’années, ont fait leur entrée sur le marché du travail et tentent de s’inscrire, pour nombre d’entre eux, dans un « milieu » aux identités multiples et conflictuelles dans des quartiers périphériques où il est plus facile de trouver à se loger. En s’appuyant sur des enquêtes de terrain menées dans la banlieue de Bourj-Hammoud à l’est de Beyrouth et dans les quartiers sud de Jnah et de Ouzaï, les auteures décrivent des situations migratoires qui sans être généralisables n’en sont pas moins exemplaires de la place de cette main-d’œuvre immigrée.Since the end of the war, in 1990, unqualified, mostly feminine, workers have been massively entering Lebanon. Whether they have regular registration or not, non-Arab, so-called ‘temporary’, or ‘transit’ migrants have entered the labour market, but some of them have been there for about ten years. Many try to join the mixed, full of conflicts environment of peripheral districts, in which it is easier to find housing. Using fieldwork they have been conducting in the Borj-Hamoud suburb, in the east of Beirut, and Jnah and Ouzaï, in the south, the authors describe migratory situations which, although they cannot be applied generally, are nevertheless a good example of the place held by these immigrant
Full Text Available This article analyzes the impact of transnational mobility on the sexual practices of migrant women. It is done from a feminist perspective, reviewing kinship, sexuality and gender inequalities that are embedded in certain circles of society and assigned dichotomously to men and women, almost always to the detriment of the latter. Based on the ethnography of families and social networks linked to migration, it shows, on the one hand, the auto-ethnographic process that triggered the analysis of changes in sexual practices of women in heterosexual couples as a result of migration and, on the other, how ethnography enables us to reflect on sexuality in the field of migration.
"In Hispanic Culture, the Children Are the Jewels of the Family": An Investigation of Home and Community Culture in a Bilingual Early Care and Education Center Serving Migrant and Seasonal Farm Worker Families
Gilliard, Jennifer L.; Moore, Rita A.; Lemieux, Jeanette J.
This article investigates how culture shapes instruction in a bilingual early care and education program serving migrant and seasonal farm worker families in rural Wyoming. Interviews with eight early childhood teachers as well as classroom observations were conducted. The investigation is framed around the following research question: How does…
Juan Pablo Ramirez Martínez
Full Text Available The article presents the main results of a study aimed at establishing the role of communication practices in sustaining family and emotional ties between migrants and their families. Family communication is studied in transnational households through semi-structured interviews that identify the means by which migrants communicate with home, observing the uses, frequencies and possibilities these technical supports offer, as well as the importance of certain topics related to the content of the communication, identifying communicative aspects that establish an everyday reality and continuity in family and emotional relationships.
van Faassen, M.
The whereabouts of migrants: a comparison of Dutch migrant registration systems. Today, one way of visualising the current refugee and migrant crisis on the outer borders of Europe is by showing a bottleneck in the processing of migrant flows: large groups of people waiting endlessly for their
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine whether social support and acculturative stress were related to obtaining antenatal and postpartum care for pregnant female migrants, as well as access to health care for migrant children. The study utilized data of 987 migrant workers in Thailand who originated from hill tribes and mountain communities in Myanmar and Cambodia. Regression analysis showed that the language barrier, a crucial factor behind acculturative stress, adversely influenced access to maternal care. Social support reduced the impact of acculturative stress. Migrants with support are more likely to access health care. Based on the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, more sources of support either from friends, family members, or other supporters who are significant could increase health care access. Besides friends and family, the support from the Migrant Health Worker Program and Migrant Health Volunteer Program allowed the formal health sector to utilize the informal social networks to improve care for migrants.
As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.
Full Text Available In this essay I argue that the idea of inhabiting, and of human individuality as the house of being, are fruitful ideas if located in a space defined by movement, porosity, interstitiality, and in an urban and architectural paradigm which is based on openness and inclusiveness. Transnational experiences and localities can be, to this end, extremely instructive. It is essential to articulate the notion of dwelling within an urban context in which building is the result of complex cultural and social interactions, which are characterised not only by the negotiation of space and materials but also, and more importantly, by a range of symbolic values. The symbolism that I refer to here is the product of mnemonic and emotional experiences marked by time and space, which in the case of the migratory and transnational experiences is arrived at through a delicate negotiation of the past and the present, and the ‘here’ (the current locality and the ‘there’ (the native locality. The dwelling that I speak of is, therefore, a double dwelling divided between the present at-hand and the remembered past, and as such it inhabits a space, which is both interstitial and liminal, simultaneously in and out-of-place. I have chosen the Italian Forum in Sydney as a working sample of the place-out-of-place
Miguel Ángel Corona Jiménez
In the last decade, the number of poblanos migrants in New York City has grown rapidly. The following research presents the results obtained from a survey about the economy of these migrants. This means information about their income and expenses. Furthermore, data about the amount, frequency and destination of the remittances sent to their hometown communities are also provided. The main social, demographic and labor characteristics that affect their economic behavior are analyzed. The compo...
