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  1. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  2. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Antibody in Patients With Sexually Transmitted Diseases Attending a Harrisburg, PA, STD Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Sautter

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in a sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic population was studied, along with the prevalence of various STD agents, in an attempt to identify possible STD markers for the hepatitis C virus and help delineate the role of hepatitis C as an STD. The hepatitis C antibody rates found in the STD clinic were also compared with those found among patients attending a local OB/GYN clinic and those enrolled in a blood donor program, all from the same geographical area.

  4. A study on sexually transmitted diseases in patients in a STD clinic in a district hospital in North India

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    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a global health problem of great magnitude. The pattern of STDs differs from country to country and from region to region. The increased risk of the transmission of HIV is known to be associated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and despite the presence of the National STD Control Program in India the number of people with STDs remains high. Aim: The aim of our study was to study the profile of patients in a STD clinic in North India and to study various sexually transmitted infections in both male and female patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study of the patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital in North India from December 2009 to December 2012 was done. A total of 2700 patients attending the STDclinic in three years from December 2009 to December 2012 were taken up for the study. Results: The commonest sexually transmitted infection in males was herpes genitalis (30% followed by 20% cases of genital warts. 10% patients had gonorrhoea, genital molluscum contagiosum, syphilis and genital scabies each and 5% patients had nongonococcal urethritis. Only 5% of the total patients had chancroid, donovanosis and LGV. The commonest sexually transmitted infection in females was vaginal discharge seen in 40% patients, lower abdominal pain in 20% patients, herpes genitalis in 15% patients followed by 20% cases of genital warts and syphilis each. Genital molluscum contagiosum was seen in 5% patients only. Conclusions: The treatment of STD’s is important as both non-ulcerative and ulcerative STDs increase the susceptibility to or transmissibility of HIV infection and as such, an increase in STD prevalence as revealed by clinic attendance in this study was bound to facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS. Perhaps it is high time health planners adopted a more aggressive and result oriented HIV/AIDS/STD awareness campaign strategy.

  5. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    ... 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures - ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD ...

  6. A New Resource for STD Clinical Providers: The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragol, Laura A; Wendel, Karen A; Anderson, Teri S; Burnside, Helen C; Finkenbinder, Allison; Fitch, John D; Kelley, Destiny H; Stewart, Terry W; Thrun, Mark; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-08-01

    An online consultation tool, the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network is a new resource for sexually transmitted disease clinicians and clinic managers. An initial evaluation shows that most requests (29%) were from medical doctors, followed by nurse practitioners (22%). Syphilis queries comprised 39% of consults followed by gonorrhea (12%) and chlamydia (11%).

  7. Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and the effect of HIV/STD risk-reduction counseling.

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    Gottlieb, Sami L; Douglas, John M; Foster, Mark; Schmid, D Scott; Newman, Daniel R; Baron, Anna E; Bolan, Gail; Iatesta, Michael; Malotte, C Kevin; Zenilman, Jonathan; Fishbein, Martin; Peterman, Thomas A; Kamb, Mary L

    2004-09-15

    The seroincidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was determined among 1766 patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STD risk-reduction counseling (RRC). Arm 1 received enhanced RRC (4 sessions); arm 2, brief RRC (2 sessions); and arm 3, the control arm, brief informational messages. The overall incidence rate was 11.7 cases/100 person-years (py). Independent predictors of incidence of HSV-2 infection included female sex; black race; residence in Newark, New Jersey; new HSV-2 infections were diagnosed clinically. Incidence rates were 12.9 cases/100 py in the control arm, 11.8 cases/100 py in arm 2, and 10.3 cases/100 py in arm 1 (hazard ratio, 0.8 [95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1], vs. controls). The possible benefit of RRC in preventing acquisition of HSV-2 infection offers encouragement that interventions more specifically tailored to genital herpes may be useful and should be an important focus of future studies.

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures – ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data – 1996-2013 STD ...

  9. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

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    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria.

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    Nwankwo, E O; Sadiq, Magaji N

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Urine samples, Endocervical swabs and Urethral swab were collected from consecutive patients attending the Infertility and STD clinics in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) between June and December 2012, after administering a questionnaire by the attending physician and also obtaining an informed consent.Samples were analyzed using Diaspot Chlamydia kit, a rapid immunoassay test for the detection of genital chlamydial antigen in urinogenital samples. A total of 125 consecutive samples were collected, comprising 69 females and 56 males aged between 14 - 55 years. Twelve samples tested positive for C. trachomatis antigen giving a prevalence rate of 9.6%. The age group prevalence were as follows 25 - 29 yrs (17.1%), 20 - 24 (16.7%), 15 - 19 (12.5%), 30 - 34 (11.1%) and > 49 years (9.0%). Married patients were associated with higher infection rate than single (8.3%), and divorced patients (33.3%). A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of C. trachomatis infection and its complications. Previous STD exposure was associated with increased risk of Chlamydia infection. C. trachomatis infection if unchecked will continue to pose a threat to reproductive life with its established complications. Since asymptomatic cases are common in the population regular screening should be encouraged for every adult especially before commencement of marital life.

  11. Current socioclinical trend of sexually transmitted diseases and relevance of STD clinic: A comparative study from referral tertiary care center of Gwalior, India

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    Sandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are the major public health concern in both developed and developing countries regulated by the cultural pattern of gender expression in their society. Thus, it demanded a necessary action to review the changing pattern in (Gwalior, central India where health condition is not in a good fashion with poor socioeconomic status and awareness. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional questionnaire study with a sample size of 222 respondents attending sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic at JAH Gwalior from December 2011 to March 2012 using a random sampling method. Results: Most of the cases among females were in the age group of 20-40 years (152, 84.44% and males were in 18-40 years age group (35, 83.33%. Out of 180, 22 (12.22% females were having non-regular sexual partners. Out of 22 females frequency of consistent, non-consistent, and no condom use with non-regular sexual partners was three (13.63%, two (9.09%, and 17 (77.27%, respectively. Out of 42 males, 22 (52.38% reported having sex with non-regular sexual partners. None of the 15 (100% male subjects having friends or relatives as non-regular sexual partner were using condoms. Statistically significant differences were found as compared to a previous study from same STD clinic are discharge, lower abdominal pain, painful micturition, nodules in genitals as 106 (58.88%; P = 0.0001, 59 (32.77%; P = 0.0007, 25 (13.88%; P = 0.001, and one (0.5%; P = 0.005, respectively and in males with absence of abdominal pain and nodules in genitals as P = 0.016 and 0.03, respectively. Preferred place of treatment of STIs was government facility in both male and females with statistically significant 15.76% (P = 0.0001 of the population seeking no treatment. Discussions: Study suggests a changing trend of the STDs owing to the difference in the clinical presentation of the disease to a previous study from the same STD clinic few years

  12. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

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    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  13. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

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    Huang, Shujie; Tang, Weiming; Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04), respectively. Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  14. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  15. [Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  16. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  17. Observations of sexually transmitted disease consultations in India.

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    Mertens, T E; Smith, G D; Kantharaj, K; Mugrditchian, D; Radhakrishnan, K M

    1998-03-01

    To assess the quality of sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management provided in public and private health facilities in selected areas of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India, in order to make recommendations for improving the quality of care and promote the syndromic approach to STD treatment. Structured observations of consultations for STDs in health care facilities. Scoring of the observations according to standards for history taking, examination, treatment and provision of basic health promotion advice allows evaluation of STD case management. With STD treatment adequacy scored against Indian national guidelines (which recommend aetiologic treatment), history taking, examination and treatment were satisfactory in 76 out of 108 (70%) of observed consultations. However, if STD treatment adequacy is scored with respect to the syndrome approach towards selected STD (male urethritis and non herpetic genital ulcer for both sexes), only 8 out of 81 (10%) of the patients were satisfactory managed. During 32 out of 108 (30%) of the consultations, advice on the use of condoms in order to prevent STD or HIV/AIDS was given. Instructions regarding how to use condoms were offered to seven (6%) patients and condoms were only provided to one patient (1%). Patients were urged to refer their partner(s) for treatment during 29 (27%) of consultations. A criterion of adequate use of the STD consultation for health promotion, requiring both promotion of condoms and encouragement to refer partner(s) for treatment, was met during 13 (12%) of consultations. Monitoring and improving the standards of care at facilities at which STDs are treated have become key roles of STD/HIV/AIDS programmes. The present report suggests that in Madras the activities of medical practitioners who treat STD patients are far from ideal at present. Improvements would involve simplifying existing treatment guidelines by promoting the syndromic approach to STD management, continuing education programmes for

  18. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth-What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P

    2017-08-01

    Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.

  19. Hiv infection in patients of sexually transmitted disease

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    Sayal S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1027 male patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases (STD during 1990 to 1996 were screened for HIV infection. All cases were in the age group 17 years to 48 years. One hundred and sixty-seven STD cases (16.3% were found to have HIV infection. A rising trend in incidence of HIV infection in STD patients from 1990 (2.8% to 1996 (27.8% was noticed countrary to declining trend of STDs from 213 cases in 1990 to 79 cases in 1996. The incidence of HIV infection was 30.3% in lymphogranuloma venereum, 19.5% in chancroid, 13.5% in syphilis, 17.6% in herpes genitatis, 6.7% in gonorrhoea and 11.2% in other STD cases.

  20. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Karen W; Parsell, Bradley W; Leichliter, Jami S; Habel, Melissa A; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients.

  1. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health

  2. Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chandigarh

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    Bhushan Kumar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective,data analysis of sexually transmitted diseases was carried out to study the pattern of these diseases prevalent in the region. One thousand′five hundred and seventy,one patients′were seen from January 1977 to October 1985. Maks constituted 95.5% of this group and females the remaining 4.5%. Commonest age group affected was 20-29 years in both sexes. Condytoma acuminata was the commonest STD (21.40/o, followed by gonorrhoea (16.9%, chancroid (12.2% genital herpes (11.4%, syphilis (10.4%, not′specific ulcers (7.1%, donovanosis (6.3%,mixed infections (5.3% and NSU (4.1% Secondary syphilis was the most common (48.6% presentation of syphik and in women it od 75.8% of all the cases of syphilis. In′more than a quarter of patients, psycho- problems were the reason for attendance.

  3. Sexonomics: a commentary and review of selected sexually transmitted disease studies in the economics literature.

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    Chesson, Harrell W

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight selected studies in the economics literature that address sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related topics that are typically not examined in the STD literature. Two databases (EconLit and Web of Science) were searched to locate STD-related articles in the economics journals. Relevant articles were also identified in other ways, such as informal discussions with colleagues familiar with the literature. To maintain a focus on unique STD-related topics, studies with topics common in the STD literature (e.g., cost-effectiveness, transmission modeling) were excluded. Selected STD-related studies in the economics literature were grouped into the following 8 topics: impact of abortion laws and policies on sexual health outcomes; same-sex marriage and syphilis rates; alcohol policy and STD rates; welfare laws and STD rates; discounting the future; HIV disclosure laws; the impact of tolerance for gays on HIV incidence; and economic versus epidemiologic models of HIV dynamics. A general theme of STD-related studies in the economics literature is that laws and policies that increased the "cost" of risky sex tended to reduce the demand for risky sex, and therefore reduce the incidence of STDs. Economic research can contribute in novel ways to our understanding of influences on risky sexual behavior at the individual level and STD incidence at the population level. Economists and STD experts could mutually benefit from increased collaboration.

  4. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

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    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and other sexually transmitted coinfections in subjects attending an STD outpatients clinic in Italy.

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    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Banzola, Nicoletta; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Russo, Incoronata; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) urogenital infection and the distribution of different genotypes in a non-selected STD population of 1625 patients, evaluating presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted diseases. Each patient was bled to perform serological tests for syphilis and HIV, then urethral or endocervical swabs were obtained for the detection of CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by culture. DNA extracted from remnant positive swabs was amplified by omp1 Nested PCR and products were sequenced. Total prevalence of CT infection was 6.3% (103/1625), with strong differences between men and women (11.4% vs 3.9%, Pmen than in women (Pmen and women (P=0.042) and among patients with or without coinfection (P=0.035); patients infected by serovar D/Da showed the highest coinfection rate. This study can be considered a contribution in increasing knowledge on CT serovar distribution in Italy. Further studies are needed to better define molecular epidemiology of CT infection and to investigate its correlation with other STDs.

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Examples include gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus infection, HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, ... genomic sequencing of pathogens responsible for trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human genital ulcer disease (chancroid). The sequencing ...

  7. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

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    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  8. Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in and Around Udaipur

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    Nirmal Kumar Bansal

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients who attended the STD clinic of our hospital during the last 10 years were studied retrospectively to work out the pattern of major sexually transmitted diseases viz. -syphilis, ionorrhoea, chancroid, lymphogranuloma vencreum and donovinosis. The total number of patients was 1093, The relative incidence of chancroid was found. higher (37.78% than syphilis (32.47%, gonorrhoea (24 79% mixed infections (3.38%, donovanosis (1.18% and lymphogranuloma venereum (0.36%.

  9. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities.

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    Leichliter, Jami S; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a nonsystematic review of policy evidence for STD prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact STD prevention through social determinants of health. We also describe potential policy opportunity in these areas. It should be noted that we found gaps in policy evidence for some areas; thus, additional research would be useful for public health policy interventions for STD prevention.

  10. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...

  11. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

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    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  12. FastStats: Sexually Transmitted Diseases/STD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Health of ...

  13. The other epidemics. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1993-01-01

    Around 70% of female infertility in developing countries is caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that can be traced back to husbands or partners. STDs and reproductive tract infections cause 750,000 deaths and 75 million illnesses among women each year worldwide, and these deaths may more than double by the year 2000. Death rates are rising fastest in Africa, followed by Asia and Latin America. About 450,000 cases of potentially fatal reproductive tract cancers are diagnosed annually: an estimated 354,000 occur in Third World women, virtually all of whom die. Worldwide, roughly 250 million new infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and the human papillomavirus are sexually transmitted each year. Chlamydia and the human papillomavirus account for 50 million and 30 million new cases per year, respectively. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected 1 million people worldwide between April and December 1991, according to the World Health Organization. A study in the Indian state of Maharashtra revealed that 92% of the 650 rural women examined had an average of 3.6 infections of gynecological type or sexually transmitted type per women. Another study in 2 rural Egyptian villages found that half of 509 nonpregnant women aged 20 to 60 years had infections. Only 2 facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of STDs exist in all of Kenya. In Ibadan, Nigeria, with a population of 2 million, there is only 1 recognized STD clinic. The physical consequences of several STDs have been linked to increased risks of AIDS transmission. Early recognition and treatment of STDs in pregnant women would cut infant mortality. Maternal infections with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or herpes are transferred to infants at birth 25% to 50% of the time. In Africa, infant blindness caused by gonorrhea infection is 50 times more common than in industrial countries. The International Women's Health Coalition's March 1992 meeting of more than 50 Third World scientists, health advocates, and

  14. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES - HISTORY, TYPES, PREVALENCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Irmov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections affect persons of active sex and cause serious consequences for the human organism, society and the generation. They spread sporadically, epidemically, and in some of them there are pandemics. For example, humanity is currently in a third viral hepatitis pandemic and a first AIDS pandemic. Another group of diseases can also be transmitted through sexual contact, but this is not the main mode of transmission. Such are salmonellosis, amoebiasis, influenza, various causes of meningitis and pneumonia. Despite being sexually transmitted, this is not a major and almost irrelevant way of transmitting the infection. Therefore, the diseases themselves are not included in the group of sexually transmitted diseases.

  15. Partner notification of sexually transmitted diseases: practices and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursahaney, Priya R; Jeong, Kwonho; Dixon, Bruce W; Wiesenfeld, Harold C

    2011-09-01

    Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administered a baseline survey asking about demographics, sexual history, and partner treatment preferences (standard partner referral vs. EPT). They identified up to 4 sex partners within the past 2 months, and answered questions on relationship characteristics, quality, and notification self-efficacy. At follow-up, participants with a current STD were asked whether they notified their partners. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between predictor variables and partner notification. Of the 201 subjects enrolled, 157 had a current STD diagnosis, and 289 sex partners were identified. The rate of successful partner notification was 77.3% (157/203 sex partners). Partner notification was increased if the subject had a long-term relationship with a sex partner (odds ratio: 3.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), considered the partner to be a main partner (odds ratio: 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), or had increased notification self-efficacy. Overall, participants did not prefer EPT over standard referral; however, females, those with higher education levels, and those with a prior STD preferred EPT. Patient-initiated partner referral is more successful in patients with increased self-efficacy who have stronger interpersonal relationships with their sex partners.

  16. HIV incidence on the increase among homosexual men attending an Amsterdam sexually transmitted disease clinic: using a novel approach for detecting recent infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.; Spaargaren, Joke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Beijnen, Jos; Coutinho, Roel A.; Fennema, Han S. A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Dramatic increases have occurred in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and in sexual risk behaviour among homosexual men in Amsterdam and internationally. We investigated whether these trends indicate a resurgence of the HIV epidemic. Methods: HIV incidence was determined among

  17. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  18. A Network Analysis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Online Hookup Sites Among Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Crowley, Christina; Rose, Jennifer S; Kershaw, Trace; Tributino, Alec; Montgomery, Madeline C; Almonte, Alexi; Raifman, Julia; Patel, Rupa; Nunn, Amy

    2018-07-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about the use of websites and mobile phone applications to meet sexual partners ("hookup sites") and association with STD diagnoses. We performed a demographic and behavioral assessment of 415 MSM presenting to the Rhode Island STD clinic. Bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between using hookup sites and testing positive for syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia. Venue-based affiliation networks were created to evaluate hookup sites and their association with STD diagnoses. Among 415 MSM, 78% reported meeting a partner online in the last 12 months, and 25% tested positive for at least one STD. Men who met partners online were more likely to be white (67% vs. 54%, P = 0.03) and have more than 10 lifetime partners (87% vs. 58%, P Tinder (22%). In the multivariable analysis, only Scruff use was associated with testing positive for an STD (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-4.94). However, among men who met partners online, 75% of men diagnosed as having an STD had met a sexual partner on Grindr, including 100% of those who were diagnosed as having gonorrhea. Use of hookup sites was nearly ubiquitous among MSM undergoing STD screening. Specific hookup sites were significantly associated with STD diagnoses among MSM. Greater efforts are needed to promote STD screening and prevention among MSM who meet partners online.

  19. US Public Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinical Services in an Era of Declining Public Health Funding: 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Heyer, Kate; Peterman, Thomas A; Habel, Melissa A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Arnold Pang, Stephanie S; Stenger, Mark R; Weiss, Gretchen; Gift, Thomas L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the infrastructure for US public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinical services. In 2013 to 2014, we surveyed 331 of 1225 local health departments (LHDs) who either reported providing STD testing/treatment in the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey or were the 50 local areas with the highest STD cases or rates. The sample was stratified by jurisdiction population size. We examined the primary referral clinics for STDs, the services offered and the impact of budget cuts (limited to government funding only). Data were analyzed using SAS, and analyses were weighted for nonresponse. Twenty-two percent of LHDs cited a specialty STD clinic as their primary referral for STD services; this increased to 53.5% of LHDs when combination STD-family planning clinics were included. The majority of LHDs (62.8%) referred to clinics providing same-day services. Sexually transmitted disease clinics more frequently offered extragenital testing for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (74.7%) and gonorrhea culture (68.5%) than other clinics (52.9%, 46.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). The majority of LHDs (61.5%) reported recent budget cuts. Of those with decreased budgets, the most common impacts were fewer clinic hours (42.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-61.2), reduced routine screening (40.2%; 95% CI, 21.7-58.8) and reductions in partner services (42.1%; 95% CI, 23.6-60.7). One quarter of those with reduced STD budgets increased fees or copays for clients. Findings demonstrate gaps and reductions in US public STD services including clinical services that play an important role in reducing disease transmission. Furthermore, STD clinics tended to offer more specialized STD services than other public clinics.

  20. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  1. Longitudinal prediction of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, R; Leichliter, J S; Brackbill, R

    2000-05-01

    Although adolescent use of condoms has been increasing, incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among young people remains high. To identify adolescent behavioral risk factors for acquiring STDs, this study assessed adolescent self-reports of acquired chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis within 1 year after a baseline interview. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health for this study. Data were collected in the homes of survey respondents, using audio-computer-assisted self-interview (audio-CASI) technology and interviews. Participants were enrolled in grades 7-11 from 134 U.S. schools. A cohort of 4593 sexually experienced adolescents was followed for 1 year. We conducted separate analyses for both genders. About 3.1% of the male adolescents and nearly 4.7% of the female adolescents reported having had at least one STD after the baseline interview. For both genders, self-reported STD infection before baseline interview was the best predictor of self-reported STD infection 1 year after baseline interview. Female adolescents were more likely to report diagnosis with an STD after baseline if they self-identified as a minority race (other than Asian) and perceived that their mother did not disapprove of their having sex. Female adolescents were less likely to report STDs if they perceived that adults care about them. No additional variables predicted STD diagnosis after baseline for male adolescents. We conclude that past history of STD infection is the most important indicator of subsequent STD infection among adolescents. Thus, this study suggests the benefit of specific clinical efforts designed to promote preventive behavior among adolescents newly diagnosed with an STD.

  2. Vivências de mulheres com diagnóstico de doença sexualmente transmissível - DST Experiencias de Mujeres con Diagnóstico de Enfermedad Sexualmente Transmisible - ETS Women's Experiences with Sexually Transmitted Disease Diagnosis - STD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alix Leite Araújo

    2007-09-01

    relaciones con la pareja sexual. El acto de aconsejar desempeña papel fundamental para la reducción de estrese. Los servicios de salud deben valorar los aspectos emocionales relacionados al diagnóstico de ETS, visando contribuir para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de las mujeres y en el abordaje de la pareja.The sexually transmissible diseases (STD constitutes problem of public health, because of the high prevalence. For the women, the control is a challenge, because of the social implications and mainly of gender. This objective of this study was to know as the women feel the diagnosis of a STD and the repercussions of the revelation of this diagnosis to the sexual partner. Exploratory-descriptive study developed in a unit of reference health for STD in Fortaleza Ceará (Brazil. The collection of the data was accomplished the months of February and March in 2006 and the analyzed in two categories: women's experiences with STD diagnosis and the repercussion of the revelation of the STD diagnosis to the sexual partner. It was verified that the occurrence of other STD results a negative impact for the woman in a social relationship with a sexual partner. A word of advice is a fundamental work to reduce the stress. The services of health should valorize the emotional aspects related of the diagnosis other STD, with the vision to contribute with the improvement of the quality of the woman life and approach with the partner.

  3. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in three public secondary schools in Ogbondoroko and Laduba .... population live in the rural areas where information on sexually transmitted ..... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Diagnoses of HIV ...

  4. Willingness to Use Health Insurance at a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic: A Survey of Patients at 21 US Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William S; Cramer, Ryan; Tao, Guoyu; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L; Hoover, Karen W

    2016-08-01

    To survey patients of publicly funded sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics across the United States about their willingness to use health insurance for their visit. In 2013, we identified STD clinics in 21 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance reports. Patients attending the identified STD clinics completed a total of 4364 surveys (response rate = 86.6%). Nearly half of the insured patients were willing to use their health insurance. Patients covered by government insurance were more likely to be willing to use their health insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (odds ratio [OR] =  3.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.79, 4.65), and patients covered by their parents' insurance were less likely to be willing to use their insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.52, 1.00). Reasons for unwillingness to use insurance were privacy and out-of-pocket cost. Before full implementation of the Affordable Care Act, privacy and cost were barriers to using health insurance for STD services. Barriers to using health insurance for STD services could be reduced through addressing issues of stigma associated with STD care and considering alternative payment sources for STD services.

  5. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  6. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    ... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  7. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developed and developing countries. Insufficient knowledge about STDs is a major impediment to successfully prevent the diseases among adolescent populations in developing countries. Objective: To ...

  8. Innovation in sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: internet and mobile phone delivery vehicles for global diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-03-01

    Efficacious behavioral interventions and practices have not been universally accepted, adopted, or diffused by policy makers, administrators, providers, advocates, or consumers. Biomedical innovations for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV prevention have been embraced but their effectiveness is hindered by behavioral factors. Behavioral interventions are required to support providers and consumers for adoption and diffusion of biomedical innovations, protocol adherence, and sustained prevention for other STDs. Information and communication technology such as the Internet and mobile phones can deliver behavioral components for STD/HIV prevention and care to more people at less cost. Recent innovations in STD/HIV prevention with information and communication technology-mediated behavioral supports include STD/HIV testing and partner interventions, behavioral interventions, self-management, and provider care. Computer-based and Internet-based behavioral STD/HIV interventions have demonstrated efficacy comparable to face-to-face interventions. Mobile phone STD/HIV interventions using text-messaging are being broadly utilized but more work is needed to demonstrate efficacy. Electronic health records and care management systems can improve care, but interventions are needed to support adoption. Information and communication technology is rapidly diffusing globally. Over the next 5-10 years smart-phones will be broadly disseminated, connecting billions of people to the Internet and enabling lower cost, highly engaging, and ubiquitous STD/HIV prevention and treatment support interventions.

  9. [Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo

    2008-02-01

    Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.

  10. [Diseases transmitted through water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Dentamaro, M

    2003-01-01

    The water for human consumption maintains a biological risk and can transmit diseases. The classical waterborne and the presently frequent diseases caused by protozoi Giardia and Cryptosporidium are considered and Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, is described. Many measures have been adopted by institutions to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Managers and public health operators is working in order to verify the efficiency of more suitable indicators for its monitoring.

  11. Overview - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  12. Providing Mailing Cost Reimbursements: The Effect on Reporting Timeliness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliu, Oana E; Stover, Jeffrey A; Mays, Marissa J E; Bissette, Jennifer M; Dolan, Carrie B; Sirbu, Corina M

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effect of providing mailing cost reimbursements to local health departments on the timeliness of the reporting of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Virginia. The Division of Disease Prevention, Virginia Department of Health, provided mailing cost reimbursements to 31 Virginia health districts from October 2002 to December 2004. The difference (in days) between the diagnosis date (or date the STD paperwork was initiated) and the date the case/STD report was entered into the STD surveillance database was used in a negative binomial regression model against time (as divided into three periods-before, during, and after reimbursement) to estimate the effect of providing mailing cost reimbursements on reporting timeliness. We observed significant decreases in the number of days between diagnosis and reporting of a case, which were sustained after the reimbursement period ended, in 25 of the 31 health districts included in the analysis. We observed a significant initial decrease (during the reimbursement period) followed by a significant increase in the after-reimbursement phase in one health district. Two health districts had a significant initial decrease, while one health district had a significant decrease in reporting timeliness in the period after reimbursement. Two health districts showed no significant changes in the number of days to report to the central office. Providing reimbursements for mailing costs was statistically associated with improved STD reporting timeliness in almost all of Virginia's health districts. Sustained improvement after the reimbursement period ended is likely indicative of improved local health department reporting habits.

  13. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Coetzee, D J; Fehler, H G; Bellingan, A; Dangor, Y; Radebe, F; Ballard, R C

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a rural area of South Africa, to develop a non-laboratory tool to screen for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among family planning clients. A cross sectional study was performed of 249 consecutive women attending a family planning service between November and December 1994. A questionnaire was administered, and a clinical examination and laboratory tests conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, and other non-laboratory variables that were significantly associated with laboratory evidence of infection were combined to produce non-hierarchical scoring systems for three "syndromes": gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection, trichomoniasis, and cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis combined. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scoring systems as a screening tool were assessed against the gold standard of laboratory tests. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections among the study participants was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis 12%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 18%, and bacterial vaginosis 29%. Although vaginal discharge and other symptoms were frequently reported, symptoms bore no relation to the presence of infection. The following independent associations with gonococcal/chlamydial cervical infection were found: age less than 25 years and cervical mucopus and/or friability. Abnormal discharge on examination, visible inflammatory changes of the cervix (increased redness), no recent travel, and unemployment were associated with trichomoniasis. The combination of trichomonas and/or cervical infection ("STD syndrome") was associated with cervical mucopus/friability, unemployment, lack of financial support, and increased redness of the cervix. Of the three scoring systems developed on the basis of these associations, that of the "STD syndrome" achieved the best performance characteristics as a screening tool, with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 74%, and

  14. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.

  15. The impact of Medicaid-linked reimbursements on revenues of public sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Lois; Lafferty, William E; Krekeler, Barbara

    2002-02-01

    Public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics faced with decreased tax revenue and increased costs must evaluate alternative revenue sources. To report one public STD clinic's Medicaid-linked revenue and discuss the association between system characteristics and reimbursement potential. This was a cross-sectional study of 4208 patients visiting the clinic for new problems during a 6-month period. Of 458 Medicaid-enrolled patients, only 55% acknowledged enrollment at the time of visit. The clinic captured revenue for many of the remaining 45% through a centralized public health information/billing system, which submitted retroactive STD clinic claims when patients self-reported Medicaid enrollment at later visits to other public health clinics. These belated self-reports also contributed to Medicaid administrative-match reimbursements. An estimated $100,000 (31% of the clinic's direct reimbursements for service) would have been lost in 2000, had detection of Medicaid enrollment been based exclusively on patients' self-reports at STD clinic visits.

  16. Need for revisiting the role of sexually transmitted disease clinics in government hospitals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulekha Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Government of India provides treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs through government's sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics with the mandate of providing curative and preventive services for clients in the context of STIs. However, besides the patients suffering from STDs, other clients with problems related to reproductive and sexual health also attend these clinics. This study aimed to assess the profile and treatment-seeking behavior of clients attending STD clinics in government hospitals in India. Materials and Methods: This multicentric, cross-sectional study with 5098 participants was conducted over 2 months in identified 19 Indian states. Chi–square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage with STDs (62.98% was nearly double than those with non-STDs (37.1%. Around 8.2% of patients had an STD and were also HIV positive. Compared to the total STD cases, only 9% of the partners had turned up for screening. Of significance were the non-STD cases who presented with both physical and psychological symptoms including infertility. Among males, it was mainly sexual dysfunction and balanoposthitis, and in females, lower abdominal pain and bacterial vaginosis. Only 27.3% reported that they had come directly to the government facility/clinic. Nearly 38% of males and 30% of females had tried home remedies before coming to the government clinic. Majority (77.9% of the clients reported that they had never been counseled on any aspect of STD or HIV. Conclusion: The profile of clients in the various clinics across the country indicates that the name “STD Clinic” is a misnomer since the presenting complaints of clients are varied, and related not only to STDs but also to other reproductive tract problems. Furthermore, the average new patient load observed in our study is low and this was attributed to the name “STDs” given to these clinics. Renaming them as “Reproductive Health

  17. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of HIV, behavioural change, and STD syndromic management on STD epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa: simulations of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); R. Bakker (Roel); R. Gray; M.J. Wawer; D. Serwadda; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn assessment was made of how the HIV epidemic may have influenced sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemiology in Uganda, and how HIV would affect the effectiveness of syndromic STD treatment programmes during different stages of the epidemic. The dynamic

  19. Stochastic dynamics for reinfection by transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alessandro S.; Pinho, Suani T. R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of stochastic models to study the dynamics of infectious diseases is an important tool to understand the epidemiological process. For several directly transmitted diseases, reinfection is a relevant process, which can be expressed by endogenous reactivation of the pathogen or by exogenous reinfection due to direct contact with an infected individual (with smaller reinfection rate σ β than infection rate β ). In this paper, we examine the stochastic susceptible, infected, recovered, infected (SIRI) model simulating the endogenous reactivation by a spontaneous reaction, while exogenous reinfection by a catalytic reaction. Analyzing the mean-field approximations of a site and pairs of sites, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the particular case of exogenous reinfection, we obtained continuous phase transitions involving endemic, epidemic, and no transmission phases for the simple approach; the approach of pairs is better to describe the phase transition from endemic phase (susceptible, infected, susceptible (SIS)-like model) to epidemic phase (susceptible, infected, and removed or recovered (SIR)-like model) considering the comparison with MC results; the reinfection increases the peaks of outbreaks until the system reaches endemic phase. For the particular case of endogenous reactivation, the approach of pairs leads to a continuous phase transition from endemic phase (SIS-like model) to no transmission phase. Finally, there is no phase transition when both effects are taken into account. We hope the results of this study can be generalized for the susceptible, exposed, infected, and removed or recovered (SEIRIE) model, for which the state exposed (infected but not infectious), describing more realistically transmitted diseases such as tuberculosis. In future work, we also intend to investigate the effect of network topology on phase transitions when the SIRI model describes both transmitted diseases (σ social contagions (σ >1 ).

  20. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence.

  1. Assessing the effects of a sexually transmitted disease educational intervention on fraternity and sorority members' knowledge and attitudes toward safe sex behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Jennifer; Moore, Leslie; MacMillan, Deborah; Butler, Scott

    2016-04-01

    College years are a time young adults examine high-risk sexual behaviors, increasing their risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Fraternity/sorority membership has been identified as one factor contributing to increased risky sexual behavior in college students. This study measured the effectiveness of an educational intervention targeting STD prevention in fraternity and sorority members, and examined relationships between STD knowledge, attitudes, and demographics. A descriptive, correlational design was used. Pre- and posttest data were collected from fraternity and sorority members (N = 132). Instruments measured demographic characteristics, STD knowledge, and attitudes toward safe sex behaviors. There was a significant increase in STD knowledge from baseline (M = 13.03, SD = 6.5) to 1 week (M = 20.27, SD = 4.9) t (131) = -13.53, p = .000. Males were more likely to report attitudes toward risky sexual behavior rs(132) = .323, p = .000, and as knowledge increased, attitudes became more favorable to safe sex behaviors (pre-STD knowledge and preintervention attitudes, r(132) = -.249, p = .004; post-STD knowledge and postintervention attitudes, rs(132) = -.307, p = .000). Results support that brief STD educational interventions can increase STD knowledge. College health centers must aim to provide sexual health education to all students at every visit. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Mobile phone applications for the care and prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E; Pike, Emily C; Legrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2013-01-04

    Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each eligible app was downloaded, tested, and assessed for user ratings and functionality as well as 6 broad content areas of HIV prevention and care: HIV/STD disease knowledge, risk reduction/safer sex, condom promotion, HIV/STD testing information, resources for HIV-positive persons, and focus on key populations. Search queries up to May 2012 identified 1937 apps. Of these, 55 unique apps met the inclusion criteria (12 for Android, 29 for iPhone, and 14 for both platforms). Among these apps, 71% provided disease information about HIV/STDs, 36% provided HIV/STD testing information or resources, 29% included information about condom use or assistance locating condoms, and 24% promoted safer sex. Only 6 apps (11%) covered all 4 of these prevention areas. Eight apps (15%) provided tools or resources specifically for HIV/STD positive persons. Ten apps included information for a range of sexual orientations, 9 apps appeared to be designed for racially/ethnically diverse audiences, and 15 apps featured interactive components. Apps were infrequently downloaded (median 100-500 downloads) and not highly rated (average customer rating 3.7 out of 5 stars). Most available HIV/STD apps have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews. Public health practitioners should work with app developers to incorporate elements of evidence-based interventions for risk reduction and improve app inclusiveness and interactivity.

  3. Nurses’ knowledge levels and Behaviours about Sexually Transmitted diseases and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Irem Budakoglu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to determine the knowledge level and behaviors of nurses towards AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD who are working at Baskent University Ankara Hospital\tDesign: There were 321 nurses at Baskent University Ankara Hospital at January 2005. Two hundred fifty six (79.7% of them participated the study. The data was collected with a questionnaire.\tMain outcome measures: The nurses who were answered the question “Are you using any method in order to prevent STD?” as\t“needless” were accepted as “sexually inactive”. The level of AIDS knowledge was evaluated over 100 point scale.\tRESULTS: The mean age of nurses was 25.8±0.2 (19-38, while 69.8% of them were college or faculty graduate and 71.1% of them were single. AIDS (94.4%, syphilis (70.6% and gonorrhea (60.2% were the first three STD implicated by nurses. The average value of AIDS knowledge of nurses was 83.8±0.8. The average value of nurses who had bachelor’s degree or doctorate, who were\tat the 26-27 age group, who were married or widowed and sexually inactive group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Only 31 nurses (20.1% declared that they have been using any preventive method for STD.\tCONCLUSIONS: It is determined, although the status of STD and AIDS knowledge of nurses are high, but the percentage of usage of any preventive method is low.

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Kimberly A.; Bolan, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30–May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR–12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815

  5. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Attitudes Towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self reported STD included syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, genital warts and pelvic inflammatory diseases. Condom use was not associated with prevention against pregnancy demonstrating that knowledge cannot be translated into action and behavior change without modification of attitudes and beliefs. Reasons cited for ...

  6. STD Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Leichliter, Jami S.; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of STD prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a non-systematic review of policy evidence for sexually transmitted disease prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact...

  7. Etiology of genital ulcer disease. A prospective study of 278 cases seen in an STD clinic in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope-Rapp, Emilie; Anyfantakis, Vassili; Fouéré, Sebastien; Bonhomme, Philippe; Louison, Jean B; de Marsac, Thibault Tandeau; Chaine, Benedicte; Vallee, Pascale; Casin, Isabelle; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Janier, Michel

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the causes and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Paris. This study was a prospective investigation of GUD cases. Data were collected from 1995 to 2005. In each case, a Dark Field Examination (DFE), Gram stain, inoculation onto Thayer Martin agar, Columbia agar and chocolate agar with 1% isovitalex and 20% fetal calf serum, PCR Chlamydia trachomatis (Amplicor Roche), culture for herpes simplex virus (HSV) on MRC 5 cells and PCR HSV (Argene Biosoft) were obtained from the ulceration. First Catch Urine (FCU) PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and syphilis, HIV, HSV, and HBV serologies were also performed. A total 278 cases of GUD were investigated, 244 (88%) in men and 34 (12%) in women. Primary syphilis accounted for 98 cases (35%), genital herpes for 74 (27%), chancroid for 8 (3%), other infections for 12 (5%). In 91 (32%) patients, no identifiable microorganism was documented. Primary syphilis was more prevalent in MSMs (P chancroid were significantly associated with heterosexuality (both P 10 mm (OR: 9.2 [95% CI: 2.9-30.7], P chancroid and reemergence of infectious syphilis have led to a new distribution of pathogens, genital herpes, primary syphilis and GUD from unknown origin, accounting each for one third of cases. No clinical characteristic is predictive of the etiology, underlining the importance of performing a thorough microbiologic evaluation. Close association with HIV is still a major public health problem.

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic infections in sexually transmitted diseases attendees diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, R; Kalaivani, S

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India. A retrospective analysis of data collected from clinical records of 3000 female patients of age 18 to 49 over a period of 12 months (July 2014 to June 2015) was carried out at the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College. Complete epidemiological, clinical, and investigational data were recorded and analyzed for the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic patients. About 48.37% (228/470) of bacterial vaginosis patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 45.38% (116/235) of vaginal candidiasis patients were asymptomatic and 30.35% (26/87) of trichomoniasis patients were asymptomatic. The above infections were common in the age group 25-35. Holistic screening protocol was incorporated for all female patients attending STD clinic even if asymptomatic and should be treated accordingly to prevent the acquisition of other serious sexually transmitted infections.