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
and implementing processes. Her one finds the exterior aggregated institutions that presumably monopolize and exercise authoritative power- including the contractual, the legal and legitimacy frames. The second is the society conception supposedly reflecting the internal and the ethnical aspects of human conduct...
Different definitions in which one can comprehend who counts as a migrant are used. Moreover, also in the regulatory frame that applies for migrants, in statistics on the stocks and flows of migrant workers, in analysis of labour mobility and cross-border recruitment, in data sources and research
Baycan, T.; Nijkamp, P.
The present paper aims to investigate and compare various modalities of migrant entrepreneurship in European countries in order to design a systematic classification of migrant entrepreneurship and to highlight key factors of migrant entrepreneurship in Europe. The paper is based on a comparative
Background: People migrate from place to place for diverse reasons chief among which is economic. Migrant fishermen like other migrant population lead high risk sexual lifestyle and are therefore, predisposed to Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV among migrant ...
Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix
OBJECTIVE: Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin....... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Information was obtained from linkage of the National Diabetes Register with mortality statistics and information from the Central Personal Register on country of origin. Age- and sex-specific estimates of prevalence, incidence rates, mortality rates and SMRs relative...
Full Text Available Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”. The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries. The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services, migrant rights and policy. The trained migrant health assistants play a significant role in implementation of the program at migrant communities and their workplaces. Migrant health volunteers distribute information, education and communication materials, as well as condoms. To increase migrant access to health and reproductive health care, all participating partners support the Department of Health Service Supports in organizing migrant-friendly health services at government health facilities. These activities include sexual transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. The services are based on the rights of migrant workers to basic services and migrants becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Over a five year period beginning in October 2003, the program has reached 442,000 migrants and more than 20,800 entertainment workers with information about HIV and reproductive health. A total of 6,878,500 condoms has been distributed. In addition, over 155,080 migrant workers received information on health and labor rights, including regular updates about migrant registration policy. At the same time, through PHAMIT activities, over 13,330 government officials, employers and journalists attended sensitization workshops on issues of migrants’ rights and policies.Le programme PHAMIT (Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand, qui signifie « cieux amicaux » en thaï, est
Full Text Available Abstract:Using diverse conceptualizations of social capital, this paper will analyse qualitative data obtained from interviews with 49 Ar-gentine migrants to Spain and returnees. Unlike other Latin American migrants to Spain, this group of Argentines approached the migratory experience as a 'nuclear fami-ly'. In general, respondents tended to devel-op diversified networks, avoiding the con-straints experienced by other migrants. I argue that a number of factors including migratory status, certain 'feelings of enti-tlement', cultural affinity and physical fea-tures are all important as far as the inter-viewees' positioning within the 'field' of migrants is concerned. In general, most in-terviewees also pointed out that individuals tend to trust more in institutions and the community as a whole in Spain than in Ar-gentina. Even so, data also suggested that solidarity and friendship ties were stronger in Argentina than in Spain.Resumen: El peso de los activos sociales: ¿qué es lo diferente entre los/as argentinos/as en España? El peso de los activos sociales: ¿qué es lo diferente entre los/as argentinos/as en España?Utilizando diversas conceptualizaciones de capital social, este artículo analiza los datos obtenidos a través de 49 entrevistas con migrantes argentinos a España y retornados. A diferencia de otros grupos de migrantes latinoamericanos a España, los argentinos que formaron parte de este estudio empren-dieron la empresa migratoria como una ex-periencia de la 'familia nuclear'. En general, los entrevistados tendieron a desarrollar redes diversificadas, evitando las dificulta-des experimentadas por otros migrantes. Considero que una serie de factores, inclu-yendo el estatus migratorio, 'sentirse con derecho', la afinidad cultural y las caracte-rísticas físicas son muy importantes en cuan-to al posicionamiento de los entrevistados en el ámbito de los migrantes. En general, la mayoría de los entrevistados también señaló que
Hoang, H T; Le, Q; Kilpatrick, S
Australia is a land of cultural diversity. Cultural differences in maternity care may result in conflict between migrants and healthcare providers, especially when migrants have minimal English language knowledge. The aim of the study was to investigate Asian migrant women's child-birth experiences in a rural Australian context. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 Asian migrant women living in rural Tasmania to explore their childbirth experiences and the barriers they faced in accessing maternal care in the new land. The data were analysed using grounded theory and three main categories were identified: 'migrants with traditional practices in the new land', 'support and postnatal experiences' and 'barriers to accessing maternal care'. The findings revealed that Asian migrants in Tasmania faced language and cultural barriers when dealing with the new healthcare system. Because some Asian migrants retain traditional views and practices for maternity care, confusion and conflicting expectations may occur. Family and community play an important role in supporting migrant women through their maternity care. Providing interpreting services, social support for migrant women and improving the cross-cultural training for healthcare providers were recommended to improve available maternal care services.