  9. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  10. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence in brothel-based commercial sex workers in Chiang Mai, Thailand: impact of the condom use campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugpao, S; Wanapirak, C; Sirichotiyakul, S; Yutabootr, Y; Prasertwitayakij, W; Suwankiti, S; Wongworapat, K; Tovanabutra, S; Natpratan, C; Saba, J

    1997-07-01

    One hundred and ninety five (195) brothel-based commercial sex workers (CSW) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, were screened for sexually transmitted disease (STD) between October 1994 and April 1995, prior to their enrollment in a multi-center comparative trial of the effectiveness of two strategies using male and female condoms. These CSW had a mean age of 22.2 (SD 4.3) years. Forty-seven per cent were Thai and 57.4 per cent had no formal education. Median duration of prostitution was 16 months and median cost for sexual service was 50 baht (US$ 2) per client. Ninety-four per cent of CSW reported always using condoms with clients. There were 63 (32.3%) CSW infected with at least one type of the STD screened. The prevalence of STD included chlamydial infection (16.9%), gonococcal infection (14.4%), condyloma accuminata (4.6%), moluscum contagiosum (2.6%) and trichomoniasis (1.0%). There was no statistically significant risk factor for STD found in this study. Despite an active programme for prevention of STD in CSW and the provision of free condoms, STD were diagnosed in one-third of the screened CSW in Chiang Mai. The programme needs to be strengthened by more intensive education and practice in the correct and consistent use of condoms and integrated with other STD prevention programmes.

  11. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published before January 1, 2016, using the MeSH terms for a variety of STDs and infertility. The search was restricted to human studies...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...

  12. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    .... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...

  13. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  14. Trends in receipt of sexually transmitted disease services among women 15 to 44 years old in the United States, 2002 to 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Gift, Thomas L; Loosier, Penny S; Cramer, Ryan C; Leichliter, Jami S

    2014-01-01

    To describe recent trends in the receipt of sexually transmitted disease (STD) services among women (age, 15-44 years) from 2002 to 2006-2010 using the National Survey of Family Growth. We analyzed trends in demographics, health insurance, and visit-related variables of women reporting receipt of STD services (counseling, testing, or treatment) in the past 12 months. We also analyzed trends in the source of STD services and the payment method used. Receipt of STD services reported by women in the past 12 months increased from 2002 (12.6%) to 2006-2010 (16.0%; P < 0.001). Receipt of services did not increase among adolescents (P = 0.592). Among women receiving STD services from a private doctor/HMO, the percentage with private insurance decreased over time (74.6%-66.8%), whereas the percentage with Medicaid increased (12.8%-19.7%; P = 0.020). For women receiving STD services at a public clinic or nonprimary care facility, there were no statistically significant differences by demographics, except that fewer adolescents but more young adults reported using a public clinic over time (P = 0.038). Among women who reported using Medicaid as payment, receipt of STD services at a public clinic significantly decreased (36.8%-25.4%; P = 0.019). For women who paid for STD services with private insurance, the only significant difference was an increase in having a copay over time (61.3%-70.1%; P = 0.012). Despite a significant increase in receipt of STD services over time, many women at risk for STDs did not receive services including adolescents. In addition, we identified important shifts in payment methods during this time frame.

  15. Health Communication and Social Marketing Campaigns for Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control: What Is the Evidence of their Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of a brief video-based HIV intervention for African American and Latino sexually transmitted disease clinic clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M; O'Donnell, C; O'Donnell, L

    2001-04-13

    Decisions about the dissemination of HIV interventions need to be informed by evidence of their cost-effectiveness in reducing negative health outcomes. Having previously shown the effectiveness of a single-session video-based group intervention (VOICES/VOCES) in reducing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among male African American and Latino clients attending an urban STD clinic, this study estimates its cost-effectiveness in terms of disease averted. Cost-effectiveness was calculated using data on effectiveness from a randomized clinical trial of the VOICES/VOCES intervention along with updated data on the costs of intervention from four replication sites. STD incidence and self-reported behavioral data were used to make estimates of reduction in HIV incidence among study participants. The average annual cost to provide the intervention to 10 000 STD clinic clients was estimated to be US$447 005, with a cost per client of US$43.30. This expenditure would result in an average of 27.69 HIV infections averted, with an average savings from averted medical costs of US$5 544 408. The number of quality adjusted life years saved averaged 387.61, with a cost per HIV infection averted of US$21 486. This brief behavioral intervention was found to be feasible and cost-saving when targeted to male STD clinic clients at high risk of contracting and transmitting infections, indicating that this strategy should be considered for inclusion in HIV prevention programming.

  17. What Is It? - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  18. Ida's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  19. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  20. Exploring Gender Differences in the Relationship between HIV/STD Testing and Condom Use among Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…

  1. STD Training in Canadian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Anne A Doherty

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The emergence of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in 1981 and the consequent publicity surrounding sexual behaviour has increased the likelihood that patients will seek medical advice. Sexually transmitted disease (STD teaching and postgraduate medical programs in Canadian schools of medicine have not been adequately documented. Accordingly, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. Department of National Health and Welfare, sought to determine the magnitude and scope of STD training in these schools. DESIGN: A four page questionnaire sought information on preclinical, clinical and residency training in terms of the number of classroom and laboratory hours of instruction, the subspecialty responsible for providing the training, and the clinical ‘hands on’ experience of the teachers: each respondent was also asked to assess the quality and scope of instruction provided at his/her medical school. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The questionnaire was mailed to the Dean of each of the 16 schools of medicine in Canada: it was requested that the questionnaire be forwarded to and completed by the person responsible for STD training at the university. RESULTS: Thirteen schools (81% completed the questionnaire. Each school indicated that some STD instruction was provided at the undergraduate level: the mean number of hours of classroom instruction was 6.1. Physicians with STD clinical ‘hands on’ experience were responsible for teaching in 12 schools. Infectious disease residents spent 4 to 80 h on STDs, while those from other residency programs where STD was not an elective spent 2 to 8 h. Each medical school was asked to provide an evaluation of its program. Only three respondents considered their STD training program adequate. The majority of schools responded that infectious disease residents received sufficient training but the training offered medical students and residents in other programs was less than adequate. The quality

  2. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors by work locations among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-10-01

    Sex work is regulated in the Zona Roja (red light district) in Tijuana, Mexico, where HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence is high among female sex workers (FSWs). We examined the spatial distribution of STDs by work venue among FSWs in Tijuana. FSWs aged 18 years and older who reported unprotected sex with ≥ 1 client in the past 2 months underwent testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. HIV/STDs were mapped by venue (i.e., bar, hotel) and Getis-Ord Gi statistics were used to identify geographic hotspots. High-risk venues were then identified using a standardized STD ratio (high risk defined as a ratio ≥ 1.25). Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of working at a high risk venue. Of 474 FSWs, 176 (36.4%) had at least 1 bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI); 36 (7.6%) were HIV-positive. Within the Zona Roja, 1 venue was identified as a geographic "hotspot," with a higher than expected number of HIV/STD-positive FSW (P Tijuana. Structural interventions that focus on sex work venues could help increase STI diagnosis, prevention, and treatment among FSWs in Tijuana.

  5. How Can Men Reduce the Risk of Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/latex.html « How effective is male contraception? What causes male infertility? ... levels of urinary paracetamol may impair male fertility, NIH study suggests All ...

  6. The cost of implementing rapid HIV testing in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggman, Ashley A; Feaster, Daniel J; Leff, Jared A; Golden, Matthew R; Castellon, Pedro C; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R; Schackman, Bruce R

    2014-09-01

    Rapid HIV testing in high-risk populations can increase the number of persons who learn their HIV status and avoid spending clinic resources to locate persons identified as HIV infected. We determined the cost to sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics of point-of-care rapid HIV testing using data from 7 public clinics that participated in a randomized trial of rapid testing with and without brief patient-centered risk reduction counseling in 2010. Costs included counselor and trainer time, supplies, and clinic overhead. We applied national labor rates and test costs. We calculated median clinic start-up costs and mean cost per patient tested, and projected incremental annual costs of implementing universal rapid HIV testing compared with current testing practices. Criteria for offering rapid HIV testing and methods for delivering nonrapid test results varied among clinics before the trial. Rapid HIV testing cost an average of US $22/patient without brief risk reduction counseling and US $46/patient with counseling in these 7 clinics. Median start-up costs per clinic were US $1100 and US $16,100 without and with counseling, respectively. Estimated incremental annual costs per clinic of implementing universal rapid HIV testing varied by whether or not brief counseling is conducted and by current clinic testing practices, ranging from a savings of US $19,500 to a cost of US $40,700 without counseling and a cost of US $98,000 to US $153,900 with counseling. Universal rapid HIV testing in STD clinics with same-day results can be implemented at relatively low cost to STD clinics, if brief risk reduction counseling is not offered.

  7. The incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending nine sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Feaster, Daniel J; Duan, Rui; Cohen, Stephanie; Diaz, Chanelle; Castro, Jose G; Golden, Matthew R; Henn, Sarah; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R

    2016-02-01

    Trichomoniasis (TV) is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV. The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors associated with incidence TV among female STD clinic attendees in the USA. Data were collected from women participating in a randomised controlled trial evaluating brief risk reduction counselling at the time of HIV testing to reduce sexually transmitted infections (STIs) incidence in STD clinics. Participants recruited from STD clinics underwent STI testing at baseline and 6-month follow-up. TV testing was performed using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test. 1704 participants completed study assessments. Prevalence of TV was 14.6%, chlamydia 8.6%, gonorrhoea 3.0%, herpes simplex virus 2 44.7% and HIV 0.4%. Cumulative 6-month incidence of TV was 7.5%. Almost 50% of the incident TV cases had TV at baseline and had received treatment. Factors associated with incidence of TV were having chlamydia, TV and HIV at baseline: TV relative risk (RR)=3.37 (95% CI 2.35 to 4.83, pTV is common among STD clinic attendees; and baseline TV is the main risk factor for incident TV, suggesting high rates of reinfection or treatment failures. This supports the importance of rescreening women after treatment for TV, evaluating current treatment regimens and programmes to ensure treatment of sexual partners. NCT01154296. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. HIV and STD status among MSM and attitudes about Internet partner notification for STD exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Tetu, Ashley M; Gortmaker, Steven; Koenen, Karestan C; Fair, Andrew D; Novak, David S; Vanderwarker, Rodney; Bertrand, Thomas; Adelson, Stephan; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the acceptability and perceived utility of Internet-based partner notification (PN) of sexually transmitted disease (STD) exposure for men who have sex with men (MSM) by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus. We recruited 1848 US MSM via a banner advertisement posted on an MSM website for meeting sexual partners between October and November 2005. Even though there was broad acceptance of a PN e-mail across HIV serostatus groups, HIV-infected men rated the importance of each component (e.g., information about where to get tested/treated, additional education regarding the STD exposed to, a mechanism for verifying the authenticity of the PN e-mail) lower than HIV-uninfected or status-unknown participants (all P's e-mail (if they were to receive an e-mail notifying them of possible STD exposure in the future), and were less likely to inform their partners of possible STD exposure via an Internet notification system in the future (all P's e-mail. If public health officials consider using Internet notification services, they may need to anticipate and address concerns of HIV-infected MSM, and will need to use a culturally-sensitive, social marketing campaign to ensure that those who may benefit from these services are willing to use this modality for PN. Internet PN should be considered as a tool to decrease rising STD and HIV rates among MSM who use the Internet to meet sexual partners.

  9. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  10. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  11. Men’s Perception of Raped Women: Test of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Hypothesis and the Cuckoldry Hypothesis

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    Prokop Pavol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.

  12. Utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among sexually transmitted disease clinics attendees with coexisting drinking problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingdi; Dodd, Virginia J; Oliverio, James C; Cook, Robert L

    2014-03-26

    Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazardous drinking, to examine socio-demographic factors associated with ICT use, and to explore individuals' interests in engaging in ICT-based health interventions. Cross-sectional questionnaires examining alcohol consumption and ICT use were administered to 396 persons attending two non-urban STD clinics. Descriptive statistics for ICT use were calculated for both hazardous drinkers and the entire sample. Multivariable logistic regression models among hazardous drinkers identified factors significantly associated with use of each kind of ICT. The mean age of the 396 participants was 25 years, 66% were females and 60% were African-Americans. One third of the sample met the criteria of hazardous drinking. ICT use in hazardous drinkers included 94% reporting having internet access at least monthly, 82% reporting having an email account, 85% reporting currently owning a cell phone, and 91% reporting use of any cell phone application. More than two thirds (73%) of hazardous drinkers were willing to play health-related video games during clinic waiting time, slightly higher than the entire sample (69%). Multivariable analyses indicated that younger age were significantly related to monthly internet use, and multifunction cell phone use, while being males and younger age were significantly associated with monthly video game playing. Our study demonstrates commonality of ICT use among STD clinic attendees with hazardous drinking, indicating the viability of using ICT to assist screening and

  13. Utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among sexually transmitted disease clinics attendees with coexisting drinking problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazardous drinking, to examine socio-demographic factors associated with ICT use, and to explore individuals’ interests in engaging in ICT-based health interventions. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaires examining alcohol consumption and ICT use were administered to 396 persons attending two non-urban STD clinics. Descriptive statistics for ICT use were calculated for both hazardous drinkers and the entire sample. Multivariable logistic regression models among hazardous drinkers identified factors significantly associated with use of each kind of ICT. Results The mean age of the 396 participants was 25 years, 66% were females and 60% were African-Americans. One third of the sample met the criteria of hazardous drinking. ICT use in hazardous drinkers included 94% reporting having internet access at least monthly, 82% reporting having an email account, 85% reporting currently owning a cell phone, and 91% reporting use of any cell phone application. More than two thirds (73%) of hazardous drinkers were willing to play health-related video games during clinic waiting time, slightly higher than the entire sample (69%). Multivariable analyses indicated that younger age were significantly related to monthly internet use, and multifunction cell phone use, while being males and younger age were significantly associated with monthly video game playing. Conclusions Our study demonstrates commonality of ICT use among STD clinic attendees with hazardous drinking, indicating the viability of

  14. Recommendation on vectors and vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

    2009-01-01

    In view of their increasing risk of introduction and their possible implications in causing major disease outbreaks, vectors, as well as vector-transmitted diseases like dengue, West Nile disease, Lyme disease and bluetongue need to be recognised as a threat to public and animal health and to the economy, also in the Netherlands. There has been an increase in the incidence of these diseases in the past two to three decades. Climate changes and changes in the use of land, water managemen...

  15. Some Models for Epidemics of Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Fred; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Mubayi, Anuj; Towers, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito) vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birt...

  16. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880

  17. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  18. Social Support Networks: An Underutilized Resource for the Prevention of HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Hispanic/Latino Migrants and Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas M

    2018-01-01

    Hispanic/Latino migrants and immigrants are vulnerable to infection by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Participation in social support networks helps them cope with circumstances in the U.S. Studies of Hispanic/Latino migrants suggest that participation may also be protective against HIV/STD infection. However the studies do not satisfactorily explain how participation leads to protective actions, and recommend externally-induced interventions for HIV/STD prevention rather than incorporating the spontaneously occurring forms of social support they describe. Given the potential protective effects of support networks, a database search was conducted to ascertain the extent to which published HIV/STD prevention interventions for these populations incorporate their support networks. Very few interventions were identified and fewer still incorporate support networks. This commentary calls for research to understand more fully how support networks affect HIV/STD risks among Hispanic/Latino migrants and immigrants and identifies potential benefits of incorporating these networks in HIV/STD prevention for these vulnerable populations.

  19. A review of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of parasitic origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fore a now recognized mode of transmission – sexual contact. This in turn has led to giardiasis being classified as a sexually transmitted disease by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. This review identifies its occurrence mainly in homosexual populations of the developed world ...

  20. Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in sexually transmitted diseases - more for screening less for diagnosis: An evaluation of clinical manifestation

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    Dharmishtha G Tada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is the cause of most genital herpes. Now, HSV-1 has become an important cause and represents even about 30% of genital herpes in some countries. So, study related to genital herpes should consider both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Aim: To examine trends in HSV-1 and 2 seroprevalence by Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in all type of sexually transmitted disease (STD patients and also to evaluate correlation of serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in STD. Materials and Methods: 150 patients attending the STD clinic attached to a tertiary care hospital of Ahmedabad were included in the study. Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM correlations with clinical manifestations of recurrent and non-recurrent type of genital herpes patients and other non-herpetic STD patients were studied. Results: The overall serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in STD seroprevalence were 15.66%. Female has significant higher prevalence (P < 0.05. STD cases and HSV seroprevalence were specially concentrated in persons aged 21 to 30 years. Among those positive with HSV, the distribution of STD are wide spread and found in non-herpetic group at high frequency. Out of total 23 serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM positive, 12 and 11 are distributed in herpetic and non-herpetic STDs, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Though serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in STDs are less diagnostic, they help to see the iceberg part of the infection among the population concerned in recent scenario or in another words, it provides recent infective burden.

  1. A six-year follow-up survey of sexually transmitted diseases in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil

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    Simões-Barbosa Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.

  2. Charting a Path to Location Intelligence for STD Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Todd M.; Du, Ping; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Coles, F. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the New York State Department of Health's GeoDatabase project, which developed new methods and techniques for designing and building a geocoding and mapping data repository for sexually transmitted disease (STD) control. The GeoDatabase development was supported through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Outcome Assessment through Systems of Integrated Surveillance workgroup. The design and operation of the GeoDatabase relied upon commercial-off-the-shelf ...

  3. An interactive internet-based continuing education course on sexually transmitted diseases for physicians and midwives in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy A Canchihuaman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians in developing countries have had limited access to continuing education (CE outside major cities, and CE strategies have had limited impact on sustainable change in performance. New educational tools could improve CE accessibility and effectiveness.The objective of this study was to evaluate an interactive Internet-based CE course on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs management for clinicians in Peru. Participants included physicians and midwives in private practice drawn from a census of 10 Peruvian cities. The CE included a three-hour workshop for improving Internet skills, followed by a 22-hour online course on STD-syndrome-management, with subsequent educational support. The course used case-based clinical vignettes tailored to local STD problems. Knowledge and reported practices on STD management were assessed before, immediately after and at four months after completion of the course. Statistical analysis included parametric tests-linear regression multivariate analysis, paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 14.0. Of 1,071 eligible clinicians, 510 agreed to participate, as did an additional 132 public sector clinicians. Of these 642 participants, 619 (96.4% completed the course, and 596 (96.3% took the four-month follow-up evaluation. Physician and midwife scores improved from 64.2% correct answers on the pre-test to 77.9% correct on the four-month follow-up test (p<0.001. Most participants (95% found the online course useful for their work needs. Self reported STD management practices did not change.Among physicians and midwives in Peru, an Internet-based CE course was feasible, acceptable with high participation rates, and led to sustained improvement in knowledge at four months. Further studies are needed to test it as a model for improving the training of physicians, midwives, and other health care providers.

  4. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

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    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  6. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In And Around Lucknow

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    Jaiswal A K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was undertaken from the year 1988 to 1998 to study the pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in and around Lucknow. Among 1890 patients examined, chancroid predominated followed by syphilis, gonorrhoea, genital warts, herpes genitalis, LGV and non-specific urethritis. The incidence of donovanosis was the lowest.

  7. Some models for epidemics of vector-transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birth defects.We formulate and analyze two epidemic models for vector-transmitted diseases, one appropriate for dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks and one that includes direct transmission appropriate for Zika virus outbreaks. This is especially important because the Zika virus is the first example of a disease that can be spread both indirectly through a vector and directly (through sexual contact. In both cases, we obtain expressions for the basic reproduction number and show how to use the initial exponential growth rate to estimate the basic reproduction number. However, for the model that includes direct transmission some additional data would be needed to identify the fraction of cases transmitted directly. Data for the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia has been used to fit parameters to the model developed here and to estimate the basic reproduction number.

  8. A Brief Review of Viral and Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Colorectal Practice

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    Nabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a common source of presentation to colorectal surgeons. Clinicians need to remain mindful of the possibility of STDs when faced with atypical clinical presentations. This article aims to provide surgeons with a synopsis of common pathogens, their clinical presentations, diagnostic investigations and treatment regimens. Evidence Acquisition The most common bacterial pathogens include Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea with synchronous infections at presentation occurring frequently. Patients often present with proctitis. Gonorrhea patients can also experience bloody purulent perianal discharge. Less common bacterial pathogens include syphilis, chancroid and donovanosis. The commonest STD worldwide remains human papillomavirus. Given its vast array of subtypes its manifestations include benign hyperproliferative lesions like perianal warts and extend to anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. Other important viral infections of the anorectum include human immunodeficiency virus and subsequent acquired immune deficiency disease as well as herpes simplex virus and molluscum contangiosum. Results Debate exists whether the increasing incidence of STDs affecting the anorectum reported in western literature represents a real increase or a reflection of greater patient and clinician recognition and reporting. Conclusions Regardless, a broad understanding of common bacterial and viral pathogens remains important part of modern colorectal practice. Remaining mindful of the manifestations of these common pathogens, options for diagnosis and management are important in disease control to limit the impact of these pathogens across the wider community.

  9. The production of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases in young people: a bibliometric research

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    Thelma Spindola

    2015-07-01

      ABSTRACT Objective: To identify and characterize the scientific production of nurses related to young people's vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Method: Descriptive study of transverse cutting (2009-2013, bibliometric research, conducted through the search of publications on the Health Virtual Library and the catalog of theses and dissertations of Brazilian Association of Nursing. The sample consisted of 40 articles, 05 theses and 05 dissertations. Results: The most of the publications were carried out by nurses’ teachers with doctoral degree. The theme of HIV/aids, focus of health education, field research and qualitative analysis of the findings had greater representativeness in the sample analyzed. Conclusion: Although STD have been manifested in young people and the Health Ministry of Brazil showing the increased incidence of HIV/aids in this group, the scientific literature on the subject in the studied timeframe is irregular and reduced. Descriptors: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Adolescent, Young adult, Bibliometrics.   RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar y caracterizar la producción científica de enfermería relacionado a la vulnerabilidad de los jóvenes con enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Método: Estudio descriptivo de tipo bibliométrico (2009-2013, de corte transversal realizado en la Biblioteca Virtual de salud y en el catálogo de tesis y disertaciones de la Asociación Brasileña de enfermería. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 40 artículos, 05 tesis y 05 disertaciones. Resultados: La mayoría de las publicaciones se llevó a cabo por enfermeras docentes con grado de doctorado. El tema del VIH/SIDA, el enfoque de educación para la salud, la investigación de campo y análisis cualitativo de los resultados tuvieron mayor representatividad en la muestra analizada. Conclusión: Aunque las enfermedades de transmisión sexual si manifiesta en los jóvenes y los documentos del Ministerio de salud de Brasil demostra el aumento

  10. Changing beliefs and behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases in vulnerable women: A qualitative study

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    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in women at risk of STDs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action by using conventional content analysis method. An empowerment program regarding STDs (Action was performed among 32 (with convenient sample drug user women with addicted husbands referring to the counseling center for vulnerable women (drop in enter in Isfahan in 2015. The knowledge of quiddity, transmission, and prevention of STDs, as well as some items of life skills such as self-awareness, interpersonal communication, and assertive behavior were taught in an educational program. Teaching methods were lectures, group, and individual training and role play. The impact of the program on modified belief and behavior change regarding STDs was evaluated with structured interviews. Results: Analysis of the obtained results yielded three categories. The categories were awareness of STD, believing in being at risk, and decision and change. Conclusions: Promoting self-care and prevention through education programs based on action research can make a significant reduction in the incidence of problems and cause a behavior change in women with the disease or those at risk for STDs.

  11. Changing Beliefs and Behaviors Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Vulnerable Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumandfar, Zahra; Kianpour, Masoud; Zargham, Ali; Abdoli, Samereh; Tayeri, Katayoun; Salehi, Mehrdad; Momeni, Godratollah; Khorvash, Farzin

    2017-01-01

    The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women at risk of STDs. The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action) by using conventional content analysis method. An empowerment program regarding STDs (Action) was performed among 32 (with convenient sample) drug user women with addicted husbands referring to the counseling center for vulnerable women (drop in enter) in Isfahan in 2015. The knowledge of quiddity, transmission, and prevention of STDs, as well as some items of life skills such as self-awareness, interpersonal communication, and assertive behavior were taught in an educational program. Teaching methods were lectures, group, and individual training and role play. The impact of the program on modified belief and behavior change regarding STDs was evaluated with structured interviews. Analysis of the obtained results yielded three categories. The categories were awareness of STD, believing in being at risk, and decision and change. Promoting self-care and prevention through education programs based on action research can make a significant reduction in the incidence of problems and cause a behavior change in women with the disease or those at risk for STDs.

  12. Street Stories - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  13. Molly's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  14. Effectiveness of the VOICES/VOCES sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus prevention intervention when administered by health department staff: does it work in the "real world"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Mary Spink; O'Donnell, Lydia; Doval, Alexi San; Schillinger, Julia; Blank, Susan; Ortiz-Rios, Elizabeth; Garcia, Trinidad; O'Donnell, Carl R

    2011-02-01

    Prevention providers wonder whether benefits achieved in the original, researcher-led, efficacy trials of interventions are replicated when the intervention is delivered in real-world settings by their agency's staff. A replication study was conducted at 2 public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics (New York City and San Juan, PR). Using a controlled trial design, intervention (VOICES/VOCES) and comparison conditions (regular clinic services) were assigned in alternating 4-week blocks. Trained agency staff delivered the intervention. Effectiveness was assessed for incident STDs, redemption of coupons for condoms at neighborhood location after the visit, and improved knowledge and attitudes about STDs and condoms. A total of 3365 patients were recruited, completed the protocol, and followed through STD surveillance systems for an average of 17 months. Of 397 with an incident infection, 226 (13.4%) were among those enrolled during comparison blocks; 171 were among those in the intervention condition (10.2%). Controlling for site and gender, participants enrolled during intervention blocks were significantly less likely to have an incident STD reported to the surveillance system (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.96). Intervention block participants scored higher on scales of STD knowledge (4.89 vs. 3.87, P VOCES redeemed condoms (P < 0.05). Positive effects were more consistent in New York, which may be related to fidelity of implementation. A packaged human immunodeficiency virus prevention intervention can be delivered by agencies, with benefits similar to those achieved in the research setting.

  15. Vaccination strategies for SIR vector-transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Pacheco, Gustavo; Esteva, Lourdes; Vargas, Cristobal

    2014-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems in the world with the fastest spreading rate. Control measures have been focused on vector control, with poor results in most cases. Vaccines should help to reduce the diseases incidence, but vaccination strategies should also be defined. In this work, we propose a vector-transmitted SIR disease model with age-structured population subject to a vaccination program. We find an expression for the age-dependent basic reproductive number R(0), and we show that the disease-free equilibrium is locally stable for R(0) ≤ 1, and a unique endemic equilibrium exists for R(0) > 1. We apply the theoretical results to public data to evaluate vaccination strategies, immunization levels, and optimal age of vaccination for dengue disease.

  16. The Program Cost of a Brief Video Intervention Shown in Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Waiting Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas L; OʼDonnell, Lydia N; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Malotte, Kevin C; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Margolis, Andrew D; Borkowf, Craig B; Kent, Charlotte K; Warner, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Patients in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic waiting rooms represent a potential audience for delivering health messages via video-based interventions. A controlled trial at 3 sites found that patients exposed to one intervention, Safe in the City, had a significantly lower incidence of STDs compared with patients in the control condition. An evaluation of the intervention's cost could help determine whether such interventions are programmatically viable. The cost of producing the Safe in the City intervention was estimated using study records, including logs, calendars, and contract invoices. Production costs were divided by the 1650 digital video kits initially fabricated to get an estimated cost per digital video. Clinic costs for showing the video in waiting rooms included staff time costs for equipment operation and hardware depreciation and were estimated for the 21-month study observation period retrospectively. The intervention cost an estimated $416,966 to develop, equaling $253 per digital video disk produced. Per-site costs to show the video intervention were estimated to be $2699 during the randomized trial. The cost of producing and implementing Safe in the City intervention suggests that similar interventions could potentially be produced and made available to end users at a price that would both cover production costs and be low enough that the end users could afford them.

  17. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS ABOUT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Souza Marques

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research was to verify the knowledge of the school adolescents, of a public school in Goiânia – Goiás, about STD/Aids. The research is characterized as descriptive and was made from 2003 January to October, with students of the related school 7th and 8th classes’ and 2nd and 3rd high school classes. The data had been collected by structuralized questionnaire. The research had evaluated 113 students and 46% of them were male and 54% were female. The age goes to 12 to 19 years old. 15% of the students told that they already had sexual relations. It was observed that, although 90,43% of the students have showed previous knowledge of the subject, when they were asked about how much they knew about DST/AIDS, many of them had answered incorrectly. The research suggests an effective implementation of educative programs about the theme in all the schools and school levels. KEYWORDS: Public Health Nursing; Teen Health; Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  18. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among sex workers in the interior of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardeliny Corrêa da Penha

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for STD among female sex workers and the characteristics of this population, and to verify the association between condom use by their male partners and clients. METHOD: Cross-sectional and correlational study conducted with 73 sex workers registered at the Sex Workers´ Association of the municipality of Picos -PI, Brazil. Data were collected in September and October 2010 using a questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic information and the participants´ background in the sex industry. Ethical aspects were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant association between most of the sociodemographic variables and background in the sex industry and condom use by male partners or clients. However, there was a significant association with years in the sex industry (p = 0.029. Sex workers who had been in the industry for the longest used condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION: It is essential to create health promotion strategies that observe the real-life experiences of sex workers.

  19. Indigenous Healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Mulaudzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Grounded Theory study has been used, based on its Theory of Symbolic Interactionism, to explore indigenous healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases amongst the Vhavenda. Initial data collection has been done, using purposive sampling and when categories started emerging, theoretical sampling was then used. Data were analysed by using three basic types of coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings of the study revealed a variety of terms used to identify STDs. It then also became evident that there are similarities between gonorrhoea, syphilis and condylomata as shown in the orthodox Sexually transmitted diseases posters used in orthodox medicine with some of the STDs that the indigenous healers are familiar with. In accordance with the Grounded Theory, the description of types of diseases, disease patterns as well as signs and symptoms culminated in the emergence of the Dirt Theory. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that guidelines for designing a module for teaching health professionals be formulated to assist nurses in understanding the beliefs and practices of the people they serve.

  20. The effect of target's physical attractiveness and dominance on STD-risk perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP; Blanton, H

    Utilizing a 2 x 2 design, the present study examined the effect of a female's physical attractiveness and dominance on men's sexual motivation and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk perceptions in a sample of 72 heterosexual male college students. As predicted, participants a ere more motivated

  1. Influence of Professional Preparation and Class Structure on HIV, STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…

  2. An interactive internet-based continuing education course on sexually transmitted diseases for physicians and midwives in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canchihuaman, Fredy A; Garcia, Patricia J; Gloyd, Stephen S; Holmes, King K

    2011-05-09

    Clinicians in developing countries have had limited access to continuing education (CE) outside major cities, and CE strategies have had limited impact on sustainable change in performance. New educational tools could improve CE accessibility and effectiveness. The objective of this study was to evaluate an interactive Internet-based CE course on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) management for clinicians in Peru. Participants included physicians and midwives in private practice drawn from a census of 10 Peruvian cities. The CE included a three-hour workshop for improving Internet skills, followed by a 22-hour online course on STD-syndrome-management, with subsequent educational support. The course used case-based clinical vignettes tailored to local STD problems. Knowledge and reported practices on STD management were assessed before, immediately after and at four months after completion of the course. Statistical analysis included parametric tests-linear regression multivariate analysis, paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 14.0. Of 1,071 eligible clinicians, 510 agreed to participate, as did an additional 132 public sector clinicians. Of these 642 participants, 619 (96.4%) completed the course, and 596 (96.3%) took the four-month follow-up evaluation. Physician and midwife scores improved from 64.2% correct answers on the pre-test to 77.9% correct on the four-month follow-up test (pPeru, an Internet-based CE course was feasible, acceptable with high participation rates, and led to sustained improvement in knowledge at four months. Further studies are needed to test it as a model for improving the training of physicians, midwives, and other health care providers.

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  4. Gender differences in health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases: a population-based study in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; O'hara, Hilda B; Kusimba, Judith; Otido, Julius M; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Bwayo, Job J; Varkevisser, Corlien M; Habbema, J Dik F

    2004-05-01

    Health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is important in STD/HIV control. The goal of this study was to describe the proportion seeking care, patient delay, and choice of provider among men and women with STD-related complaints in Nairobi, Kenya. A population-based questionnaire was administered in 7 randomly selected clusters (small geographic areas covering approximately 150 households each). Of the 291 respondents reporting complaints, 20% of men versus 35% of women did not seek care, mainly because symptoms were not considered severe, symptoms had disappeared, or as a result of lack of money. Of those who sought care, women waited longer than men (41 vs. 16 days). Most men and women went to the private sector (72% and 57%, respectively), whereas the informal sector was rarely visited (13% and 16%, respectively). Relatively more women visited the government sector (28% vs. 15%). Because women were mostly monogamous, they did not relate their complaints to sexual intercourse, which hampered prompt care-seeking. Women should be convinced to seek care promptly, eg, through health education in communities.

  5. Awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs among school-going adolescents in Europe: a systematic review of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Lena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major health problem affecting mostly young people, not only in developing, but also in developed countries. We conducted this systematic review to determine awareness and knowledge of school-going male and female adolescents in Europe of STDs and if possible, how they perceive their own risk of contracting an STD. Results of this review can help point out areas where STD risk communication for adolescents needs to be improved. Methods Using various combinations of the terms "STD", "HIV", "HPV", "Chlamydia", "Syphilis", "Gonorrhoea", "herpes", "hepatitis B", "knowledge", "awareness", and "adolescents", we searched for literature published in the PubMed database from 01.01.1990 up to 31.12.2010. Studies were selected if they reported on the awareness and/or knowledge of one or more STD among school-attending adolescents in a European country and were published in English or German. Reference lists of selected publications were screened for further publications of interest. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. Results A total of 15 studies were included in the review. All were cross-sectional surveys conducted among school-attending adolescents aged 13 to 20 years. Generally, awareness and knowledge varied among the adolescents depending on gender. Six STDs were focussed on in the studies included in the review, with awareness and knowledge being assessed in depth mainly for HIV/AIDS and HPV, and to some extent for chlamydia. For syphilis, gonorrhoea and herpes only awareness was assessed. Awareness was generally high for HIV/AIDS (above 90% and low for HPV (range 5.4%-66%. Despite knowing that use of condoms helps protect against contracting an STD, some adolescents still regard condoms primarily as an interim method of contraception before using the pill. Conclusion In general, the studies reported low levels of awareness and knowledge of

  6. Comparison of sexual risky factors of men who have sex with men and sex-buying men as groups vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Lee, Joongyub; Kwon, Dong Seok; Park, Byung-Joo

    2012-05-01

    It is necessary to examine groups carrying out sexually risky behavior because the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is high among them. In this study, the prevalence of STDs among homosexuals and sex-buying men in South Korea was investigated, along with their sexual risk factors. Men who have sex with men (MSMs, n=108) were recruited in Seoul and Busan by applying the time location sampling method, while sex-buying men (n=118) were recruited from a john school in Gyeonggi province, the suburbs of Seoul. Dependent variables included past or present infection with syphilis, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human immunodeficiency virus. Independent variables included health behavior, social support, sexual behavior, and safe sex. It was found that when the MSMs were non-drunk while having sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 0.132), they showed a higher STD infection rate when they had a higher number of anal sex partners (OR, 5.872), rarely used condoms (OR, 1.980), had lower self-efficacy (OR, 0.229), and were more anxious about becoming infected with an STD (OR, 3.723). However, the men who paid for sex showed high STD infections when they had more sex partners (OR, 2.286) and lower education levels (OR, 3.028). STD infections among the two groups were high when they were engaged with many sex partners and not having protected sex. In other words, there was a gap in risky sex behavior within such groups, which was significantly related to the possibility of developing an STD. Therefore, the preventive intervention against STDs for these groups needs to be expanded to include management of sex behaviors.

  7. incidence of sexually transmitted diseases amongst potential semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    need to educate and enlighten our youths on the danger of acquiring these pathogen. Consistent with previous studies this finding strengthens the fact that. Prospective Semen Donors, most of whom are young, single, and are not always in monogamous relationships, represent a high-risk population for STD transmission.

  8. Charting a Path to Location Intelligence for STD Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Todd M; Du, Ping; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Coles, F Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the New York State Department of Health's GeoDatabase project, which developed new methods and techniques for designing and building a geocoding and mapping data repository for sexually transmitted disease (STD) control. The GeoDatabase development was supported through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Outcome Assessment through Systems of Integrated Surveillance workgroup. The design and operation of the GeoDatabase relied upon commercial-off-the-shelf tools that other public health programs may also use for disease-control systems. This article provides a blueprint of the structure and software used to build the GeoDatabase and integrate location data from multiple data sources into the everyday activities of STD control programs.

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mariana Carvalho; Bornhausen Demarch, Eduardo; Azulay, David Rubem; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Nery, José Augusto da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention and partner treatment to achieve effective results are also extremely relevant.

  10. Young academics and the knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases - contribution to care in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Temístocles de Brito Dantas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analisar conhecimentos dos graduandos de enfermagem acerca das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, identificar as práticas que os jovens adotam para prevenção de DST. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, quantitativo. Realizado em instituição de ensino superior pública, no Rio de Janeiro, com graduandos de enfermagem que responderam um questionário. Pesquisa aprovada pelo parecer 063/2012 CEP/UERJ. Os dados foram tabulados com emprego da estatística descritiva simples, armazenados no software Microsoft Excel 2003. Resultados: Os estudantes reconhecem a importância do uso do preservativo para a prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, mas não o utilizam de maneira contínua. Entre os participantes muitos desconhecem as formas de transmissão das DST. Conclusão: Os jovens investigados apresentam déficit de informações acerca das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e medidas preventivas. Os profissionais de saúde devem contribuir com esclarecimentos e ações educativas ressaltando a importância da prática sexual segura para a saúde dos jovens. Descritores: Graduando de enfermagem, Jovem, Sexualidade, DST/HIV/AIDS, Prevenção. YOUNG ACADEMICS AND THE KNOWLEDGE OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES - CONTRIBUTION TO CARE IN NURSING Objective: Analyze the knowledge of undergraduates of nursing about sexually transmitted diseases and identify practices that young people adopt for STD prevention. Methods: Descriptive, quantitative, exploratory study. Held in public higher education institution in Rio de Janeiro, with nursing graduates who answered a questionnaire. Researched was approved by CEP/UERJ n. 063/2012. The data were tabulated with use of simple descriptive statistics and stored of Microsoft Excel 2003 software. Results: Students recognize the importance of the use of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases but don’t use it continuously. Many students are unaware of the transmission of STD

  11. A Study of Behavioural Aspects of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Ganguli

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the behaaoural aspects of 227 randomly selected male,patients attending the STD ClWc of Safung Hospitak New were The majority were below thirty years of age and poorly educated. Two thirds -of the patients were teetotalers .37.4% study group were pronuscuous and 353% of the group were repwcrs′ A high of pre-marital sex was noted. 352% of the stated their spouse to be the cause of the StD. 11.9% of the study group admittc to homosexuality. Professional women (prostitutes and call girls were the source of the majority of infections-. There was a statistically significant relationship between consumption of alcohol and promiscuity. Now of the major STDS. was significantly Mort frequently acquired from any particular source. NSU however was more frequent amongthchom . Such studies should be conducted from time to time to understand and evaluate the trend of permissiveness in the society.