Based on a 3-year qualitative research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript examines the implications of transnational cultural and sociolinguistic patterns of multilingual indigenous Latino immigrants (ILIs), and its effects on their survival in the US. Utilizing narrative analysis, it…
TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM IN THE EAST AFRICAN REGION: THE ROLE OF THE AFRICAN UNION MISSION IN SOMALIA by Nicholas Humble Nyesiga June 2017...AFRICAN REGION: THE ROLE OF THE AFRICAN UNION MISSION IN SOMALIA 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas Humble Nyesiga 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION... logistical support of the international community, including the United Kingdom, the European Union, and the United States, the African Union Mission in
This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.
Ennser-Kananen, Johanna; Pettitt, Nicole
This article contributes to scholarship on migrant women's second language (L2) education in North America and Europe. Questioning reductionist understandings of the relationship between female migrants, their receiving communities and L2 education, the authors consider existing literature as well as their own qualitative work to investigate the challenges, opportunities and agency of migrant women. Weaving together and thematically presenting previous scholarship and qualitative data from interviews, participant observations and classroom recordings from a mixed-gender L2 adult migrant classroom in Austria and an all-women L2 migrant classroom in the United States, they trouble conceptualisations which position women primarily as passive recipients of education and in need of emancipation, while simultaneously elevating communities as agentic providers of these. Specifically, the authors emphasise that (1) L2 proficiency is not a guarantee for migrant women's social inclusion or socioeconomic advancement; (2) migrant women's complex challenges and agency need to be recognised and addressed; and (3) all involved in L2 education of migrant women do well to become learners of their own experiences of oppression, including their complicity in it.
Full Text Available Today’s discussions on globalization are more alive and controversial. As is acknowledged as a fact, globalization is studied not only as an economic category but as a process, system, phenomenon. Currently, on international level, a variety of companies operate. From all of these, the transnational corporation represent particular interest, being designated as an "entity-key of global economic activity, a creative net worth to devote a large proportion of global resources needed to sustain economic growth processes. The new trend in the TNC’s sites emphasize, efforts to promote corporate social responsibility that contributes to change the attitude of many corporations and individuals working for them. Company efforts are visible in contributions to community development and environmental impact. Corporations want to impose their own standards of development, which reflects some positive attitude towards regulations that support behavioral codes, which they argue. Globalization has opened the way for limited progress, offered alternatives to local development, has generated deep changes, n dimensional complex with sometimes unpre-dictable consequences on economic and socio-institutional development.
The collapse of the former Soviet Union and other communist regimes in Eurasia contributed significantly to a dramatic increase in the national security threat, especially to European states, from transnational crime...
-century knowledge and power nexus helped to shape metropolitan notions of the Xhosa and to delineate colonial relations with the Xhosa. Keywords: Nineteenth century, British campaign narratives, Xhosa, Eastern Cape, transnational, ...
Sanon, Marie-Anne; Spigner, Clarence; McCullagh, Marjorie C
Transnationalism--maintenance of transborder activities--has important implications for the health status of contemporary immigrants. Yet little is known about how such interconnectivity interacts with health. In this critical ethnography study, 31 Haitian immigrants discussed the influences of transnationalism on their hypertension management. Transcripts of the semistructured individual interviews were analyzed and coded with the assistance of the Atlas.ti 6 software. Two major themes emerged: social support and financial obligation, both framed within the obligation to send monetary remittances. A duality emerged where social support facilitated hypertension self-management but consequently represented a financial burden. The study evidenced that transnationalism, although positively influencing immigrants' psychosocial well-being can negatively affect their experience with disease management. Health providers are urged to account for this transnationalism-disease management interaction when caring for this immigrant group. Future studies are needed to explore this phenomenon among other immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.
In a longitudinal transnational research project, a network of European research institutions and field organisations aims to understand how cultural managers mediate global and local pressures concerning creative autonomy, economy and ideology. Among the research questions are which variables
Hall, Brian J.; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Fangjing; Latkin, Carl
Background: Addressing the health needs of Chinese migrants is a critical public health concern. Epidemiological studies are needed to establish the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and common mental disorders among Chinese migrants and identify protective community and social resources.Method: Utilizing random household sampling, we are in the process of recruiting a representative sample of Chinese adults (N=1,000) in two districts home to a large number of internal migrant...
Gallemore, Caleb; Jespersen, Kristjan
exponential random graph models of 91 funders’ support of 195 Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (REDD+) and sustainable forest management pilot projects undertaken between 1989 and June 2012 to test the effects of transaction costs on donors’ choices of projects to sponsor. We find that brokerage, prior...... collaboration with the donor in question, and spatial specialization all contribute to the ability of project proponents to attract funder support, often outperforming relevant project characteristics such as carbon density and accessibility. These findings suggest tensions between local scale project......Transnational sustainable development—that is, sustainable development policy initiatives involving actors in multiple countries—often involves donor sponsorship of sustainable development projects, similar to matching markets like venture capital, employment searches, or college admissions...
This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively...... shaping current directions and developments in national education systems. The paper reviews the enhanced role of these institutions in producing education policies and investigates the ideological basis as well as the processes through which these policies are made. It is argued that decisions are taken...... largely through asymmetric, non-democratic and opaque procedures. It is also argued that the proposed policies purport to serve the principles of relentless economic competition. Taking into account similar policies and initiatives, the paper concludes that we are experiencing not only...
Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano
Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body...... emerging private ‘green shipping’ initiatives to achieve better ecological outcomes? Contributing to transnational governance theory, we find that conditions stalling regulatory progress include low environmental issue visibility, poor interest alignment, a broadening scope of environmental issues...
María Jesús Lorenzo Modia
Full Text Available This article analyzes the transnational features of narratives between Galicia and Australia from the year 1519 to the Present-day. Sailors like Pedro Fernandez de Quiros and Luis Váez de Torres, who reached Australia in the sixteenth century, will be considered as the starting point of a cultural dialogue still going on in today’s literature not only as regards the geography of the continent but also in the collective imagination of the country. Other connections between these countries are also established by contemporary novelists such as Peter Carey, Sally Morgan and Murray Bail, who use Galician history and places, filtered through British sources, to address Australia and its present-day characters and decolonizing conflicts. Finally, the works of other authors such as Robert Graves and Félix Calvino, who also deal with this literary dialogue in their fiction, are explored.
In this article I examine policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. In doing so, I critically examine how globalization processes are constructed as policy...... problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. My main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments to globally overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalizes learning...... experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalization to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, I present...
The chapter explores how information and communication technologies (ICTs) have brought about transformations in transnational feminist theory and practice in multiple ways that continue to challenge historically embedded areas of gender discrimination, not least those related to core areas of STEM—science, technology, engineering, and math. The boundary-crossing nature of ICTs transformed political space for women in transnational terms. Previously male-dominated international relations were...
In organizing “Global Flashpoints: Transnational Performance and Politics,” our purpose was to open up aninternational exploration of transnational/global practicesconcerning social organization, gender, and sexualitythrough performances and academic research across avariety of countries and colleges. To that end, we hostedperformances from India, Mexico, Taiwan, and Los Angeles,with themes concerning the abusive practices surroundingthe taking of child brides in The Wife’s Letter, the role o...