  12. Changing trends in sexually transmitted diseases in North Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective data analysis was carried out to find the trends in frequency and distribution of different STDs in North Eastern (NE India during 1995 - 1999. The commonest STD was chancroid (25.7% followed by condylomata acuminata (CA, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV, syphilis, gonorrhoea (GONO, herpes genitalis (HG, mixed infection (MI and balanoposthitis (BP. Interestingly no case of donovanosis (Dono was seen. HIV infection accounted for 9.62% of the total STD patients. A comparison of the present data with that reported a decade back (1986 - 1990 revealed a sharp decline in the incidence of syphilis, chancroid, GONO, whereas a conspicuous upward trend in CA and NGU. Factors responsible for these variations are analysed briefly.

  13. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Knowledge and attitude of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents in Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokuwebe, M E; Daini, B; Falayi, E O; Oyebade, O

    2016-09-01

    Globally, sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a public health problem. In Nigeria, adolescents form a substantial proportion (22%) of the population and are particularly prone to STDs because of the influence of peer pressure and urge to experiment sexual activity. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of adolescents towards the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The survey study was descriptive cross- sectional and carried out among consenting secondary school students aged 10-24 years completing a self- administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitude in relation to sexually transmitted diseases in Ikeji- Arakeji, Oriade Local government, Osun State, Nigeria. The proportionate sampling technique was used to recruit 341 participants into the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Male-Female distributions were 46.3% and 53.7% respectively. Mean age at first sex (sex initiation) was 16.8 years (approximately 17years) and about 97% of the respondents knew about STDs. The media/ magazine was the major source of information about STDs, accounting for more than half (57%) of the responses on sources of STD information followed closely from that from friends with 31%. Parent's source of information was about 11%. Knowledge of STDs centred mainly on HIV/AIDS with 83% and there was a poor knowledge (78%) of its symptoms. About 40% of all respondents had initiated sex at the time of the study and 46% of the adolescents, as against 54%, thought it was bad to initiate sex before marriage. There was a significant association between perception about initiating sex before marriage and ever having sex using bivariate analysis x(2)=268.4, Psex initiation (F=318.47 and P=0.000). Post-hoc analysis showed that each of the different groups (sources of information) was distinct. Adolescents' knowledge of STDs generally limited to HIV/AIDS and perception about sex significantly influenced the decision to initiate sex. There is

  15. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  16. Knowledge about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a longitudinal study of young women from 16-23 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson-Ellström, A; Milsom, I

    2002-10-01

    To describe knowledge and attitudes regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the same women followed longitudinally for 7 years from teenage years to early adulthood, and to relate the findings to sexual behaviour. A face to face interview and a questionnaire were completed by 79 young women when they were 16, 18, and 23 years old. The questionnaire, testing knowledge about the mode of transmission and prevention of STD, gave a total score of correct answers varying between 44% and 64%, with less knowledge about human papilloma (HPV) and herpes viruses than about chlamydia. Awareness of the possibility of asymptomatic transmission was low. The highest scores were obtained at the age of 18 years. Experience of many partners, a history of STD, smoking, and more frequent use of alcohol were associated with a higher level of knowledge. Knowledge was fairly good and consistent, but was more often incorrect regarding viral infections and the possibility of asymptomatic transmission, and in total did not ensure an adequate protective behaviour. A higher level of knowledge was associated with a more risky behaviour, indicating that information was best received by those who could identify with the problem.

  17. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  18. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  19. Web 2.0 Tools in the Prevention of Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lorente, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2018-03-22

    The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. ©María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  20. Estimating the Size and Cost of the STD Prevention Services Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas L; Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Behl, Ajay S; Romaguera, Raul A; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is expected to reduce the number of uninsured people in the United States during the next eight years, but more than 10% are expected to remain uninsured. Uninsured people are one of the main populations using publicly funded safety net sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention services. Estimating the proportion of the uninsured population expected to need STD services could help identify the potential demand for safety net STD services and improve program planning. In 2013, an estimated 8.27 million people met the criteria for being in need of STD services. In 2023, 4.70 million uninsured people are expected to meet the criteria for being in need of STD services. As an example, the cost in 2014 U.S. dollars of providing chlamydia screening to these people was an estimated $271.1 million in 2013 and is estimated to be $153.8 million in 2023. A substantial need will continue to exist for safety net STD prevention services in coming years.

  1. [A survey on AIDS knowledge rate and sexual behavior among men who have sex with men population at sexually transmitted disease clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Dan; Xie, Hongfu; Yi, Mei; Li, Ji; Chen, Mingliang; Feng, Hao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Guiying

    2010-07-01

    To survey on men who have sex with men (MSM) population's sexual behaviors, condom-service condition, HIV related knowledge and other issues among MSM population at sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics to understand the characteristics of behaviors and offer suggestions for effective health education and behavior intervention. From January to December, 2009, we used anonymous questionnaires which involved in their mastery of demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, condom-service condition, HIV related knowledge, and so one, to investigate 200 MSM at 3 STD clinics of comprehensive hospital. The average age of informant was (26.7+/- 8.9) years and 121 individuals (62.6%) had confirmed with STD in recent one year. In the recent 6 months, the average number of homosexual partners was 9.2+/- 4.8 and 102 (52.8%) had heterosexual partners. In the sexual intercourse with homosexual, 123 individuals had anal intercourse (63.7 %) and 117 had oral intercourse (60.6%). In the sexual intercourse with heterosexual, 92 (90.2%) individuals had vaginal intercourse, 37 (36.2%) had anal intercourse, and 59 (57.8%) had oral sex behavior.There were a statistical difference between heterosexual and homosexual sex behaviors (Pcondom-using frequency had statistic difference in different sexual behaviors(χ²=188.396, Pcondom-using condition in sexual behaviors except the heterosexual anal intercourse. High AIDS knowledge mastery rate is found in our survey. The respondents get HIV/AIDS knowledge through various ways actively. There is no obvious relation between the mastery of HIV related knowledge and condom-using frequency. The ratio of non-protected sexual behaviors is high in heterosexuals. How to adopt effective methods for behavior intervention to MSM at STD clinic needs to be further studied.

  2. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments.

  3. HIV Services Provided by STD Programs in State and Local Health Departments - United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Kendra M; Esie, Precious; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L

    2017-04-07

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States is higher among persons with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and the incidence of other STDs is increased among persons with HIV infection (1). Because infection with an STD increases the risk for HIV acquisition and transmission (1-4), successfully treating STDs might help reduce the spread of HIV among persons at high risk (1-4). Because health department STD programs provide services to populations who are at risk for HIV, ensuring service integration and coordination could potentially reduce the incidence of STDs and HIV. Program integration refers to the combining of STD and HIV prevention programs through structural, service, or policy-related changes such as combining funding streams, performing STD and HIV case matching, or integrating staff members (5). Some STD programs in U.S. health departments are partially or fully integrated with an HIV program (STD/HIV program), whereas other STD programs are completely separate. To assess the extent of provision of HIV services by state and local health department STD programs, CDC analyzed data from a sample of 311 local health departments and 56 state and directly funded city health departments derived from a national survey of STD programs. CDC found variation in the provision of HIV services by STD programs at the state and local levels. Overall, 73.1% of state health departments and 16.1% of local health departments matched STD case report data with HIV data to analyze possible syndemics (co-occurring epidemics that exacerbate the negative health effects of any of the diseases) and overlaps. Similarly, 94.1% of state health departments and 46.7% of local health departments performed site visits to HIV care providers to provide STD information or public health updates. One fourth of state health departments and 39.4% of local health departments provided HIV testing in nonclinical settings (field testing) for STD

  4. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  5. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  6. [Study on the pathogens correlated to sexually transmitted diseases in 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Hong-Mei; Feng, Yan-Ling; Hu, Jin; Zhao, Han-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ya

    2007-08-01

    To study the relationship between vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls and pathogens as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), N. gonorrhoeae (Ng), Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), Mycoplasma hominis (Mh), M. genitalium (Mg), M. fermentans (Mf) and M. penetrans (Mpe), as well as to find out the proportion of mycoplasma which is correlated to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. METHODS Vulvae swab specimens from 285 pre-pubertal girls with vulvovaginitis (case group) and 128 healthy girls (control group) were collected and detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to identify the existence of pathogens as Ct, Ng, Uu, Mh, Mg, Mf and Mpe. nPCR with both high specificity and sensitivity, would not be influenced by the amount of pathogens in specimens or inactivated during the process of storage or transportation. The rate of detection on pathogens was 59.65% in the 285 specimens from case group including 'one kind of pathogen in one specimen' as 37.54% and 'two kinds' as 16.84% and 'three kinds' as 5.26%. However, in the 128 specimens from control group, the detectable rate of pathogen was 6.25%. Relationships were found between Ng (P vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. In control group the pathogens were detected from 7 specimens including 5 Uu and 2 Mh. Some of the pathogens were correlated to STD and were important in causing vulvovaginitis in pre-pubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis might have been caused by more than one kind of pathogen in pre-pubertal girls. The locations of Mg, Mf and Ng in outer genital tracts were correlated to seasonal change. Macrolide seemed to be quite effective clinically in treating urogenital tract infection caused by mycoplasma and Ct.

  7. Clinical profile of sexual transmitted diseases in cuttack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty J

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of total 2330 patients, 516 patients with STD i.e., 22.14%, were analysed during the period 1993 to 1994. Frequency of different STDs observed in order were herpes progenitalis (21.89%, syphilis (16.27%, chancroid (11.82% and granuloma inguinale (7.55%, gonococcal urethritis and genital warts (3.87% each. L G V was found in 0.58% of cases, HIV infection in 3 cases only (0.56%. Other miscellaneous infections like candidiasis (13.75%, trichomoniasis (2.7% and molluscum (2.14% were responsible in 18% as a whole and nonspecific infection in 14%. Most of the patients were married, were from low socio-economic status and there was always a male preponderance with a peak age between 20 to 30 years.

  8. Frequency of sexually transmitted diseases and main methodological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleida Napoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV persistence is the most important cervical cancer risk factor, while Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium(MG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and parvum (UP are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs causing infertility, pregnancy complication, lung problems in newborns. Methods. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 cervical swabs, 110 seminal fluids and 1440 Thin Prep, were tested with culture methods, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR and multiplex SYBR Green PCR-endpoint to detect STDs. PCR- endpoint was performed to detect HPV. Results. Culture methods showed the lowest sensitivity: for MH it was only 24% (compared to RT-PCR. UP/UU were the most frequent pathogens (13% with culture, 29% with PCR-endpoint, 41,67% with RT-PCR. Turn Around Time was respectively: 48h, 6h and 2h. RT-PCR cervical frequencies for CT, MH, MG, UU, UP were: 5.42%, 11.03%, 1.81%, 11.21% and 35.08%. HPV positivity in primary and secondary screening was 17.33% and 51.14%. Highes t positivity age group was: 23-32 years for CT (17%, and 18-27 years for HPV (33%. Conclusions. RT-PCR is more sensitive, faster, less expensive than other molecular tests like PCR-endpoint and microarrays. It allows more efficient laboratory organization: pre-analytical phase is more automated and enable the implementation of further diagnostic tests for pathologies that need rapid identification, such as meningitidis and sepsis, with reduced human and instrumental resource. Regarding STDs screening, it should be performed in women: for CT at least up to 27 years; for HPV between 35-50 years, since persisting HR-HPV infection is responsible of high-grade lesions.

  9. Modeling ecodevelopmental context of sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk and protective behaviors among African-American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining

  10. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexually transmitted disease (STD) , such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Girls who have sex with different partners or ... signs of infection, including STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Sometimes doctors need an ultrasound or CAT scan ...

  11. Trichomoniasis - are we giving the deserved attention to the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-01-01

    Etiology: Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. Transmission: Trichomoniasis is transmitted by sexual intercourse and transmission via fomites is rare. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The WHO estimates an incidence of 276 million new cases each year and prevalence of 187 million of infected individuals. However, the infection is not notifiable. Pathology/Symptomatology: The T. vaginalis infection results in a variety of clinical manifestations - in most cases the patients are asymptomatic, but some may develop signs typically associated to the disease. Importantly, the main issue concerning trichomoniasis is its relationship with serious health consequences such as cancer, adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility, and HIV acquisition. Molecular mechanisms of infection: To achieve success in parasitism trichomonads develop a complex process against the host cells that includes dependent- and independent-contact mechanisms. This multifactorial pathogenesis includes molecules such as soluble factors, secreted proteinases, adhesins, lipophosphoglycan that culminate in cytoadherence and cytotoxicity against the host cells. Treatment and curability: The treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole is recommended; however, cure failures remain problematic due to noncompliance, reinfection and/or lack of treatment of sexual partners, inaccurate diagnosis, or drug resistance. Therefore, new therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Protection: Strategies for protection including sexual behavior, condom usage, and therapy have not contributed to the decrease on disease prevalence, pointing to the need for innovative approaches. Vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of long-lasting humoral immunity associated to the absence of good animal models. PMID:28357378

  12. Trichomoniasis – are we giving the deserved attention to the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Braz Menezes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Etiology: Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD in the world. Transmission: Trichomoniasis is transmitted by sexual intercourse and transmission via fomites is rare. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The WHO estimates an incidence of 276 million new cases each year and prevalence of 187 million of infected individuals. However, the infection is not notifiable. Pathology/Symptomatology: The T. vaginalis infection results in a variety of clinical manifestations – in most cases the patients are asymptomatic, but some may develop signs typically associated to the disease. Importantly, the main issue concerning trichomoniasis is its relationship with serious health consequences such as cancer, adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility, and HIV acquisition. Molecular mechanisms of infection: To achieve success in parasitism trichomonads develop a complex process against the host cells that includes dependent- and independent-contact mechanisms. This multifactorial pathogenesis includes molecules such as soluble factors, secreted proteinases, adhesins, lipophosphoglycan that culminate in cytoadherence and cytotoxicity against the host cells. Treatment and curability: The treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole is recommended; however, cure failures remain problematic due to noncompliance, reinfection and/or lack of treatment of sexual partners, inaccurate diagnosis, or drug resistance. Therefore, new therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Protection: Strategies for protection including sexual behavior, condom usage, and therapy have not contributed to the decrease on disease prevalence, pointing to the need for innovative approaches. Vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of long-lasting humoral immunity associated to the absence of good animal models.

  13. A final size relation for epidemic models of vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Brauer

    2017-01-01

    We formulate and analyze an age of infection model for epidemics of diseases transmitted by a vector, including the possibility of direct transmission as well. We show how to determine a basic reproduction number. While there is no explicit final size relation as for diseases transmitted directly, we are able to obtain estimates for the final size of the epidemic.

  14. Clinic-based intervention projects: STD and family planning programs get involved. Intervention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1991-06-01

    The sexually transmitted disease (STD) program in Udorn, a popular Thai tourist city, has worked closely with 750 prostitutes for 15 years, incorporating the concerns of brothel managers and prostitutes into service delivery. The program in Udorn is part of a nationwide network of STD clinics. The level of person-to-person interaction was increased once it was determined by 1989 that HIV had infected 6% of prostitutes in the city's brothels. Outreach educators were recruited and trained to ensure that all prostitutes in Udorn had the basic facts about HIV and AIDS. Over the last 2 years, the STD program has trained outreach educators to work in 8 brothels, started a local AIDS prevention foundation supported by local businessmen, and taken other steps to incorporate AIDS prevention into its clinic structure. Such clinic-based programs are an important way of targeting groups at high risk of HIV transmission.

  15. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 2: Evaluation of a Pilot Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Nichols, Kristen; Mendoza, Maria C B; Gaul, Zaneta J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus D; LaPlace, Lisa; Straw, Julie; Staatz, Colleen; Buge, Hadiza; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2018-03-01

    In the United States, young people (ages 15-24 years) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), due at least in part to inadequate or incorrect HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI). Comic book narratives are a proven method of HIV/STD prevention communication to strengthen KABI for HIV/STD prevention. Motion comics, a new type of comic media, are an engaging and low-cost means of narrative storytelling. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot six-episode HIV/STD-focused motion comic series to improve HIV/STD-related KABI among young people. We assessed change in HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, condom attitudes, HIV/STD testing attitudes, and behavioral intentions among 138 participants in 15 focus groups immediately before and after viewing the motion comic series. We used paired t-tests and indicators of overall improvement to assess differences between surveys. We found a significant decrease in HIV stigma (p comic intervention improved HIV/STD-related KABI of young adult viewers by reducing HIV stigma and increasing behavioral intentions to engage in safer sex. Our results demonstrate the promise of this novel intervention and support its use to deliver health messages to young people.

  16. [Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola Vidaurre, M; Benito, J; Azcona, B; Zubeldía, N

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  17. Confidentiality Issues and Use of Sexually Transmitted Disease Services Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 15-25 Years - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Copen, Casey; Dittus, Patricia J

    2017-03-10

    National-level data are limited regarding confidentiality-related issues and the use of sexually transmitted disease (STD) services for adolescents and young adults. Changes in the U.S. health care system have permitted dependent children to remain on a parent's health insurance plan until the child's 26th birthday and required coverage of certain preventive services, including some STD services, without cost sharing for most plans (1,2). Although these provisions likely facilitate access to the health care system, adolescents and young adults might not seek care or might delay seeking care for certain services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out (3,4). Therefore, it is important to examine STD services and confidentiality-related issues among persons aged 15-25 years in the United States. CDC analyzed data from the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth and found that 12.7% of sexually experienced youths (adolescents aged 15-17 years and those young adults aged 18-25 years who were on a parent's insurance plan) would not seek sexual and reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out. Particularly concerned were persons aged 15-17 years (22.6%). Females with confidentiality concerns regarding seeking sexual and reproductive health care reported a lower prevalence of receipt of chlamydia screening (17.1%) than did females who did not cite such concerns (38.7%). More adolescents aged 15-17 years who spent time alone with a health care provider (without a parent in the room) reported receipt of a sexual risk assessment (71.1%) and, among females, chlamydia testing (34.0%), than did those who did not spend time alone (36.6% and 14.9%, respectively). The results indicated that confidentiality-related issues were associated with less reported use of some STD services, especially for younger persons and females. Spending time alone with a provider (i.e., without a parent present

  18. Tweet content related to sexually transmitted diseases: no joking matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie Y S

    2014-10-06

    Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of "tweeters" (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of "tweet" messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs-chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words "chlamydia" or "HIV", and the hashtags "#chlamydia" or "#HIV". Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words "chlamydia" and/or "HIV". Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable

  19. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluranti J. Obisesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32±11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p<0.0001. The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere.

  20. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  1. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases. The potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB) propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC) confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  2. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  3. A novel integration effort to reduce the risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy among women attending urban STD clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Heidi E; Chander, Geetanjali; Green, Patricia P; Hutsell, Catherine A; Weingarten, Kimberly; Peterson, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics serve female clients with a high prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption coupled with ineffective contraceptive use. Project CHOICES (Changing High-Risk AlcOhol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness) is an evidence-based, brief intervention to lower risk of AEP by targeting alcohol and contraceptive behaviors through motivational interviewing and individualized feedback. We describe our experience integrating and implementing CHOICES in STD clinics. This endeavor aligns with CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention's program collaboration and service integration strategic priority to strengthen collaborative work across disease areas and integrate services provided by related programs at the client level.

  4. The Affordability of Providing Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at a Safety-net Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Montgomery, Madeline C; Raifman, Julia; Nunn, Amy; Bertrand, Thomas; Almonte, Alexi; Chan, Philip A

    2018-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases continue to increase in the U.S. There is a growing need for financially viable models to ensure the longevity of safety-net sexually transmitted disease clinics, which provide testing and treatment to high-risk populations. This micro-costing analysis estimated the number of visits required to balance cost and revenue of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in a Medicaid expansion state. In 2017, actual and projected cost and revenues were estimated from the Rhode Island sexually transmitted disease clinic in 2015. Projected revenues for a hypothetical clinic offering a standard set of sexually transmitted disease services were based on Medicaid; private ("commercial") insurance; and institutional ("list price") reimbursement rates. The number of visits needed to cover clinic costs at each rate was assessed. Total operating cost for 2,153 clinic visits was estimated at $255,769, or $119 per visit. Laboratory testing and salaries each accounted for 44% of operating costs, medications for treatment 7%, supplies 5%, and 28% of visits used insurance. For a standard clinic offering a basic set of sexually transmitted disease services to break even, a projected 73% of visits need to be covered at the Medicaid rate, 38% at private rate, or 11% at institutional rate. Sexually transmitted disease clinics may be financially viable when a majority of visits are billed at a Medicaid rate; however, mixed private/public models may be needed if not all visits are billed. In this manner, sexually transmitted disease clinics can be solvent even if not all visits are billed to insurance, thus ensuring access to uninsured or underinsured patients. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Bozkurt; Aydan Biri; Ümit Korucuoglu; Nur Aksakal; Tuncay Nas; Onur Karabacak; Özdemir Himmetoglu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. METHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS: Mean age of the ...

  6. Std trends in chengalpattu hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy V

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective data analysis was carried out to find the trends in frequency and distribution of different STDs at Chengalpattu during 1988-1994. Of the 4549 patients who attended the clinic 3621 (79.6% were males and 928 (20.4% were females. The commonest STD was Chancroid (24.4% in men and Syphillis (29% in women. Balanoposthitis (11.4% ranked third among STDs in males. Though the STD attendance showed a declining trend, most diseases showed a constant distribution. The percentage composition of secondary and latent syphillis, Genital Warts, Genital Herpes and the Non-Venereal group showed an increased composition in recent years. Primary syphillis in females showed a definite declining trend. The HIV sero-positive detection rate was 2.06%. Of the 1116 patients screened for HIV antibody, 23 patients were detected sero-positive. Time Series Regression Analysis was used to predict the number of patients who would attend the STD clinic with various STDs in 1995 and 1996 to help in the understanding of the disease load and pattern in future, in resources management and in developing and evaluating preventive measures.

  7. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  8. The burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated using different approaches for HIV I AIDS, other STis and cervical cancer. Burden in respect of HIV I AIDS was estimated using the ASSA2002 model, and for the other diseases the revised national burden of disease estimates for 2000 based on ...

  9. Black piedra of the pubic hairs - a sexually transmitted disease ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Block piedra affecting only the hairs of the pubic region is reported in a recently married young male. His wife was found to have similar disease on the hairs of the scalp and pubic region. A sexual mode of transmission of the disease to the patient from his wife is suggested.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.

  11. Vaginal DNA vaccination against infectious diseases transmitted through the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of vaccines against genital virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including the HIV and HPV. In general, the surface of female genital mucosa, including vaginal mucosa, is the most common site of initiation of these infections. Thus, it is becoming clear that successful vaccines must induce both cellular and humoral immune responses in both the local genital tract and systemically. We believe that a strong vaginal immune response could be obtained by inducing strong gene expression of antigen-coding DNA in the local targeted tissue. In order to improve transfection efficiency in the vagina, it is important that methods allowing breakthrough of the various barriers, such as the epithelial layer, cellular and nuclear membrane, are developed. Therefore, systems providing less invasive and more effective delivery into the subepithelial layer are required. In this review, we will introduce our studies into efficient vaginal DNA vaccination methods, focusing on the effects of the menstrual cycle, utilization of the combination of functional peptides, and use of a needle-free injector.

  12. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  13. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  14. A review of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of parasitic origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... damage, cancer, heart disease, infertility and other ab- normalities of the reproductive system, ... TRANSMISSION OF GIARDIASIS THROUGH SEX. Established and more ... through the faeco-anal-oral route and transmission.

  15. Prion diseases are efficiently transmitted by blood transfusion in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, F.; McCutcheon, S.; Goldmann, W.; Chong, A.; Foster, J.; Siso, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Jeffrey, M.; Hunter, N.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, following on from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, led to concerns about the potential risk of iatrogenic transmission of disease by blood transfusion and the introduction of costly control measures to protect blood supplies. We previously reported preliminary data demonstrating the transmission of BSE and natural scrapie by blood transfusion in sheep. The final results of this experiment, reported here, give unexpectedly ...

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Adolescents and Adults: Summary of Evidence Reviewed for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, William M

    2015-12-15

    In preparation for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines, the CDC convened an advisory group in 2013 to examine recent abstracts and published literature addressing the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of STDs. This article summarizes the key questions, evidence, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in adolescents and adults that were considered in development of the 2015 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. The evidence reviewed primarily focused on CT infection risk factors in women, clinical significance of oropharyngeal CT detection, acceptability and performance of CT testing on self-collected specimens in men, performance of CT point-of-care tests, efficacy of recommended and investigational CT infection treatments, and timing of test of cure following CT infection treatment in pregnant women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. O conhecimento das adolescentes sobre questões relacionadas ao sexo Adolescent females' knowledge about pregnancy prevention methods and sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelencristina T. Romero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento sobre sexualidade, métodos contraceptivos e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST entre adolescentes do sexo feminino, das zonas rural e urbana, de uma escola pública. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com 506 meninas, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos, da Escola Dr. Roberto Feijó, em Guararema, SP. Utilizou-se questionário semi-estruturado, contendo perguntas gerais sobre sexualidade e métodos de prevenção de gravidez e DST. O teste do Qui-quadrado foi usado para verificar a associação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: A média de idade da população adolescente da escola proveniente da área rural foi 13 anos e 11 meses e da área urbana foi 13 anos e 7 meses, não havendo diferença estatística entre as médias. Trinta e um por cento eram provenientes da zona rural e 69% da urbana. As jovens da zona rural buscaram mais informações sobre a sexualidade (81,2%, comparadas com as da zona urbana (72,2 % (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge about sexuality, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STD by female adolescents from both rural and urban zone attending public school. METHODS: A cross sectional study was made with 506 teenagers, 10 to 16 years old, attending Dr. Roberto Feijó Public School in Guararema, São Paulo. A semi-structured questionnaire with general questions about sexuality, contraceptive methods and STD was administered. The Chi-square test was used to verify the association between variables. RESULTS: Mean age of the girls from the rural zone was13 years and 11 months and from the urban zone age was 13 years and 7 months, with no statistical difference. Of all the girls, 31% came from the rural and 69% from the urban zone. Adolescents from the rural zone looked for more information about sexuality (81.2% when compared to those from the urban zone (72.2 % (p<0.0568. Parents were the main source of information for both zones. The condom was the most familiar

  18. Prevention of vector transmitted diseases with clove oil insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Rochel

    2012-08-01

    Vector repellent is one element in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. Families that neglect protecting their children against vectors risk their children contracting illnesses such as West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, Lyme disease, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Southern tick-associated rash illness, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, tularemia, and other insect and arthropod related diseases (CDC, 2011). Identification of families at risk includes screening of the underlying basis for reluctance to apply insect repellent. Nurses and physicians can participate in a positive role by assisting families to determine the proper prophylaxis by recommending insect repellent choices that are economical, safe, and easy to use. A holistic alternative might include the suggestion of clove oil in cases where families might have trepidations regarding the use of DEET on children. This article will explore the safety and effectiveness of clove oil and its use as an insect repellent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Study Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases With Application Of Syndromic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Hasan Hana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in Assam Medical College was studied for a period of one year. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 1.43%. Out of 150 patients the number of patients with genitoulcerative diseases was syphilis 27 (18%, herpes genitalis 26(17.33%, condyloma acuminate 30 (20%, chancroid 11 (7.33%, donovanosis 2(1.33% and LGV 1(0.67%. Patients with urethral or vaginal discharge comprised of gonorrhoea 4(2.67% Vulvovaginitis 14 (9.33%, NGU 12(8.00%, trichomoniasis 2(1.33%, balanoposthitis 17(11.33%.

  20. A sexually transmitted disease: History of AIDS through philately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanoğlu, Emine Elif; Ataman, Ahmet Doğan

    2011-01-01

    AIDS has become the new plague; a disease that is not only physically and psychologically debilitating, but culturally and socially devastating as well. Like the plague, AIDS has caused fear, prejudice and even panic in society. Although there are remarkable improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, AIDS continues its grim passage around the globe. After a slight downturn in the early 1990's, it then returned with a vengeance. By the end of the 20(th) century, AIDS was reliably estimated to have caused over 20 million deaths throughout the world. At the same time, 40 million people were estimated to be HIV positive. This paper provides an overview of the history of AIDS, including the discovery and its progress in the world through philately. Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, it contains the study of the design and educational impact of a philatelic material. We have presented AIDS stamps produced world-wide to emphasize the history of AIDS.

  1. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services.

  2. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Almeida, Paulo César de; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-08-18

    to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. validar texto educativo no contexto das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis para pessoas com deficiência visual para torná-lo acessível a essa população. estudo de validação, em ambiente virtual. Coleta de dados de maio a setembro de 2012, por meio da utilização dos e-mails eletrônicos dos sujeitos, compostos por sete especialistas em conteúdo na temática, através de instrumento próprio. Análise ocorreu com base nas considerações dos especialistas sobre os Objetivos, Estrutura e Apresentação e Relevância. nos blocos de Objetivos e Estrutura e Apresentação, 77 (84,6%) e 48 (85,7%) eram totalmente adequados ou adequados, respectivamente. No bloco de Relevância, os itens 3.2 - Permite transferência e generalização da aprendizagem, e 3.5 - Mostra aspectos necessários para informar a família, revelaram índices de concordância ruins de 0,42 e 0,57, respectivamente. Após a análise, o texto foi

  3. Antibodies to hepatitis A antigen in relation to the number of lifetime sexual partners in patients attending an STD clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, E S; Embil, J A; Manuel, F R; Thiébaux, H J

    1981-01-01

    Samples of serum from 421 patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were tested by radioimmunoassay for determination of the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A antigen (anti-HA). It was found that 42 . 4% of 33 homosexual men, 39 . 4% of 218 heterosexual men, and 38 . 8% of 170 female patients had positive results for anti-HA. The association between serological results and data on STD patients, using the variables of age, sexual type and preference, number of ...

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases: educational intervention among teenagers in a technical-professional teaching center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dair García de la Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.

  6. Vector-transmitted disease vaccines: targeting salivary proteins in transmission (SPIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mary Ann

    2015-08-01

    More than half the population of the world is at risk for morbidity and mortality from vector-transmitted diseases, and emerging vector-transmitted infections are threatening new populations. Rising insecticide resistance and lack of efficacious vaccines highlight the need for novel control measures. One such approach is targeting the vector-host interface by incorporating vector salivary proteins in anti-pathogen vaccines. Debate remains about whether vector saliva exposure exacerbates or protects against more severe clinical manifestations, induces immunity through natural exposure or extends to all vector species and associated pathogens. Nevertheless, exploiting this unique biology holds promise as a viable strategy for the development of vaccines against vector-transmitted diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Bozkurt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tMETHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tRESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 27.5±4.08. When they were asked about contraceptive methods, 61.2 % had knowledge about oral contraceptives, 78.7 % about preservatives, and 38 % had knowledge about tube ligation. 96.1 % of patients cited AIDS, 39.2 % hepatitis B and C, 29.4 % gonorrhea, 3.9 % chlamydia, 9.8 % herpes virus, 11.8 % HPV (genital wart and 27.5 % syphilisis as sexually transmitted diseases.\tCONCLUSION: The reason why this study is performed with pregnant women is that they have a sexual life, they are under the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and they need contraception. Finding out that pregnant women don’t have enough knowledge is important in regard to education of the population and preventive medicine.

  8. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-07-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  9. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  10. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this...

  11. 1993 ABC of Sexually Transmitted Diseases· Introduction to Minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    covering the major sexually transmitted disease syndromes such as urethral and vaginal discharges and genital ... will certainly be a worthwhile investment. J. Terblanche. ABC of Brainstem Death· ... In the early 1980's the cultural implications of brainstem death were largely unexplored. Today the criteria must be.

  12. Assessing STD Partner Services in State and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Kendra M; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L

    2018-02-07

    State and local health department STD programs provide several partner services to reduce disease transmission. Budget cuts and temporary staff reassignments for public health emergencies may affect the provision of partner services. Determining the impact of staffing reductions on STD rates and public health response should be further assessed.

  13. Reducing offensiveness of STD prevention advertisements in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David S; Fam, Kim-Shyan

    2011-01-01

    The issue of sexually transmitted diseases is a socially sensitive one in Asian communities, with governments being criticized for not doing enough to reduce AIDS transmission, and the advertising of such issues potentially causing offense to people. This article surveys 630 people in China to determine their level of offense toward the advertising of condoms and STD prevention and analyzes the qualitative responses to how they would reduce the offensiveness of such advertising. The results found that generally women are more offended by the advertising of these products than men, and in terms of creative execution, women prefer implicit, prevention or effects messages, whereas men suggested a scientific message, or a focus on the creative strategy or media/location of the advertisement. It is recommended that traditional Chinese Confucian values are important for public policy makers to keep in mind when wanting to advertise socially sensitive issues in China and wider Asia.

  14. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 1: Listening to Your Target Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gaul, Zaneta J; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus; Jones, Sandra; Nichols, Kristen; Han Barthelemy, Solange; LaPlace, Lisa; Staatz, Colleen; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John T; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2018-02-01

    Young people (15-24 years) in the United States are disproportionately affected by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Shortfalls in HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI) likely contribute to this discrepancy. In this report we describe our experience developing a novel means of health communication combining entertainment-education theory and recent technological advances to create a HIV/STD-focused "motion comic." We also report the audience satisfaction and acceptance of the intervention. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM), entertainment-education (EE) principles, and the Sabido Method (SM) and conducted three rounds of focus groups to develop a 38-minute HIV/STD focused motion comic for young people between the ages 15 and 24 years. Participants indicated that motion comics were an acceptable method of delivering HIV/STD prevention messages. They also expressed satisfaction with motion comics plot, story settings, the tone of humor, and drama. Our results suggest that motion comics are a viable new method of delivering health communication messages about HIV/STD and other public health issues, and warrant further development and broader evaluation.

  15. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  16. Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qiaoqin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.

  17. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  18. Oral manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases identified in three stomatology services in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Carmona-Lorduy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases are defined as a group of infections caused by various agents which are acquired during sexual intercourse. They also tend to generate manifestations in the mouth. Objective: To determine the typical lesions in oral cavity of sexually transmitted diseases. Materials and methods: A descriptive transversal study was conducted with 37 patients who attended the stomatology services of the University of Buenos Aires, University of Cartagena and the Aleman Hospital in Buenos Aires during 2015 and 2016. A complete clinical history was carried out with Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL and Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absortion (FTA-ABS tests in patients with presumption of syphilis. In addition, histopathological analysis and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was made in patients with presumption of Human papillomavirus (HPV. Results: The average age of the patients was 38, where male sex predominated. 54.1% were diagnosed with syphilis and the most found lesion in them was the papule. The remaining 45.9% were diagnosed with HPV, the predominant lesion in them was a wart. Conclusions: The dentist should contribute to the early detection of sexually transmitted diseases by identifying manifestations of these in the mouth in order to prevent their evolution and prevent their transmission.

  19. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In A Clinic In The Suburb Of Kolkata (West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal A K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Records of new STD patients attending the Base Hospital, Barrackpore, near Kolkata between 1991 and 2000 were analysed to examine the pattern of STDs among them. Among 567 new STD patients examined, syphilis predominated, followed by gonorrhoea, chancroid, genital warts, lymphogramuloma venereum and herpes genitalis. Non- gonococcal urethritis constituted 4.2% of study population. The overall HIV seropositivity showed a rising treads in the recent past.

  20. Climate Chage in Spain and its Influence on Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Iriso Calle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades Spain has experienced a resurgence of some vector-transmitted diseases which were thought to be under control and the appearance of new ones. Likewise, the arrival of new vectors and, in some cases, their establishment and expansion is creating to new public health risks. In general, these phenomena have been associated with complex ecological and climate-driven changes which have favored and increased the densities of vectors and their reservoirs, but they have also been affected by processes that have been triggered or accelerated by man such as globalization, urban development, deforestation and land-use changes.Changes in the distribution of vectors and their capacity to transmit pathogens owing to climate change will become more evident in areas that lie within their distribution limits, as is Spain’s case.This is compounded by Spain’s proximity to Africa and the potential entry of new vectors and pathogens from this continent.This scenario necessitates setting up action programs aimed at both identifying risks posed by vectors and preventing vector-borne diseases, and efficiently managing possible outbreaks that could occur in the future.We have reviewed the scenarios which Spain is expected to experience in connection with climate change and its impact on the incidence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, phlebotomine sand flies, ticks and other arthropods, and rodents.

  1. Internationalism in sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, M A

    1997-12-01

    The International Union Against the Venereal Diseases and the Treponematoses (IUVDT) became the International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) at the Union's 37th General Assembly, held in Melbourne, Australia. The name change reflects the increasing use by international donor organizations of the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs are a major problem in Africa, South East Asia, India, Russia, and the European countries which were formerly within the Communist bloc. The epidemic of syphilis together with HIV increases daily in Eastern Europe and Russia. There have, however, been some successes in developing countries with the syndromic method, the promotion of sexual health, and the prevention of STIs. While the UK has the largest body of fully trained sexually transmitted disease (STD) specialists in the world, comparatively few of them participate in large international commitments. These specialists should instead become more involved with STIs in areas of need. Furthermore, more aid should be provided by governmental, nongovernmental, and charitable sources. IUSTI is willing to cooperate with any efforts to fight STDs anywhere in the world.

  2. Added benefit of nucleic acid amplification testing for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis among men and women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Blackburn, Reaford J; Sinsky, Richard J; Austin, Erika L; Schwebke, Jane R

    2014-09-15

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. However, TV is not a reportable STI and, with the exception of HIV-positive women, there are no guidelines for screening in women or men. The objective of this study was to determine the added value of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of TV in men and women at high risk for infection as well as correlates of infection. This was a review of clinical and laboratory data of men and women presenting to the Jefferson County Department of Health Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Clinic and receiving a TV NAAT. During 2012-2013, 6335 patients (3821 women and 2514 men) received a TV NAAT on endocervical, urethral, or urine specimens. Overall TV prevalence was 20.2%; 27.0% in women and 9.8% in men. Correlates of TV among men included age >40 years, African American race, and ≥5 polymorphonuclear cells per high-power field on urethral Gram stain. Age >40 years, African American race, leukorrhea on wet mount, elevated vaginal pH, positive whiff test, and concurrent gonococcal infection were positively associated with TV among women. TV NAAT detected approximately one-third more infections among women than wet mount alone. TV prevalence among men and women was high in this study, suggesting that both groups should be routinely screened, including those aged >40 years. Improved detection of TV by routine implementation of NAATs should result in better control of this common, treatable STI. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  4. Computer Aided Medical Diagnosis for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Disease (Gonorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu M. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO report on the circumstances of clinical facilities in developing countries indicates that, there is considerable efficient delivery of medical services to the rural inhabitants where the services are available, these services are very expensive and not affordable to the average citizen. This has risen inadequacies such as prolonged suffering and even death. The slow process of diagnosis trial and error of diseases can be disastrous when a patient is at the advanced stage of a disease. Here we propose an automated system that can aid the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and suggest adequate drug prescriptions and treatment. To achieve this, an extensive review on related diseases were reevaluated and a common type (gonorrhea was used as an exemplary study. This is based on the Structure Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM. The paper as shown a system that is most effective and have a fast way of diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted diseases, which serves as a great relief for the doctors and even non-experts in the field.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases among adults who had been abused and neglected as children: a 30-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-04-01

    We examined associations between childhood abuse and neglect and the risk in adulthood for sexually transmitted diseases. In a prospective cohort design, we matched children aged 0 to 11 years with documented cases of abuse or neglect during 1967 to 1971 with a control group of children who had not been maltreated (754 participants in all) and followed them into adulthood. Information about lifetime history of sexually transmitted diseases was collected as part of a medical status examination when participants were approximately 41 years old. Childhood sexual abuse increased risk for any sexually transmitted disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 3.77; P = .05) and more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.33, 8.22; P = .01). Physical abuse increased risk for more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.39, 9.38; P = .009). Our results provided the first prospective evidence that child physical and sexual abuse increases risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Early screening and interventions are needed to identify and prevent sexually transmitted diseases among child abuse victims.