MUNOZ, J. Mark
Abstract. Interest in transnational entrepreneurship has expanded in recent years. However, there are limited qualitative surveys that shed light on the mindset of the contemporary transnational entrepreneur. This article contributes to academic and business literature by presenting the views of a Panama-born investment banker Jose Goldner. Jose Goldner is a partner at Briggs Capital based in Massachusetts, USA. Through an interview conducted by Dr. J. Mark Munoz of Millikin University, with ...
Betty De Hart
Full Text Available In the introduction of this special issue on “Law in the everyday lives of transnational families”, we argue that in the socio-legal literature on transnationalism and transnational legal process, ordinary people as actors are missing. On the other hand, what is missing from the abundant literature on transnational families, is law, or are ordinary people. In this special issue, we look at how transnational families as legal actors are part of transnational legal processes and how transnational families meet with different types of legal rules that mingle with and influence the personal and private sphere of family life. We specific look at three issues that come up in this context: the power of law, how transnational family members use law and the role of networks and family. En la introducción del número especial sobre “Derecho en el día a día de las familias trasnacionales”, defendemos que en la literatura sociojurídica sobre trasnacionalismo y procesos legales trasnacionales, no se contemplan las personas corrientes como actores. Por otro lado, lo que falta en la abundante literatura sobre familias trasnacionales es el derecho, o son las personas corrientes. En este número especial se analiza cómo las familias trasnacionales, en el papel de actores legales, son parte de procesos legales trasnacionales, y cómo las familias trasnacionales cumplen diferentes tipos de normas legales que atienden a, e influyen en la esfera personal y privada de la vida familiar. Específicamente, se contemplan tres aspectos que surgen en este contexto: el poder del derecho, cómo usan los miembros de las familias trasnacionales el derecho y el papel de las redes de conocidos y el derecho.
Hamaker, Mary Lou Nava
Written for staff developers and resource personnel who work with parents, this curriculum guide is designed to develop leadership skills in migrant parents who have been elected to leadership positions in their respective Parent Advisory Committees. The booklet focuses on developing such skills as knowing how to use parliamentary procedure,…
Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan
Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments and a hi......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...... histories, we learned that the interviewees had not only encountered unskilled and physical demanding work, but many of them had experienced very bad and unhealthy living conditions during their stay in Denmark. Conclusions A life course approach to the study of Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark suggests...
POTTS, ALFRED M.
MANY CHANGES HAVE OCCURRED IN MIGRANT CHILDREN OVER THE 5 YEARS THE SPECIAL SCHOOL HAS BEEN IN OPERATION. MOST NOTABLE IS THAT THE CHILDREN ARE MUCH CLEANER AND BETTER BEHAVED. THE CHILDREN ARE ISSUED COMBS, TOOTHBRUSHES, TOWELS, AND SOAP. STUDENTS SHOWER THREE TIMES EACH WEEK AND PERFORM A DAILY ROUTINE OF BRUSHING TEETH AND COMBING HAIR. MILK…
Catherine M. Marquette
Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.
Marquette, Catherine M.
Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.
Spitzer, Denise L
... these and other issues at the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians. Situating their work within the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range fr...
Discusses programs of three libraries utilizing information and referral techniques to provide library services to migrant farm workers--Fresno County Public Library, California; Stanislaus County Public Library, California; and Cumberland County Library, New Jersey. Problems including illiteracy, physical inaccessibility, and lack of English…
Spitzer, Denise L
.... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.
Full Text Available A major contributor to negative attitudes towards migrants is that they exert pressure on the facilities of the host communities without making any (substantial contribution to the host economy and society. This negative sentiment is particularly acute in cities, where pressure on amenities is concentrated and more visible. In turn, migrant neighbourhoods are particularly despised. Migration experiences in the Rookwood Cemetery area of Sydney, Australia, widely regarded as the “largest necropolis in the southern hemisphere”, however, challenge this stereotypical view. This migrant neighbourhood is the site of vibrant and diverse migration and migrant (especially Korean activities never before seen in the history of the area, which is now called Lidcombe. Drawing on multiple sources of evidence, including archival research at local libraries, discussion with long-time residents of the neighbourhood and visual ethnography (analysed from the historical-structural perspective in migration studies, this study offers a history of Lidcombe and appraises its twenty-first-century migration experiences. By doing so, it highlights the demographic, social and economic changes to emphasise the contribution of migrants to the regeneration of a “dead city” and also to contest inherited stereotypes of migrants that often lead to racial scapegoating and misrepresentation as “parasites”, “criminals” and a “drain” on the host economy. Overall, this case study suggests that migrants can and often do transform the spaces they occupy in ways that make a positive and lasting contribution to the host economy and society more generally. This is an important lesson for European countries facing the “migrant crisis” to consider, as it also is for politicians around the world seeking to wall out migrants to protect host economies and societies.