  6. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  7. Demographic characteristics and prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-positive patients seen in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choon, S E; Mathew, M; Othman, B S

    2000-06-01

    The demographic characteristics, risk behaviourand prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were determined in 132 HIV-infected individuals seen in a Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru. Sixty-one (46.2%) were Malays, 37.9% Chinese, 10.6% Indians and 5.3% were of other ethnic groups. The male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Most of the patients (82.5%) were between 20 to 40 years-old. Seventy (53.0%) were single, 34.1% were married and 7.5% were divorcees. The majority of them (97.7%) were heterosexual. Fifty seven (53.3%) of our male patients patronised commercial workers. Eighty-one (61.8%) were not intravenous drug users (IVDU). Of the 50 IVDUs, 24 had multiple sexual exposures. Fifty-three (48.2%) of the 109 patients screened for STDs had one or more other STDs. Thirty-four patients (31.9%) reported one STD in the past and 3.6% reported two STDs in the past. Fifty-six patients (42.4%) had developed AIDS. Thirteen had passed away. The main mode of transmission of HIV infection in this population is through heterosexual intercourse and the prevalence of STDs is high. These findings indicate a need to advocate responsible sexual behaviour and to detect as well as treat STDs early to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

  8. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  9. Masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS among male adolescents: social representations in a land reform settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Oliveira Arraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. METHOD: a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. RESULTS: three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. CONCLUSION: the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.

  10. Masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS among male adolescents: social representations in a land reform settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Camila de Oliveira; Palos, Marinésia Aparecida Prado; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Matos, Marcos André de

    2013-01-01

    to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.

  11. Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigun Temiloluwa Folasayo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6% had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6% by the students, while chlamydia (26% and trichomoniasis (21.0% were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level (p-values < 0.05. Most of them (88.8% were aware that STD screening was important while use of condoms was protective (63.8%. The majority of them strongly felt that treatment should be sought immediately if they (85.5% and their partners (87.4% have symptoms. Among the sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24–30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.377–0.859 and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019–8.057 were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.

  12. [Knowledge of university students in Szeged, Hungary about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devosa, Iván; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Fáyné Dombi, Alice; Barabás, Katalin

    2016-04-03

    Promiscuity and lack of use of reliable contraceptive methods increase the probability of sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of unwanted pregnancies, which are quite common among university students. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of university students about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases, and to assess the effectiveness of the sexual health education in secondary schools, with specific focus on the education held by peers. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out in a randomized sample of students at the University of Szeged (n = 472, 298 women and 174 men, average age 21 years) between 2009 and 2011. 62.1% of the respondents declared that reproductive health education lessons in high schools held by peers were reliable and authentic source of information, 12.3% considered as a less reliable source, and 25.6% defined the school health education as irrelevant source. Among those, who considered the health education held by peers as a reliable source, there were significantly more females (69.3% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.001), significantly fewer lived in cities (83.6% vs. 94.8%, p = 0.025), and significantly more responders knew that Candida infection can be transmitted through sexual intercourse (79.5% versus 63.9%, p = 0.02) as compared to those who did not consider health education held by peers as a reliable source. The majority of respondents obtained knowledge about sexual issues from the mass media. Young people who considered health educating programs reliable were significantly better informed about Candida disease.

  13. An audit of Colposcopy referrals from a GU/STD clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is increasing at 1.5% per year in Ireland with 50% mortality giving 2.2% of all cancer deaths. In the Mid-West region a pilot screening programme has begun to screen all women 25-60 years. 66% of Genitourinary\\/Sexually transmitted disease (GU\\/STD) clinics\\' abnormal smears are <25 years. Requests to abandon "opportunistic" screening prompted this GU\\/STD clinic audit. METHODS: 221(8.4%) patients referred to colposcopy over 4 years were audited. Retrospective analysis was carried out on GU\\/STD clinic files, hospital files and computer records for biopsy reports. Ethical approval was prospectively granted. RESULTS: 2637 smears were carried out from November 1999 - September 2003.221 patients referred to colposcopy were audited.1%, 3%, 5% had severe, moderate and, mild dyskaryosis, respectively, on cervical screening while 0.8%, 1.2%, 1.5% had CIN3, CIN2, CIN1 abnormalities, respectively, on biopsy with 3.5% having no abnormality (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia = CIN).53% referred to colposcopy were <25 years. CONCLUSION: 2% had high grade lesions. 37% of high grade lesions are <25 years.Of the high grade lesions 13% had Chlamydia trachomatis (27% of CIN3) and 44% had HPV despite Relative Risks (RR) being 0.75 and 1.09 respectively. Older women had higher grade changes. No statistical difference was found for progression, regression and persistence in those over and under 25.

  14. Adherence to CDC Recommendations for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Gonorrhea - STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Emily J; Workowski, Kimberly; Torrone, Elizabeth; Weinstock, Hillard; Stenger, Mark R

    2018-04-27

    Gonorrhea, the sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is the second most common notifiable disease in the United States after chlamydia; 468,514 cases were reported to state and local health departments in 2016, an increase of 18.5% from 2015 (1). N. gonorrhoeae has progressively developed resistance to most antimicrobials used to treat the infection (2). As a result, CDC recommends two antimicrobials (250 mg of ceftriaxone [IM] plus 1 g of azithromycin [PO]) for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea to improve treatment efficacy and, potentially, to slow the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. To monitor adherence to the current CDC-recommended regimen for uncomplicated gonorrhea, CDC reviewed enhanced data collected on a random sample of reported cases of gonorrhea in seven jurisdictions participating in the STD Surveillance Network (SSuN) and estimated the proportion of patients who received the CDC-recommended regimen for uncomplicated gonorrhea, by patient characteristics and diagnosing facility type. In 2016, the majority of reported patients with gonorrhea (81%) received the recommended regimen. There were no differences in the proportion of patients receiving the recommended regimen by age or race/ethnicity; however, patients diagnosed with gonorrhea in STD (91%) or family planning/reproductive health (94%) clinics were more likely to receive this regimen than were patients diagnosed in other provider settings (80%). These data document high provider adherence to CDC gonorrhea treatment recommendations in specialty STD clinics, indicating high quality of care provided in those settings. Local and state health departments should monitor adherence with recommendations in their jurisdictions and consider implementing interventions to improve provider and patient compliance with gonorrhea treatment recommendations where indicated.

  15. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  16. Perceived versus actual condom skills among clients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Cabral, R J

    1994-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether individual self-reports of perceived ability to use a condom correctly correlated with the actual ability to do so. Participants in the study were 3,059 clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The findings revealed that the participants' perceived self-efficacy with regard to using a condom effectively was a poor indicator of their clinically demonstrated skills using a penile model as scored on the 6-point Condom Skills Index...

  17. Occupational Hazards, Public Health Risks: Sex Work and Sexually Transmitted Infections, their Epidemiological Liaisons and Disease Control Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Steen (Richard)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a large and diverse category within communicable diseases, comprising more than thirty-five pathogens transmissible through sexual contact. [1] Common, curable bacterial and protozoal STIs manifest with

  18. «La vida alegre». How Important is Condom Used for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PINTOR HOLGUÍN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Action takes place in Spain in the mid?eighties (1987 with the change in Spanish society and the appearance of the first cases of AIDS in our country. From a comical sight, the adventures of a dermatologist particularly interested on sexually transmitted diseases prevention; especially in patients with risk behaviors, such as homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts injecting. The entire film revolves around the importance of condom use in preventing all sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. [Chancroid in Algeria: the status of this sexually transmitted disease in 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A

    1997-01-01

    Absent for several decades, the chancroid reappeared in Algeria in 1988. In the unique department of Dermatology and Venereology of the University Hospital of the country of Tlemcen (more than 700,000 inhabitants), we wanted to know the state of this STD seven years after the report of the first cases. The file of the consulting patients were examined. We looked for the principal characteristics of this STD: age, sex, incubation period, place infection contact, type of relation, clinical presentation, evolution without and with treatment, other associated STD (syphilis, HIV). From August 1988 (1st case) to December 1995, 144 cases of chancroid were collected = 1988: 6, 1989: 5, 1990: 7, 1991: 18, 1992: 11, 1993: 33, 1994: 48, 1995: 16. The presentation is quite stereotyped; it concerns males only, singles in must cases, having had sexual relations with prostitutes. The incubation period is short (less than 10 days), the characteristic ulceration presents, very often, some adenopathies. The treatment by cotrimoxazole is efficient. They are no concomitant syphilis or HIV infection. The chancroid is the first cause of genital ulceration in the world. Since 1991, it is the principal STD in our department. It spreads within a male population, young singles associated with prostitutes. It is well installed in Algeria, and its role, although minor, in the transmission of the HIV infection, should not be neglected.

  20. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-10-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n=110) compared to a control community (n=106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention's impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000-2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study

  1. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations.

  2. Emotional and social representations of future teachers about sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránzazu Cejudo Cortés Carmen María

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Education programs for young people have drastically increased in recent years in Spanish universities. In part, this is due to the fact that new cases of infection of a sexually transmitted disease continue happening, especially at this stage, and universities as an educational space in which a large number of young people are concentrated, must address this problem. Training young students in promoting healthy sexual habits will prevent not only new infections, but also facilitate the acquisition of competences in the students of the health and socio-educational areas, necessary for their later professional development. This research provides some information about the knowledge and attitudes of students of educational qualifications about HIV/AIDS, with particular relevance to the emotions and social representations that the students have about this fact and that can interfere in their lack of information making them more vulnerable to the disease.

  3. Overview - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.

  4. Abordagem nas doenças sexualmente transmissíveis Approach in sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis estão entre os problemas de saúde pública mais comuns em todo o mundo. Entre suas consequências estão a infertilidade feminina e masculina, a transmissão de mãe para filho, determinando perdas gestacionais ou doença congênita, e o aumento do risco para a infecção pelo HIV. Dessa forma, este guideline tem o objetivo de contribuir para melhorar a qualidade de atenção às pessoas com infecções sexualmente transmissíveis mais frequentes no Brasil, trazendo de forma didática e concreta o estado atual dos conhecimentos para os dermatologistas e médicos em geral que atuam no atendimento dessas pessoas e as principais recomendações para o diagnóstico e tratamento das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis mais recorrentes.Nowadays, sexually transmitted diseases are one of the most common public health issues. Among its consequences are the possibility of transmission from mother to baby - which may cause miscarriages and congenital disease, male and female infertility, and the increase of HIV infection risk. Therefore, the main goal of these guidelines is to contribute to the improvement of the treatment for sexually transmitted diseases patients by presenting to the medical community how today's science stands on the matter and also what the recommendation for diagnosing and treating a patient are.

  5. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; De Clercq, Eva M; Amenu, Kebede; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Revie, Crawford W

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to map the global risk of the major arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus by identifying areas where the diseases are reported, either through active transmission or travel-related outbreaks, as well as areas where the diseases are not currently reported but are nonetheless suitable for the vector. Data relating to five arboviral diseases (Zika, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever (RVF)) were extracted from some of the largest contemporary databases and paired with data on the known distribution of their vectors, A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The disease occurrence data for the selected diseases were compiled from literature dating as far back as 1952 to as recent as 2017. The resulting datasets were aggregated at the country level, except in the case of the USA, where state-level data were used. Spatial analysis was used to process the data and to develop risk maps. Out of the 250 countries/territories considered, 215 (86%) are potentially suitable for the survival and establishment of A. aegypti and/or A. albopictus. A. albopictus has suitability foci in 197 countries/territories, while there are 188 that are suitable for A. aegypti. There is considerable variation in the suitability range among countries/territories, but many of the tropical regions of the world provide high suitability over extensive areas. Globally, 146 (58.4%) countries/territories reported at least one arboviral disease, while 123 (49.2%) reported more than one of the above diseases. The overall numbers of countries/territories reporting autochthonous vector-borne occurrences of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and RVF, were 85, 111, 106, 43, and 39, respectively. With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of

  6. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water - United States, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, J W; Adam, E A; Collier, S A; Fullerton, K E; Feinman, S J; Beach, M J

    2017-06-01

    Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio). We documented annual numbers of deaths in the United States associated with these infections using a combination of death certificate data, nationally representative hospital discharge data, and disease-specific surveillance systems (2003-2009). We documented 6,939 annual total deaths associated with the 13 infections; of these, 493 (7%) were caused by seven pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. A total of 6,301 deaths (91%) were associated with infections from Pseudomonas, NTM, and Legionella, environmental pathogens that grow in water system biofilms. Biofilm-associated pathogens can cause illness following inhalation of aerosols or contact with contaminated water. These findings suggest that most mortality from these 13 selected infections in the United States does not result from classical fecal-oral transmission but rather from other transmission routes.

  7. Identification Of Risk Factors In Sexually Transmitted Diseases : Role Of Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaubey D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at STD clinic and Department of Dermatology, safdarjang hospital, New Delhi. It included 150 newly diagnosed STD cases and 150 patients with minor skin ailments who were age and sex matched. The Analysis on “multiple Logistic Regressio” package showed the following risk factors as significantly associated with acquisition of STDs in descending order of strength of association; extra-material sexual contacts, disharmonious relations with spouse, pre-marital contacts, multiple partners and exposures, homosexuality, non-usage of condoms, alcoholism, delayed sex hygiene, contact with prostitutes, severe depression, unaware about STDs and symptoms, sharing of personal items and psychological morbidity. Health education is vital to change/ modify high risk sexual behaviour and to educate people about the mode of transmission, treatment available and complications. Individual psychological assessment and psychological therapy are also essential whenever applicable.

  8. Avatars using computer/smartphone mediated communication and social networking in prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among North-Norwegian youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Armayones, Manuel

    2012-10-30

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial infection, a common cause of infertility, are highly prevalent in developed countries, and a worrying problem in North Norway, where the incidence of chlamydia twice the Norwegian average. Seventy percent of reported chlamydia cases are found in people below 25 years of age, and although its spread could be controlled with proper prevention, young people are more aware of the risks of unwanted pregnancy than their risk of acquiring a STD. Information and Communication Technologies, including, the Internet, social media and/or smartphones, should be valued for sexual health promotion for their potential to engage young audiences. And in these media, avatars guarantee anonymity to users when handling sensitive information. The main objective of this project is to achieve that North Norwegian youngsters become more aware of STDs through the use of popular technologies among young people. A Virtual Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (VCSTD) will be developed. The VCSTD will provide early guidance and reliable information sources concerning reproductive health, delivered in a novel and innovative way to the younger population. The VCSTD consists of an "avatar" supported intervention in a serious gaming and e-learning environment, which will bypass direct physical access (in person) to reliable medical information, as well as allowing the youngsters to share that information in social media, and thus helping the VCSTD to be disseminated to more people.Data analyses will be conducted on publically available health data relevant to STDs in Troms and Finnmark, like the absolute number of chlamydia tests, the amount of emergency contraception medication sold, and the number of abortions. Also, usage data of the system and experiences of usefulness will be explored through participants' voluntary responses to a feedback form available in the VCSTD. This study will examine the usefulness

  9. Avatars using computer/smartphone mediated communication and social networking in prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among North-Norwegian youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabarron Elia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, especially the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial infection, a common cause of infertility, are highly prevalent in developed countries, and a worrying problem in North Norway, where the incidence of chlamydia twice the Norwegian average. Seventy percent of reported chlamydia cases are found in people below 25 years of age, and although its spread could be controlled with proper prevention, young people are more aware of the risks of unwanted pregnancy than their risk of acquiring a STD. Information and Communication Technologies, including, the Internet, social media and/or smartphones, should be valued for sexual health promotion for their potential to engage young audiences. And in these media, avatars guarantee anonymity to users when handling sensitive information. The main objective of this project is to achieve that North Norwegian youngsters become more aware of STDs through the use of popular technologies among young people. Methods A Virtual Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (VCSTD will be developed. The VCSTD will provide early guidance and reliable information sources concerning reproductive health, delivered in a novel and innovative way to the younger population. The VCSTD consists of an “avatar” supported intervention in a serious gaming and e-learning environment, which will bypass direct physical access (in person to reliable medical information, as well as allowing the youngsters to share that information in social media, and thus helping the VCSTD to be disseminated to more people. Data analyses will be conducted on publically available health data relevant to STDs in Troms and Finnmark, like the absolute number of chlamydia tests, the amount of emergency contraception medication sold, and the number of abortions. Also, usage data of the system and experiences of usefulness will be explored through participants’ voluntary responses to a feedback form available

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Bedeschi Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases and specialized care services (STD/SCS in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods Between March 2011 and February 2012, 201 specimens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were consecutively obtained from men with symptoms of urethritis and women with symptons of cervicitis or were obtained during their initial consultation. The strains were tested using the disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline and spectinomycin were determined using the E-test. Results The specimens were 100% sensitive to cefixime, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin and exhibited resistances of 4.5% (9/201, 21.4% (43/201, 11.9% (24/201, 22.4% (45/201 and 32.3% (65/201 to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate sensitivities of 17.9% (36/201, 4% (8/201, 16.9% (34/201, 71.1% (143/201 and 22.9% (46/201 were observed for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. The specimens had plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin PPNG 14.5% (29/201 and tetracycline TRNG 11.5% (23/201. Conclusions The high percentage of detected resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin indicates that these antibiotics are not appropriate for gonorrhea treatment at the Health Clinic and possibly in Belo Horizonte. The resistance and intermediate sensitivity of these isolates indicates that caution is recommended in the use of azithromycin and emphasizes the need to establish mechanisms for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the effective control of gonorrhea.

  11. An assessment of care provided by a public sector STD clinic in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, C; van Rensburg, A; Schierhout, G; Coetzee, N; Lombard, C J; Fehler, H G; Ballard, R C

    1998-11-01

    A study was undertaken in a Cape Town public sector STD clinic to evaluate the content and quality of care provided since it has been recognized that appropriate improvements in the management of conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including provision of correct therapy, health education, condom promotion and partner notification, could result in a reduced incidence of HIV infection. Our objectives were to assess patients' needs for health education and to assess the quality of STD management in terms of health education, condom promotion, partner notification, the validity of the clinical diagnoses and the adequacy of the treatments prescribed. The study subjects were sampled systematically, according to their gender. Patients included in the study were given a standardized interview and their clinical records reviewed. Specimens were collected for laboratory investigations. For each STD detected, the treatment was defined as adequate if drugs currently known to be active against that infection were prescribed. One hundred and seventy men and 161 women were included in the study (median age: females 22 years, males 26 years). While almost all patients believed their STD may have been caused by unprotected sexual intercourse, many also believed it may have been caused by other factors, such as bewitchment with traditional medicine. Only 21% of male and 37% of female patients received any education about STD transmission during the clinic visit, and only 25% of male and 36% of female patients received education about condom use. As a result of the low sensitivity of the clinicians' diagnoses, 16% of men and 61% of women left the clinic with at least one infection inadequately treated. The majority of patients were not receiving education for the prevention of STDs including HIV. Many were not receiving adequate treatment for their infections. The introduction of a syndromic management protocol in this setting would substantially reduce the proportion

  12. Sexual Lifestyle, Risk Factors and Socioeconomic Status of the STD Patients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, A K; Hossain, K J; Islam, A S

    2017-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing alarmingly with time among the young-adults in Bangladesh. The objective of the study was to investigate Sexual lifestyle, Risk Factors and Socioeconomic Status of the STD Patients. A total of 205 STD patients were selected following convenient method of sampling consistent with defined selection criteria from outpatient department of Skin and Venereal Disease of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh. Period of data collection was from July 2014 to June 2015. The research instrument was an interviewer questionnaire and laboratory investigation reports. Results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 27±5.9 years of which 104(50.7%) unmarried and 95(46.3%) married. Level of education, 168(82.0%) of the STD patients were literate. Occupation of the STD patients, 201(98.0%) had specific occupation of which 74(36.1%) were businessmen, 48(23.4%) student, 24(11.7%) technical jobs, 20(9.8%) day labourer, 15(7.3%) household workers, 14(6.8%) service holders and 6(2.9%) were transport workers. Their average monthly income was Tk. 7892±6763. Majority of the STD patients 115((56.1%) expressed that they enjoyed extra-marital sex or illegal sex out of curiosity, 32(15.6%) habitual, 24(11.7%) to test sexual performance, 18(8.8%) inadequate response of the legal sex partners, 8(3.9%) hyper-sexuality and 8(3.9%) family disharmony. Most of the patients 200(97.6%) were heterosexual of which 165(80.5%) visited 1-10 sex partners, 18(8.8%) 11-20 sex partners and 22(10.7%) visited 21-100 sex partners in lifetime. In category of sex partners, 60(29.3%) were hotel-based sex partners, 111(54.1%) brothel-based, 20(9.8%) friends sex partners, 10(4.9%) street sex sellers and 4(2.0%) were residential sex partners respectively. Of them, 132(64.4%) did not use condom during sex, 65(31.7%) use it occasionally and only 8(3.9%) use condom regularly. Most of them 170((82.8%) had been suffering from gonococcal urethritis, 19

  13. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, C.; Lindsay, S.W.; Chitnis, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between th...

  14. Treatment outcomes and loss to follow-up rate of male patients with gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis who attended the sexually transmitted disease clinic: An 8-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeyaphan, Charussri; Jiamton, Sukhum; Chanyachailert, Pattriya; Surawan, Theetat; Omcharoen, Viboon

    2017-01-01

    Poor follow-up compliance of patients with infectious urethritis is a recognized and serious public health problem in Thailand. The aim of this study was to determine treatment outcomes and loss to follow-up rate of male patients with gonococcal urethritis (GU) and non-GU (NGU) at a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic at Thailand's tertiary hospital. This retrospective chart review of male patients who sought treatment at STDs Clinic, Siriraj Hospital, and who were diagnosed with GU and/or NGU was conducted during January 2007 to December 2014 study period. Two hundred and twenty-seven male urethritis patients were included in this study with a mean age was 29.5 years. GU and NGU were found in 120 (52.9%) and 107 (47.1%) of patients, respectively. Overall prevalence of GU and NGU during the 8-year study period at STD Clinic, Siriraj Hospital, was 8.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Ninety-six patients (42.3%) were lost to follow-up. Recurrent urethritis was found in 23.8% of patients, and HIV infection was identified in 11.6%. Mean age of patients lost to follow-up was 29 years. Compared with patients who attended every scheduled follow-up visit, men who have sex with men had a significantly lower rate of loss to follow-up ( P = 0.012). Almost half of patients with GU or NGU were lost to follow-up, and one-quarter had recurrent urethritis. Fast and easy access to services that provide accurate diagnostic testing and effective treatment should be a public health priority to prevent complications and reduce rates of disease transmission.

  15. Implications of host genetic variation on the risk and prevalence of infectious diseases transmitted through the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B; Davidson, R; Conington, J; Roughsedge, T; Hutchings, M R; Villanueva, B

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that host genetic heterogeneity in the response to infectious challenge can affect the emergence risk and the severity of diseases transmitted through direct contact between individuals. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the degree and direction of influence owing to different definitions of genetic variation, most of which are not in line with the current understanding of the genetic architecture of disease traits. Also, the relevance of previous results for diseases transmitted through environmental sources is unclear. In this article a compartmental genetic-epidemiological model was developed to quantify the impact of host genetic diversity on epidemiological characteristics of diseases transmitted through a contaminated environment. The model was parameterized for footrot in sheep. Genetic variation was defined through continuous distributions with varying shape and degree of dispersion for different disease traits. The model predicts a strong impact of genetic heterogeneity on the disease risk and its progression and severity, as well as on observable host phenotypes, when dispersion in key epidemiological parameters is high. The impact of host variation depends on the disease trait for which variation occurs and on environmental conditions affecting pathogen survival. In particular, compared to homogeneous populations with the same average susceptibility, disease risk and severity are substantially higher in populations containing a large proportion of highly susceptible individuals, and the differences are strongest when environmental contamination is low. The implications of our results for the recording and analysis of disease data and for predicting response to selection are discussed.

  16. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, Rachel L; Smith, Jennifer L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Brooker, Simon J

    2014-01-21

    Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 - 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 - 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations at risk however, the burden

  17. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS IN MEN AFTER PREVIOUS SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kalininа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the efficacy and safety of natural complex multi-component biologically active additives (BAA to food Spermstrong and Testogenona in the diagnosis and treating 63 men with reproductive disorders after illness, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. During the 12 weeks 41 patients the primary group assigned Spermstrongom combination therapy in combination with Testogenonom, 22 patient control group received only Spermstrong. Immediate treatment results evaluated through 4 weeks and distant through 12 weeks after stopping treatment. It has been established that the appointment of a combination therapy of complex components Spermstrong and Testogenon was statistically significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment. In the main group was marked by a more pronounced positive clinical effect through 12 weeks after treatment in 84.5 % of patients receiving combination therapy (increase the concentration and mobility of spermatozoa to normozoospermii, increase testosterone levels to normal values, improving the quality of erections, improve blood flow in the prostate gland, testes, in the control group who received Spermstrong, the effect is achieved in two times fewer patients, i. e. normozoospermija in 40.9 % have patients. The results confirm that the components of the Spermstrong complexes and Testogenon in combination therapy is effective, safe, have no side effects and can be used in complex treatment of reproductive disorders in men who have STDs, as well as for prophylaxis of incremental sexual glands: prostate, testicules and improve sexual function. 

  18. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  19. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection and associated factors among non-commercial men who have sex with men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenjie; Luo, Zhenzhou; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Tu, Dan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yumao; Lan, Lina; Hong, Fuchang; Yang, Tubao; Feng, Tiejian

    2017-01-18

    Although HIV and syphilis co-infection has been frequently observed in men who have sex with men (MSM), only few studies have focused on it. Different subgroups of MSM might exhibit heterogeneous HIV and syphilis risk profiles, indicating that interventions for HIV and HIV-related co-infections may vary with different subgroups of MSM. However, no previous study has investigated HIV and syphilis co-infection among non-commercial MSM (ncMSM) attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection and associated factors among ncMSM attending an STD clinic in Shenzhen, China. NcMSM attending the STD clinic of Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control were recruited in this cross-sectional study every Monday between March 2013 and August 2015 using a site based convenience sampling method. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, risky sexual behaviors and HIV-related knowledge. Blood samples were collected to perform HIV and syphilis tests. Totally 533 participants were enrolled in this study and the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection among them was 13.13%. Multivariable analyses indicated that having lived in Shenzhen for less than one year (aOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.30-6.05), having first anal sexual intercourse before the age of 18 (aOR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-5.89), having 3 to 5 anal sexual partners in the past six months (aOR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.19-5.40), playing exclusively receptive (aOR = 6.87, 95% CI = 3.02-15.61) or both insertive and receptive (aOR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.64-8.09) roles in anal sexual intercourse and not always using condom in anal sexual intercourse (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.08-4.19) were associated risk factors for HIV and syphilis co-infection, relative to the non-infected ncMSM. Compared with the mono-infected ncMSM, associated risk factors for the co

  20. Fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are decreasing due to better hygienic standards at travel destination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaten, Gijs G.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Coutinho, Roel A.; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether changes in attack rates of fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are related to changes in pretravel vaccination practices or better hygienic standards at travel destination. Methods. National surveillance data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of

  1. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  2. HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among female prostitutes in Kinshasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzila, N; Laga, M; Thiam, M A; Mayimona, K; Edidi, B; Van Dyck, E; Behets, F; Hassig, S; Nelson, A; Mokwa, K

    1991-06-01

    In 1988, 1233 prostitutes from different geographic areas of Kinshasa participated in a cross-sectional survey on HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Despite relatively good knowledge about AIDS and STDs, the reported preventive behaviour was poor. Only 12% of the women reported regular use of condoms, while greater than 50% of the women reported regular use of antibiotics and 38% reported doing nothing specific to prevent STDs. Thirty-five per cent of the women were HIV-positive compared with 27% in a similar survey in Kinshasa in 1986. The prevalence of other STDs was very high, ranging from 5% for genital ulcer disease (GUD) to 23% for gonococcal infection. HIV-positive women were older than HIV-negative women (26.9 versus 25.4 years; P less than 0.001), had a significantly lower level of reported condom use (9 versus 14%, P = 0.009), and reported more frequent use of antibiotics to prevent STDs (55 versus 42%, P = less than 0.001). The prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis was not higher in HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. However, HIV-positive women had a higher prevalence of GUD (9 versus 3%, P less than 0.001), antibodies against Haemophilus ducreyi (82 versus 57%, P less than 0.001), antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 (96 versus 76%, P less than 0.001), condylomata accuminata (5 versus 1%, P = 0.003) and cytologic evidence of human papilloma virus on Papaniclaou cervical smear (11 versus 5%, P = 0.006). This study confirms the high incidence of HIV and other STDs among prostitutes in Africa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The traditional use of Vachellia nilotica for sexually transmitted diseases is substantiated by the antiviral activity of its bark extract against sexually transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Gibellini, Davide; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Rittà, Massimo; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David

    2018-03-01

    Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). The antiviral activity of V.nilotica was tested in vitro by virus-specific inhibition assays using HSV-2 strains, sensible or resistant to acyclovir, HIV-1IIIb strain and HPV-16 pseudovirion (PsV). The potential mode of action of extract against HSV-2 and HPV-16 was further investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays on cell cultures. V.nilotica chloroform, methanolic and water bark extracts exerted antiviral activity against HSV-2 and HPV-16 PsV infections; among these, methanolic extract showed the best EC50s with values of 4.71 and 1.80µg/ml against HSV-2 and HPV-16, respectively, and it was also active against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain with an EC50 of 6.71µg/ml. By contrast, no suppression of HIV infection was observed. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that the methanolic extract directly inactivated the infectivity of the HPV-16 particles, whereas a partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment (EC50 of 2.74µg/ml) were both found to contribute to the anti-HSV-2 activity. These results support the traditional use of V.nilotica applied externally for the treatment of genital lesions. Further work remains to be done in order to identify the bioactive components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Using community-based participatory research to develop an intervention to reduce HIV and STD infections among Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Montaño, Jaime; Remnitz, Ivan M; Arceo, Ramiro; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Bowden, W Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although the Latino community living in the United States has been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV and STD prevention interventions designed to reduce infection among Latinos lags behind prevention efforts targeting other communities. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables is a sexual risk reduction intervention designed to reduce HIV and STD infection among recently arrived, non-English-speaking Latino men who are members of a multicounty Latino soccer league in central North Carolina, a region of the United States with both the fastest growing Latino population and disproportionate HIV and STD infection rates. HoMBReS was developed in partnership with the local Latino community using community-based participatory research (CBPR). We describe (a) the CBPR partnership history and further expansion; (b) the development of the intervention through the integration of collected formative data, theoretical considerations, and findings from the scientific literature; and (c) lessons learned while using a CBPR approach to develop HoMBReS.

  5. Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2017-02-08

    This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6%) by the students, while chlamydia (26%) and trichomoniasis (21.0%) were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level ( p -values students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24-30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.377-0.859) and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019-8.057) were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.

  6. What public school teachers teach about preventing pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D; Silverman, J

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. On the implications of desexualizing vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases: health policy challenges in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Yadgar, Yaacov

    2017-07-01

    Two vaccines against sexually transmitted infections are included in many national vaccination programs: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. The trajectories of the implementation of these two programs were marked by differences in the way the sexual context of risk was communicated to the public. These trajectories fluctuated between full accounts of the sexual nature of the infection and attempts to desexualize the vaccines. Vaccine desexualization can be achieved by withholding information of sexual context, blurring information, and distancing the age of vaccination from the age of sexual debut. Desexualization may be advantageous in promoting public health and personal health of people who believe that HPV vaccination leads to increased promiscuity, people who believe that protection against STD is not relevant to their children, and people who are not comfortable discussing the sexuality of their children. On the other hand, desexualizing may be disadvantageous for children to parents who tend to express passiveness towards vaccination, parents who attribute importance to sex education, and teenagers with homosexual orientations. The ethical analysis of vaccine desexualization reveals a complex interplay of considerations related to utility, causation of harm, duty of transparency, right to know, and right not to know. This analysis suggests that the moral merits of applying desexualization are questionable. Lastly, a sociopolitical consideration of the matter, suggests that decisions on vaccine desexualization can have implications on the interrelationships between various social groups and subgroups composing a certain population, and may highlight intercultural schisms. All this indicates that shaping the sexual framework of vaccination programs bears implications far beyond the practical considerations of vaccine promotion.

  8. HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention education in public secondary schools -- 45 states, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    In the United States, 46% of high school students have had sexual intercourse and potentially are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States recommends educating young persons about HIV before they begin engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) also recommends risk reduction interventions to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among adolescents. To estimate changes in the percentage of secondary schools that teach specific HIV, other STD, and pregnancy risk reduction topics, a key intervention consistent with those supported by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and CPSTF, CDC analyzed 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles data for public secondary schools in 45 states. This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that in 2010, compared with 2008, the percentage of secondary schools teaching 11 topics on HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention in a required course in grades 6, 7, or 8 was significantly lower in 11 states and significantly higher in none; the percentage of secondary schools teaching eight topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in one state and significantly higher in two states; and the percentage of secondary schools teaching three condom-related topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in eight states and significantly higher in three states. Secondary schools can increase efforts to teach all age-appropriate HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention topics to help reduce risk behaviors among students.

  9. Analytic calculation of finite-population reproductive numbers for direct- and vector-transmitted diseases with homogeneous mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Lindsay; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The basic reproductive number, R0, provides a foundation for evaluating how various factors affect the incidence of infectious diseases. Recently, it has been suggested that, particularly for vector-transmitted diseases, R0 should be modified to account for the effects of finite host population within a single disease transmission generation. Here, we use a transmission factor approach to calculate such "finite-population reproductive numbers," under the assumption of homogeneous mixing, for both vector-borne and directly transmitted diseases. In the case of vector-borne diseases, we estimate finite-population reproductive numbers for both host-to-host and vector-to-vector generations, assuming that the vector population is effectively infinite. We find simple, interpretable formulas for all three of these quantities. In the direct case, we find that finite-population reproductive numbers diverge from R0 before R0 reaches half of the population size. In the vector-transmitted case, we find that the host-to-host number diverges at even lower values of R0, while the vector-to-vector number diverges very little over realistic parameter ranges.

  10. Enteric disease episodes and the risk of acquiring a future sexually transmitted infection: a prediction model in Montreal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Melissa; Allard, Robert; Bédard, Lucie; Latreille, Jérôme; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-11-01

    The sexual transmission of enteric diseases poses an important public health challenge. We aimed to build a prediction model capable of identifying individuals with a reported enteric disease who could be at risk of acquiring future sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Passive surveillance data on Montreal residents with at least 1 enteric disease report was used to construct the prediction model. Cases were defined as all subjects with at least 1 STI report following their initial enteric disease episode. A final logistic regression prediction model was chosen using forward stepwise selection. The prediction model with the greatest validity included age, sex, residential location, number of STI episodes experienced prior to the first enteric disease episode, type of enteric disease acquired, and an interaction term between age and male sex. This model had an area under the curve of 0.77 and had acceptable calibration. A coordinated public health response to the sexual transmission of enteric diseases requires that a distinction be made between cases of enteric diseases transmitted through sexual activity from those transmitted through contaminated food or water. A prediction model can aid public health officials in identifying individuals who may have a higher risk of sexually acquiring a reportable disease. Once identified, these individuals could receive specialized intervention to prevent future infection. The information produced from a prediction model capable of identifying higher risk individuals can be used to guide efforts in investigating and controlling reported cases of enteric diseases and STIs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An audit of Colposcopy referrals from a GU/STD clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ailis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is increasing at 1.5% per year in Ireland with 50% mortality giving 2.2% of all cancer deaths. In the Mid-West region a pilot screening programme has begun to screen all women 25–60 years. 66% of Genitourinary/Sexually transmitted disease (GU/STD clinics' abnormal smears are Methods 221(8.4% patients referred to colposcopy over 4 years were audited. Retrospective analysis was carried out on GU/STD clinic files, hospital files and computer records for biopsy reports. Ethical approval was prospectively granted. Results 2637 smears were carried out from November 1999 – September 2003. 221 patients referred to colposcopy were audited. 1%, 3%, 5% had severe, moderate and, mild dyskaryosis, respectively, on cervical screening while 0.8%, 1.2%, 1.5% had CIN3, CIN2, CIN1 abnormalities, respectively, on biopsy with 3.5% having no abnormality (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia = CIN. 53% referred to colposcopy were Conclusion 2% had high grade lesions. 37% of high grade lesions are Of the high grade lesions 13% had Chlamydia trachomatis (27% of CIN3 and 44% had HPV despite Relative Risks (RR being 0.75 and 1.09 respectively. Older women had higher grade changes. No statistical difference was found for progression, regression and persistence in those over and under 25.

  12. HIV/STD risk behaviors and perceptions among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Mao, Rong; Wang, Jing; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole; Stanton, Bonita

    2004-12-01

    Data from 2,153 sexually active rural-to-urban migrants in China were analyzed to examine the relationship between the movement of rural-to-urban migration and increased HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) risk and the applicability of constructs of a Western-based theory of behavioral change to the study population. Measurements included migrant mobility, sexual risk, and the seven constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Data in the current study suggest that high mobility among rural-to-urban migrants was associated with increased sexual risk. The PMT constructs are applicable in identifying perceptions and attitudes associated with sexual risk behaviors in this culturally distinct population. Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perceptions of extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response cost. Also consistent with PMT, increased sexual risk was associated with perceptions of decreased severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. After controlling for a number of key confounding factors, all seven PMT constructs were associated with sexual risk in the manner posited by the theory. The association between mobility and sexual risk underscores the importance of effective HIV/STD prevention efforts among this vulnerable population. The social cognitive theories including the PMT may form a logical base for prevention intervention programs targeting rural-to-urban migrants in China.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases between the vulnerable populations in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Z. Trumova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic continues to expand in Eastern Europe and Central Asia according to UNAIDS data (2012, Geneva. The rate of new HIV infections AIDS – related mortality has increased by 25 % from 2001 to 2009 in Kazakhstan (WHO data, 2012. The number of new HIV infections among newly diagnosed patients attributed to heteroand homosexual contact has been steadily increasing. There is also higher rate of HIV among Injecting Drug Users. There is an increase incidence of co-infections especially sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, comorbid STIs increase patients' susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV (Guenthner PC, Secor WE, Dezzutti CS., 2005; Kissinger P, Amedee A, Clark RA, et al. , 2009. HIV/AIDS shares transmission characteristics with other sexual and blood-borne agents. Higher sexual mixing rates and lack of condom use are conspicuous risk factors (Vermund et al. 2009. However, while all groups are affected by HIV, some are more vulnerable than others: sex workers (SWs, men who have sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU. All these findings determined to set up the goal of this research. The purpose of the study is еpidemiologic situation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS and related STIs in the Republic of Kazakhstan and in some vulnerable population groups to HIV infection. Materials and methods. To study the dynamics of HIV/STIs in Kazakhstan (cumulatively an analysis of 2012–2013 years statistics was conducted. Testing for HIV/STI of blood samples of the vulnerable groups was carried out in the laboratories of AIDS centers. The algorithm of confirming the diagnosis of HIV infection included a twofold enzyme immunoassay (EIA study of blood samples. Samples with positive results of the first EIA were retested using expert test systems; in case with a positive result of the second EIA a confirmatory test was conducted using a method of HIV-1 Western blot in the reference

  14. The Effect of Peer-Education on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Safer Sexual Life Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People.