Gawde, Nilesh C; Sivakami, Muthusamy; Babu, Bontha V
This study aimed to understand access to maternal health care and the factors shaping it amongst poor migrants in Mumbai, India. A cross-sectional mixed methods approach was used. It included multistage cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews, through structured interview schedules, of 234 migrant women who had delivered in the two years previous to the date they were interviewed. Qualitative in-depth interviews of migrant women, health care providers and health officials were also conducted to understand community and provider perspectives. The results showed that access to antenatal care was poor among migrants with less than a third of them receiving basic antenatal care and a quarter delivering at home. Multivariate analysis highlighted that amongst migrant women those who stayed in Mumbai during pregnancy and delivery had better access to maternal health care than those who went back to their home towns. Poor maternal health care was also due to weaker demand for health care as a result of the lack of felt-need among migrants due to socio-cultural factors and lack of social support for, and knowledge of, health facilities in the city. Supply-side factors such as inadequate health infrastructure at primary and secondary levels, lack of specific strategies to improve access to health care for migrants and cumbersome administrative procedures that exclude migrants from certain government programmes all need to be addressed. Migrants should be integral to the urban development process and policies should aim at preventing their exclusion from basic amenities and their entitlements as citizens.
Ribeiro, Ana; Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, Leo Paul
on to provide for their families, while in many cases still expected to conform to traditional nurturing roles or to fill the gaps in nurturing roles left by ‘career women’. On a larger socioeconomic context, taking their habitus and social, economic and cultural capital with them to the new territories...... and institutional set-ups, these immigrants are affecting urban economies in ways beyond the formal economy and accepted social norms. Drawing on empirical evidence from cross-national studies, we explore this phenomenon within the context of the European Union and migrants coming in from developing countries. Most...
Full Text Available This paper raises questions about the development of cultural identity as it will transform and impact upon the process of regional integration in the Asia Pacific Rim, through a consideration of the post-national tendencies created by migrant populations, in this case the Chilean diasporic community. I am specifically interested in how nationalisms impact on regional integration projects and how a post-national reading of the region might be beneficial in developing strategies in regional integration.
Abma, Tineke A; Heijsman, Anke
A health promotion programme focusing on the meaning of everyday activities was implemented and evaluated to test its usefulness for community-dwelling seniors in the Netherlands. To evaluate how senior migrants with a Surinamese-Hindustani background and professionals received the programme, and how it could be contextualized and improved in line with their values and expectations. A responsive evaluation methodology was followed to foster reflexive learning in and among stakeholders as the basis for programme contextualization. The evaluation consisted of three phases. Outcomes of former phases served as input for subsequent phases. Methods included interviews and focus groups with seniors and professionals. Open and selective coding techniques were used to analyse the interactively derived data. A. small group of women was interested and followed the programme. It was not individual concerns or daily life problems that dominated, but the wish to become well informed, to maintain functional capacities and to continue their roles in the family and community. Striking differences in perspectives between professionals and migrants related to conflict between the underlying Western values of the programme (independence, personal control and autonomy) and the values of the migrants (interdependence, predestination, rebirth and destiny). Awareness among professionals of their own cultural background and the values of the migrant seniors was enhanced, but adapting the programme to the local context and values appeared far more complicated than originally expected. Adaptation requires intensive collaboration with participants and cultural brokers in the community. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M
Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.
Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.
Koehn, Peter H; Swick, Herbert M
Given rapidly changing global demographic dynamics and the unimpressive evidence regarding health outcomes attributable to cultural competence (CC) education, it is time to consider a fresh and unencumbered approach to preparing physicians to reduce health disparities and care for ethnoculturally and socially diverse patients, including migrants. Transnational competence (TC) education offers a comprehensive set of core skills derived from international relations, cross-cultural psychology, and intercultural communication that are also applicable for medical education. The authors discuss five limitations (conceptual, vision, action, alliance, and pedagogical) of current CC approaches and explain how an educational model based on TC would address each problem area.The authors then identify and discuss the skill domains, core principles, and reinforcing pedagogy of TC education. The five skill domains of TC are analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional; core principles include a comprehensive and consistent framework, patient-centered learning, and competency assessment. A central component of TC pedagogy is having students prepare a "miniethnography" for each patient that addresses not only issues related to physical and mental health, but also experiences related to dislocation and adaptation to unfamiliar settings. The TC approach promotes advances in preparing medical students to reduce health disparities among patients with multiple and diverse backgrounds, health conditions, and health care beliefs and practices. Perhaps most important, TC consistently directs attention to the policy and social factors, as well as the individual considerations, that can alleviate suffering and enhance health and well-being in a globalizing world.
Espinar Ruiz, Eva
Full Text Available Resumen: Al margen de las definiciones legales existentes, cada vez resulta más difícil mantener una clara distinción entre refugiados (políticos y migrantes (económicos. En concreto, las restrictivas políticas migratorias, de refugio y asilo están estrechamente relacionadas con lo que los expertos llaman the asylum-migration nexus. Así, la creación de múltiples categorías administrativas de personas protegidas, la presencia de refugiados no reconocidos como tales, la incorporación de refugiados en las redes ilegales de inmigración o la solicitud del status de refugiado por parte de población migrante colaboran en la confusión de realidades. Igualmente, los cambios sociales experimentados en las últimas décadas suponen un reto para las definiciones legales derivadas de la Convención de Ginebra de 1951 y que, desde diferentes sectores, vienen calificándose como excesivamente limitadas.Abstract: Apart from the existing legal definitions, the simple distinction between (politic refugees and (economic migrants is getting more difficult to maintain. Restrictive refugee and migration legislations are strong related with what different experts have called the asylum-migration nexus. The creation of multiple administrative categories of protected people; non recognized refugees; the incorporation of refugees to illegal networks of migration; economic migrants trying to enter a country through refugee status; etc. collaborate to the confusion of the realities. Recent social changes are also a challenge to legal definitions derived from the 1951 Geneva Convention, which are described as excessively restrictive by different actors.
Full Text Available The article explores the experiences of separation and reunification by children of migrant mothers in Italy by analysing 32 qualitative interviews conducted with adolescents who had rejoined their mothers at different points in their lives. We show that international migration causes children to face multiple shifts in the configuration of their family ties due to the geographical dislocations and re-locations to which these ties are subject. The way in which children interpret and adjust to these changes depends on factors such as the timing of the family migration process and the frequency of transnational family practices, which are affected by more or less abrupt discontinuities in family life after their mothers’ and their own departure.
Full Text Available My analysis places the assertions of political presence by non-citizen immigrant youth in the U.S. (often referred to as DREAMers within a rapidly globalizing world; this placement re-frames the DREAMers’ movement from a fight for U.S. citizenship to a broader critique of the limits and impossibility of liberal democratic citizenship, which claims to be all-inclusive. Increased transnational migration has brought into stark relief the inequality that current frameworks of nation-state citizenship, as a caste-system of rights, have codified. I am interested in the activism of immigrant youth as a place to explore where immigrants themselves are reasserting the right to politics. This reassertion privileges the social embeddedness of family ties and community above the notion of individual choice or individual rationality. In doing so, this articulation of politics is a critique of the liberal order by forcing the consideration of the contexts and structures that create migration, exploitation, and transnational communities of belonging.
Korshunova, G.; Marácz, L.; Marácz, L.; Rosello, M.
The chapter discusses multilingualism in the European context and transnational communication strategies in order to accommodate the challenges of multilingualism. In the introduction, concepts defining multilingualism, transnationalism and communication strategies will be discussed and clarified.
Full Text Available Immigrants have played a fundamental role in shaping the life and form of urban public spaces for generations. Their efforts, as many scholars have observed, mostly aimed at creating places of comfort in new and sometimes hostile receiving countries. In recent years, the combined contribution of the built environment and screen-based experiences have shaped migrants’ sense of community and belonging, thus making the concept of online community central to ideas about space and public life. Drawing upon a 3-year online ethnography, the article discusses to what extent new media constitute spaces of digital togetherness , where diasporic experiences and transnational identities are constructed and negotiated. It presents a transnational model of creative media consumption, which helps give insight as to how diasporas and ethnic minorities contribute to the transformation of public space in the Digital Age.