    OpenAIRE

    Evin Kirmizitoprak; Zeynep Simsek

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of peer education on the knowledge and attitudes of the young about safe sexual life and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Method: In this intervention type epidemiologic study, 1100 youngs were reached at 95% level of significance by probability sampling method. These young people were given education by peer trainers; level of knowledge and attitudes of the young were evaluated before and after education. ‘Young’s Health Information Form’ p...

  15. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis-from rapid screening to molecular confirmation of a masked sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Grilnberger, Evelyn; Huber, Florian; Leibl, Gabriele; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Gartner, Manfred; Huber, Monika; Chott, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2013-08-01

    Proctitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L2b can manifest with very mild, nonspecific symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic evaluation is crucial. The case report demonstrates that rapid screening test, detection of specific antibodies in serum, and direct pathogen identification by PCR performed on tissue sample or rectal swab allow successful diagnosis of the still emerging sexually transmitted disease among homosexual patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are decreasing due to better hygienic standards at travel destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaten, Gijs G; Sonder, Gerard J B; Van Der Loeff, Maarten F Schim; Coutinho, Roel A; Van Den Hoek, Anneke

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether changes in attack rates of fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are related to changes in pretravel vaccination practices or better hygienic standards at travel destination. National surveillance data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of travel-related hepatitis A, shigellosis, and typhoid fever diagnosed in the Netherlands from 1995 to 2006 were matched with the number of Dutch travelers to developing countries to calculate region-specific annual attack rates. Trends in attack rates of non-vaccine-preventable shigellosis were compared with those of vaccine-preventable hepatitis A and typhoid fever. Trends were also compared with three markers for hygienic standards of the local population at travel destinations, drawn from the United Nations Development Programme database: the human development index, the sanitation index, and the water source index. Attack rates among Dutch travelers to developing regions declined for hepatitis A, shigellosis, and typhoid fever. Region-specific trends in attack rates of shigellosis resembled trends of hepatitis A and typhoid fever. Declining attack rates of the three fecal-orally transmitted diseases correlated with improvements in socioeconomic, sanitary, and water supply conditions of the local population at travel destination. These findings suggest that improved hygienic standards at travel destination strongly contributed to the overall decline in attack rates of fecal-orally transmitted diseases among visiting travelers. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  17. [The effects of a sex education program on knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YunHee; Chun, YoungKyung; Cho, SungMi; Cho, YeRyung

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a sex education program, which was based on the Health Belief Model, on knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy among university students. A non-equivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The four session program was delivered to 18 students during 4 weeks; the control group consisted of 23 students. The theme of the first session was "sex, gender, and sexuality: all our concern", "dangerous sex" for the second session, "safe sex" for the third session, and "right sex for you and me" for the fourth session. At follow-up, the knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A sex education program with several sessions within the theoretical frame of HBM was effective to improve knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy. The results suggest the potential of a systematic sexual education program to teach healthy sex and to extend the program for other various populations.

  18. Investigating stakeholders' perceptions of the link between high STD rates and the current Baltimore City Public Schools' sex education curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Shenell L. T.

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine key stakeholders' perceptions of the current Baltimore City Public Schools' (BCPS) sex education curriculum and to gain insight into how they believe the curriculum could be modified to be more effective. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data collection consisting of a survey, focus group interview, and individual interviews was conducted to gather information on stakeholders' perceptions. The stakeholders included: (1) former students who received their sex education courses in the Baltimore City Public School system (BCPS); (2) teachers in BCPS who were affiliated with the sex education curriculum; (3) health care professionals who screened and/or treated East Baltimore City residents for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and; (4) one policy maker who was responsible for creating sex education curriculum at the national level. Analysis of the quantitative data from former Baltimore City Public School students revealed a general satisfaction with the current sex education curriculum. However, qualitative data from the same group of stakeholders revealed several changes they thought should be implemented into the program in an effort to improve the current curriculum. Findings from the other groups after qualitative analysis of the interviews suggest three major themes in support of curriculum change: (1) a blended curriculum that integrates both the cognitive and affective learning domains; (2) knowledge of prevention of STD's and pregnancy; and (3) authentic teaching and learning. Results from this study strongly suggest that the Baltimore City Public School system is apathetic to the sexual health needs of students and, therefore, is inadvertently contributing to the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among young people. Keywords: Abstinence, Affective domain, Indoctrination, Behavior Modification, Cognitive domain, Sex education curriculum, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  19. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations.

  20. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  1. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases...... of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive...... with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed...

  2. Epidemiological assessment of neglected diseases in children: lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Aguiar-Santos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children living in a filariasis endemic area and discuss about the therapeutic regimen adopted in Brazil for the large-scale treatment of filariasis. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 508 students aged 5-18 years old, enrolled in public schools within the city of Olinda, Pernambuco. The presence of intestinal parasites was analyzed using the Hoffman, Pons and Janer method on 3 stool samples. The diagnosis of filarial infection was performed using the rapid immunochromatographic technique (ICT for the antigen, and the polycarbonate membrane filtration for the presence of microfilariae. Descriptive statistics of the data was performed using EpiInfo version 7. Results: The prevalence of filariasis was 13.8% by ICT and 1.2% by microfilaraemia, while intestinal parasites were detected in 64.2% of cases. Concurrent diagnosis of filariasis and intestinal parasites was 9.4%, while 31.5% of students were parasite-free. Among individuals with intestinal parasites, 55% had one parasite and 45% had more than one parasite. Geohelminths occurred in 72.5% of the parasited individuals. In the group with filarial infection the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis was 54.5%. Conclusions: The simultaneous diagnosis of filariasis and intestinal parasites as well as the high frequency of geohelminths justify the need to reevaluate the treatment strategy used in the Brazilian filariasis large-scale treatment program. Resumo: Objetivo: Descrever a prevalência de infecção filarial e de parasitoses intestinais em escolares numa área endêmica de filariose e refletir sobre a opção terapêutica utilizada no Brasil no tratamento coletivo para filariose. Métodos: Estudo transversal envolvendo 508 alunos na faixa etária de 5-18 anos cadastrados em escolas públicas do município de Olinda-PE. Realizou-se a investigação da parasitose

  3. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Leta

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of reports that include multiple arboviral diseases highlights the expanding range of their common transmission vectors. The shared features of these arboviral diseases should motivate efforts to combine interventions against these diseases.

  4. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective Cohort study of two Danish Religious minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to in...... may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck.......Objectives: Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective...... was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour.  Methods: We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care...

  5. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgärtner Johann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  6. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    Full Text Available A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  7. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtner, J; Bieri, M; Buffoni, G; Gilioli, G; Gopalan, H; Greiling, J; Tikubet, G; Van Schayk, I

    2001-01-01

    A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  8. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  9. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutha, Amit S; Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-08-01

    One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant's premarital and high risk sexual activities. The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (ppractices.

  10. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis in Children of Poor Families in Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Harvy Joy; Uy, Jhanna; Bataller, Ramil; Gatchalian, Janis Ruth; De La Calzada, Betty; Uy, Justine Alessandra; Dayrit, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) continue to be a public health problem in the Philippines. We assessed the association of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis with selected health-related and socioeconomic variables in four villages in Leyte, Philippines. Stool specimens from 418 adults and 533 of their children from 209 families were examined through the Kato-Katz technique. STH and schistosomiasis were present in 64.6% and 12.5%, respectively, of study participants. Analysis through the generalized linear mixed model revealed a number of associations between infection in parents and their children. Findings indicate that years of disease prevention and control efforts in these areas have been unable to bring down prevalence in children and their parents. Eliminating NTDs as public health problems will require a systems thinking approach beyond implementation of vertical control programs alone. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  12. Sexually transmitted disease partner notification among African-American, adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Anna; Gallo, Maria F; Whiteman, Maura K; Cwiak, Carrie; Goedken, Peggy; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J; Kottke, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among female, African-American adolescents. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. At baseline, most participants (85.1%) preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6%) had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4%) notified their partner about their infection. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  13. Sexually transmitted infection testing of adult film performers: is disease being missed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Chitale, Rohit A; Rigg, Robert; Goldstein, Binh Y; Kerndt, Peter R; Tavrow, Paula

    2012-12-01

    Undiagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be common in the adult film industry because performers frequently engage in unprotected oral and anal intercourse, STIs are often asymptomatic, and the industry relies on urine-based testing. Between mid-May and mid-September 2010, a consecutive sample of adult film industry performers recruited from a clinic in Los Angeles, California, that provides medical care to performers was offered oropharyngeal, rectal, and urogenital testing for Gonorrhea, and rectal and urogenital testing for Chlamydia. During the 4-month study period, 168 participants were enrolled: 112 (67%) were female and 56 (33%) were male. Of the 47 (28%) who tested positive for Gonorrhea and/or Chlamydia, 11 (23%) cases would not have been detected through urogenital testing alone. Gonorrhea was the most common STI (42/168; 25%) and the oropharynx the most common site of infection (37/47; 79%). Thirty-five (95%) oropharyngeal and 21 (91%) rectal infections were asymptomatic. Few participants reported using condoms consistently while performing or with their personal sex partners. Adult film industry performers had a high burden of STIs. Undiagnosed asymptomatic rectal and oropharyngeal STIs were common and are likely reservoirs for transmission to sexual partners inside and outside the workplace. Performers should be tested at all anatomical sites irrespective of symptoms, and condom use should be enforced to protect workers in this industry.

  14. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchsbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of the third year medical students in a university about sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Akça

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The passage from childhood to adulthood is the period when health habits and sexual behaviors start to form. Thus, the topics of sexual health and reproductive health should be approached with priority during this period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of students of the medical faculty with respect to sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods.Methods: The questionnaire that contains 23 headings created by the researchers after relevant literature reviews was administered to the third-semester students of the Izmir Katip Celebi University Medical Faculty in face-to-face interviews after obtaining their verbal consent. The study data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 demo software bundle. Conditions in which the p-value was under 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Results: The mean age of the students that participated in the study (n=104 was 21.88 ± 1.9 years of age, 51% (n=53 of the students were female, and 49.0% (n=51 were male. Among the students, 93% stated that they had received education about preventing pregnancy. Two of the  most well-known prevention methods by the participants were condoms in 99.0% (n=103 and oral contraceptives in 95.2% (n=99. The rate of correct answers given about all of the risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (sex workers, polygamy, homosexuality, being sexually active, substance addiction was 22.1% (n=23.Conclusion: Identifying the level of knowledge in the youth about STDs in early periods, determining the services they require, cooperating with related institutions to review the adequacy of information online, and educating youth about STDs are important in preventing these diseases and also in the treatment of existing diseases before they lead to more problems.

  16. Epidemiological assessment of neglected diseases in children: lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Santos, Ana M; Medeiros, Zulma; Bonfim, Cristine; Rocha, Abraham C; Brandão, Eduardo; Miranda, Tereza; Oliveira, Paula; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    To report the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children living in a filariasis endemic area and discuss about the therapeutic regimen adopted in Brazil for the large-scale treatment of filariasis. A cross-sectional study including 508 students aged 5-18 years old, enrolled in public schools within the city of Olinda, Pernambuco. The presence of intestinal parasites was analyzed using the Hoffman, Pons and Janer method on 3 stool samples. The diagnosis of filarial infection was performed using the rapid immunochromatographic technique (ICT) for the antigen, and the polycarbonate membrane filtration for the presence of microfilariae. Descriptive statistics of the data was performed using EpiInfo version 7. The prevalence of filariasis was 13.8% by ICT and 1.2% by microfilaraemia, while intestinal parasites were detected in 64.2% of cases. Concurrent diagnosis of filariasis and intestinal parasites was 9.4%, while 31.5% of students were parasite-free. Among individuals with intestinal parasites, 55% had one parasite and 45% had more than one parasite. Geohelminths occurred in 72.5% of the parasited individuals. In the group with filarial infection the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis was 54.5%. The simultaneous diagnosis of filariasis and intestinal parasites as well as the high frequency of geohelminths justify the need to reevaluate the treatment strategy used in the Brazilian filariasis large-scale treatment program. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Stone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account.We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0 for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control.Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple interventions required for malaria with the long duration predicted to be required for filariasis elimination.

  18. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christopher M; Lindsay, Steve W; Chitnis, Nakul

    2014-12-01

    The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account. We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0) for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs) and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites) were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control. Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple) interventions required for malaria with the long duration predicted to be required for filariasis elimination.

  19. Telling Your Partner You Have an STD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD after a confirmed diagnosis may be a criminal offense in some states. Some STDs can affect ... to make decisions about sex or your relationship right away. It's normal to want acceptance and reassurance ...

  20. Epidemiology of infectious diseases transmitted by drinking water in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemann, P; Newman, R; Foliguet, J M

    1986-01-01

    Research on the epidemiology of infectious diseases attributable to drinking water, common in the US during the past 20 years at least, is not yet really widespread in France. The role played by water in the transmission of certain infectious agents was important in European countries during past centuries but at present the incidence of waterborne diseases can be considered as very low. The absence of well-established data is due to the difficulty in reporting correctly a few minor outbreaks in a situation of very low endemicity. After a survey of the reported outbreaks, this paper deals with risk assessment of waterborne diseases in developed countries as well as special problems linked with proving transmission via water and with the nature of the infectious agents, and the development of monitoring methods for increasing our knowledge of this epidemiology.

  1. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattamaporn Kittayapong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children.We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted.We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7% and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3% students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months. There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04.Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes

  2. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Byass, Peter; Logan, James; Tozan, Yesim; Louis, Valérie; Gubler, Duane J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children. We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted. We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7%) and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3%) students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months). There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04). Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes mosquitoes inside

  3. Quality control of antibiotics before the implementation of an STD program in Northern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Falconi, Isabelle; Morineau, Guy; Bricard-Pacaud, Véronique; Lecomte, Antoine; Ballereau, Francoise

    2002-11-01

    The ready availability of poor-quality drugs in developing countries leads to treatment failure and, consequently, excess mortality and morbidity. Moreover, the widespread availability of substandard drugs plays a key role in increasing the resistance to antimicrobial drugs.GOAL As a prerequisite to the establishment of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) control program, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of antibiotics recommended for treatment of STDs that were locally available in the capital of a province of Northern Myanmar. In addition to the hospital pharmacy, we selected at random 5 of the 41 drug sellers and 5 of the 40 general practitioners who sell antibiotics in the city of Myitkyina. Twenty-one marketing products corresponding to nine different antibiotics used for STD treatment were purchased (benzathine benzylpenicillin, benzylpenicillin, ceftriaxone, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, clotrimazole, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, and erythromycin). Drugs were sent to France, where they were analyzed according to the WHO guidelines. Drugs were considered to be standard if their dosage remained in the 10% range of the expected value. Among the 21 different specialty products, only three displayed the official "registered" label. Three drugs were expired and the expiration date was not available for six others. One product did not contain the active drug declared (chlortetracycline; Lombisin, Unicorn, China) and did not show any in vitro activity against bacteria. Seven of 21 products (33%) did not contain the stated dosage (1, more than stated dosage; 6, less than stated dosage). The highest deficit observed was 48% in two products (co-trimoxazole, Yong Fong, Myanmar; benzylpenicillin, China [city and manufacturer unknown]). The dosage was not available for five drugs. As a result, only 8 of 21 products (38%) did not contain the stated dosage of active drug. These findings suggest that public health policies based on national treatment guidelines

  4. UNDP supports HIV / AIDS / STD project for war-torn south Sudan -- a special report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Viso, N

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a UN HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) project in war-torn south Sudan. The 3-year project relies on collaboration between adversaries and implementation in government-held and rebel-controlled areas. The project aims to reduce the risk and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS/STDs and to foster dialogue among adversaries as a means of conflict resolution. The World Health Organization will contribute technical assistance. Local partners including the government, the Southern Sudan Independence Movement, and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement will contribute resources valued at about $100,000. The total UN contribution is about $300,000. HIV transmission has increased due to a high concentration of military personnel and population displacement. Available information suggests that the south has the highest HIV prevalence and 46% of known AIDS cases. STDs increased from 2.3% in 1989 to 14.1% in 1994. The project focuses on women, youth, and other vulnerable groups. The project is in its 9-month preparatory phase. The preparatory phase includes analysis of the HIV/AIDS/STD situation, design of a sustainable program, assessment of causative factors, and establishment of a mechanism for effectively coordinating the project. The civil war will affect priorities, strategies, and activities. In government-controlled areas, the Sudan National AIDS program will conduct activities. In non-government areas, the Sudan Rehabilitation and Relief Association, the Relief Association for South Sudan, and health and humanitarian authorities of the liberation groups will conduct programs. The UN Office of Special Projects will provide oversight during the preparatory phase. Sudan's UN Country Theme Group on HIV/AIDS will be the coordinating group.

  5. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  6. [Educational intervention for preventing unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases among teenagers in the city of Toledo, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas Pérez, Sonsoles; Fernández Martínez, Beatriz; Méndez Muñoz, Paloma; León Martín, M Teresa; Fábrega Alarcón, Carmen; Villarín Castro, Alejandro; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Oscar; de Quirós Lorenzana, Rodrigo Bernaldo; Fortuny Tasias, Ana; López de Castro, Francisco; Fernández Rodríguez, Olga

    2005-01-01

    No-one doubts the need of effectively providing teenagers with information about birth control and sexually-transmitted diseases. This study is aimed at evaluating the results of an educational intervention related to these matters. Before-and-after study of an educational intervention (based on lectures and handing out documentation) without a control group. A questionnaire was passed out before and after the intervention to assess changes in knowledge and attitudes of the 4th-year Compulsory Secondary Education students at five schools in Toledo. The questionnaire was answered by 238 of the 268 students. The average age was 15.59. A total of 54.66% were females. In all, 24.03% had had some sexual relation. The birth control method used most often was the condom (98.24%). The girls more refuse more unprotected relations (76.5% vs. 48.6%; pbirth control methods and AIDS transmission and a more positive attitude regarding HIV.

  7. Ida's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.

  8. What Is It? - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well., featuring CDC's Dr. John Douglas, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.

  9. Emerging sexually transmitted viral infections: 1. Review of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Rachel J; Manavi, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    This is the first in a series of articles reviewing four viral infections, Ebola virus, Zika virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 and hepatitis C virus, with an emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of their sexual transmission. With current day speed and ease of travel it is important for staff in sexual healthcare services to know and understand these infections when patients present to them and also to be able to advise those travelling to endemic regions. Following the recent resurgence in West Africa, this first article looks at Ebola virus disease (EVD). EVD has a high mortality rate and, of note, has been detected in the semen of those who have cleared the virus from their blood and have clinically recovered from the disease. As the result of emerging data, the WHO now recommends safe sex practices for all male survivors of EVD for 12 months after the onset of the disease or after having had two consecutive negative tests of semen specimens for the virus. This review provides an up-to-date summary of what is currently known about EVD and its implications for sexual health practice.

  10. Influence of network dynamics on the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2012-06-07

    Network epidemiology often assumes that the relationships defining the social network of a population are static. The dynamics of relationships is only taken indirectly into account by assuming that the relevant information to study epidemic spread is encoded in the network obtained, by considering numbers of partners accumulated over periods of time roughly proportional to the infectious period of the disease. On the other hand, models explicitly including social dynamics are often too schematic to provide a reasonable representation of a real population, or so detailed that no general conclusions can be drawn from them. Here, we present a model of social dynamics that is general enough so its parameters can be obtained by fitting data from surveys about sexual behaviour, but that can still be studied analytically, using mean-field techniques. This allows us to obtain some general results about epidemic spreading. We show that using accumulated network data to estimate the static epidemic threshold lead to a significant underestimation of that threshold. We also show that, for a dynamic network, the relative epidemic threshold is an increasing function of the infectious period of the disease, implying that the static value is a lower bound to the real threshold. A practical example is given of how to apply the model to the study of a real population.

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  12. Sala de espera como estratégia de educação em saúde no campo da atenção às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis The waiting room as a health education strategy in the field of sexually transmitted diseases prevention and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Zambenedetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute uma experiência de sala de espera no âmbito da atenção às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis - DST, desenvolvida em um serviço especializado na atenção às DST, localizado em Porto Alegre-RS. O objetivo da sala de espera foi oferecer uma possibilidade de prevenção e educação em saúde, tendo por base uma abordagem participativa e problematizadora, buscando diferenciar-se da lógica prescritiva, centrada na transmissão de informação, hegemonicamente presente nos serviços de saúde. A atividade ocorreu diariamente, antecedendo a consulta médica de homens que procuravam o serviço para atendimento relacionado às DST. Entendida como uma atividade relativa ao campo de competências profissionais (Campos, 2002, foi coordenada por duplas de residentes multiprofissionais (Psicólogos, Nutricionistas, Enfermeiros e Assistentes Sociais. A abordagem da sala de espera utilizou-se das contribuições da prática do aconselhamento em HIV/Aids, buscando trabalhar com aspectos afetivos/emocionais, informativos e avaliação de riscos. Através de uma perspectiva problematizadora, buscou-se interrogar e colocar em análise as relações que as pessoas estabelecem com a sexualidade, as DST e o uso do preservativo. Esta intervenção propiciou maior acesso a informações (sobre as DST, insumos de prevenção, tratamento e testagem anti-HIV e discussão sobre aspectos relacionados às repercussões das DST na vida afetiva e sexual, reconfigurando o momento de espera em um momento de prevenção e educação em saúde.This article presents a waiting room experience developed in the scope of sexually transmitted diseases (STD prevention and care, developed at an STD specialized service, located in the city of Porto Alegre (Southern Brazil. The objective of the waiting room was to offer a possibility of prevention and health education, based on a participatory and problematizing approach, in an attempt to

  13. Water bags as a potential vehicle for transmitting disease in a West African capital, Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Adriano A; Machado, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Street vendors of chilled packaged water have an increasing role in meeting the drinking water demand of people on the move in developing nations. Hygienic conditions can be questionable, and water quality screening scarce or non-existent. In order to ascertain the quality of the packaged water sold by street vendors in Bissau, the capital of the Western African country Guinea-Bissau, water bags were screened in 2011 and during the 2012 cholera outbreak for key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Water used to fill the hand-filled hand-tied bags originated from communal tap water and melted ice. All samples (n=36) were microbiologically contaminated, although levels showed a pronounced variability (e.g. 7-493 372 cfu 250 ml(-1) for Escherichia coli). In 2012, the fecal contamination levels increased (pwater bags obtained from the neighborhood where the outbreak started. Findings showed that all packaged water samples were unfit for human consumption and during the 2012 cholera outbreak represented a potential vehicle for the spread of the disease. The design of measures to decrease the risk associated to the consumption of highly contaminated chilled water is clearly required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Hodges

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml, Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination

  15. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Paye, Jusufu; Koroma, Joseph B; Sonnie, Mustapha; Clements, Archie; Zhang, Yaobi

    2012-01-01

    A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml), Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml) and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml) districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination with the local knowledge and programme needs.

  16. Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in France: a point prevalence study in people screened for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyre, S; Laurier Nadalié, C; Bébéar, C

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections, but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. Between September 2014 and January 2015, a total of 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected. M. genitalium and T. vaginalis prevalence were evaluated using a commercial real-time PCR kit. Clinical data from patients were anonymously collected. T. vaginalis and M. genitalium prevalence were 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.4) and 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.2), respectively, and did not differ between gender or age groups, except M. genitalium prevalence between men and women in the 35- to 44-year age group (5.9 vs. 1.5%; p 0.03). M. genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in patients receiving care in sexually transmitted infection clinics, abortion centres, family planning clinics and prisons than in gynaecologic, obstetric and reproduction centres (4.0 vs. 1.7%, p 0.009). Among M. genitalium- and T. vaginalis-positive patients, 70.9 and 61.5% were asymptomatic, respectively. The low T. vaginalis prevalence does not justify systematic screening for this organism in France. Conversely, selective screening for M. genitalium may be warranted in care settings that receive presumably high-risk sexual behaviour patients, regardless of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Mario J; Villacis, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Yumiseva, Cesar A; Moncayo, Ana L; Baus, Esteban G

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus) infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl) and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl) mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl) and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl) also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]). Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli. To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained, and monitored vector control intervention that is coupled with

  18. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J Grijalva

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation.An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]. Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli.To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained, and monitored vector control intervention that is

  19. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Mario J.; Villacis, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Yumiseva, Cesar A.; Moncayo, Ana L.; Baus, Esteban G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus) infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl) and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl) mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl) and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl) also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]). Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli. Conclusions/Significance To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained

  20. A generic model for a single strain mosquito-transmitted disease with memory on the host and the vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Tridip; Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Al-Khaled, Kamel; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2015-05-01

    In the present investigation, three mathematical models on a common single strain mosquito-transmitted diseases are considered. The first one is based on ordinary differential equations, and other two models are based on fractional order differential equations. The proposed models are validated using published monthly dengue incidence data from two provinces of Venezuela during the period 1999-2002. We estimate several parameters of these models like the order of the fractional derivatives (in case of two fractional order systems), the biting rate of mosquito, two probabilities of infection, mosquito recruitment and mortality rates, etc., from the data. The basic reproduction number, R0, for the ODE system is estimated using the data. For two fractional order systems, an upper bound for, R0, is derived and its value is obtained using the published data. The force of infection, and the effective reproduction number, R(t), for the three models are estimated using the data. Sensitivity analysis of the mosquito memory parameter with some important responses is worked out. We use Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to identify the best model among the three proposed models. It is observed that the model with memory in both the host, and the vector population provides a better agreement with epidemic data. Finally, we provide a control strategy for the vector-borne disease, dengue, using the memory of the host, and the vector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conhecimentos de adolescentes sobre Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis: subsídios para prevenção Conocimientos de adolescentes sobre Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles: subsidios para la prevención Teenagers' knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto da Silva Brêtas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento de adolescentes sobre as formas de transmissão e prevenção das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. Metodos: envolveu 920 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos de idade eos dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário estruturado. Resultado: os resultados demonstraram que a principal fonte para obtenção de informações sobre o assunto foi o professor; as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis não são totalmente desconhecidas para os adolescentes do estudo, sendo a AIDS a mais conhecida.Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de conocimiento de adolescentes sobre las formas de transmisión y prevención de las EST. Métodos: Envolvió 920 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años de edad, los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: Los resultados demostraron que la principal fuente para obtención de informaciones sobre el asunto fue el profesor; las Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles no son totalmente desconocidas para los adolescentes del estudio, siendo el SIDA la más conocida.Objective: To identify teenager's knowledge of transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Methods: A sample of children and teenagers aged between 10 and 19 years participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire developed for the study. Results: The findings suggested that the main source of information on Sexually Transmitted Diseases was the participants' school teacher. Sexually transmitted diseases are not entirely unknown by the participants in the study, with AIDS the most notorious.

  2. Knowledge and perceptions of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health among female students in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Zaman Mou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young people are most vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health issues is also common in this group. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health of young female university students (19-27 years in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 402 female students from seven universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic information, knowledge, and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health. Descriptive analysis was used, and data were presented as frequencies and percentages. Results: The majority of the participants were young, unmarried, undergraduate students. Most of the participants reported that they knew about STDs (79% and HIV/AIDS (66%. However, knowledge about the modes of transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. HIV/AIDS was considered by 90% participants as a public health threat to Bangladesh, mostly due to illiteracy (76%, increased mortality (20%, existence of risky sexual behavior (18%, and aggression of Western culture (31%. About 65% of the participants mentioned that AIDS can be prevented by safe sexual practice, 55% mentioned prevention through upholding religious values and moral education, and 59% mentioned that education about AIDS would help prevent transmission. Conclusions: Although a majority of young Bangladeshi female students reported knowing about HIV/AIDS, their knowledge regarding transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. Strategies for creating reproductive health education targeted at young female students are essential for the prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS.

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis & herpes simplex virus in males with urethritis & females with cervicitis attending STD clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, J; Madhavan, H N; Therese, K L; Rinku, J P; Narendar, K P

    2002-08-01

    Cervicitis and urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis are common sexually transmitted diseases. However, there is a paucity of information on urethritis and mucopurulent cervicitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) from India. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find out the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HSV associated urethritis in males and mucopurulent cervicitis in females attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. Twenty five endocervical swabs from 25 women with mucopurulent cervicitis and 75 urethral swabs from 72 males with urethritis were processed for the detection of C. trachomatis and HSV by antigen detection by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), culture and PCR. Among the 25 women, one (4.0%) was positive for C. trachomatis and 3 (12.0%) were positive for HSV by PCR. FAT and culture were negative. Nine (12.0%) of the 75 urethral swabs were positive for C. trachomatis and 5 (6.6%) were positive for HSV by PCR. Among the 9 positive by PCR for C. trachomatis, 3 (4.0%) were positive by FAT. Cultures for both organisms were negative. Endocervicitis and male urethritis due to C. trachomatis and HSV are not uncommon among high-risk individuals. The diagnosis could be established mainly by PCR.

  4. Sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, and pregnancy prevention. Combined contraceptive practices among urban African-American early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Li, X; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the success of efforts to educate youth not only to use prescription contraceptives to avoid pregnancy, but also to use condoms to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, including infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. Longitudinal study of 383 African-American youth aged 9 to 15 years enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction intervention. Data about contraceptive practices were obtained at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later using a culturally and developmentally appropriate risk assessment tool administered with "talking" computers (Macintosh, Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, Calif). Approximately three fourths of sexually active youth used some form of contraception in each 6-month round, with almost half of the youth using combinations of contraceptives. Among all youth at baseline and among control youth throughout the study, more than half used condoms and more than two thirds who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Receipt of an AIDS education intervention was associated with use of more effective contraceptive practices (eg, condoms and another prescription or nonprescription method of birth control). After receiving the intervention, more than 80% of the youth who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Contraceptive practices showed considerable stability. Knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with use of more effective contraceptive methods. Many youth are using condoms and prescription birth control simultaneously, and these use rates can be increased through AIDS education interventions.

  5. Validity and Reliability of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Assessment Tool Among Vulnerable Women Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively.Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior.Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs.

  6. The performance of laboratory tests in the management of a large outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Abate, Teresa; Contreras, Rosa; Losada, Sandra; Artigas, Domingo; Mauriello, Luciano; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Noya, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease (ChD), which is a well-known entity in the Brazilian Amazon Region, was first documented in Venezuela in December 2007, when 103 people attending an urban public school in Caracas became infected by ingesting juice that was contaminated with Trypanosoma cruzi. The infection occurred 45-50 days prior to the initiation of the sampling performed in the current study. Parasitological methods were used to diagnose the first nine symptomatic patients; T. cruzi was found in all of them. However, because this outbreak was managed as a sudden emergency during Christmas time, we needed to rapidly evaluate 1,000 people at risk, so we decided to use conventional serology to detect specific IgM and IgG antibodies via ELISA as well as indirect haemagglutination, which produced positive test results for 9.1%, 11.9% and 9.9% of the individuals tested, respectively. In other more restricted patient groups, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provided more sensitive results (80.4%) than blood cultures (16.2%) and animal inoculations (11.6%). Although the classical diagnosis of acute ChD is mainly based on parasitological findings, highly sensitive and specific serological techniques can provide rapid results during large and severe outbreaks, as described herein. The use of these serological techniques allows prompt treatment of all individuals suspected of being infected, resulting in reduced rates of morbidity and mortality.

  7. The performance of laboratory tests in the management of a large outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Orally transmitted Chagas disease (ChD, which is a well-known entity in the Brazilian Amazon Region, was first documented in Venezuela in December 2007, when 103 people attending an urban public school in Caracas became infected by ingesting juice that was contaminated with Trypanosoma cruzi. The infection occurred 45-50 days prior to the initiation of the sampling performed in the current study. Parasitological methods were used to diagnose the first nine symptomatic patients; T. cruzi was found in all of them. However, because this outbreak was managed as a sudden emergency during Christmas time, we needed to rapidly evaluate 1,000 people at risk, so we decided to use conventional serology to detect specific IgM and IgG antibodies via ELISA as well as indirect haemagglutination, which produced positive test results for 9.1%, 11.9% and 9.9% of the individuals tested, respectively. In other more restricted patient groups, polymerase chain reaction (PCR provided more sensitive results (80.4% than blood cultures (16.2% and animal inoculations (11.6%. Although the classical diagnosis of acute ChD is mainly based on parasitological findings, highly sensitive and specific serological techniques can provide rapid results during large and severe outbreaks, as described herein. The use of these serological techniques allows prompt treatment of all individuals suspected of being infected, resulting in reduced rates of morbidity and mortality.

  8. Arthropods and associated arthropod-borne diseases transmitted by migrating birds. The case of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva

    2015-09-30

    Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inguinal and anorectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum: a case series from a sexually transmitted disease center in Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Alessandra; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Giglio, Amalia; Moretto, Domenico; Vulcano, Antonella; Giuliani, Massimo; Colafigli, Manuela; Ambrifi, Marina; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2017-06-02

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by L1, L2, L3 serovars of C. trachomatis (CT). Since 2003, LGV cases have been increasing in Europe. Aim of this report is to describe the LGV cases diagnosed in the largest STI center in Rome, Italy, from 2000 to 2016. This report shows that two clinically and epidemiologically different series of cases exist, and that, at present, the ano-rectal LGV represents the clinical variant occurring more frequently among men having sex with men (MSM), particularly those HIV-infected. Ten cases of LGV were observed. Three were diagnosed in 2009 in HIV-negative heterosexuals patients that presented the classical genito-ulcerative form with lymphadenopathy. Seven cases were observed in 2015-2016 in HIV-infected MSM, that presented the rectal variant and L2b serovar infection; 4 of these had been misclassified as a chronic bowel disease. Chlamydia infection was confirmed by CT-specific PCR (ompA gene nested PCR), followed by sequence analysis to identify the serovar. All the patients were treated with doxycycline for 3 weeks, obtaining a complete response with healing of both clinical symptoms and dermatological lesions. Our findings suggest that, in case of persistent rectal symptoms in HIV-infected MSM, LGV should be taken into account and investigated through molecular analyses, in order to achieve a correct diagnosis and management of the patients.

  10. Use of Expedited Partner Therapy for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in College and University Health Centers in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Martinez, Nina; Roberts, Craig; Habel, Melissa A; Leino, E Victor; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-10-01

    We examined expedited partner therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhea in college and university health centers by institutional and policy characteristics. Expedited partner therapy awareness and use was low (44.1% used), did not differ by institutional characteristics, and differed by policy environment. Our findings suggest missed opportunities for sexually transmitted disease prevention in college and university health centers.

  11. The Influence of Knowledge and Awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on Change in Sexual Behaviour of Fresh Undergraduates of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, W. O.; Okewole, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of knowledge and awareness of sexually transmitted diseases on change in sexual behaviour of fresh undergraduates with a view to providing useful suggestions for positive sexual behaviour of adolescents. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. A sample of 600 fresh undergraduates was selected from the…

  12. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  13. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Street Stories - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.

  15. Molly's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.

  16. Socio-economic aspects of extended STD screening in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Jager, Johannes C; de Jong-van den Berg, L T

    2000-01-01

    Screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in early pregnancy is included in routine antenatal care for several infectious agents in many western European countries. Pharmaco-economics of these interventions have been evaluated. Currently, reconsideration of anternatal screening is ongoing,

  17. Erectile dysfunction drug receipt, risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert L; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Fiellin, David A; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Rodriquez-Barradas, Maria C; Kraemer, Kevin L; Gibert, Cynthia L; Braithwaite, R Scott; Goulet, Joseph L; Mattocks, Kristin; Crystal, Stephen; Gordon, Adam J; Oursler, Krisann K; Justice, Amy C

    2010-02-01

    Health care providers may be concerned that prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD) will contribute to risky sexual behavior. To identify characteristics of men who received EDD prescriptions, determine whether EDD receipt is associated with risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and determine whether these relationships vary for certain sub-groups. Cross-sectional study. Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven sexually-active, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men recruited from eight Veterans Health Affairs outpatient clinics. Data were obtained from participant surveys, electronic medical records, and administrative pharmacy data. EDD receipt was defined as two or more prescriptions for an EDD, risky sex as having unprotected sex with a partner of serodiscordant or unknown HIV status, and STDs, according to self-report. Overall, 28% of men received EDD in the previous year. Eleven percent of men reported unprotected sex with a serodiscordant/unknown partner in the past year (HIV-infected 15%, HIV-uninfected 6%, P sexual behavior (11% vs. 10%, p = 0.9) and STDs (7% vs 7%, p = 0.7). In multivariate analyses, EDD receipt was not significantly associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in the entire sample or in subgroups of substance users or men who had sex with men. EDD receipt was common but not associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in this sample of HIV-infected and uninfected men. However, risky sexual behaviors persist in a minority of HIV-infected men, indicating ongoing need for prevention interventions.

  18. Multiplex immunoassay of lower genital tract mucosal fluid from women attending an urban STD clinic shows broadly increased IL1ß and lactoferrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T Spear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs occur each day. The immune responses and inflammation induced by STDs and other frequent non-STD microbial colonizations (i.e. Candida and bacterial vaginosis can have serious pathologic consequences in women including adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility and increased susceptibility to infection by other pathogens. Understanding the types of immune mediators that are elicited in the lower genital tract by these infections/colonizations can give important insights into the innate and adaptive immune pathways that are activated and lead to strategies for preventing pathologic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 32 immune mediators were measured by multiplexed immunoassays to assess the immune environment of the lower genital tract mucosa in 84 women attending an urban STD clinic. IL-3, IL-1ß, VEGF, angiogenin, IL-8, ß2Defensin and ß3Defensin were detected in all subjects, Interferon-α was detected in none, while the remaining mediators were detected in 40% to 93% of subjects. Angiogenin, VEGF, FGF, IL-9, IL-7, lymphotoxin-α and IL-3 had not been previously reported in genital mucosal fluid from women. Strong correlations were observed between levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, between chemokines IP-10 and MIG and between myeloperoxidase, IL-8 and G-CSF. Samples from women with any STD/colonization had significantly higher levels of IL-8, IL-3, IL-7, IL-1ß, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase. IL-1ß and lactoferrin were significantly increased in gonorrhea, Chlamydia, cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies show that mucosal fluid in general appears to be an environment that is rich in immune mediators. Importantly, IL-1ß and lactoferrin are biomarkers for STDs/colonizations providing insights into immune responses and pathogenesis at this mucosal site.

  19. One-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of the Sexually Transmitted Disease/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Intervention Program in a Marine Corps Sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    ...)/HIV prevention programs designed specifically for U.S. military populations. The object of the present study was to determine whether a behavioral intervention known as the STD/HIV Intervention Program (SHIP...

  20. MIL-STD-1553B Marconi LSI chip set in a remote terminal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimarino, A.

    1982-11-01

    Marconi Avionics is utilizing the MIL-STD-1553B LSI Chip Set in the SCADC Air Data Computer application to perform all of the required remote terminal MIL-STD-1553B protocol functions. Basic components of the RTU are the dual redundant chip set, CT3231 Transceivers, 256 x 16 RAM and a Z8002 microprocessor. Basic transfers are to/from the RAM command of the bus controller or Z8002 processor. During transfers from the processor to the RAM, the chip set busy bit is set for a period not exceeding 250 microseconds. When the transfer is complete, the busy bit is released and transfers to the data bus occur on command. The LSI Chip Set word count lines are used to locate each data word in the local memory and 4 mode codes are used in the application: reset remote terminal, transmit status word, transmitter shut-down, and override transmitter shutdown.

  1. The Effect of Peer-Education on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Safer Sexual Life Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Kirmizitoprak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of peer education on the knowledge and attitudes of the young about safe sexual life and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Method: In this intervention type epidemiologic study, 1100 youngs were reached at 95% level of significance by probability sampling method. These young people were given education by peer trainers; level of knowledge and attitudes of the young were evaluated before and after education. ‘Young’s Health Information Form’ prepared by the investigators and including questions about safe sexual life, family planning and STDs along with socio-demographic informations was used for data collection. In statistical analysis, ‘t test’ was used for comparison of two averages, one-way anova for three groups in independent groups, ‘coupled t test’ was used in dependent groups, ‘qui-square test’ was used for comparison of percents in independent groups, ‘McNemar qui-square test’ was used in dependent groups. Results: A total of 977 young people (females 45.1%, males 54.9% aged between 15-24 years were included in the study (response ratio 88.8%. It was determined that 15.6% of unmarried young had a relationship resulted in sexual intercourse. Boys constitute the majority of the young experienced sexual intercourse and mean age of sexual intercourse was determined as 17.6. Of the young, 43.1% had a sexual intercourse with a prostitute, 43.3% with a close friend and a girlfriend, 8.3% with a maquette or an animal. Total knowledge score increased to 32.6 from 14.6 following peer education intervention carried out based on health attitude theories (p<0.05. Significant improvements were detected in each of ‘avoidance of sexual intercourse’, ‘being monogamous’ and ‘condom use’ in the context of safe sexual life (p<0.05. While ratio of modern method use increased to 80.8% from 53.8%, using no methods decraesed to 11.8% from 28%. Conclusion: Peer education model is suggested to be

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases among female commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Agumas, Yirdaw Amare; Tarekegn, Molalign

    2017-01-01

    Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh,1 Yirdaw Amare Agumas,2 Molalign Tarekegn3 1School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, 2Networks of Charitable Societies of HIV Positive Association in Amhara Region (NAP+), 3Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was...

  3. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Gimenes

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%, sensitivity (100.00%, specificity (99.70%, positive (96.40% and negative predictive values (100.00% and accuracy (99.80%. The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%. Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  4. 75 FR 39264 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In... disparities through programs, policy, and research and public health ethics; (2) To provide information to...

  5. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.

  6. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections More about neglected tropical diseases News WHO recommends large-scale deworming to improve children’s health and nutrition 29 September 2017 About us ...

  7. Impact of water supply, domiciliary water reservoirs and sewage on faeco-orally transmitted parasitic diseases in children residing in poor areas in Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, J C; Heller, L

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize faeco-orally transmitted parasitic diseases and to identify the factors associated with these diseases, with emphasis on environmental factors, in children ranging from 1 up to 5 years old residing in substandard settlement areas. A population-based cross-sectional epidemiological design was used in a non-random selection of 29 out of the 78 substandard settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. A sample of 753 children were assessed from the target population consisting of all children of the appropriate age range residing in the selected areas. Data were collected by means of domiciliary interviews with their mothers or with the person responsible for them. The Hoffmann-Pons-Janer method was used in the parasitological examination of faeces. Binary logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with the diseases. A total of 319 sample children presented faeco-orally transmitted parasitic diseases. The factors associated with these parasitic diseases included the children's age, family income, number of dwellers in the domicile, consumption of water from shallow wells, consumption of water from natural sources, absence of covered domiciliary water reservoirs, and the presence of sewage flowing in the street.

  8. Effective communication of risks to young adults: using message framing and visual aids to increase condom use and STD screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2011-09-01

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)-including HIV/AIDS-are among the most common infectious diseases in young adults. How can we effectively promote prevention and detection of STDs in this high risk population? In a two-phase longitudinal experiment we examined the effects of a brief risk awareness intervention (i.e., a sexual health information brochure) in a large sample of sexually active young adults (n = 744). We assessed the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages, and visual aids, on affective reactions, risk perceptions, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and reported behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of STDs. Results indicate that gain-framed messages induced greater adherence for prevention behaviors (e.g., condom use), whereas loss-framed messages were more effective in promoting illness-detecting behaviors (e.g., making an appointment with a doctor to discuss about STD screening). The influence of the framed messages on prevention and detection of STDs was mediated by changes in participants' attitudes toward the health behaviors along with changes in their behavioral intentions. Moreover, when visual aids were added to the health information, both the gain- and loss-framed messages became equally and highly effective in promoting health behaviors. These results converge with other data indicating that well-constructed visual aids are often among the most highly effective, transparent, fast, memorable, and ethically desirable means of risk communication. Theoretical, economic, and public policy implications of these results are discussed. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and direct costs of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, E A; Collier, S A; Fullerton, K E; Gargano, J W; Beach, M J

    2017-10-01

    National emergency department (ED) visit prevalence and costs for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water were estimated using large healthcare databases (acute otitis externa, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, Escherichia coli infection, free-living ameba infection, giardiasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, Legionnaires' disease, nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection, Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and vibriosis or cholera). An estimated 477,000 annual ED visits (95% CI: 459,000-494,000) were documented, with 21% (n = 101,000, 95% CI: 97,000-105,000) resulting in immediate hospital admission. The remaining 376,000 annual treat-and-release ED visits (95% CI: 361,000-390,000) resulted in $194 million in annual direct costs. Most treat-and-release ED visits (97%) and costs ($178 million/year) were associated with acute otitis externa. HAV ($5.5 million), NTM ($2.3 million), and salmonellosis ($2.2 million) were associated with next highest total costs. Cryptosporidiosis ($2,035), campylobacteriosis ($1,783), and NTM ($1,709) had the highest mean costs per treat-and-release ED visit. Overall, the annual hospitalization and treat-and-release ED visit costs associated with the selected diseases totaled $3.8 billion. As most of these diseases are not solely transmitted by water, an attribution process is needed as a next step to determine the proportion of these visits and costs attributable to waterborne transmission.

  10. Perceptions of key participants about Botswana adolescents' risks of unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV: Qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowe, Mabel K M; Seloilwe, Esther; Dithole, Kefalotse; St Lawrence, Janet

    2017-10-01

    The qualitative research findings are reported on the perceptions of key participants in Botswana about adolescent sexuality problems and the feasibility (with suggestions) of an adolescent prevention intervention. Twenty adult key participants who were selected through purposive sampling from schools and youth centers responded to open-ended questions during face-to-face individual in-depth interviews that were conducted between December, 2011 and January, 2012 in Gaborone, Botswana. The data were analyzed by using an inductive content analysis. Five major themes and 12 subthemes emerged from the interviews. The key participants discussed situations that exposed adolescents to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy. They also discussed unsafe sexual practices, the consequences of unprotected sex, poor parent-adolescent communication on sexuality, and the need for a sexuality education program. Policy changes are needed to improve collaboration between adolescents, parents, teachers, and youth officers in order to address adolescent sexuality problems. Further research is needed to explore the ways in which to improve sexuality communication between these groups. The results of the study provide valuable information on the sexuality risks that expose adolescents to HIV, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections and the strategies for the prevention of these risks, thus informing targeted interventions for risk reduction for adolescents. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  11. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Lanata, Claudio F

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the gl...

  12. STD Awareness – Reaching Youth

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    In this podcast, Dr. Gail Bolan, Director of CDC's Division of STD Prevention, discusses the problem of STDs in young people, 15-24, and what providers can do.  Created: 4/16/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  13. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...

  14. STD Symptoms: Common STDs and Their Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with an infected person's blood. Others, such as gonorrhea, can only be transmitted through sexual contact. Chlamydia ... between periods in women Testicular pain in men Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection of your genital tract. ...

  15. STD Testing: What's Right for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing for specific sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydia and gonorrhea Get screened annually if: You're a sexually ... in sexual activity against your will Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening is done either through a urine test ...

  16. STD care in the South African private health sector | Schneider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To establish the accessibility and quality of sexually transmitted disease (SID) care provided by private general practitioners (GPs) and workplace health services in South Africa. Design. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random national sample of 120 GPs and 244 occupational health ...

  17. Differing identities, but comparably high HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted disease burdens, among married and unmarried men who have sex with men in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Biello, Katie B.; Abuelezam, Nadia; Mane, Sandeep; Risbud, Arun; Anand, Vivek; Safren, Steven; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although HIV incidence has declined in India, men and transgender women who have sex with men (MSM) continue to have high rates of HIV and STD. Indian MSM face substantial pressures to marry and have families, but the HIV/STD burden among married Indian MSM is not well-characterized. Methods A diverse sample of Indian MSM was recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS). Independent variables that produced a p-value of 0.10 or less were then added to a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Most of the 307 MSM (95 married, and 212 unmarried) recruited into the study were less than 30, and less than 1/3 had more than a high school education. Almost two thirds of the married men had children, compared to 1.4% of the unmarried men (pMumbai had high rates of HIV, STD and behavioral health concerns. Clinicians need to become more comfortable in eliciting sexual histories so that they can identify MSM who need HIV/STD treatment and/or prevention services. PMID:26462187

  18. [Adolescents' knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, and human papillomavirus vaccination: results of a survey in a French high school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, C; Duron, S; Robin, F; Verret, C; Imbert, P

    2013-08-01

    Teenager sexuality is a public health issue. In teenagers attending a high school, we assessed their knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, and cervical cancer. Then in girls, we estimated the anti-HPV vaccination coverage and focused on factors associated with poor knowledge of these topics. This was a knowledge, attitudes, and practices cross-sectional study conducted at the beginning of the 2010-2011 school year in the Saint-Cyr military high school, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Among 669 adolescents (M/F sex-ratio, 2.3; mean age, 17 years [IC 95%, 15-20]), 40% had already had sex and 92% had used contraception. Boys and girls had a poor level of knowledge on infectious transmitted diseases. Regarding knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer, a better level was significantly associated with female gender (P=10(-4)). In multivariate analysis, male gender, age under 18 years, lack of dialogue with parents on these subjects, low socioeconomic status of parents, and absence of health education were significantly associated with poor knowledge on these topics. These data should help healthcare providers better target access and content of sexual health education training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of self-care training program based on Orem's model on the behaviors leading to sexually transmitted disease in vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghersad, Zahra; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Boroumandfar, Zahra; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases due to their high-risk behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-care training program based on Orem's model on the behaviors leading to sexually transmitted diseases in vulnerable women. This field trial was initially conducted on 100 women covered under health services and welfare organization in Isfahan city, who were selected by rationing ssampling. For needs assessment, they filled the self-care needs assessment questionnaire in three domains of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Then, at the stage of intervention (self-care training), 64 subjects were selected through convenient sampling and were assigned to experimental and control groups by random allocation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical tests through SPSS 18. Results showed that mean scores of knowledge ( P < 0.001), attitude ( P < 0.001), practice ( P = 0.04), and behavior change ( P = 0.01) were significantly higher immediately after and 3 months after intervention, compared to before intervention, but there was no significant difference in mean scores between immediately after and 3 months after intervention. With regard to these results, it can be concluded that if the educational programs are planned based on clients' real needs assessment, the learners follow the educational materials, related to their problems, more seriously and it results in a notable behavior change in them.

  20. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 μM, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 μM. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  1. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e procura da contracepção de emergência em farmácias e drogarias do município de São Paulo Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and acquisition of emergency contraception at pharmacies in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bastos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados aspectos da experiência do projeto de intervenção educativa voltado à prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (DST/Aids realizado com profissionais de farmácias e drogarias da área metropolitana de São Paulo. Discute-se a aquisição de contracepção de emergência como importante motivo de procura de farmácias e drogarias e seu uso como fonte de dúvidas para os profissionais. Concluiu-se que a intervenção educativa, realizada pelos profissionais nos estabelecimentos farmacêuticos, contribui na prevenção de DST/Aids, visto que o balcão de farmácia é meio frequentemente utilizado pela população na busca por orientação e indicação de produtos farmacêuticos, além de informações sobre saúde. Pode-se afirmar que é possível e indispensável a incorporação dessa estratégia educativa na prevenção de DST/Aids por estabelecimentos farmacêuticos, em situações cotidianas de risco ou preocupação com doenças presumíveis e com a gravidez por meio de proposição de condutas eficazes de saúde para a população. Extraíram-se lições sobre a experiência quanto à importância de ações de educação para jovens e para profissionais de farmácias em que se enfatizem os direitos sexuais e reprodutivos e a promoção do uso racional de fármacos.The present study discusses results of an educational intervention project directed at preventing sexually transmitted diseases and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/Aids, carried out with professionals from pharmacies in the metropolitan area of São Paulo (Brazil. The acquisition of emergency contraception was found to be an important reason for seeking help from pharmacies as well as a source of doubts for the professionals. Educational intervention carried out by the professionals at pharmaceutical establishments contributes toward the prevention of STD/Aids, as the population often uses

  2. All Clinically-Relevant Blood Components Transmit Prion Disease following a Single Blood Transfusion: A Sheep Model of vCJD

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Christopher; Tan, Boon Chin; Smith, Antony; Groschup, Martin H.; Hunter, Nora; Hornsey, Valerie S.; MacGregor, Ian R.; Prowse, Christopher V.; Turner, Marc; Manson, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    Variant CJD (vCJD) is an incurable, infectious human disease, likely arising from the consumption of BSE-contaminated meat products. Whilst the epidemic appears to be waning, there is much concern that vCJD infection may be perpetuated in humans by the transfusion of contaminated blood products. Since 2004, several cases of transfusion-associated vCJD transmission have been reported and linked to blood collected from pre-clinically affected donors. Using an animal model in which the disease manifested resembles that of humans affected with vCJD, we examined which blood components used in human medicine are likely to pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD via transfusion. We collected two full units of blood from BSE-infected donor animals during the pre-clinical phase of infection. Using methods employed by transfusion services we prepared red cell concentrates, plasma and platelets units (including leucoreduced equivalents). Following transfusion, we showed that all components contain sufficient levels of infectivity to cause disease following only a single transfusion and also that leucoreduction did not prevent disease transmission. These data suggest that all blood components are vectors for prion disease transmission, and highlight the importance of multiple control measures to minimise the risk of human to human transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion. PMID:21858015

  3. Cost Analysis and Performance Assessment of Partner Services for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, New York State, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Britney L; Tesoriero, James; Feng, Wenhui; Qian, Feng; Martin, Erika G

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the programmatic costs of partner services for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection. New York State and local health departments conducting partner services activities in 2014. A cost analysis estimated, from the state perspective, total program costs and cost per case assignment, patient interview, partner notification, and disease-specific key performance indicator. Data came from contracts, a time study of staff effort, and statewide surveillance systems. Disease-specific costs per case assignment (mean: $580; range: $502-$1,111), patient interview ($703; $608-$1,609), partner notification ($1,169; $950-$1,936), and key performance indicator ($2,697; $1,666-$20,255) varied across diseases. Most costs (79 percent) were devoted to gonorrhea and chlamydial infection investigations. Cost analysis complements cost-effectiveness analysis in evaluating program performance and guiding improvements. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Negotiating Ability of Using Condom to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS of Commercial Sex Worker Woman in Region Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Widodo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data from Board of Health in Surakarta City, on 8 September 2005, from 155 commercial sex worker woman had blood examined, there were 7 persons positive in HIV. One of factor affecting the high infection HIV/AIDS in women commercial sex worker was low use of condom. Aims of this research was to know factor-factor associated with didn’t use of condom and social aspect negotiations about using condom (education, economics status, working experience, devilling place, occupation, ethnic, religious, and income. This research is qualitative research using guided group discussion technique, in-depth interview, and participatory observation. Subject for this research were 30 persons, consist of 25 commercial sex worker, 3 guest, 1 room owner, and 1 parent. Independent variables in this research are social economics characteristic, demography and community characteristics. Dependent variables as PPSK capability in condom using negotiating to prevent sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. Commonly, despite knowing that everyone, including themselves, is vulnerable to AIDS infection, the respondents ignore asking the guest/partners for condom use. Most of them don’t ask for condom use due to their fear of either being the target of the guest anger and bad words, or losing money from them. Women commercial sex worker Silir in using condom and prevent sexual transmitted disease had free education from Board of Health in Surakarta City. In the street prostitutes are low support from peer, room owner, hotel owner, or guest about using condom for women commercial sex worker in illegal place, caused women commercial sex worker in the street more potential and high risk to spread sexual transmitted diseases than they were operated in Silir. The low capability of the street prostitutes for negotiating condom use with the guest customers results from: misperception on "safe-sex" behavior for seeking "help", economic and psychology pressure, free and

  5. A capillary-based multiplexed isothermal nucleic acid-based test for sexually transmitted diseases in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaolian; Zhao, Hang; Cooper, Jonathan M; Reboud, Julien

    2016-10-06

    We demonstrate a multiplexed loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for infectious disease diagnostics, where the analytical process flow of target pathogens genomic DNA is performed manually by moving magnetic beads through a series of plugs in a capillary. Heat is provided by a water bath and the results are read by the naked eye, enabling applications in low resource settings.

  6. Un modelo de prevención primaria de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual y del VIH/sida en adolescentes A model for the primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Barros

    2001-08-01

    los de la población investigada.Objective. To develop, apply, and evaluate an educational model for the primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS that was based on the sexual knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs of adolescents and on their perceptions and behaviors in this area, with the ultimate goal of helping develop educational tools to prevent infection with STDs and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Methods. An STD/HIV/AIDS primary prevention model was applied with adolescent schoolchildren (12 to 15 years old in the canton of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador. Two groups with similar characteristics were formed: the experimental group, with 358 students, and the control group, with 288 students. Schools were selected according to inclusion criteria, and adolescents at each school were chosen at random. A discussion guide was applied with 16 focus groups, and the resulting information was used to prepare a KAP survey. After being validated, the KAP survey was applied to the experimental group and to the control group. A prevention education program geared to students and teachers was implemented with the experimental group. Eight months later a second KAP survey was done with the experimental group and the control group. The differences in KAPs before and after the intervention were evaluated using the chi-square test. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups before the intervention, but afterwards the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.012, with an increase in the knowledge of sexuality and STDs/AIDS in the experimental group, even though the long-term behavior changes have not been evaluated. Conclusions. This study validated a multifactorial STD/AIDS prevention model adapted to the reality of adolescents, and it suggests the possibility of extrapolating this experience more broadly to contexts similar to those of this Ecuador

  7. Impact of educational lectures on female adolescents’ knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer in the city of Jundiaí, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Ramos Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of adolescents living in Vila Ana and Morada das Vinhas region, in the city of Jundiaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on prevention and diagnosis of the main sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and on cervical cancer, as well as the immediate impact of educational lectures. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed to assess the knowledge of a particular group of female adolescents about STDs and cervical cancer, by means of a questionnaire applied before and after educational lectures. Results: After the lecture, there was an increased number of correct answers about sexual education, knowledge about HPV (44%, and prevention of cervical cancer (22%. Conclusion: The adolescents in our study had little knowledge about STDs and cervical cancer, but educative lectures could change this reality at a low cost to Public Health services.

  8. Disease protection and allelopathic interactions of seed-transmitted endophytic pseudomonads of invasive reed grass (Phragmites australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F.; Kingsley, Katheryn I; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Micci, April; Soares, Marcos Antonio; Bergen, Marshall S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aimsNon-native Phragmites australis (haplotype M) is an invasive grass that decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands. We hypothesized that seeds of Phragmites carry microbes that improve seedling growth, defend against pathogens and maximize capacity of seedlings to compete with other plants.MethodsWe isolated bacteria from seeds of Phragmites, then evaluated representatives for their capacities to become intracellular in root cells, and their effects on: 1.) germination rates and seedling growth, 2.) susceptibility to damping-off disease, and 3.) mortality and growth of competitor plant seedlings (dandelion (Taraxacum officionale F. H. Wigg) and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.)).ResultsTen strains (of 23 total) were identified and characterized; seven were identified as Pseudomonas spp. Strains Sandy LB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and West 9 (Pseudomonas sp.) entered root meristems and became intracellular. These bacteria improved seed germination in Phragmites and increased seedling root branching in Poa annua. They increased plant growth and protected plants from damping off disease. Sandy LB4 increased mortality and reduced growth rates in seedlings of dandelion and curly dock.ConclusionsPhragmites plants associate with endophytes to increase growth and disease resistance, and release bacteria into the soil to create an environment that is favorable to their seedlings and less favorable to competitor plants.

  9. NATO Pallet with Javelin Missiles, MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV) conducted tests in accordance with MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" on the NATO pallet with Javelin missiles...

  10. A forgotten disease reminds itself with a rare complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetu Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STD represent tip of the iceberg and Donovanosis in one of them. Donovanosis, in most cases is obvious clinically, but rely for its confirmation on the demonstration of donovan bodies in histological sections and cytological preparation. In an extremely rare setting, this disease may get complicated by the development of squamous cell carcinoma. We report this occurrence in an 18-year-old girl to review the currently forgotten status of donovanosis amongst the STDs and the poor outcome of the disease if left untreated.

  11. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women.

  12. Neglected tropical diseases: prevalence and risk factors for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in a region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Luzivalda D; Tibiriça, Sandra H C; Pinheiro, Izabella O; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Lima, Adilson C; Castro, Milton F; Gonçalves, Murilo; Silva, Marcio R; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Rosa, Florence M; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2014-06-01

    Among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), schistosomiasis and the three main soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs), i.e., ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, represent the most common infections in developing countries. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiological data in many parts of the country, which favors the unawareness of the real situation concerning these diseases. Due to this, we investigated the occurrence of schistosomiasis and STHs in a region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. One stool sample was collected from 503 individuals, whose ages ranged from 0.1 to 91.2 years, and screened using both the Kato-Katz and the Formol-Ether methods. In parallel, a malacological survey was carried out in the main water bodies of the district, and Biomphalaria susceptibility assays and kernel-based techniques were also performed. No individual was found infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm. Schistosoma mansoni was the most common parasite found (1.6%). The prevalence was higher in males and the chance of acquiring the disease increased by 43.35 times with contact with a body of water. None of the Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. glabrata specimens were found naturally infected, but B. glabrata was highly susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Using kernel-based techniques, clusters of Biomphalaria were found near the households where the infected individuals lived. Schistosomiasis was the most prevalent parasitic infection found. Our findings show that the occurrence of this disease has been underestimated by the local health care service, and highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance in areas of low prevalence for schistosomiasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Condiciones sociolaborales, conductas de riesgo y prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual en mujeres inmigrantes que ejercen la prostitución en Madrid Social and work conditions, risk behavior and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female immigrant prostitutes in Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Belza

    2004-06-01

    (HBV, and hepatitis C (HCV infection and of other sexually transmitted infections among a group of female immigrant prostitutes in Madrid. Methods: We performed a descriptive study of a group of immigrant women who worked as prostitutes and who attended a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Madrid in 1999 and 2000. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, use of injected drugs, and sexual practices with their clients and in their private lives. The services provided included screening for the main STDs and serological studies for HIV, HBV and HCV. Results: A total of 579 female immigrants were analyzed. The mean age was 28.7 years. Ninety-six percent were from Latin America. None reported having consumed injected drugs. They began to work as prostitutes at a mean age of 27.4 years and 93.3% of them began in Spain. In the previous month, 98% had always used condoms for vaginal and anal penetrations with their clients and 17.6% had used them in their private sexual relations. Thirty percent reported condom breakage during intercourse. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infection was 0.2 and 0.9%, respectively; 8.1% showed HIV anticore antibodies and 0.5% showed surface antigens. An ulcerative STD was diagnosed in 2.1% and a non-ulcerative STD was diagnosed in 16%. Conclusions: Condoms are generally used with clients although the frequency of breakage is high. Condom use in prostitutes' personal lives is dramatically lower. The prevalence of markers for HIV, HBV and HCV is low and the frequency of STD is moderate.

  14. Effects of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking on female sex workers' sexually transmitted infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Jung

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of implementing the act of prohibition on sex trafficking (PST on sexually transmitted disease (STD infections among South Korean female sex workers (FSWs working at prostitution blocks. Research data were collected twice through the Korean government-sanctioned survey for female sex workers (1st wave = 1,083; 2nd wave = 926. We examined the associations among health behavior, working conditions, and the effect of PST act via hierarchical logistic regression analyses using propensity score matching. After adjusted covariates, the risk probability was 0.288 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act enforcement compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Similarly, the risk probability for a gonorrhea infection was 0.219 times lower among FSWs who had remained in prostitute blocks after the PST act compared to FSWs who had worked before the PST. Therefore, this study showed that, besides already known factors, the implementation and establishment of the PST Act was a strong factor that suppressed STD infections among FSWs.

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets 中文 (Chinese) Kreyòl (Haitian Creole) Русский (Russian) Tiẽng Viêt (Vietnamese) Prevention Success Stories Provider Pocket ... you protect yourself? What are the treatment options? Learn the answers to these questions by reading the ...

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (and HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español El VIH es una amenaza de salud grave para las comunidades latinas, quienes se encuentran en gran desventaja respecto de la incidencia de esta enfermedad en los Estados Unidos. Según los CDC, en ...

  17. About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrong. A person can get some STDs, like herpes or genital warts, through skin-to-skin contact with an ... STDs, click on the links below. Chlamydia Genital Herpes (HSV-2) Genital Warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis B (HBV) HIV and AIDS ...

  18. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  19. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2008-10-01

    A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (Pcorrect knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (Pcondom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.

  20. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting for Identification of a Core Group of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transmitters in the Population Attending a Clinic for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Spaargaren, Joke; Stoof, Jeroen; Fennema, Han; Coutinho, Roel; Savelkoul, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis seems well suited for studying the epidemiology of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae obtained from patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. It shows potential to identify the core group of transmitters.

  1. Improving STD testing behavior among high-risk young adults by offering STD testing at a vocational school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoebe Christian JPA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CT is the most prevalent bacterial STD. Sexually active adolescents and young adults are the main risk group for CT. However, STD testing rates in this group are low since exposed individuals may not feel at risk, owing-at least in part-to the infection's largely asymptomatic nature. Designing new testing environments that are more appealing to young people who are most at risk of acquiring chlamydia can be an important strategy to improve overall testing rates. Here we evaluate the effect of a school-based sexual health program conducted among vocational school students, aiming to obtain better access for counseling and enhance students' STD testing behavior. Methods Adolescents (median age 19 years attending a large vocational school were provided with sexual health education. Students filled in a questionnaire measuring CT risk and were offered STD testing. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we assessed differences between men and women in STD-related risk behavior, sexual problems, CT testing behavior and determinants of CT testing behavior. Results Of 345 participants, 70% were female. Of the 287 sexually active students, 75% were at high risk for CT; one third of women reported sexual problems. Of sexually active participants, 61% provided a self-administered specimen for STD testing. Independent determinants for testing included STD related symptoms and no condom use. All CT diagnoses were in the high-CT-risk group. In the high-risk group, STD testing showed an increased uptake, from 27% (previous self-reported test to 65% (current test. CT prevalence was 5.7%. Conclusions Vocational school students are a target population for versatile sexual health prevention. When provided with CT testing facilities and education, self selection mechanisms seemed to increase CT testing rate dramatically in this high-CT-risk population expressing sexual problems. Considering the relative ease

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases among female commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anteneh ZA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh,1 Yirdaw Amare Agumas,2 Molalign Tarekegn3 1School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, 2Networks of Charitable Societies of HIV Positive Association in Amhara Region (NAP+, 3Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of STDs among female sex workers. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in Finote Selam town. A total of 389 sex workers were studied using census method. Data were collected using an interview with structured questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package.Results: The findings of this study showed that the overall prevalence of STDs was 20.6%. The reported prevalence of genital discharge, ulcer, and bubo was 15.9%, 15.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, respondents who did not use a condom were about four times at higher risk of STDs than those who were using a condom consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.812, 9.139. Respondents who experienced condom breakages were more than 12 times more likely to report STDs than those who never experienced condom breakages (AOR = 12.291, 95% CI: 5.701, 26.495. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that one in five commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town had STDs. Sex without a condom and condom breakage during sexual intercourse showed a significant association with STDs. Therefore, the Woreda Health Office in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations in the area should work on safe sex promotion to enhance consistent condom use and reduce condom breakage through continuous education among

  3. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact.

  4. A vulnerabilidade da adolescente às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: contribuições para a prática da enfermagem La vulnerabilidad del adolescente a las enfermedades de transmisión sexual: contribuciones a la práctica de enfermería Contributions to the practice of nursing: the vulnerability of adolescents to sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Mateus Barreto

    2009-12-01

    conceptos de vulnerabilidad y resiliencia para estar aptos para estimular y aumentar la auto-estima de las adolescentes, y consecuentemente disminuir su vulnerabilidad a las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles.The present study is a research of qualitative nature. The method used was the Life History method. The main purpose of this research was to analyze the vulnerability of adolescents to sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The objectives were to identify the vulnerable conditions of adolescents under care at maternity wards of public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and to describe the strategies adopted by adolescents to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. This was done by obtaining the life history of adolescents and analyzing their vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases. According to this study, adolescents with unstable family backgrounds are less resilient, and therefore more vulnerable to being infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The study emphasizes the importance of nurses taking ownership of the concepts of vulnerability and resilience to be able to stimulate and enhance self-esteem in adolescents and reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases among female commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Agumas, Yirdaw Amare; Tarekegn, Molalign

    2017-01-01

    Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of STDs among female sex workers. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in Finote Selam town. A total of 389 sex workers were studied using census method. Data were collected using an interview with structured questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package. The findings of this study showed that the overall prevalence of STDs was 20.6%. The reported prevalence of genital discharge, ulcer, and bubo was 15.9%, 15.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, respondents who did not use a condom were about four times at higher risk of STDs than those who were using a condom consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.812, 9.139). Respondents who experienced condom breakages were more than 12 times more likely to report STDs than those who never experienced condom breakages (AOR = 12.291, 95% CI: 5.701, 26.495). The findings of this study showed that one in five commercial sex workers in Finote Selam town had STDs. Sex without a condom and condom breakage during sexual intercourse showed a significant association with STDs. Therefore, the Woreda Health Office in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations in the area should work on safe sex promotion to enhance consistent condom use and reduce condom breakage through continuous education among commercial sex workers.

  6. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health advisor HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montaño, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Background Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot, lay health advisor (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Methods Fifteen LHAs (mean age=35.6; range 23–60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and 18-months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Results Data were collected from 222 men (mean age=29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; P<.001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio=2.3; CI=1.2–4.3) and HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio=2.5; CI=1.5–4.3). Conclusions LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:19824838

  7. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health adviser HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime

    2009-10-01

    Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Fifteen LHAs (mean age = 35.6; range 23-60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 18 months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Data were collected from 222 men (mean age = 29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; p < .001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3; confidence interval [CI = 1.2-4.3) and HIV testing (AOR = 2.5; CI = 1.5-4.3). LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.

  8. Evaluation of the Positive Prevention HIV/STD Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Positive Prevention, a theory-based, HIV/STD prevention education curriculum for high school youth. Three hundred fifty-three students participated in a longitudinal experimental design to determine the impact of the curriculum on HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy to abstain from sex, self-efficacy of…

  9. Internet and Email Use Among STD Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Karen E.; Wald, Anna; Drolette, Linda; Golden, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little data exist on Internet and email use among STD clinic patients for research and clinical care communication. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey of STD clinic patients aged ≥ 18 years in Seattle, Washington, March 13–22, 2006. Results Of 489 study period patients, 251 (51%) completed the questionnaire. Participants had a median age of 30 (range 18–66) years and were 69% male, 56% White, 19% African-American, 9% Hispanic, and 7% Asian/Pacific Islander. 75% had some post-secondary education but half reported an annual income of email that they check at least 3 times a week, and 144 (57%) were willing to receive an email reminding them to come back for a follow-up appointment if diagnosed with an STD. MSM were more likely than women and heterosexual men to be regular Internet and email users (92% versus 70%, p = 0.001) and to have met a sex partner over the Internet during the past year (69% versus 11%, p email use, as was racial/ethnic background (86% of Whites, 48% of African-Americans, 73% of Hispanics, 100% of Asians/Pacific Islanders, and 57% of others, p email use are common and acceptable to many STD clinic patients for research and clinical purposes. PMID:18685548

  10. Compact, Low-Overhead, MIL-STD-1553B Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A compact and flexible controller has been developed to provide MIL-STD- 1553B Remote Terminal (RT) communications and supporting and related functions with minimal demand on the resources of the system in which the controller is to be installed. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD-1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) Many other MIL-STD-1553B RT controllers are complicated, and to enable them to function, it is necessary to provide software and to use such ancillary separate hardware devices as microprocessors and dual-port memories. The present controller functions without need for software and any ancillary hardware. In addition, it contains a flexible system interface and extensive support hardware while including on-chip error-checking and diagnostic support circuitry. This controller is implemented within part of a modern field-programmable gate array.

  11. Management of Adult Syphilis: Key Questions to Inform the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Khalil G

    2015-12-15

    A panel of experts generated 8 "key questions" in the management of adult syphilis. A systematic literature review was conducted and tables of evidence were constructed to answer these important questions. Penicillin is the drug of choice to treat syphilis. Doxycycline to treat early and late latent syphilis is an acceptable alternate option if penicillin cannot be used. There is no added benefit to enhanced antimicrobial therapy when treating human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons with syphilis. If a patient misses a dose of penicillin in a course of weekly therapy for late syphilis, clinical experience suggests that an interval of 10-14 days between doses might be acceptable before restarting the sequence of injections. Pharmacologic considerations suggest that an interval of 7-9 days between doses, if feasible, may be more optimal. Missed doses are not acceptable for pregnant women. A cerebrospinal fluid examination to diagnose neurosyphilis is recommended in persons diagnosed with tertiary syphilis (eg, cardiovascular syphilis or late benign syphilis), persons with neurological signs or symptoms consistent with neurosyphilis, and asymptomatic persons whose serological titers do not decline appropriately following recommended therapy and in whom reinfection is ruled out. Infection and reinfection rates, particularly among men who have sex with men, are high. Frequent serological screening of this population appears to be the most cost-efficient intervention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to recommend the use of the traditional rapid plasma reagin-based screening algorithm. The positive predictive value for syphilis associated with an isolated unconfirmed reactive treponemal chemiluminescence assay or enzyme immunoassay is low if the epidemiological risk and clinical probability for syphilis are low. Among pregnant women with serodiscordant serologies (positive treponemal tests and a negative nontreponemal test), the risk of

  12. STD Awareness PSA - College 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  13. STD Awareness PSA - College 1 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  14. STD Awareness PSA - Male Announcer 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Target - Men who have sex with other men.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  15. Behavior assessment of women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Vitória, Brazil Práticas comportamentais em mulheres atendidas em clínica de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em Vitória, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Espinosa Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies about sexual risk behaviors can provide information to support design strategies to control the spread of HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess sexual risk behaviors among women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among women attending an STD/AIDS reference center. Enrolled participants were interviewed and provided a blood sample to determine HIV status. RESULTS: A total of 276 women participated. among 284 selected; 109 (39.5% were HIV-positive and 167 (60.5% HIV-negative. Median age was 31 years (interquartile range (IQR24-36 and 69% of women were between 18 and 34 years of age. Women reported high access to information about STD (87% and AIDS (90% but information about sexuality was less common (55%. HIV-positive women asked their partners to use condoms more often than HIV-negatives (31% vs. 5%, p=0.02, and were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse (65% vs. 33%, pFUNDAMENTOS: Estudos sobre comportamentos sexuais de risco fornecem informações para programar estratégias para o controle da expansão da infecção pelo HIV/AIDS. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os comportamentos de risco sexual entre mulheres atendidas em clínica de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em Vitória, Brazil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte-transversal foi realizado com mulheres atendidas no Centro de Referência para DST/Aids. As pacientes selecionadas foram entrevistadas e autorizaram a coleta de uma amostra de sangue para determinar sorologia para HIV. RESULTADOS: Um total de 276 mulheres participou, entre as 284 selecionadas; 109 (39,5% eram HIV-positivas e 167 (60,5% HIV-negativas. A mediana de idade foi 31 anos (distância interquartil 24-36 e 69% das mulheres tinham entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. As mulheres relataram alto grau de acesso a informações sobre doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (87% e Aids (90%, mas as informações sobre saúde sexual foram

  16. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard ... In Nigeria, the deteriorating economic situation has led to ..... female sex workers from Mexico City.

  17. The Use of Technology for STD Partner Services in the United States: A Structured Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachur, Rachel; Hall, Wendasha; Coor, Alexandra; Kinsey, Jennine; Collins, Dayne; Strona, F V

    2018-05-01

    Since the late 1990s, health departments and STD programs throughout the U.S. have used technologies, such as the internet and mobile phones, to provide services to persons with a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV, and their sex partners, also known as partner services. This study reviewed the published literature to assess and compare partner services outcomes as a result of using technology and to calculate cost savings through cases averted. We conducted a structured literature review of all U.S. studies that examined the use of technology to notify persons exposed to an STD (syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea), including HIV, by health care professionals in the U.S. from 2000 to 2017. Outcome measures, including the number of the number of partners notified, screened or tested; and new positives identified, were captured and cost savings were calculated, when data were available. Seven studies were identified. Methods used for partner services differed across studies, although email was the primary mode in 6 (83%) of the 7 studies. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared use of technology for partner services to traditional partner services. Between 10% and 97% of partners were successfully notified of their exposure through the use of technology and between 34% and 81% were screened or tested. Five studies reported on new infections identified, which ranged from 3-19. Use of technology for partner serves saved programs between $22,795 and $45,362 in direct and indirect medical costs. Use of technology for partner services increased the number of partners notified, screened or tested, and new infections found. Importantly, the use of technology allowed programs to reach partners who otherwise would not have been notified of their exposure to an STD or HIV. Improved response times and time to treatment were also seen as was re-engagement into care for previous HIV positive patients. Data and outcome measures across the studies were not standardized, making it

  18. Qualification test of Class 1E equipment based on IEEE323 Std 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Jung, S. C.; Kim, T. R.

    2004-01-01

    IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment has been updated to 2003 edition since the issue of IEEE Std 323-1971, 1974, 1983. NRC approved the IEEE Std 323-1974 as Qualification standard of Class 1E Equipment in domestic nuclear power plant. IEEE Std 323-2003 was issued in September of 2003 and utility is waiting the approval of NRC. IEEE Std 323-2003 suggest a new qualification technique which adopts the condition monitoring. Performance of two transient during DBA test is no longer recommended in IEEE Std 323-2003. IEEE323 Std 2003 included a chapter of ''extension of Qualified life'' to make available the life extension of components during plant life extension. For the efficient control of preserving EQ in domestic nuclear power plant, IEEE323 Std 2003 is strongly recommended

  19. Net Weight Issue LLNL DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilk, P

    2008-01-01

    The following position paper will describe DOE-STD-3013 container sets No.L000072 and No.L000076, and how they are compliant with DOE-STD-3013-2004. All masses of accountable nuclear materials are measured on LLNL certified balances maintained under an MC and A Program approved by DOE/NNSA LSO. All accountability balances are recalibrated annually and checked to be within calibration on each day that the balance is used for accountability purposes. A statistical analysis of the historical calibration checks from the last seven years indicates that the full-range Limit of Error (LoE, 95% confidence level) for the balance used to measure the mass of the contents of the above indicated 3013 containers is 0.185 g. If this error envelope, at the 95% confidence level, were to be used to generate an upper-limit to the measured weight of the containers No.L000072 and No.L000076, the error-envelope would extend beyond the 5.0 kg 3013-standard limit on the package contents by less than 0.3 g. However, this is still well within the intended safety bounds of DOE-STD-3013-2004

  20. Awareness of school students on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their sexual behaviour: a cross-sectional study conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Mudassir; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Ahmadi, Keivan; Kham, Tahir M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually tr...

  1. Partner meeting place is significantly associated with gonorrhea and chlamydia in adolescents participating in a large high school sexually transmitted disease screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Felicia M T; Newman, Daniel R; Anschuetz, Greta L; Mettey, Aaron; Asbel, Lenore; Salmon, Melinda E

    2014-10-01

    From 2003 to 2012, the Philadelphia High School STD Screening Program screened 126,053 students, identifying 8089 Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infections. We examined sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with CT/GC diagnoses among a sample of this high-risk population. Standardized interviews were given to infected students receiving in-school CT/GC treatment (2009-2012) and to uninfected students calling for results (2011-2012). Sex-stratified multivariable logistic models were created to examine factors independently associated with a CT/GC diagnosis. A simple risk index was developed using variables significant on multivariable analysis. A total of 1489 positive and 318 negative students were interviewed. Independent factors associated with a GC/CT diagnosis among females were black race (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.27; confidence interval, 1.12-4.58), history of arrest (AOR, 2.26; 1.22-4.21), higher partner number (AOR, 1.75; 1.05-2.91), meeting partners in own neighborhood (AOR, 1.92; 1.29-2.86), and meeting partners in venues other than own school, neighborhood, or through friends ("all other"; AOR, 9.44; 3.70-24.09). For males, factors included early sexual debut (AOR, 1.99; 1.21-3.26) and meeting partners at "all other" venues (AOR, 2.76; 1.2-6.4); meeting through friends was protective (AOR, 0.63; 0.41-0.96). Meeting partners at own school was protective for both sexes (males: AOR, 0.33; 0.20-0.55; females: AOR, 0.65; 0.44-0.96). Although factors associated with a GC/CT infection differed between males and females in our sample, partner meeting place was associated with infection for both sexes. School-based screening programs could use this information to target high-risk students for effective interventions.

  2. Profile of sexually transmitted infections (STI in patients attending ‘SURAKSHA’ clinics of Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dubey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs and sexually transmitted infections (STIs present a huge burden of disease amongst youth in India (approx. 6%. Methods: To study the profile of population affected by STI/RTI and spread amongst both sexes and classify STI according to its various types the present cross sectional study was conducted from Jan 2011 to September 2011.  A 12 days training was imparted followed by 3 days refresher training every quarter to counselors. The information was entered in a standardized Computerized Monitoring and Information System format designed by NACO and modified by state AIDS control society on daily basis. Results: There were 1, 22, 000 patients of STI/RTI in designated clinics of the state. Out of which females were 75.49% and males 24.4%. Vaginal Cervical Discharge contributed for 59.94% among the STI/RTI patients. The second major cause of STI/RTI is Lower abdominal pain 20.36%. Genital ulcer (Herpitic 2%, Non-Herpitic ulcer is 3%. The overall prevalence in MP is 5.95%. Conclusions: STI/RTI is more prevalent in females as compared to males possibly because of certain established biological factors. Vaginal Cervical Discharge remains the commonest presenting complaint in STD OPD’s amongst females followed by Lower Abdominal Pain. Indore, Bhopal, Sagar, Jabalpur and Dewas are amongst the high STI prevalent districts.

  3. [Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to STD and HIV/AIDS: men having sex with men in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, P; Fall, A; Tal-Dia, A; Faye, A; Diongue, M

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to review knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexual transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Senegal. The study was undertaken from February 1st to June 30th 2007, in three capitals cities in Senegal (one national, and two regional). It concerned the MSM that benefited from at least one of services of an MSM association. Studied variables included socio demographic characteristics, sexual practices, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to STDs and VIH/AIDS. Interviews took place during appointments obtained by direct phone call or by two MSM leaders intermediary. Data were seized and analyzed with Epi2000 Software. Among 245 registered MSM, 63 had a precise contact (address and/or phone number), and 49 aged in average of 25 years were investigated. Among them, one was illiterate, five studied Koran, seven Arab and 36 French. The socio-professional categories differentiated two officials, two merchants, one mechanic, one fighter, five artists, five restorers, seven tailors, 11 students, and 15 unemployed. The associations, to which 35 HSH belonged, were related to sexuality (66%), religion (20%), social matters (8%) and economy (6%). Sexual habits, according to anal intercourse, differentiated the "Ubbi" or receptive/passive (57%), the "Yoos" or incertif/active (25%), the "Ubbi/Yoos" who play the two roles (14%) and the "neitherUbbi/norYoos" who had other practices than anal (4%). Practices between men, concerned mutual strokes (100%), fellatio (61%) and anal intercourse (49%), counted 45% for remuneration, 35% of multi-unprotected partnership, and 12% of breaking condom. Practices with women were reported by 15 MSM (31%). Concerning STDs, at least one sign was reported by 43 MSM, one transmission way by 42, one mean of protection by 47; and the first recourse was a health system for 36 MSM. The test of HIV/AIDS screening was done by 38 HSH among which 30 withdrew the results. The "Ubby

  4. A targetted intervention research on traditional healer perspectives of sexually transmitted illnesses in urban Zambia. Current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masauso Nzima, M; Romano, K; Anyangwe, S; Wiseman, J; Macwan'gi, M; Kendall, C; Green, E C

    1996-07-01

    Interviews with 81 traditional healers from 4 Copperbelt towns in Zambia (Chililabombwe, Chingola, Luanshya, and Mufulira) investigated healers' understanding of, attitudes toward, and management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In general, Zambian traditional healers had detailed constructs of the physiology and infective processes underlying syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, and AIDS. STDs were considered to be caused by "dirt" or contamination residing in sperm or vaginal fluids and were closely linked to violations of moral codes. Healers shared complex nosologies based on distinctions between symptoms of different STD pathologies that were more inclusive than biomedical categories. Although condom use was not promoted, healers understood the importance of preventing an infective agent from passing from one person to another. Except for AIDS, STDs were considered curable by expelling the dirt through purgatives or emetics. Modern medicine was perceived as treating only STD symptoms, not curing. Most traditional healers insisted that the infected partner bring the other partner for consultation or treatment was withheld. Since these findings identified some areas of compatibility between indigenous and biomedical models of STDs, the Traditional Medicine Unit of the Ministry of Health and the HIV/AIDS Prevention Project of the Morehouse School of Medicine (Lusaka) established a program in which traditional healers receive AIDS training and learn to counsel clients on safer sex behaviors. Follow-up entails monthly meetings between health professionals and traditional healers. Since program initiation in June 1994, 800 traditional healers and 70 health professionals have participated. Traditional healers now sell condoms to their clients through a social marketing program.

  5. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Teenage Pregnancy in Rajavithi Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Chaovarindr, Udom; Kaoien, Surasak; Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Kovavisarach, Ekachai

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral and social changes in the modern era have triggered an increase in the incidence of early sexual contact and teenage pregnancy. Since there is no routine Gonococcal & Chlamydial (GC & CT) screening in teens in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the present study was performed to find the prevalence of STI, especially Chlamydial infection, in teenage pregnancy. To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydial infection (CT), in teenage pregnancy and its related factors. One hundred and twenty-one teenage pregnancies were recruited at the ANC in Rajavithi Hospital from October 2006 to May 2007. After signing informed consent forms, they were asked to answer questionnaires about baseline data, sexual information and risk factors, after which urine specimens were collected for screening for GC and CT using the PCR technique (AMPLICOR by Roche). Later, pelvic examination was per formed by the gynecologist at the STD (sexually transmitted disease) clinic. All the data and LAB results were recorded and analyzed by the SPSS program. Numbers, percentages, means with SD, Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were used. Potential risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of STI in pregnant teenagers was 28.1% (CT = 19.8%, GC = 1.7%, hepatitis B = 3.3%, trichomoniasis 1.7%, Herpes simplex = 0.8% and condyloma acuminata = 0.8%). No Syphilis, chancroid or HIV were found in the present study Other non-STI like candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis were found in 45.5% of participants (candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis at 19.0% and 24.8%, respectively). The risk of CT infection was significantly related (6.9 times higher) to having previous sexual contact before the current partner (95% CI, 1.8-27.0). STI, especially Chlamydial infection, was found in a significant number of teenage pregnancies. Measures should be taken to prevent this resulting in complicated outcomes in the future.

  6. Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present w...

  7. Vulnerabilidad a infecciones de transmisión sexual y SIDA en mujeres en situación de desplazamiento forzado. Medellín, Colombia Vulnerabilidade a infecções de transmissão sexual e AIDS em mulheres em situação de deslocamento forçado. Medellín, Colômbia Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS vulnerability in women in forced displacement situation. Medellin, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulima López Torres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:analizar las condiciones de vulnerabilidad social a las in- fecciones de transmisión sexual y SIDA (ITS/VIH/SIDA, en un grupo de mujeres en situación de desplazamiento forzado, que llegan a la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia. Metodología: eestudio cualitativo etnográfico, realizado de abril a agosto de 2008 en la ciudad de Medellín. Se entrevistaron 23 mujeres en diferentes instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud. Resultados:el rompimiento abrupto de la vida cotidiana, la fragmentación de las redes familiares y sociales, la condición de género, y en algunos casos la violencia sexual antes, durante y después del desplazamiento, se relacionan con una mayor vulnerabilidad a las ITS/VIH/SIDA en la población de estudio. Conclusión:las condiciones de vulnerabilidad a este grupo de enfermedades en las mujeres del estudio se inician antes del momento de la expulsión y están presentes durante y después del desplazamiento.Objetivo: aanalisar as condições de vulnerabilidade social às infecções de transmissão sexual e AIDS (ITS/ HIV/AIDS, num grupo de mulheres em situação de deslocamento forçado, que chegam à cidade de Medellín (Colômbia. Metodologia: estudo qualitativo etnográfico realizado de abril a agosto de 2008 na cidade de Medellín. Entrevistaramse 23 mulheres em diferentes instituições prestadoras de serviços de saúde. Resultados: o rompimento abrupto da vida cotidiana, a fragmentação das redes familiares e sociais, a condição de gênero e, em algumas mulheres, a violência sexual antes, durante e depois do deslocamento, relacionamse com uma maior vulnerabilidade às ITS/HIV/AIDS na população de estudo. Conclusão: as condições de vulnerabilidade a este grupo de doenças nas mulheres de estudo se iniciam antes do momento da expulsão e estão presentes durante e depois do deslocamento.Objective: to analyze the social vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS (STD, AIDS, in a group

  8. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  9. National STD Awareness Month and GYT: Get Yourself Tested PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-03

    April is National STD Awareness Month. In this PSA, native communities, especially adolescents and young adults, are encouraged to get educated, tested, and treated by visiting gytnow.org.  Created: 3/3/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 3/3/2011.

  10. A ten year study of STD Cases in an urban clinic in Calcutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhana

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Total 16440 patients attended the STD clinic during the 10 years period of study from 1984 to 1993. From 1988 number of STD caes were gradually decreasing probably due to less promiscuity in fear of AIDS and different measures taken to prevent transmission of HIV infection. But it does not lessen the importance of STD control, because syphilis is still prevalent (8% with congenital syphilis. Peak in the incidence of chancroid (15% is alarming as this may lead to increased transmission of HIV infection in near future. Male unmarried constituted the bulk of STD sufferers (44% and married males (34%, while female unmarried and married patients were 1% and 20% respectively, 5.7% of antenatal mothers were strongly seroreactive for syphilis. Therefore all antenatal mothers should be screened for STD and routine serological test for syphilis should be done.

  11. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  12. Behavior, knowledge and perception of risks about sexually transmitted diseases in a group of people over 50 years old Comportamiento, conocimiento y percepción de riesgo sobre enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en un grupo de personas con 50 o más años de edad Comportamento, conhecimento e percepção de risco sobre doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em um grupo de pessoas com 50 anos e mais de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Olivi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to analyze the behavior, knowledge and risk perception about sexually transmitted diseases / AIDS (STD/AIDS in people over 50 years old. 165 public servants at a State Secretary in Mato Grosso, Brazil were interviewed. The chi-square test and logistic regression tests were used for the analysis of risk perception and the behavior and knowledge variables about STD/AIDS. Most of the respondents were female (60.6%, 63.2 had a fixed partner, 72.4% had sexual relations in the past six months, and only 13.3% always wore condoms, with 21.5% being male and 8% female. Perception of risk was associated with non-use of condoms in their last sexual relation (pEl objetivo fue analizar aspectos de comportamiento, conocimiento y percepción de riesgo de las ETS/SIDA, en personas con 50 o más años de edad. Se entrevistaron 165 servidores de una Secretaría del estado de Mato Groso, Brasil. Se utilizó una prueba de Chi cuadrado y de regresión logística para analizar la percepción de riesgo y las variables de comportamiento y conocimiento sobre las ETS/SIDA. La mayoría de los entrevistados era del sexo femenino (60,6%; para el comportamiento un 63,2 % tenía pareja fija y un 72,4 % tuvo relación sexual en los últimos 6 meses; apenas el 13,3 % utiliza siempre preservativo, el 21,5 % de los hombres y el 8 % de las mujeres. Se demostró que existe una asociación entre la percepción de riesgo y el uso de preservativo en la última relación sexual (p Objetivou-se analisar o comportamento, conhecimento e percepção de risco às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis/AIDS (DST/AIDS em pessoas com 50 anos e mais de idade. Foram entrevistados 165 servidores de uma secretaria estadual de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e regressão logística para análise da percepção do risco e variáveis do comportamento e conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS. A maioria dos entrevistados é do sexo feminino (60,6%, 63,2% tem parceiro fixo e 72

  13. Three methods of delivering clinic-based training on syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Marcia R; Pillay, Erushka; Jed, Suzanne L; de Kadt, Julia; Galagan, Sean; Gilvydis, Jennifer; Marumo, Eva; Mawandia, Shreshth; Naidoo, Evasen; Owens, Tamara; Prongay, Vickery; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2016-03-01

    The South African National Department of Health sought to improve syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Continuing medical education on STIs was delivered at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics using one of three training methods: (1) lecture, (2) computer and (3) paper-based. Clinics with training were compared with control clinics. Ten PHC clinics were randomly assigned to control and 10 to each training method arm. Clinicians participated in on-site training on six modules; two per week for three weeks. Each clinic was visited by three or four unannounced standardised patient (SP) actors pre-training and post-training. Male SPs reported symptoms of male urethritis syndrome and female SPs reported symptoms of vaginal discharge syndrome. Quality of healthcare was measured by whether or not clinicians completed five tasks: HIV test, genital exam, correct medications, condoms and partner notification. An average of 31% of clinicians from each PHC attended each module. Quality of STI care was low. Pre-training (n=128) clinicians completed an average of 1.63 tasks. Post-training (n=114) they completed 1.73. There was no change in the number of STI tasks completed in the control arm and an 11% increase overall in the training arms relative to the control (ratio of relative risk (RRR)=1.11, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.84). Across training arms, there was a 26% increase (RRR=1.26, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.06) associated with lecture, 17% increase (RRR=1.17, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.28) with paper-based and 13% decrease (RRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.90) with computer arm relative to the control. Future interventions should address increasing training attendance and computer-based training effectiveness. AEARCTR-0000668. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker females attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Japan: a nationwide case-control study

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    Kato Hideko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs reported in STI surveillance increased rapidly for women in Japan during the 1990s, the sexual behavior of women potentially at risk of STI infection remains unknown. Methods In order to determine the demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker (SW females attending STI clinics, female attendees (n = 145, excluding SW, from nine clinics across Japan and female controls from the general population (n = 956, both aged 18-50 years, were compared using two data sets of nationwide sexual behavior surveys conducted in 1999. Results Although the occupation-type and education level were unrelated to STI clinic attendance in multivariate analysis, non-SW females attending STI clinics were younger (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99, and more likely to be unmarried (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.73, 9.77 than the controls from the general population. In the previous year, STI clinic attendees were more likely to have had multiple partnerships (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.42, 6.71 and unprotected vaginal sex with regular partners (AOR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.49, 8.64, and tended to have had their first sexual intercourse at a younger age (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.89, 3.54 and more unprotected vaginal and/or oral sex with casual partners (AOR = 2.08, 95%CI: 0.75, 5.71. Identical sexual behavior patterns were observed between the female attendees with a current diagnosis of STI (n = 72 and those before diagnosis (n = 73 and between those with a past history of STI (n = 66 and those without (n = 79. Conclusion These results indicate that not only multiple partnerships or unprotected sex with casual partners, but also unprotected vaginal sex within a regular partnership is prevalent among non-SW female STI clinic attendees. The identical sexual behavior patterns observed between female attendees with a current STI diagnosis and those without, and between those attendees

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium: age-specific prevalence and disease burden in men attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.; van Rooijen, M. S.; Himschoot, M.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Bruisten, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Men are not routinely tested for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in the Netherlands and, therefore, very few studies have looked into their prevalence and/or role in urogenital complaints in the Dutch male population. To describe the age-specific prevalence and disease

  16. Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for rift valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The emergence and re-emergence of the disease in the last 20 years especially in East Africa, poses a looming health threat which is likely to spread to beyond Africa. This threat is exacerbat...

  17. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Courtney C; Evans, Michelle V; McClanahan, Taylor D; Miazgowicz, Kerri L; Tesla, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC). We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  18. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney C Murdock

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC. We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  19. HIV/STD pattern and its associated risk factors among male STD clinic attendees in China: a foci for HIV intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qian-Qiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested a high prevalence of STDs including HIV among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in China, but little was known about the prevalence in male patients attending public STD clinics. The aim of this study was to investigate STD patterns and HIV prevalence among male STD clinic attendees in different areas in China and the associated risk factors. The feasibility of Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC was evaluated as well. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at 46 public STD clinics in 4 provinces in China. Between July 2009 and September 2009, a total of 3243 eligible subjects were invited to participate in an interview with a structured-questionnaire for collecting socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavioral information. They also were asked to provide venous blood samples for serological determinations of HIV and syphilis infection, and first void urine specimens for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, Results Out of the 3243 eligible patients, 2951(91% men agreed to take part in the HIV and syphilis testing. The overall prevalence rate of HIV infection was 0.7% while the rates of syphilis, N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis infections were 10.7%, 4.3% and 6.9%, respectively, with the highest syphilis and N. gonorrhoeae rates in Jiangsu Province. Patients from Guangxi province, homosexual/bisexual practices and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with HIV infection in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC was well accepted by attendees, with 91% of eligible attendees agreeing to undergo HIV testing and counseling. All HIV positive patients were properly managed accordingly. Conclusions A modest prevalence of HIV infection and substantial prevalence of other STD infections were found among male patients attending public STD clinics in China. The

  20. The Spatial Association Between Federally Qualified Health Centers and County-Level Reported Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Spatial Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Romaguera, Raul A

    2018-02-01

    The number of categorical sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is declining in the United States. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) have the potential to supplement the needed sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of FQHC sites and determine if reported county-level nonviral STI morbidity were associated with having FQHC(s) using spatial regression techniques. We extracted map data from the Health Resources and Services Administration data warehouse on FQHCs (ie, geocoded health care service delivery [HCSD] sites) and extracted county-level data on the reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and, primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (2008-2012) from surveillance data. A 3-equation seemingly unrelated regression estimation procedure (with a spatial regression specification that controlled for county-level multiyear (2008-2012) demographic and socioeconomic factors) was used to determine the association between reported county-level STI morbidity and HCSD sites. Counties with HCSD sites had higher STI, poverty, unemployment, and violent crime rates than counties with no HCSD sites (P < 0.05). The number of HCSD sites was associated (P < 0.01) with increases in the temporally smoothed rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and P&S syphilis, but there was no significant association between the number of HCSD per 100,000 population and reported STI rates. There is a positive association between STI morbidity and the number of HCSD sites; however, this association does not exist when adjusting by population size. Further work may determine the extent to which HCSD sites can meet unmet needs for safety net STI services.

  1. HIV and STD testing in prisons: perspectives of in-prison service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga; Seal, David W; Wolitski, Richard; Flanigan, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Christine; Nealey-Moore, Jill; Askew, John

    2003-12-01

    Because individuals at risk for HIV and STDs are concentrated in prisons and jails, incarceration is an opportunity to provide HIV and STD testing. We interviewed 72 service providers working in U.S. prisons in four states about their experiences with and perceptions regarding HIV and STD testing in prison. Providers' job duties represented administration, education, security, counseling, and medical care. Providers' knowledge of prison procedures and programs related to HIV and STD testing was narrowly limited to their specific job duties, resulting in many missed opportunities for prevention counseling and referral. Suggestions include increasing health care and counseling staff so posttest counseling can be provided for those with negative as well as positive test results, providing additional prevention programs for incarcerated persons, improving staff training about HIV and STD testing, and improving communication among in-prison providers as well as between corrections and public health staff.

  2. Software Test Description (STD) for the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Posey, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Test Description (STD) is to establish formal test cases to be used by personnel tasked with the installation and verification of the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides...

  3. A study on the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhan Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4129 patients attended the STD clinic from 1996 to 1999. Of those 25.75% were STD cases. Male and female cases comprised 86% and 14% respectively. Majority were in the age group between 18 to 38 years. Choncroid was the commonest STD (37. 7%. Other STDs in order were syphilis (30. 66%, NGU (15.71%, gonorrhoea (7%, venereal wart (3.57%, candidiasis (2.53%, trichomonal vaginitis (1.6%, herpes genitalis (0.65% and LGV (0.47%. No case of Donovanosis or HIV was detected. 13.7% of STD cases were reactive for VDRL test and 8% of the antenatal attendents were strongly VDRL test reactive. The urethral discharge on gram staining was positive for gonococcus, in 29%. 68% of the clinic attendents were given safer sex education and served condom.

  4. Rapid assessment of sexual behavior, drug use, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted diseases in northern thai youth using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing and noninvasive specimen collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, F; Supawitkul, S; Kilmarx, P H; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Young, N L; Manopaiboon, C; Mock, P A; Korattana, S; Mastro, T D

    2001-07-01

    Drug use, unwanted pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and sexually transmitted diseases are serious health problems among Thai youth. The gravity of these problems demands high-quality data to direct public health policy and prevention programs. Previous studies of stigmatized behaviors have been hampered by participation bias and underreporting. To evaluate sexual behavior, disease, and drug use, we used audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and noninvasive specimen collection methods. We also evaluated effectiveness of these methods in minimizing participation bias and underreporting. In late 1999, students aged 15 to 21 years attending 3 vocational schools were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Consenting students completed a classroom-based ACASI interview using a confidential code number system. Oral fluid specimens were tested for HIV antibodies, and urine was tested for chlamydial and gonococcal nucleic acids, methamphetamines, and opiates. Of 1736 invited students, 1725 (99%) agreed to participate. Of these, 48% of the male students and 43% of the female students reported ever having had sexual intercourse. Overall, the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.6 among male participants (median: 2) and 2.8 among female participants (median: 1). Consistent use of condoms with steady partners was reported by 16% of male participants and 11% of female participants who had such partners. Of all male participants, 7% had ever paid for sex, 3% had ever sold sex, and 7% had ever been coerced to have sex. Of all female participants, 3% had ever sold sex and 21% had ever been coerced to have sex. Among women with a history of sexual intercourse, 27% reported at least 1 pregnancy. Of these pregnancies, 83% were terminated. Among those with sexual intercourse experience, the prevalence of HIV infection was 0.5%; of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 0.4%; and of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, 5%. Twenty

  5. Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Kurewa, Edith Nyaradzai; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter R; Gomo, Exnevia; Sandvik, Leiv; Mduluza, Takafira; Friis, Henrik; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2008-12-01

    To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of rural Zimbabwe. A total of 483 permanently resident adult women of Mupfure Ward aged 20-49 were interviewed and examined clinically, each providing three consecutive urine samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women with genital sandy patches had significantly more genital itch (P = 0.009) and perceived their discharge as abnormal (P = 0.003). Eighty percent of the women who had genital itch, yellow discharge, and childhood or current waterbody contact had sandy patches. Fifty-two percent of the women with genital sandy patches did not have detectable S. haematobium ova in urine. Genital schistosomiasis was associated with stress incontinence and pollakisuria, but not with menstrual irregularities, current or previous ulcers, or tumours. Genital schistosomiasis may be a differential diagnosis to the STDs in women who have been exposed to fresh water in endemic areas. Because of the chronic nature of the disease in adults, we suggest to pay special attention to the prevention of morbidity.

  6. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  7. Treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium. Observations from a Swedish STD clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Anagrius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium infection with doxycycline or azithromycin 1 g compared to five days of azithromycin (total dose 1.5 g. METHODS: A retrospective case study was performed among patients attending the STD-clinic in Falun, Sweden 1998-2005. All patients with a positive PCR test for M. genitalium were routinely offered a test of cure (toc. Response to doxycycline for 9 days, azithromycin 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg o.d. for 4 days was determined. In patients with treatment failure after azithromycin, macrolide resistance was monitored before and after treatment. Furthermore, the rate of macrolide resistance was monitored for positive specimens available from 2006-2011. RESULTS: The eradication rate after doxycycline was 43% (48% for women and 38% for men, for azithromycin 1 g 91% (96% for women and 88% for men and for extended azithromycin 99% (100% for women and 93% for men. Macrolide resistance developed in 7/7 examined (100% of those testing positive after azithromycin 1 g, but in none of those treated with extended azithromycin. Macrolide resistance before treatment increased from 0% in 2006 and 2007 to 18% in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the results from other studies showing that doxycycline is inefficient in eradicating M. genitalium. Although azithromycin 1 g was not significantly less efficient than extended dosage, it was associated with selection of macrolide resistant M. genitalium strains and should not be used as first line therapy for M. genitalium. Monitoring of M. genitalium macrolide resistance should be encouraged.

  8. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Management Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison was made between community pharmacists who graduated before and after the introduction of STDs/HIV management program in the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in 1992. The aim was also to find out if these pharmacists have attended any training on STDs management after ...

  9. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  10. Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999–2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Arndt Mesenburg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups.

  11. Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer Y; Henao, Olga L; Griffin, Patricia M; Vugia, Duc J; Cronquist, Alicia B; Hurd, Sharon; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Patrick, Mary E

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric and foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites. This report summarizes preliminary 2015 data and describes trends since 2012. In 2015, FoodNet reported 20,107 confirmed cases (defined as culture-confirmed bacterial infections and laboratory-confirmed parasitic infections), 4,531 hospitalizations, and 77 deaths. FoodNet also received reports of 3,112 positive culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) without culture-confirmation, a number that has markedly increased since 2012. Diagnostic testing practices for enteric pathogens are rapidly moving away from culture-based methods. The continued shift from culture-based methods to CIDTs that do not produce the isolates needed to distinguish between strains and subtypes affects the interpretation of public health surveillance data and ability to monitor progress toward prevention efforts. Expanded case definitions and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates are crucial during this transition period.

  12. Systematic review on tuberculosis transmission on aircraft and update of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control risk assessment guidelines for tuberculosis transmitted on aircraft (RAGIDA-TB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Saara M; Payne Hallström, Lara; Jansen, Niesje; Helbling, Peter; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    As a setting for potential tuberculosis (TB) transmission and contact tracing, aircraft pose specific challenges. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to support the related-risk assessment and contact-tracing efforts. In this study evidence of TB transmission on aircraft was identified to update the Risk Assessment Guidelines for TB Transmitted on Aircraft (RAGIDA-TB) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Electronic searches were undertaken from Medline (Pubmed), Embase and Cochrane Library until 19 July 2013. Eligible records were identified by a two-stage screening process and data on flight and index case characteristics as well as contact tracing strategies extracted. The systematic literature review retrieved 21 records. Ten of these records were available only after the previous version of the RAGIDA guidelines (2009) and World Health Organization guidelines on TB and air travel (2008) were published. Seven of the 21 records presented some evidence of possible in-flight transmission, but only one record provided substantial evidence of TB transmission on an aircraft. The data indicate that overall risk of TB transmission on aircraft is very low. The updated ECDC guidelines for TB transmission on aircraft have global implications due to inevitable need for international collaboration in contract tracing and risk assessment.

  13. Factores psicosociales y culturales en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual Psychosocial and cultural factors in the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gogna

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata de las dimensiones psicosociales y culturales de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Sobre la base de resultados de una investigación cualitativa realizada entre hombres y mujeres de sectores populares (jóvenes y adultos en el Gran Buenos Aires, la autora discute cómo las nociones legas acerca de las ETS (sus síntomas, vías de transmisión, consecuencias y las normas culturales sobre el comportamiento sexual y las relaciones de género afectan la habilidad de las personas para considerarse en riesgo y/o adoptar conductas de prevención. También se discuten las implicancias de estos hallazgos en términos de estrategias apropiadas para promover conductas de cuidado de la salud sexual y reproductiva.The article deals with the psychosocial and cultural dimensions of sexually transmitted diseases. Based on results from a qualitative study with lower-class males and females (young and adult from a neighbourhood in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the author discusses how lay beliefs (about symptoms, transmission, consequences and norms regarding sexual matters and gender relations affect people's ability to consider themselves at risk and/or adopt preventive behaviors. Implications of research results for the design of culturally appropriate strategies to promote sexual and reproductive health are also provided.

  14. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  15. Autopercepção de vulnerabilidade às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e Aids em mulheres Self-assessment of STD/AIDS vulnerability among women, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela F Silveira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar comportamentos de risco e autopercepção de vulnerabilidade às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST e à Síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids em mulheres. MÉTODOS: Dos 281 setores censitários existentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS, foram selecionados 48 a partir de amostragem sistemática. Foi entrevistada uma amostra de 1.543 mulheres, de 15 a 49 anos, por meio de questionário composto de três partes (informações socioeconômicas, perguntas aplicadas em entrevista, questionário auto-aplicado. Para tabulação dos dados, foi utilizado o programa Epi-Info, versão 6.0. Para análise estatística dos dados foram usados o teste de Kappa e a razão de odds. RESULTADOS: Na amostra, 64% das mulheres achavam impossível ou quase impossível adquirir DST/Aids. Os principais comportamentos de risco foram o não uso de preservativo na última relação antes do depoimento (72%; início das relações sexuais com menos de 18 anos (47%; uso de álcool ou drogas pelo parceiro (14% ou pela mulher (7% antes da última relação; dois ou mais parceiros nos três meses que antecederam o depoimento (7% e sexo anal na última relação (3%; 44% das mulheres apresentaram dois ou mais comportamentos de risco. A sensibilidade da autopercepção, usando como padrão o escore de risco igual ou superior a dois, foi de 41 %. Sua especificidade de 67%. CONCLUSÕES: A autopercepção de vulnerabilidade não é um bom indicador, pois as mulheres não identificam corretamente seu nível de risco.OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk behaviors and self-assessment of the vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases (STD and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS among women. METHODS: A systematic sample including 48 of 281 census tracts in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, was selected. There were interviewed 1,543 women, aged between 15 and 49 years, who had ever been sexually active. Risk behaviors were assessed using a confidential

  16. "Something of an adventure": postwar NIH research ethos and the Guatemala STD experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector-Bagdady, Kayte; Lombardo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The STD experiments in Guatemala from 1946-1948 have earned a place of infamy in the history of medical ethics. But if the Guatemala STD experiments were so "ethically impossible," how did the U.S. government approve their funding? Although much of the literature has targeted the failings of Dr. John Cutler, we focus on the institutional context and research ethos that shaped the outcome of the research. After the end of WWII, Dr. Cassius Van Slyke reconstructed the federal research contracts process into a grant program. The inaugural NIH study section recommended approval of the Guatemala STD experiments at its first meeting. The funding and oversight process of the Guatemala research was marked with serious conflicts of interest and a lack of oversight, and it was this structure, as opposed to merely a maleficent individual, that allowed the Guatemala STD experiments to proceed. We conclude that while current research regulations are designed to prevent the abuses perpetrated on the subjects of the Guatemala STD experiments, it takes a comprehensive understanding of research ethics through professional education to achieve the longstanding ideal of the responsible investigator, and ensure ethical research under any regulatory scheme. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Jameel

    Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 522-528

  18. Doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na gestação: uma síntese de particularidades Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DSTs apresentam prevalência significativa tanto na população geral quanto nas gestantes. Nestas, em especial, devem-se considerar as alterações fisiológicas em seu organismo que podem, inclusive, alterar o curso dessas doenças. Complicações obstétricas e neonatais podem ocorrer em decorrência delas, acarretando aumento da morbimortalidade materno-infantil. Abordam-se, neste artigo, as particularidades da história natural e terapêutica no período gestacional das principais DSTs: cancro mole, donovanose, gonorreia, clamidíase, hepatites virais, herpes genital, infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV, linfogranuloma venéreo, sífilis e vulvovaginites. As DSTs devem ser enfrentadas com extrema atenção e conscientização por parte dos profissionais de saúde, principalmente, no tocante ao diagnóstico, que deve ser o mais precoce possível, e ao tratamento, que apresenta limitações na terapêutica durante a gestação, pela toxicidade de muitos dos medicamentos comumente empregados. A prevenção e o tratamento do parceiro são importantes para que as ações sejam efetivas.Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention

  19. Vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Infections in women who sell sex on the route of prostitution and sex tourism in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Matos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, STD-related risk behaviors, and signs/symptoms of STDs among female sex workers (FSWs. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample comprising 395 women recruited using a respondent-driven sampling method between 2009 and 2010. The data were collected during face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: most of the participants were young adults, had a low educational level, and had poor knowledge on the transmission paths of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Over one-third of the participants were not able to describe the signs/symptoms of STDs. The prevalence rates of vaginal discharge and wounds/ulcers were 49.0% and 8.6%, respectively, but 41.7% of the women had not sought treatment. CONCLUSION: the results indicate the need for public health policies focusing on the control and prevention of STDs in this population, especially for the FSWs who are active in an important prostitution and sex tourism route in central Brazil.

  20. Vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections in women who sell sex on the route of prostitution and sex tourism in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Marcos André de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; França, Divânia Dias da Silva; Pinheiro, Raquel Silva; de Moraes, Luciene Carneiro; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2013-01-01

    to investigate knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), STD-related risk behaviors, and signs/symptoms of STDs among female sex workers (FSWs). a cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample comprising 395 women recruited using a respondent-driven sampling method between 2009 and 2010. The data were collected during face-to-face interviews. most of the participants were young adults, had a low educational level, and had poor knowledge on the transmission paths of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Over one-third of the participants were not able to describe the signs/symptoms of STDs. The prevalence rates of vaginal discharge and wounds/ulcers were 49.0% and 8.6%, respectively, but 41.7% of the women had not sought treatment. the results indicate the need for public health policies focusing on the control and prevention of STDs in this population, especially for the FSWs who are active in an important prostitution and sex tourism route in central Brazil.

  1. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a...--Treatment as Prevention; (2) Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis... Person for More Information: Margie Scott-Cseh, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and...

  2. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Web-Based HIV/STD Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls Targeting Sexual Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, L.; Golin, C. E.; Kamke, K.; Massey, J.; Prinstein, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls are at substantial risk of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. To reduce these risks, we developed Health Education And Relationship Training (HEART), a web-based intervention focused on developing sexual assertiveness skills and enhancing sexual decision-making. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of…

  3. Enhanced signal dispersion in saturation transfer difference experiments by conversion to a 1D-STD-homodecoupled spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Vega-Vazquez, Marino [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Laboratorio Integral de Dinamica e Estructura de Biomoleculas Jose R. Carracido, Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, Edificio CACTUS, RIAIDT (Spain); Capua, Antonia De [Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali (Italy); Canales, Angeles [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain); Andre, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Tieraerztliche Fakultaet (Germany); Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain)], E-mail: JJbarbero@cib.csic.es

    2006-10-15

    The saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment is a rich source of information on topological aspects of ligand binding to a receptor. The epitope mapping is based on a magnetization transfer after signal saturation from the receptor to the ligand, where interproton distances permit this process. Signal overlap in the STD spectrum can cause difficulties to correctly assign and/or quantitate the measured enhancements. To address this issue we report here a modified version of the routine experiment and a processing scheme that provides a 1D-STD homodecoupled spectrum (i.e. an experiment in which all STD signals appear as singlets) with line widths similar to those in original STD spectrum. These refinements contribute to alleviate problems of signal overlap. The experiment is based on 2D-J-resolved spectroscopy, one of the fastest 2D experiments under conventional data sampling in the indirect dimension, and provides excellent sensitivity, a key factor for the difference experiments.

  4. Introduction to IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2 Annex D -- ''Qualification of existing commercial computers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrom, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    On September 15th of 1993 the IEEE standards board approved IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2-1993, IEEE Standard for Digital Computers in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations. This paper is an introduction to Annex D of this document which concerns the commercial grade dedication of existing computers or new non-1E computers

  5. HIV and STD Knowledge, Sexual Behaviors and Drug Taking Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…

  6. 77 FR 23733 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In... and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Matters To Be...

  7. 76 FR 66721 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section l0(a)(2) of the... the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health...

  8. Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion transmitted infections are major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures. The present study was carried out to assess the percentage of voluntary donors and replacement donors and to find out prevalence and changing trends of various TTIs blood donors in recent years. A study was carried out on blood units of voluntary and replacement donors which were collected from January 2008 to December 2012. On screening of 180,371 replacement units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in replacement donors was 0.15% in HIV, 1.67% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.49% in hepatitis C virus, 0.01% in VDRL, and 0.009% in malaria. Of 11,977 voluntary units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in voluntary donors was 0.08% in HIV, 0.24% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.001% in hepatitis C virus, 0.008% in VDRL (sexually transmitted disease, and 0.01% in malaria. From results it has been concluded that prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection (HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL, and malaria was more in replacement donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Extensive donor selection and screening procedures will help in improving the blood safety.

  9. Idiopathic urethritis in young men in the United States: prevalence and comparison to infections with known sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Catherine M; Manhart, Lisa E; Golden, Matthew R

    2009-11-01

    Urethritis is the most common male reproductive tract disease syndrome; yet 20-50% of diagnosed cases have no defined etiology, and few population-level data exist on the prevalence or etiology of the syndrome. We estimated the prevalence of urethritis among young men in the United States and compared correlates of idiopathic cases to correlates of detected infections with sexually transmitted pathogens. Questionnaire data and urine specimens from 5,447 men aged 18-27 years participating in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Symptomatic urethritis was defined as self-reported dysuria or urethral discharge in the past 24hours. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium were identified using nucleic acid amplification tests. Idiopathic urethritis (IU) was defined as urethral symptoms in the absence of these four pathogens. Stratified weighted analyses generated population-based estimates. Urethritis was reported by 1.2% (95% CI=.8-1.6%) of men, of whom 82.4% (61.1-93.3%) had IU. Men with previous STD diagnoses (aOR=9.3 [95% CI=3.0-28.7]), or fewer (1-4) or no lifetime vaginal sex partners (aOR=7.5 [2.9-19.3] and aOR=7.2 [1.9-27.4]), were more likely to have IU compared with men without urethral symptoms or identified pathogens, whereas men of Native American or Asian/Pacific Islander descent (aOR=.04 [.01-.2]) and heavy drinkers (aOR=.08 [.03-.2]) were less likely to have IU. Unlike infection with known pathogens, IU was not associated with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, or age at sexual debut. Urethral symptoms were rarely associated with known pathogens. IU and known pathogens were associated with distinct characteristics.

  10. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium Std fimbriae bind terminal α (1,2)fucose residues in the cecal mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Daniela; Winter, Maria G.; Jakomin, Marcello; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The std operon encodes a fimbrial adhesin of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium that is required for attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and for cecal colonization in the mouse. To study the mechanism by which this virulence factor contributes to colonization we characterized its binding specificity. Std-mediated binding to human colonic epithelial (Caco-2) cells could be abrogated by removing N-linked glycans. Adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium to Caco-2 cells could be blocked by co-incubation with H type 2 oligosaccharide (Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc) or by pretreatment of cells with α1-2 fucosidase. In contrast, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with neuraminidase or co-incubation with the type 2 disaccharide precursor (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) did not reduce adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium. Binding of purified Std fimbriae to Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc in a solid phase binding assay was competitively inhibited by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), a lectin specific for Fucα1-2 moieties. Purified Std fimbriae and UEA both bound to a receptor localized in the mucus layer of the murine cecum. These data suggest that the std operon encodes an adhesin that binds an α1-2 fucosylated receptor(s) present in the cecal mucosa. PMID:19183274

  11. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  12. Geospatial forecast model for tsetse-transmitted animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that GIS model developed for parasitic diseases based on growing degree day (GDD) concept can be applied to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis. GIS for animal trypanosomosis was created using Food and Agriculture Organization – Crop Production System Zones (FAO-CPSZ) database and Normalized ...

  13. Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186

  14. Return of IEEE Std 627 and its Value to Equipment Qualification Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    IEEE Std 627 ''Design Qualification of Safety Systems Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Generating Stations'' was issued to more generically establish qualification requirements in the form of a high level umbrella document. Efforts on this standard began in late 1975 at the request of the IEEE Nuclear Standards Management Board. In 1977 a joint ASME/IEEE agreement established responsibility for qualification and quality assurance standards preparation. ASME accepted responsibility for Quality Assurance and IEEE for qualification. In accordance with that agreement, IEEE completed the generic qualification standard in 1980. This document provided high level approaches, criteria, guidance, and principles for qualification of both electrical and mechanical equipment that at that time appeared in no other industry standard. IEEE Std 627-1980 was later reaffirmed in 1996. In 1986, ASME's Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards directed its Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment (QME) to develop a standard for qualifying mechanical equipment. This task was completed in several parts during the time frame from 1992 to 1994. Partly in response to this activity, IEEE Std 627 was withdrawn in 2002. Later although withdrawn, it was found that IEEE Std 627 was continuing to be used and referenced by many entities both in the US and other countries including in ASME's QME-1-2002 ''Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Plants'', US NRC's NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan Section 3.11, at least one reactor vendor's Design Certification Document (DCD), several international licensing documents, and elsewhere. As a result, in 2007, the IEEE Standards Board authorized Working Group 2.10 of Subcommittee 2 (Qualification) of the Power and Energy Society's Nuclear Power Engineering Committee to resurrect and update IEEE Std 627-1980 (Reaff 1996). The result was the culmination IEEE Std 627 in 2010. This paper will report on the eight improvements made

  15. A Novel A(H7N2) Influenza Virus Isolated from a Veterinarian Caring for Cats in a New York City Animal Shelter Causes Mild Disease and Transmits Poorly in the Ferret Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Sun, Xiangjie; Brock, Nicole; Pappas, Claudia; Creager, Hannah M; Zeng, Hui; Tumpey, Terrence M; Maines, Taronna R

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, a low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) virus was identified to be the causative source of an outbreak in a cat shelter in New York City, which subsequently spread to multiple shelters in the states of New York and Pennsylvania. One person with occupational exposure to infected cats became infected with the virus, representing the first LPAI H7N2 virus infection in a human in North America since 2003. Considering the close contact that frequently occurs between companion animals and humans, it was critical to assess the relative risk of this novel virus to public health. The virus isolated from the human case, A/New York/108/2016 (NY/108), caused mild and transient illness in ferrets and mice but did not transmit to naive cohoused ferrets following traditional or aerosol-based inoculation methods. The environmental persistence of NY/108 virus was generally comparable to that of other LPAI H7N2 viruses. However, NY/108 virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells with an increased efficiency compared with that of previously isolated H7N2 viruses. Furthermore, the novel H7N2 virus was found to utilize a relatively lower pH for hemagglutinin activation, similar to human influenza viruses. Our data suggest that the LPAI H7N2 virus requires further adaptation before representing a substantial threat to public health. However, the reemergence of an LPAI H7N2 virus in the northeastern United States underscores the need for continuous surveillance of emerging zoonotic influenza viruses inclusive of mammalian species, such as domestic felines, that are not commonly considered intermediate hosts for avian influenza viruses. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses are capable of crossing the species barrier to infect mammals, an event of public health concern due to the potential acquisition of a pandemic phenotype. In December 2016, an H7N2 virus caused an outbreak in cats in multiple animal shelters in New York State. This was the first

  16. DOE Handbook: Supplementary guidance and design experience for the fusion safety standards DOE-STD-6002-96 and DOE-STD-6003-96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Two standards have been developed that pertain to the safety of fusion facilities. These are DOE- STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements, and DOE-STD-6003-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Guidance. The first of these standards identifies requirements that subscribers to that standard must meet to achieve safety in fusion facilities. The second standard contains guidance to assist in meeting the requirements identified inthefirst This handbook provides additional documentation on good operations and design practices as well as lessons learned from the experiences of designers and operators of previous fusion facilities and related systems. It is intended to capture the experience gained in the various fields and pass it on to designers of future fusion facilities as a means of enhancing success and safeiy. The sections of this document are presented according to the physical location of the major systems of a t%sion facility, beginning with the vacuum vessel and proceeding to those systems and components outside the vacuum vessel (the ''Ex-vessel Systems''). The last section describes administrative procedures that cannot be localized to specific components. It has been tacitly assumed that the general structure of the fusion facilities addressed is that of a tokamak though the same principles would apply to other magnetic confinement options

  17. DOE Handbook: Supplementary guidance and design experience for the fusion safety standards DOE-STD-6002-96 and DOE-STD-6003-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-01-01

    Two standards have been developed that pertain to the safety of fusion facilities. These are DOE- STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements, and DOE-STD-6003-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Guidance. The first of these standards identifies requirements that subscribers to that standard must meet to achieve safety in fusion facilities. The second standard contains guidance to assist in meeting the requirements identified in the first This handbook provides additional documentation on good operations and design practices as well as lessons learned from the experiences of designers and operators of previous fusion facilities and related systems. It is intended to capture the experience gained in the various fields and pass it on to designers of future fusion facilities as a means of enhancing success and safety. The sections of this document are presented according to the physical location of the major systems of a fusion facility, beginning with the vacuum vessel and proceeding to those systems and components outside the vacuum vessel (the "Ex-vessel Systems"). The last section describes administrative procedures that cannot be localized to specific components. It has been tacitly assumed that the general structure of the fusion facilities addressed is that of a tokamak though the same principles would apply to other magnetic confinement options.

  18. A syphilis co-infection study in human papilloma virus patients attended in the sexually transmitted infection ambulatory clinic, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria de Sena Souza

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of syphilis worldwide, little is known about its manifestations when associated with other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI, specifically the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. Current epidemiological studies show that there is a high incidence of both diseases in ambulatory clinics all over Brazil. This study aims to estimate the incidence of syphilis - HPV co-infections, among patients from the STI ambulatory clinic at the Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two-hundred and seven patients were seen in the clinic between March and December 2005, of which 113 (54.6% sought care for an HPV infection. Blood samples were taken from all patients to check syphilis serology using the flocculation and the non-treponemic test or VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and the TPHA (Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay treponemic and confirmatory method. Of the 207 patients, 113 (54.6% consulted referring to HPV as their primary complaint, and of these, 18 (15.9% also presented with positive syphilis serology, demonstrating a high incidence of coinfection. The average age of the patients varied between 20 and 25 years, 203 (98.1% were male and 4 (1.9% were female. The predominance of the male sex in this sample confirms the profile usually treated in STI clinics across the country, and the age range is that of typically high sexually activity. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the need for a differentiated examination of all STD patients.

  19. NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document for Human Health and Performance Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Marlei; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily S.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous verification, validation, and credibility (VVC) processes are imperative to ensure that models and simulations (MS) are sufficiently reliable to address issues within their intended scope. The NASA standard for MS, NASA-STD-7009 (7009) [1] was a resultant outcome of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) to ensure MS are developed, applied, and interpreted appropriately for making decisions that may impact crew or mission safety. Because the 7009 focus is engineering systems, a NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document is being developed to augment the 7009 and provide information, tools, and techniques applicable to the probabilistic and deterministic biological MS more prevalent in human health and performance (HHP) and space biomedical research and operations.

  20. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommending an HIV regimen. Testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Coinfection with another STD can cause HIV infection to advance faster and increase the risk of HIV transmission to a sexual partner. STD testing makes it possible to detect ...

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Autonomy and Postpartum STD Prevention Among Young Couples: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S

    2018-03-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Nurses' perceptions of the vulnerabilities to STD/AIDS in light of the process of adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ítalo Rodolfo; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; Valadares, Glaucia Valente; Santos, Nereida Lúcia Palko dos; Silva, Thiago Privado da; Leite, Joséte Luzia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to understand the perception of nurses on the vulnerabilities to STD/AIDS in light of the process of adolescence.Method: qualitative research conducted with 15 nurses in a centre for the studies of adolescent healthcare of a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. The adopted theoretical and methodological frameworks were the Complexity Theory and the Grounded Theory, respectively. The semi-structured interview was used to collect data from January to August 2012.Results: thi...

  4. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants

  5. Design and implementation of STD32-BUS based reactor protection trip unit on FPGA imbaby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, I.; Elnokity, O.A.; Refai, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a way to design and implement the Trip Unit of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) using a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Instead of the traditional embedded Microprocessor based interface design method, a proposed tailor made FPGA based circuit is built to substitute the Trip Unit (TL1) existing in Egypt's 2' ' Research reactor ETRR-2. The existing embedded system is built around the STD32 field Computer Bus which used in industrial and process control applications. It is modular, rugged, reliable, and easy-to-use and is able to support a large mix of I/O cards and to easily change its configuration in the future. Therefore, the state machine of this bus is extracted from its timing diagrams and implemented in VHDL to interface the designed TU circuit. The proposed designed circuit implemented using ALTERA EPF10K10LC84-3 chip replaces the Single Board Computer which have the embedded SAY program of the TU providing the same integrated HAV and SAV functions implemented in FPGA Chip housed in an printed circuit board, which uses the same shape and specifications of STD32 boards. H/W implementation of both TU and STD32 Bus in VHDL addresses the issues of safety and reusability

  6. Intermodal Storage and Transport Frame (ISTF) MIL-STD-1660 Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... The ISTF was evaluated by the testing procedures set forth in MIL-STD-1660. Stacking, vibration, edgewise rotational drop, incline impact, sling compatibility, forklifting, and disassembly testing were conducted on the ISTF units...

  7. PA171 Containers on a Wood Pallet with Metal Top Adapter, Air Pressure Tests During MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (PM-MAS) to conduct Air Pressure Tests during MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" testing on the PA171 containers on a wood pallet with metal top adapter as manufactured by Alliant Tech...

  8. GOOD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR DECREASE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISSEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method:  Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and  practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion:  It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.

  9. [Anorectal manifestations of sexually transmitted infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted infections is rising in Europe and in Switzerland since the beginning of the third millenium. Many organisms may affect the perianal skin and the anorectum. While some of these infections are a result of contigous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse affecting males who have sex with males but is seen increasingly in females as well since there is evidence of the increasing popularity of anal sex among heterosexuals. The symptoms of specific infections are largely dependent on the route and site of inoculation. Organisms that cause typical genital symptoms - such as syphilis, chancroid, herpes simplex or HPV-infection - result in similar symptoms when the perianal skin, the anoderm or the distal anal canal are the site of infection. Patients with proctitis may have unspecific signs in various degrees including mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, anorectal pain, superficial ulcers and sometimes generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. It is of utmost importance to include STIs (e. g. lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, non-LGV-chlamydia and herpes simplex) in the differential diagnosis in these patients. Unfortunately rectal infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea is asymptomatic in the majority of cases of men having sex with men and in high-risk females. A careful history and physical examination is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis, usually supported by proctoscopy, culture, PCR, serology and histology. Certain organisms, more commonly thought of as food- or water-borne disease may be sexually transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact from various sexual practices.

  10. STD and HIV screening in general practice: a survey related to termination of pregnancy in south Thames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R L; Maguire, H C; Kurtz, Z

    1998-01-01

    It has been recommended that screening for sexually transmitted disease (STDs) be carried out at the time of termination of pregnancy to allow prevention of post-abortion infection. Screening offers the opportunity to treat an infected woman and prevent serious complications following the termination procedure. Our findings indicate that general practitioners (GPs) in South Thames did not routinely carry out screening and few realized it took place at referral centres. PMID:9624755

  11. Inductive reasoning about causally transmitted properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2008-11-01

    Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates' context-sensitive use of taxonomic and food web knowledge to guide reasoning about causal transmission and shows good qualitative agreement between model predictions and human inferences. A second experiment demonstrates strong quantitative and qualitative fits to inferences about a more complex artificial food web. A third experiment investigates human reasoning about complex novel food webs where species have known taxonomic relations. Results demonstrate a double-dissociation between the predictions of our causal model and a related taxonomic model [Kemp, C., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2003). Learning domain structures. In Proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the cognitive science society]: the causal model predicts human inferences about diseases but not genes, while the taxonomic model predicts human inferences about genes but not diseases. We contrast our framework with previous models of category-based induction and previous formal instantiations of intuitive theories, and outline challenges in developing a complete model of context-sensitive reasoning.

  12. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e Aids entre jogadores juniores Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS among junior professional players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Aparecido Silva

    2002-08-01

    there are few studies describing young male vulnerability to HIV. A study was carried out aiming at developing a STD/AIDS prevention program for junior professional soccer players. METHODS: Study participants were twenty-five junior soccer players of a major league professional team of the city of Campinas, Brazil. There were 2 segments. In segment 1, participants were given a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, specific gender-related behaviors, condom use, HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention, and sports associated exposure risk. In segment 2, 17 sessions of group dynamics were carried out. Many forms of expression (speech, writing, pictures, and videos were encouraged to grasp participants' thoughts on STD/AIDS-related matters. RESULTS: Participants showed good knowledge on HIV transmission but they were poorly informed on reproduction and STDs. Unwanted pregnancy is their main concern. As for condom use, 73% consistently used condoms with casual partners (73%, and only 27% consistently used them with regular partners. Also, 58% considered risky to have HIV-positive players among them. CONCLUSIONS: Young players do not consider themselves vulnerable despite their chances of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. They have poor knowledge about the human body and reproductive health. Soccer milieu as well as other sports milieus create great opportunities for prevention programs, where they may have a multiplier effect since athletes are often regarded as role models for children and youngsters.

  13. Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS/VIH/sida entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos A novel school-based strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs, and teen pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el diseño de un estudio en escuelas preparatorias para evaluar una intervención de prevención de VIH/sida y embarazos no planeados, y presentar los resultados de su encuesta basal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se implementó una intervención sobre VIH/sida/ITS, dirigida a adolescentes, incluyendo anticoncepción de emergencia (AE, y se diseñó una evaluación prospectiva aleatorizada controlada para medir la efectividad de la misma. Se llevó a cabo una encuesta basal, de la que se deriva un diagnóstico de los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales de la población objetivo. RESULTADOS: De las 40 escuelas participantes, 11 177 estudiantes de primero de preparatoria (52% mujeres; edad media de ambos sexos de 15.5 años participaron en la encuesta basal. De ellos, 10% de las mujeres y 24% de los hombres dijeron tener experiencia sexual, y únicamente 39% reportó haber usado condón en la primera relación. De los sexualmente activos, un tercio de los hombres y la quinta parte de las mujeres reportaron haber experimentado zafadura o rotura del condón. La mayor parte de los participantes había escuchado previamente sobre la AE. CONCLUSIONES: La baja proporción del uso de condón, aunado al hecho de que se reportan problemas para su uso efectivo, refuerza la idea del diseño de este estudio: proponer un método anticonceptivo de respaldo al condón, como la AE, razonablemente conocida y con disposición para su uso.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the study design of an HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention program targeting high school students, and to present the results from the baseline survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A school curriculum was developed to inform adolescent students about HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, which included information on emergency contraception (EC for adolescent students. A randomized controlled study was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effect of this intervention. The baseline survey

  14. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  15. Another Look at the Draft Mil-Std-1540E Unit Random Vibration Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, E.; Peterson, A. J..; Davis, D.

    2012-07-01

    The draft Mil-Std-1540E has been updated to reflect lessons learned since its publication as an SMC Standard in 2008, [1], and an earlier Aerospace Corporation Technical Report released in 2006, [2]. This paper discusses the technical rationale supporting some of the unit random vibration test requirements to provide better insight into their derivation and application to programs. It is intended that these requirements be tailored for each program to reflect the customer risk profile. Several tailoring options are provided and a two phase test strategy is discussed to highlight its applicability to utilizing heritage hardware in new applications.

  16. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  17. IEEE Std 535-1979: IEEE standard for qualification of Class 1E lead storage batteries for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes qualification methods for Class 1E lead storage batteries and racks to be used in nuclear power generating stations outside of primary containment. Qualification required in ANSI/IEEE Std 279-1971 and IEE Std 308-1978, can be demonstrated by using the procedures provided in this standard in accordance with IEEE Std 323-1974. Battery sizing, maintenance, capacity testing, installation, charging equipment and consideration of other type batteries are beyond the scope of this standard

  18. Assessment of reactivity of three treponemal tests in non-treponemal non-reactive cases from sexually transmitted diseases clinic, antenatal clinic, integrated counselling and testing centre, other different outdoor patient departments/indoor patients of a tertiary care centre and peripheral health clinic attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, many state reference centres for sexually transmitted infections perform only a single screening assay for syphilis diagnosis. In this study, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA was performed on 1115 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL/rapid plasma regain (RPR non-reactive and 107 reactive sera out of 10,489 tested by VDRL/RPR according to the National AIDS Control Organisation syphilis testing protocol. A total of 47 Specimens reactive in TPHA and non-reactive with VDRL test were subjected to fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption and enzyme-immunoassay. Seroprevalence considering both VDRL and TPHA positivity was highest (4.4% in sexually transmitted diseases clinic attendees than in other subject groups. Positivity by two treponemal tests in 24 (2.2% cases non-reactive by VDRL/RPR was representative of the fully treated patients or latent or late syphilis cases. The findings highlight that a suitable treponemal confirmatory test should be performed in all the diagnostic laboratories.

  19. Public opinion about condoms for HIV and STD prevention: a Midwestern state telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L; Milhausen, Robin R; Crosby, Richard A; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2005-09-01

    Public opinion is important in determining condom and condom education policies in public high schools. A random telephone survey of 517 Indiana residents was conducted from July through October 2003 to assess public opinion about education on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention; condom availability in Indiana public high schools; and issues related to condom use, effectiveness and promotion. Data were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression techniques. A majority of respondents strongly or somewhat agreed that instruction on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention should be provided in public high schools (77%), classroom instruction should include condoms (71%), only medically accurate information about condoms should being given (94%) and the federal government should promote condoms (70%). Fewer than half (48%) strongly or somewhat agreed that condoms should be made available to teenagers in public high schools without parental permission. Nearly all (92%) considered condoms at least somewhat effective in preventing HIV and other STDs. Non-Republican party affiliation, younger age and condom use within the previous five years were each significantly associated with having positive opinions on many of the condom-related statements. Public opinion appears to support the provision of correct condom use information in Indiana public schools. Schools should consider providing only medically accurate information about condoms and including condoms in instruction so students can see and touch them.

  20. Seismic design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities (DOE-STD-1020-XX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities are provided in DOE-STD-1020-XX. The criteria include selection of design/evaluation seismic input from probabilistic seismic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. Conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior and by a seismic load factor. These criteria are based on the performance or risk goals specified in DOE 5480.28. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of desired behavior and of the probability of not achieving that behavior. Following the seismic design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-XX is sufficient to demonstrate that the probabilistic performance or risk goals are achieved. The criteria are simple procedures but with a sound, rigorous basis for the achievement of goals

  1. Nanodisc-Targeted STD NMR Spectroscopy Reveals Atomic Details of Ligand Binding to Lipid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Juan C; Inacio Dos Reis, Rosana; Taylor, Richard J; Henry, Alistair J; Watts, Anthony

    2018-05-18

    Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy is one of the most popular ligand-based NMR techniques for the study of protein-ligand interactions. This is due to its robustness and the fact that it is focused on the signals of the ligand, without any need for NMR information on the macromolecular target. This technique is most commonly applied to systems involving different types of ligands (e.g., small organic molecules, carbohydrates or lipids) and a protein as the target, in which the latter is selectively saturated. However, only a few examples have been reported where membrane mimetics are the macromolecular binding partners. Here, we have employed STD NMR spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of the neurotransmitter dopamine with mimetics of lipid bilayers, such as nanodiscs, by saturation of the latter. In particular, the interactions between dopamine and model lipid nanodiscs formed either from charged or zwitterionic lipids have been resolved at the atomic level. The results, in agreement with previous isothermal titration calorimetry studies, show that dopamine preferentially binds to negatively charged model membranes, but also provide detailed atomic insights into the mode of interaction of dopamine with membrane mimetics. Our findings provide relevant structural information for the design of lipid-based drug carriers of dopamine and its structural analogues and are of general applicability to other systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The proposal of permanent education in the formation of dentists in std/hiv/aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to report the experience of the "Project for the formation of dentists as facilitators of Permanent Education in Health in the area of STD/HIV/AIDS" developed in partnerships with the National Program of STD/AIDS, the Technical Area of Oral Health of the Ministry of Health, Public Universities and Municipal and State Secretaries of Health. The objective of the program was to capacitate dentists of the public health system in Brazilian states and cities to provide integral and humanized attendance for people living with HIV/AIDS. The methodology of choice for the form of teams of facilitators was Permanent Education in Health through semi-presential courses focusing on the problematization of local and professional realities. Thus, seeking to construct a process of education to modify and reorient the hegemonic dental practice, strengthening the process of attendance and management and the partnerships, guaranteeing the sustainability of the actions in the states and cities.

  3. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a tertiary care centre at Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI varies widely from region to region in our country. Aims: To highlight the pattern of STIs and the profile of patients with HIV infection in STD patients as seen at our hospital. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of clients attending STI clinic, JIPMER, Puducherry, from June 2004 to June 2006 was done. Results: A total of 866 clients attended our STI clinic, out of whom 435 (50.2% had proven STI. STIs were more common in men, with a male (290: female (145 ratio of 2:1. Their age ranged from 1 year to 75 years (mean age = 32.38 years with the maximum number of patients in the age group of 21-30 years, while children constituted only 2.8%. Herpes genitalis (107 patients, 32.8% was the most common ulcerative STI, while genital wart was the most common nonulcerative STI (56 patients, 17.1%. Non-gonococcal urethritis (46 patients, 14.1% was more common than gonococcal urethritis. HIV infection was the most common STI in our study, at an alarmingly high rate of 34.5% (151/435. HIV seropositivity was more common in patients who presented with ulcerative STIs than with nonulcerative STIs. Conclusions: Herpes genitalis was the most common ulcerative STD, while genital wart was the most common nonulcerative STI in our study. The prevalence of HIV among STI clients in India has been on the rise, but has quite alarmingly become the most common STI in our study.

  4. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the TAG block for the correct transmitters, and then send to the USACE AIS network. B. Outbound openings in the USCG firewall for the USCG Message...USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...September 2014 Report No. CD-D-09-15 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al. Public

  5. β-Lactam antibiotics epitope mapping with STD NMR spectroscopy: a study of drug-human serum albumin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milagre, Cintia D. F.; Cabeca, Luis F.; Almeida, Wanda P.; Marsaioli, Anita J.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular recognition events are key issues in many biological processes. STD NMR (saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) is one of the techniques used to understand such biological interactions. Herein, we have investigated the interactions of four β-lactam antibiotics belonging to two classes (cephalosporins and penicillins) with human serum albumin (HSA) by 1 H STD NMR revealing that the interaction between the aromatic moiety and HSA is responsible for the binding efficiency. Thus, the structural differences from the five to six-membered thio ring in penicillins and cephalosporins do not seem to influence antibiotic albumin interactions. (author)

  6. Technical basis for storage of elastomer-sealed produce cans in the DOE-STD-3013-94 package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrell, D.R.; Stakebake, J.L.; Szempruch, R.W.

    1996-11-01

    Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94 establishes criteria for the long-term packaging of plutonium metal and oxide. The inclusion of organic materials in sealed packages of plutonium may produce gases that contribute to container pressurization. To expedite processing, it would be desirable to permit, within the DOE-outlined criteria, limited amounts of organic materials to be used as a sealing gasket in some packaging containers. This paper presents a technical basis for allowing elastomer-sealed cans to be packaged inside the sealed inner container of a double weld-sealed DOE-STD-3013-94 container system

  7. A STD-NMR Study of the Interaction of the Anabaena Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase with the Coenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara V. Antonini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+ via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NADP+ coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NADP+ coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NAD+, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope.

  8. Primary care management of sexually transmitted urethritis in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Claire E

    2003-04-01

    To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.

  9. CBO-richtlijn 'Seksueel overdraagbare aandoeningen en herpes neonatorum' (herziening)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O. P.; van der Meijden, W. I.; Wittenberg, J.; van Bergen, J. E. A. M.; Boeke, A. J. P.; van Doornum, G. J. J.; Henquet, C. J. M.; Galama, J. M. D.; Postma, M. J.; Prins, J. M.; van Voorst Vader, P. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  10. Theoretical domains: a heuristic for teaching behavioral theory in HIV/STD prevention courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcini, M Margaret; Canin, Lisa; Gandelman, Alice; Skolnik, Heidi

    2004-10-01

    The HIV/STD epidemics have broadened the need for better behavioral intervention programs and highlighted the importance of providing training in behavioral theory to frontline program practitioners. However, there is a lack of effective methods for teaching theoretical concepts to people who may not have a background in behavioral science. This article presents a solution to this challenge by introducing a new heuristic for teaching theory and for placing individual theories/models in a broader context. Using a broad framework, we identify five domains that influence behavior: risk appraisal, self-perceptions, emotions and arousal, relationships and social influence, and environmental and structural factors. Each domain is described, and a brief overview of supporting literature is provided. Following the presentation of domains, we discuss course structure and activities.

  11. MIL-STD-1553 dynamic bus controller/remote terminal hybrid set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical and electrical requirements of a Dual Redundant BUS Interface Unit (BIU) acting as a BUS Controller Interface Unit (BCIU) or Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) between a Motorola 68000 VME BUS and MIL-STD-1553B Multiplex Data Bus. A discussion of how the BIU Hybrid set is programmed, and operates as a BCIU or RTU, will be included. This paper will review Dynamic Bus Control and other Mode Code capabilities. The BIU Hybrid Set interfaces to a 68000 Microprocessor with a VME Bus using programmed I/O transfers. This special interface will be discussed along with the internal Dual Access Memory (4K x 16) used to support the data exchanges between the CPU and the BIU Hybrid Set. The hybrid set's physical size and power requirements will be covered. This includes the present Double Eurocard the BIU function is presently being offered on.

  12. IEEE Std 101-1987: IEEE guide for the statistical analysis of thermal life test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This revision of IEEE Std 101-1972 describes statistical analyses for data from thermally accelerated aging tests. It explains the basis and use of statistical calculations for an engineer or scientist. Accelerated test procedures usually call for a number of specimens to be aged at each of several temperatures appreciably above normal operating temperatures. High temperatures are chosen to produce specimen failures (according to specified failure criteria) in typically one week to one year. The test objective is to determine the dependence of median life on temperature from the data, and to estimate, by extrapolation, the median life to be expected at service temperature. This guide presents methods for analyzing such data and for comparing test data on different materials

  13. HIV, STD, and hepatitis risk to primary female partners of men being released from prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A; Faigeles, Bonnie; Comfort, Megan; Seal, David; Nealey-Moore, Jill; Belcher, Lisa; Morrow, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Incarcerated men in the US are at increased risk for HIV, STDs and hepatitis, and many men leaving prison have unprotected sex with a primary female partner immediately following release from prison. This paper addresses risk to the primary female partners of men being released from prison (N = 106) by examining the prevalence of men's concurrent unprotected sex with other partners or needle sharing prior to and following release from prison (concurrent risk). Rates of concurrent risk were 46% prior to incarceration, 18% one month post release, and 24% three months post release. Multivariate analysis showed concurrent risk was significantly associated with having a female partner who had one or more HIV/STD risk factors and having a history of injection drug use. Findings demonstrate need for prevention programs for incarcerated men and their female partners.

  14. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  15. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  16. Real-life IT architecture design reports and their relation to IEEE Std 1471 stakeholders and concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, H.; Koning, H.

    2006-01-01

    Architectural designs are an important means to manage the development and deployment of information technology (IT). Much debate has been going on about a proper definition of architecture in IT and about how to describe it. In 2000, the IEEE Std 1471 proposed a model of an architecture description

  17. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of Meeting In... Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and... professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, and other STDs. Agenda: Agenda items include: (1...

  18. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention.../AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs, the support of health care services to persons living with HIV/AIDS, and education of health professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other...

  19. Adaptive transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit channel selection in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to- interference-plus- noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms, which are the dominant cancelation and the less complex arbitrary cancelation, are considered, for which the receive antenna array is assumed to have small angular spread. Analytical formulation for some performance measures in addition to several processing complexity and numerical comparisons between various adaptation schemes are presented. ©2010 IEEE.

  20. Sexually transmitted parasites and host mating behavior in the decorated cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases play a potentially important role in the ecology and evolution of host mating behavior. Here, we use a sexually transmitted nematode-cricket (Mehdinema alii--Gryllodes sigillatus) system to examine the effects of parasitism on host mating activity and female choice. Previous work has shown that infected male crickets produce a significantly smaller nuptial gift (spermatophylax) than uninfected males. This is expected to result in reduced spermatophylax feeding du...

  1. Sexually transmitted nematodes affect spermatophylax production in the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Parasites can influence various aspects of host reproduction and mating, including spermatophore production. In the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, males transfer to females a two-part spermatophore containing a sperm-filled ampulla and a gelatinous spermatophylax (nuptial gift). Here we investigate the effects of a sexually transmitted nematode on male spermatophylax production. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to reduce host fertility or fecundity in insect hosts. To o...

  2. Searching for unknown transfusion-transmitted hepatitis viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, G.; Hjalgrim, H.; Rostgaard, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C viruses were transmitted through blood transfusion before implementation of donor screening. The existence of additional, yet unknown transfusion transmittable agents causing liver disease could have important public health implications. Methods: Analyses were...... 1992 to account for the effect of screening for hepatitis C virus. Results: A total of 1 482 922 transfused patients were included in the analyses. Analyses showed evidence of transfusion transmission of liver diseases before, but not after the implementation of hepatitis C virus screening in 1992...... for transfusion transmission of agents causing liver disease after the implementation of screening for hepatitis B and C, and suggest that if such transmission does occur, it is rare....

  3. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  4. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools' curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before ...

  5. Inductive Reasoning about Causally Transmitted Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2008-01-01

    Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates'…

  6. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu

    1993-01-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author)

  7. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu (St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author).

  8. Soil transmitted helminths infections, malnutrition and anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major public health problem in many developing countries. Establishment of prevalence and intensity of infections is important in designing, implementating and evaluating control programs. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of STH infections, malnutrition ...

  9. Enhancement of a locally developed HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic/Latino MSM: A partnership of community-based organizations, a university, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Freeman, Arin; Sun, Christina J.; Garcia, Manuel; Painter, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, no efficacious behavioral interventions are currently available for use with this vulnerable population. We describe the development and enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino MSM that is currently being implemented and evaluated. Our enhancement process included incorporating local data on risks and context; identifying community priorities; defining intervention core elements and key characteristics; developing a logic model; developing an intervention logo; enhancing intervention activities and materials; scripting intervention delivery; expanding the comparison intervention; and establishing a materials review committee. If efficacious, HOLA en Grupos will be the first behavioral intervention to be identified for potential use with Hispanic/Latino MSM, thereby contributing to the body of evidence-based resources that may be used for preventing HIV/STD infection among these MSM and their sex partners. PMID:26241382

  10. Sexually transmitted infections in India: Current status (except human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are more dynamic than other infections prevailing in the community. It is important that such dynamic epidemiological changes in STIs are acknowledged and kept track of in a vast and populous developing country like India, particularly in this HIV era. It is with this aim that the authors have reviewed the relevant literature in STI epidemiology in India during the past 25 years. Admittedly, there has been heterogeneity of data to account for the subcontinental dimension of this country. But a basic pattern in the changing epidemiology is discernible. Like the developed countries, in India too the bacterial STIs like chancroid and gonorrhea are declining, while viral STIs like HPV and herpes genitalis are on an upswing. The overall decline in the prevalence of STIs has to be interpreted with caution, however. This may partially reflect the improved facilities of treatment in the peripheral centres that obviates the need of many patients in attending the STD clinics in the tertiary centres. Also, the improved pharmacotherapy of many of the bacterial STIs may result in partial clearance and non-reporting of many of these infections.

  11. Lyme disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...

  12. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL DOE-STD-3013 Packaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.C.; Dodson, K.

    2009-01-01

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched.

  13. STD screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices: a national survey of US physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Montaño, Daniel E; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Phillips, William R; Armstrong, Keira; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-11-01

    This study presents results from a national survey of US physicians that assessed screening, case reporting, partner management, and clinical practices for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV infection. Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 7300 physicians to assess screening, testing, reporting, and partner notification for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Fewer than one third of physicians routinely screened men or women (pregnant or nonpregnant) for STDs. Case reporting was lowest for chlamydia (37 percent), intermediate for gonorrhea (44 percent), and higher for syphilis, HIV, and AIDS (53 percent-57 percent). Physicians instructed patients to notify their partners (82 percent-89 percent) or the health department (25 percent-34 percent) rather than doing so themselves. STD screening levels are well below practice guidelines for women and virtually nonexistent for men. Case reporting levels are below those legally mandated; physicians rely instead on patients for partner notification. Health departments must increase collaboration with private physicians to improve the quality of STD care.

  14. SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus: Proton irradiation test results and spaceflight SEU data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBel, K.A.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Miller, J.T. (NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Marshall, P. (NRL/SFA, Washington, DC (United States)); Dale, C. (NRL, Washington, DC (United States)); Crabtree, C.M. (Hughes/ST Systems Corp., Seabrook, MD (United States)); Gates, M.M. (Jackson and Tull, Seabrook, MD (United States))

    1993-12-01

    The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) was launched in July of 1992 as part of the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission. The SEDS utilizes NASA's first MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Multiplexed Data Bus (or 1773 bus) to communicate with other spacecraft subsystems in the space environment. The 1773 bus is the fiber optic version of the MIL-STD-1553 Data Bus, a electronic wire bus used in many avionics applications. The authors present proton test and space flight single event effect data for NASA's first fiber optic data bus. Bit error rate predictions based on a new proton direct ionization model agree well with flight data for proton belt and solar flare effects.

  15. Using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans (AHAAH) With Hearing Protection Software, Release MIL-STD-1474E

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    unfolding.” Invited article in NHCA’s Spectrum. 1997 MIL-STD-1474D. (1997). “Department of defense design criteria. Noise limits,” http...Passenger Safety, Washington, DC. Price, G. R. (1997). “Understanding hazard from intense sounds.” Invited seminar to Audiology Department, University of...Putting theory into practice.” In H. M. Borchgrevink (Ed.), Hearing and hearing prophylaxis, Scandinavian Audiology Supplement 16 (pp. 111-121

  16. Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men attending STD clinics in Brazil Prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis em homens atendidos em clínicas de DST no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Joaquim Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections and identify demographic, behavioral and clinical factors correlated withsuch infections in men attending six sexually transmitted disease clinics in Brazil. METHODS: Multicentric, cross-sectional study performed among men attending STD clinics in Brazil. The study included STD clinics in six cities distributed throughout the five geographic regions of Brazil in 2005. Patients provided 20 ml of first catch urine for testing for NG and CT by DNA-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 767 (92.9% men were included in the study. The mean age was 26.5 (SD 8.3 years-old. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 13.1% (95%CI 10.7%-15.5% and gonorrhea was 18.4% (95%CI 15.7%-21.1%. Coinfection prevalence was 4.4% (95%CI 2.95%-5.85% in men who sought attendance in STI clinics. Factors identified as associated with C. trachomatis were younger age (15-24 [OR=1.4 (95%CI 1.01-1.91], present urethral discharge [OR=4.8 (95%CI 1.52-15.05], genital warts [OR=3.0 (95%CI 1.49-5.92] and previous history of urethral discharge [OR=2.4 (95%CI 1.11-5.18]. Variables associated with gonorrhea were younger age (15 to 24 [OR=1.5 (95%CI 1.09-2.05], presence of urethral discharge [OR=9.9 (95%CI 5.53-17.79], genital warts [OR=18.3 (95%CI 8.03-41.60] and ulcer present upon clinical examination [OR=4.9 (95%CI 1.06-22.73]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important implications for education and prevention actions directed toward men at risk of HIV/STD. A venue-based approach to offer routine screening for young men in STD clinics should be stimulated.INTRODUÇÃO: Nosso objetivo foi acessar a prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e Chlamydia trachomatis e identificar fatores demográficos, comportamentais e clínicos correlacionados a essas infecções em homens atendidos em clínicas de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico, transversal

  17. Club Drugs and HIV/STD Infection: An Exploratory Analysis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Changsha, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; He, Jianmei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Tang, Xuemin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of HIV/STD among Changsha men who have sex with men (MSM). Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires including information regarding socio-demographics, club drug use, high-risk behaviors, and HIV/STD infections. Multiple methods including venue-based, peer referral using “snowball” techniques, and internet advertisements were used to recruit study participants. Results Of the 826 participants, 177 (21.4%) reported that they had used club drugs at some time before or during sex in the past six months. MSM with young age, low education level, and seeking partners through the internet or bars were the main population who used drugs. Poppers were the most common drug used among Changsha MSM. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus-2 were higher among drug users. There were no significant differences in unprotected sexual intercourse and condom use between drug users and non-users. Compared with non-users, risk behaviors such as group sex, multiple sex partners, and sex with foreigners were more frequent among drug users. Conclusion Club drug use is common among Changsha MSM, and is related to unsafe sex activities and HIV/STD infection. It is necessary to build novel targeted HIV prevention strategies to monitor and reduce club drug use among MSM. PMID:25950912

  18. Club Drugs and HIV/STD Infection: An Exploratory Analysis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Changsha, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available To evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of HIV/STD among Changsha men who have sex with men (MSM.A cross-sectional survey was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires including information regarding socio-demographics, club drug use, high-risk behaviors, and HIV/STD infections. Multiple methods including venue-based, peer referral using "snowball" techniques, and internet advertisements were used to recruit study participants.Of the 826 participants, 177 (21.4% reported that they had used club drugs at some time before or during sex in the past six months. MSM with young age, low education level, and seeking partners through the internet or bars were the main population who used drugs. Poppers were the most common drug used among Changsha MSM. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus-2 were higher among drug users. There were no significant differences in unprotected sexual intercourse and condom use between drug users and non-users. Compared with non-users, risk behaviors such as group sex, multiple sex partners, and sex with foreigners were more frequent among drug users.Club drug use is common among Changsha MSM, and is related to unsafe sex activities and HIV/STD infection. It is necessary to build novel targeted HIV prevention strategies to monitor and reduce club drug use among MSM.

  19. Water physics and chemistry data from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959 (NODC Accession 7101380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959. Data were submitted by...

  20. Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995, NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (SJMAC-DEM) to test the Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995 NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, "Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance...