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Sample records for transmitted diseases diagnostics

  1. Evaluation of sexually transmitted diseases diagnostic algorithms among family planning clients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiga, S H; Vuylsteke, B; Lyamuya, E F; Dallabetta, G; Laga, M

    1998-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to assess the validity of STD screening approaches among family planning clients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Between March and September 1995, information about sociodemographic characteristics, contraceptive use, sexual behaviour, and medical history was obtained from consenting women (n = 908). After interview, blood and genital specimens were collected for diagnosis of STDs and HIV. Based on the information obtained at interview and clinical examination, STD diagnostic algorithms were developed and validated. The prevalence of STDs was HIV (16.9%), gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervicitis (8.2%), and Trichomonas vaginalis and/or Candida albicans (27.2%). The risk of cervicitis was increased among unmarried women and among women with a husband women having more than one sex partners in the past 3 months or a new sex partner during the past month. Most women with cervicitis (62.2%) and vaginitis (67.6%) were asymptomatic. A screening strategy for cervicitis based on symptoms had a sensitivity of 29.7%, a specificity of 84.1%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 15.9%. The corresponding figures for an algorithm based on clinical signs were 20.3%, 90.2%, and 15.6%. The sensitivity of a simple risk assessment algorithm ranged from 20.3% to 73%. An approach based on both risk assessment (risk score > or = 1) and clinical signs (cervical mucopus and friability) had a sensitivity of 37.8%, a specificity of 87.5%, and a PPV of 21.4%. A syndromic approach for vaginitis resulted in a higher sensitivity than the approach based on the type of vaginal discharge. Although there is no single screening strategy for cervicitis which can be advocated for large scale application, risk assessment might be the only cost effective strategy for identifying women with cervicitis in family planning clinics in Tanzania.

  2. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... optimal treatments for STIs, especially in pregnant women. General Information About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) STDs/STIs ...

  5. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... page: About CDC.gov . 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms ...

  6. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and ...

  7. Ectoparasites as sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, H B; Mirensky, Y M; Parish, L C; Witkowski, J A

    1994-12-01

    Although Sarcoptes scabii and Phthirus pubis infestations in humans are not always associated with the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, usually they are. Therefore, patients presenting with scabies or P. pubis should be routinely tested for various sexually transmitted diseases. These very uncomfortable infestations are easily curable with proper therapy. Lindane 1% preparations effectively exterminate both vermin. We have not seen any resistant strains. Especially with P. pubis, all household contacts should be treated to avoid reinfestation.

  8. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  9. Women and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, C; Chrisler, J C

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of historical developments in women's health care. It describes the current campaign against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and assesses the campaign's success in light of its history and the reality of women's lives. The authors suggest that women are forced into a double-bind in which they are expected to take responsibility for the prevention of STDs although they may not have the ability to do so. Modifications are suggested which take into account gender-role socialization and social group norms.

  10. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  11. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES - HISTORY, TYPES, PREVALENCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Irmov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections affect persons of active sex and cause serious consequences for the human organism, society and the generation. They spread sporadically, epidemically, and in some of them there are pandemics. For example, humanity is currently in a third viral hepatitis pandemic and a first AIDS pandemic. Another group of diseases can also be transmitted through sexual contact, but this is not the main mode of transmission. Such are salmonellosis, amoebiasis, influenza, various causes of meningitis and pneumonia. Despite being sexually transmitted, this is not a major and almost irrelevant way of transmitting the infection. Therefore, the diseases themselves are not included in the group of sexually transmitted diseases.

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Kimberly A.; Bolan, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30–May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR–12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815

  13. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  14. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can increase the risk of acquiring gonorrhea, social determinants of health, such as socioeconomic status, may contribute to the ... Kaufman JS, Fitch M, et al. Are neighborhood sociocultural factors influencing ... Social Health Association. Sexually transmitted diseases in America: how many ...

  16. Orally-transmitted Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigheddu, Maria Teresa; Górgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José Manuel

    2017-02-09

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is most frequently associated with a vectorial transmission. However, in recent years we have observed a significant increase in the oral transmission of the disease, associated mainly with the consumption of drinks made from fruit or other vegetables contaminated with triatomine faeces or secretions from infected mammals. After a latency period of 3 to 22 days after ingestion, the oral infection is characterized by more severe manifestations than those associated with vectorial transmission: prolonged fever, acute myocarditis with heart failure and, in some cases, meningoencephalitis. Mortality can reach up to 33% of those infected. The aim of this paper is to review this matter and to promote prevention practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually transmitted disease clinic: comparison of diagnostic tests with clinical and historical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G P; Harrison, H R; Berman, S M; Keenlyside, R A

    1988-01-01

    Of 212 consecutive male patients and 212 consecutive female patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, 36 (17%) men and 28 (13%) women had urethral or cervical cultures positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. When compared with culture, the direct fluorescent antibody test (MicroTrak, Syva Co., Palo Alto, CA) had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 97% in men; for women the sensitivity and specificity were 68% and 82%, respectively. One percent of test slides from men and 11% of slides from women were uninterpretable. Designation of high-risk patients for presumptive treatment, i.e., those with suggestive clinical syndromes, gonococcal infection, or exposure to others considered at high risk for chlamydial infection, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control, proved to be 94% sensitive, 22% specific in men, and 82% sensitive, 35% specific in women when compared with results of culture. Three different screening methods using mucopurulent cervicitis, a cervicitis score, and a series of key risk factors were less sensitive than presumptive treatment and performed worse in our study than in those published previously. Our findings suggest that use of presumptive treatment guidelines appears to be effective in directing treatment to STD clinic patients with chlamydial infection.

  18. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    ... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  19. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    1997-01-01

    ... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  20. The Office Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Crombie, Fionnella S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The family physician plays an important role in controlling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Accurate identification, diagnosis and treatment are essential in exercising this control. In addition, attention must be paid to educating patients and to treating their sexual contacts. This paper will review the management of some of the more common diseases including urethritis, vaginitis, cervicitis, herpes, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum.

  1. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developed and developing countries. Insufficient knowledge about STDs is a major impediment to successfully prevent the diseases among adolescent populations in developing countries. Objective: To ...

  2. [Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo

    2008-02-01

    Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.

  3. Stochastic dynamics for reinfection by transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alessandro S.; Pinho, Suani T. R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of stochastic models to study the dynamics of infectious diseases is an important tool to understand the epidemiological process. For several directly transmitted diseases, reinfection is a relevant process, which can be expressed by endogenous reactivation of the pathogen or by exogenous reinfection due to direct contact with an infected individual (with smaller reinfection rate σ β than infection rate β ). In this paper, we examine the stochastic susceptible, infected, recovered, infected (SIRI) model simulating the endogenous reactivation by a spontaneous reaction, while exogenous reinfection by a catalytic reaction. Analyzing the mean-field approximations of a site and pairs of sites, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the particular case of exogenous reinfection, we obtained continuous phase transitions involving endemic, epidemic, and no transmission phases for the simple approach; the approach of pairs is better to describe the phase transition from endemic phase (susceptible, infected, susceptible (SIS)-like model) to epidemic phase (susceptible, infected, and removed or recovered (SIR)-like model) considering the comparison with MC results; the reinfection increases the peaks of outbreaks until the system reaches endemic phase. For the particular case of endogenous reactivation, the approach of pairs leads to a continuous phase transition from endemic phase (SIS-like model) to no transmission phase. Finally, there is no phase transition when both effects are taken into account. We hope the results of this study can be generalized for the susceptible, exposed, infected, and removed or recovered (SEIRIE) model, for which the state exposed (infected but not infectious), describing more realistically transmitted diseases such as tuberculosis. In future work, we also intend to investigate the effect of network topology on phase transitions when the SIRI model describes both transmitted diseases (σ 1 ).

  4. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  5. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. EVIDENCE...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...... an association between STDs and male infertility is also of inadequate quality. The data regarding possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: There may be an association between STDs and male infertility of unknown genesis and possibly with different pathogenic mechanisms for different...

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhawan Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in children are not uncommon in India, though systematic epidemiological studies to determine the exact prevalence are not available. STDs in children can be acquired via sexual route or, uncommonly, via non-sexual route such as accidental inoculation by a diseased individual. Neonatal infections are almost always acquired intrauterine or during delivery. Voluntary indulgence in sexual activity is also an important factor in acquisition of STDs in childhood. Sexual abuse and sex trafficking remain the important problems in India. Surveys indicate that nearly half of the children are sexually abused. Most at risk children are street-based, homeless or those living in or near brothels. Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Other bacterial STDs are also on decline. On the other hand, viral STDs such as genital herpes and anogenital warts are increasing. This reflects trends of STDs in the adult population. Concomitant HIV infection is uncommon in children. Comprehensive sex education, stringent laws to prevent sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, and antenatal screening of all the women can reduce the prevalence of STDs in children.

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbetun, A O; Alausa, K O; Osoba, A O

    1977-06-01

    Although previous workers have emphasized that venereal disease is rife in many developing countries, there are no reliable statistics on the relative incidence of such infections. This dearth of information about these infections in Africa is directly related to economic factors and the lack of modern diagnostic facilities and medical manpower. The pattern of these diseases was studied over a 30-month period at a hosptial clinic serving an African population of about 2 million people. Standard diagnostic methods were used. The age distribution of patients conformed with that in other parts of the world except that more prepubertal patients were seen. The male-to-female ratio was 3:1. Nonspecific genital infections were the most common (25.9%) followed closely by postpubertal gonorrhea (19.5%). Prepubertal gonorrhea was more common than reported elsewhere (4.0%) and this may be because the children have been in contact with infected clothing of their parents or family members. Most strains of Neisseria gonorrhea were sensitive to penicillin by the disc method, but a few were markedly resistant to this and other agents. It is to be expected that the problem of gonococcal drug resistance will increase unless effective legislation is introduced to discourage self-medication with antimicrobial preparations. Venereophobia was common (6.6%) and sociocultural factors may play a dominant role in the incidence of the basicially psychiatric condition. Syphilis constituted 2.5% of diagnoses and this can be regarded as an ominous sign in an area where yaws was endemic 2 decades ago and is now virtually nonexistent. It is essential to provide facilities for diagnosis and treatment in every major African town in order to control such infections.

  8. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    .... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...

  9. The burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections in South Africa in 2000. Leigh Johnson, Debbie Bradshaw, Rob Dorrington. Abstract. Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections (STis) in South Africa, to identify the factors contributing to this burden, and to ...

  10. Transfusion transmitted diseases in perioperative and intensive care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT. They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and underlying condition of the patient. Challenges to safe BT continue due to new emerging pathogens and various management problems. Strategies to restrict BT, optimal surgical and anaesthetic techniques to reduce blood loss and efforts to develop transfusion alternatives should be made. Literature search was performed using search words/phrases blood transfusion, transfusion, transfusion transmitted diseases, transfusion transmitted bacterial diseases, transfusion transmitted viral diseases, transfusion transmitted protozoal diseases or combinations, on PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014.

  11. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kułakowska, Alina; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzyńska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wiesław

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Teixeira Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n = 2145. More than one quarter of the sample (25.8% reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions.

  13. The Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests should receive method- and use-effectiveness evaluations. Method-effectiveness evaluations determine sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for new tests. Use-effectiveness evaluations determine how practical or convenient a new test will be in a specific setting and may not be performed in a formal way in North American laboratories. To perform a clinical method evaluation of diagnostic tests, a good relationship between laboratory and clinical personnel is essential. Studies are usually conducted separately on populations of men and women, and should include sampling from different prevalence groups. Test performance comparisons may be made on a single specimen type or on more than one specimen from the same patient, which allows for the expansion of a reference standard and includes the ability of a particular assay, performed on a specimen type to diagnose an infected individual. The following components of the evaluation should be standardized and carefully followed: specimen identification; collection; transportation; processing; quality control; reading; proficiency testing; confirmatory testing; discordant analysis -- sensitivity, specificity and predictive value calculations; and record keeping. Methods are available to determine whether sample results are true or false positives or negatives. Use-effectiveness evaluations might determine the stability or durability of supplies and equipment; the logistics of shipping, receiving and storing supplies; the clarity and completeness of test instructions; the time and effort required to process and read results; the subjectivity factors in interpretation and reporting; and the costs. These determinations are usually more apparent for commercial assays than for homemade tests.

  14. Diseases Transmitted by Less Common House Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Beside dogs and cats, the most common pets worldwide, an increasing number of pocket pets and exotic pets are making their way to more and more households, especially in North America and Europe. Although many of these animals make appropriate pets, they also can be a source of many zoonotic diseases, especially in young children and immunocompromised individuals. Some of these diseases can be life threatening, such as rabies, rat bite fever, and plague. Some others are quite common, because of the frequency of the pathogens harbored by these species, such as salmonellosis in reptiles and amphibians. Appropriate knowledge of the zoonotic agents carried by these "new" pet species is strongly recommended prior to acquiring pocket or exotic pets. Furthermore, adopting wildlife as pets is strongly discouraged, because it is always a risky action that can lead to major health issues.

  15. A review of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of parasitic origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fore a now recognized mode of transmission – sexual contact. This in turn has led to giardiasis being classified as a sexually transmitted disease by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. This review identifies its occurrence mainly in homosexual populations of the developed world ...

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-10

    These guidelines for the treatment of patients who have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on September 26-28, 2000. The information in this report updates the 1998 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 1998;47 [No. RR-1]). Included in these updated guidelines are new alternative regimens for scabies, bacterial vaginosis, early syphilis, and granuloma inguinale; an expanded section on the diagnosis of genital herpes (including type-specific serologic tests); new recommendations for treatment of recurrent genital herpes among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); a revised approach to the management of victims of sexual assault; expanded regimens for the treatment of urethral meatal warts; and inclusion of hepatitis C as a sexually transmitted infection. In addition, these guidelines emphasize education and counseling for persons infected with human papillomavirus, clarify the diagnostic evaluation of congenital syphilis, and present information regarding the emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and implications for treatment. Recommendations also are provided for vaccine-preventable STDs, including hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

  17. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  18. Sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwe: a qualitative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through rapid and effective treatment is critical in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. This is only possible when STD patients access appropriate STD care services. Objectives: To examine factors associated with choice of STD health care facility in ...

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases in Malawi | Daly | Malawi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1998) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Sexually transmitted diseases in Malawi. CC Daly, NG Liomba ...

  20. Pattern and distribution of sexually transmitted diseases in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the pattern and distribution of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 134 adult Subjects (89 women and 45 men) presenting with various signs and symptoms of lower genital tract infections were recruited for the study. Samples such as urine, urethral swab, high vaginal swab and/or ...

  1. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases The Shurugwi sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex-workers play an important role in the spread of sexually trans:mitted diseases (STDs) and this article tries to show that they can also play an important role in their prevention. Community participation by sex-workers in the prevention of STDs can also decrease the incidence thereof.

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwe: a qualitative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwe: a qualitative analysis of factors associated with choice of a health care facility. ... Data from 26 FGDs attended by 281 antenatal clinic attendees, 34 FGDs of 350 women attending well baby clinics, 8 FGDs of 82 women recruited at long distance bus stops/market places, 9 FGDs of ...

  3. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  4. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. Frequency of sexually transmitted diseases and main methodological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleida Napoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV persistence is the most important cervical cancer risk factor, while Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium(MG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and parvum (UP are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs causing infertility, pregnancy complication, lung problems in newborns. Methods. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 cervical swabs, 110 seminal fluids and 1440 Thin Prep, were tested with culture methods, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR and multiplex SYBR Green PCR-endpoint to detect STDs. PCR- endpoint was performed to detect HPV. Results. Culture methods showed the lowest sensitivity: for MH it was only 24% (compared to RT-PCR. UP/UU were the most frequent pathogens (13% with culture, 29% with PCR-endpoint, 41,67% with RT-PCR. Turn Around Time was respectively: 48h, 6h and 2h. RT-PCR cervical frequencies for CT, MH, MG, UU, UP were: 5.42%, 11.03%, 1.81%, 11.21% and 35.08%. HPV positivity in primary and secondary screening was 17.33% and 51.14%. Highes t positivity age group was: 23-32 years for CT (17%, and 18-27 years for HPV (33%. Conclusions. RT-PCR is more sensitive, faster, less expensive than other molecular tests like PCR-endpoint and microarrays. It allows more efficient laboratory organization: pre-analytical phase is more automated and enable the implementation of further diagnostic tests for pathologies that need rapid identification, such as meningitidis and sepsis, with reduced human and instrumental resource. Regarding STDs screening, it should be performed in women: for CT at least up to 27 years; for HPV between 35-50 years, since persisting HR-HPV infection is responsible of high-grade lesions.

  6. Some models for epidemics of vector-transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birth defects.We formulate and analyze two epidemic models for vector-transmitted diseases, one appropriate for dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks and one that includes direct transmission appropriate for Zika virus outbreaks. This is especially important because the Zika virus is the first example of a disease that can be spread both indirectly through a vector and directly (through sexual contact. In both cases, we obtain expressions for the basic reproduction number and show how to use the initial exponential growth rate to estimate the basic reproduction number. However, for the model that includes direct transmission some additional data would be needed to identify the fraction of cases transmitted directly. Data for the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia has been used to fit parameters to the model developed here and to estimate the basic reproduction number.

  7. Characteristics of gay persons with sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, R S; Houts, P S

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred sixty-one male homosexuals and one hundred four female homosexuals completed questionnaires dealing with patterns of sexual activity and experience with sexually transmitted diseases. Among lesbians, a history of gonorrhea or syphilis was associated with heterosexual activity. Among gay males, gonorrhea and syphilis were associated with white race, residence in an urban area, low income, and high scores on the Brief Michigan Alcoholism Test. Male homosexuals had more episodes of gonorrhea and syphilis than did female homosexuals. Among male homosexuals the number of sex partners was greater among young urban residents. Poor health practices with respect to sexually transmitted diseases (i.e., delay in seeking treatment, self-treatment, and lack of regular check-ups) were more common among the older, less-well educated, and nonurban groups of gay males.

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Dikötter, F

    1993-01-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attit...

  9. X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases covers the following issues: diagnostic procedures, inflammatory thorax diseases, malign thorax diseases, heart and large blood vessels, hear insufficiency, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, interstitial pulmonary diseases, intensive care and traumatology.

  10. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  11. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research. PMID:20973968

  12. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-10-06

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Indigenous Healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Mulaudzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Grounded Theory study has been used, based on its Theory of Symbolic Interactionism, to explore indigenous healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases amongst the Vhavenda. Initial data collection has been done, using purposive sampling and when categories started emerging, theoretical sampling was then used. Data were analysed by using three basic types of coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings of the study revealed a variety of terms used to identify STDs. It then also became evident that there are similarities between gonorrhoea, syphilis and condylomata as shown in the orthodox Sexually transmitted diseases posters used in orthodox medicine with some of the STDs that the indigenous healers are familiar with. In accordance with the Grounded Theory, the description of types of diseases, disease patterns as well as signs and symptoms culminated in the emergence of the Dirt Theory. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that guidelines for designing a module for teaching health professionals be formulated to assist nurses in understanding the beliefs and practices of the people they serve.

  14. [Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  16. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth—What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. Methods We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000–2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Results Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review. PMID:28703725

  17. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth-What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P

    2017-08-01

    Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.

  18. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikötter, F

    1993-10-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription.

  19. Sexually transmitted disease and the evolution of mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Ranta, Esa; Ruxton, Graeme; Lundberg, Per

    2002-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been shown to increase the costs of multiple mating and therefore favor relatively monogamous mating strategies. We examine another way in which STDs can influence mating systems in species in which female choice is important. Because more popular males are more likely to become infected, STDs can counteract any selective pressure that generates strong mating skews. We build two models to investigate female mate choice when the sexual behavior of females determines the prevalence of infection in the population. The first model has no explicit social structure. The second model considers the spatial distribution of matings under social monogamy, when females mated to unattractive males seek extrapair fertilizations from attractive males. In both cases, the STD has the potential to drastically reduce the mating skew. However, this reduction does not always happen. If the per contact transmission probability is low, the disease dies out and is of no consequence. In contrast, if the transmission probability is very high, males are likely to be infected regardless of their attractiveness, and mating with the most attractive males imposes again no extra cost for the female. We also show that optimal female responses to the risk of STDs can buffer the prevalence of infection to remain constant, or even decrease, with increasing per contact transmission probabilities. In all cases considered, the feedback between mate choice strategies and STD prevalence creates frequency-dependent fitness benefits for the two alternative female phenotypes considered (choosy vs. randomly mating females or faithful vs. unfaithful females). This maintains mixed evolutionarily stable strategies or polymorphisms in female behavior. In this way, a sexually transmitted disease can stabilize the populationwide proportion of females that mate with the most attractive males or that seek extrapair copulations.

  20. Vulvovaginitis: promotion of condom use to prevent sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur, J J

    1992-09-01

    Many studies have suggested that merely warning people about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urging the use of condoms as protection will not result in widespread use of condoms. Regular condom use appears to be grounded in knowledge of its effectiveness, perception of STD risk, and belief in a partner's acceptance. But these are not the only barriers to condom use. Negotiating condom use often comes at a sensitive stage in intimate relationships, when individuals prefer to avoid such discussions and simply to trust the powerful and compelling feelings of mutual attraction. This review will consider (1) the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD transmission, (2) barriers to the use of condoms, and (3) recommended strategies to promote acceptance and use of condoms by heterosexual women.

  1. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  2. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  3. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P.; Kotlyarov, Peter M.; Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V.; Alexandrov, Yury K.

    2010-01-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  4. Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Selected U.S. Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics: Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network, January 2010-December 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llata, Eloisa; Bernstein, Kyle T; Kerani, Roxanne P; Pathela, Preeti; Schwebke, Jane R; Schumacher, Christina; Stenger, Mark; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2015-08-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains an important source of preventable reproductive morbidity, but no recent studies have singularly focused on US sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in relationship to established guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Of the 83,076 female patients seen in 14 STD clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network, 1080 (1.3%) were diagnosed as having PID from 2010 to 2011. A random sample of 219 (20%) women were selected, and medical records were reviewed for clinical history, examination findings, treatment, and diagnostic testing. Our primary outcomes were to evaluate how well PID diagnosis and treatment practices in STD clinic settings follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) treatment guidelines and to describe age group-specific rates of laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) in patients clinically diagnosed as having PID in the last 12 months, inclusive of the PID visit. Among the 219 women, 70.3% of the cases met the CDC treatment case definition for PID, 90.4% had testing for CT and GC on the PID visit, and 68.0% were treated with a CDC-recommended outpatient regimen. In the last 12 months, 95.4% were tested for CT or GC, and positivity for either organism was 43.9% in women aged 25 years or younger with PID, compared with 19.4% of women older than 25 years with PID. Compliance with CDC guidelines was documented for many of the women with PID, though not all. Our findings underscore the need for continued efforts to optimize quality of care and adherence to current guidance for PID management given the anticipated expertise of providers in these settings.

  5. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiologic findings provide the initial basis for prioritizing diagnostic possibilities for a patient with ILD. An accurate prognosis and optimal treatment strategy for patients with ILDs can only be after an accurate diagnosis. This review will assist pulmonary physicians and medicine specialist in recognition of ILD. Extensive literature search has been made through PubMed and also Book References has been used for writing this review.

  7. Diagnostic challenges in celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghighat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   1-The most important challenge in diagnosis of celiac disease is not- performing the diagnostic tests in suspected persons. Because of multi-organ damage and multiple manifestations of disease, diagnosis of celiac disease may be delayed. It seems general physicians should be awared about uncommon presentations of disease and indications of celiac tests 2-The second most important challenge is in patients with suspected disease but negative serologic tests. In these cases evaluating of HLA can be useful. 3- The third challenge is in cases with positive serologic tests but negative histopathological findings. There may be false positive serologic response or consumption of gluten before testing. We recommend introduction of gluten for at least 3 mo and re- endoscopy and if diagnosis is equivocal HLA-typing  for DQ8 and  DQ2 should be done. 4-The forth challenge is about performing endoscopy. Based on guideline from ESPGHAN if there are typical clinical manifestations of celiac disease, Anti-TTG more than ten times UPN , positive Anti-EMA and HLA DQ2, performing endoscopy may not be necessary, but many physicians don’t agree with this idea. 5-In people who are genetically predisposed to celiac disease antibody levels may be fluctuating thus endoscopy with biopsy should be done in these patients. 6-In children lower than 2years, Anti- TTG and Anti –EMA have low sensitivity. we recommend Anti-TTG and Anti-DGP in these patients. 7-Resolution of symptoms after gluten free diet is not necessarily a feature of celiac disease. This condition may be seen in patients with IBS or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  

  8. Predicting subsequent infection in patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori M; Warner, Lee; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify characteristics associated with subsequent infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Records were retrospectively reviewed for patients from public STD clinics in 4 cities for 12 months after their initial visit to assess subsequent infection with gonorrhea, chlamydia, mucopurulent cervicitis, nongonococcal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, primary or secondary syphilis, or trichomoniasis. Among 64,463 patients, 33.9% had an initial STD and 7.0% had a subsequent STD. Patients with an initial STD had significantly higher probability of a subsequent STD than patients without (12.0% vs. 4.4%). A subsequent STD was significantly more likely for both sexes for those with an initial STD, who were symptomatic at initial visit, reporting exchange of sex, or under age 20 as well as for men reporting sex with men. Patients with an initial STD were more likely to return with a subsequent STD. Routinely collected information such as initial diagnosis or age can help identify patients at increased risk of a subsequent STD.

  9. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  10. [Mucopurulent cervicitis at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Bernal, A M; Hernández Aguado, I; Sánchez-Pedreño Guillén, P; Feliu Pérez, M M; Camacho Martínez, F

    1987-01-01

    In a series of 1,011 women seen in the Diagnosis Center of Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Faculty of Medicine of Seville, we study the prevalence of cervical infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis and also mucopurulent cervicitis (CMP), these last diagnosed by the presence of more than 10 polymorphonuclear leukocytes x 1,000 magnification in Gram stain of secretion or endocervical mucopus. We calculate the predictive value that the diagnosis of the CMP had in detecting cervical infection by chlamydia and gonococcus. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated in 56 patients (5.5%), C. trachomatis in 83 (8.2%) and both in 15 (1.5%). In all, 154 women presented cervical infections, which correlates to a prevalence of 15.2%. CMP was diagnosed in 267 patients and, of these, 43.4% had cervical infection accused by N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis. The diagnosis criteria of CMP used as predictors of cervical infection, had a sensibility of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.82, with a positive predictive value of 0.42.

  11. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments.

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases diagnosed among travelers returning from the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansart, Séverine; Hochedez, Patrick; Perez, Lucia; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Data are lacking on the spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) diagnosed in returning travelers. All consecutive travelers consulting our tropical unit between November 1, 2002 and October 31, 2003 were included if they presented within 1 month after their return from the tropics, with mucocutaneous signs suggesting STDs. Forty-nine patients (12 women and 37 men; median age 36.4 y, 35 heterosexuals) were included. Four patients had traveled with their usual sexual partner and 45 patients had casual sex while abroad (31 with locals and 14 with other tourists). The main diagnoses were gonococcal urethritis (n = 18), herpes simplex virus 2 infection (n = 12), urethritis of undetermined origin (n = 9), Chlamydia trachomatis infection (n = 4), primary syphilis (n = 4), and primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (n = 2). These results illustrate the broad spectrum of STDs contracted by travelers to the tropics. They suggest the need to also inform travelers of the risks of STD and to promote the use of condoms in case of casual sex while abroad.

  13. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  14. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  15. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  16. Diagnostic challenges in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karol; Mulak, Agata; Jasińska, Maria; Paradowski, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease in adults is currently based on serologic tests in combination with histopathological assessment of small intestinal biopsy specimens. High titers of celiac-specific antibodies in immunocompetent patients with villous atrophy in a good quality biopsy sample allow us to state a confident diagnosis. The relief of symptoms and histological improvement after embarking on a gluten free diet further support the initial diagnosis. However, in some cases, these conditions are not fulfilled, which requires a critical evaluation of laboratory and histopathology results and a consideration of other potential causes for the observed pathologies. To avoid diagnostic uncertainty, both biopsy and laboratory testing should be performed on a diet containing gluten. Immune deficiency, cross reaction of antibodies and possibilities of seronegative or latent celiac disease should be considered while evaluating serology results. Uneven distribution and variable intensity of histopathological changes in the small intestine along with multiple disorders presenting a similar specimen image may lead to invalid biopsy results. Additional laboratory testing and careful examination of a patient's history may deliver important data for a differential diagnosis and a more specific biopsy evaluation. Persistence or recurrence of symptoms, despite the ongoing treatment, requires a revision of the initial diagnosis, an evaluation of the gluten free diet and a search for concurrent disorders or complications.

  17. A New Resource for STD Clinical Providers: The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragol, Laura A; Wendel, Karen A; Anderson, Teri S; Burnside, Helen C; Finkenbinder, Allison; Fitch, John D; Kelley, Destiny H; Stewart, Terry W; Thrun, Mark; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-08-01

    An online consultation tool, the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network is a new resource for sexually transmitted disease clinicians and clinic managers. An initial evaluation shows that most requests (29%) were from medical doctors, followed by nurse practitioners (22%). Syphilis queries comprised 39% of consults followed by gonorrhea (12%) and chlamydia (11%).

  18. A final size relation for epidemic models of vector-transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brauer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and analyze an age of infection model for epidemics of diseases transmitted by a vector, including the possibility of direct transmission as well. We show how to determine a basic reproduction number. While there is no explicit final size relation as for diseases transmitted directly, we are able to obtain estimates for the final size of the epidemic.

  19. Compliance with doxycycline therapy in sexually transmitted diseases clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenbraun, M; Bachmann, L; Wallace, T; Dubouchet, L; McCormack, W; Hook, E W

    1998-01-01

    To determine rates of compliance with doxycycline therapy for patients attending two inner city sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics using the MEMS (Medication Event Monitoring System) technology (Aprex Corporation, Fremont, CA). An observational study. Two STD clinics in Brooklyn, New York and Birmingham, Alabama. Patients warranting doxycycline as antichlamydial therapy by usual clinical criteria (e.g., documented chlamydial infections, gonococcal urethritis, mucopurulent cervicitis) were enrolled consecutively from both clinics into four separate categories according to gender and the presence or absence of symptoms: symptomatic men (77), asymptomatic men (30), symptomatic women (83), asymptomatic women (33). In the clinic area, patients were given their doxycycline in standard 30-dram medication bottles fitted with the MEMS cap, which is capable of recording the date and time of each bottle opening and closing. This information was then retrieved using a software program developed by the manufacturer. Patients were instructed to return the bottle and cap at the completion of therapy. Efforts were made to contact those who did not return their bottles by both telephone and mail. Bottle openings as recorded by the MEMS were considered to represent use of medication. Patients were considered strictly compliant with prescription instructions if bottle openings and closings occurred at least twice daily for 6 consecutive days. Noncompliance was defined as initially opening the medication more than 48 hours after leaving the clinic or opening the bottle less than once daily for 5 consecutive days. Usage between these extremes was classified as intermediate. Eighty percent of 223 patients enrolled completed the study by returning their bottles. The rate of strict compliance with prescription instruction was 25%. The rate of noncompliance was 24%. Fifty-one percent used some intermediate amount of medication. There was no statistical difference in compliance by

  20. The changing pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, W H

    1979-03-01

    The factors associated with the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents in England and Wales are both social and medical. Among the social factors is the large part played by sex in periodicals, advertisements, the theater, radio, and television. Also playing their part are increased mobility of populations, particularly moves from rural to urban areas, increased affluence, increased alcohol comsumption and leisure time together with greater personal freedom. The medical factors include the prevalence of asymptomatic infection mainly in women but also in men, the high incidence in homosexual men who may be asymptomatic and very promiscuous, and the fact that modern treatment is simple and effective reduces the fear of infection. Furthermore, modern contraceptive techniques such as the IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) offer no barriers to infection unlike the condom and diaphragm. Syphilis is no longer a problem in the UK, as the incidence has remained at a low level of 2-3 cases/100,000 population for the past 20 years. Gonorrhea has become a problem in its place reaching almost epidemic proportions by 1975, although the incidence is now showing some sign of leveling off. Nonspecific urethritis in men and nonspecific genital infection in women, and the virus condition of herpes genitalis and genital warts have all continued to increase in incidence. In most clinics 40-50% of female patients with gonorrhea are under the age of 20. Changing patterns of sexual behavior have altered the pattern of disease. Oral coitus, both fellatio and cunnilingus, have become more prevalent and can lead to pharyngeal gonorrhea which can be symptomless in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Rectal gonorrhea occurs in women as well as in male homosexuals and can be a cause of failure of initial treatment. The diagnosis of gonorrhea is a bacteriological diagnosis, and smears and cultures must be taken from the urethra and cervix in the female. It is gradually

  1. Tweet content related to sexually transmitted diseases: no joking matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie Y S

    2014-10-06

    Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of "tweeters" (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of "tweet" messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs-chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words "chlamydia" or "HIV", and the hashtags "#chlamydia" or "#HIV". Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words "chlamydia" and/or "HIV". Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable

  2. Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, Laura; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Marrazzo, Jeanne

    2017-04-01

    Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important part of the care of the HIV-infected individual. STIs have been associated with increased risk of transmission and acquisition of HIV. Among HIV-infected persons, treatment failures and high recurrence rates of some STIs are more common. Despite the recognized importance of prevention and discussion of sexual health, rates of screening for STIs are suboptimal. Moreover, rates of STIs such as syphilis continue to increase particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM). This review focuses on the most common STIs seen among HIV-infected individuals and recommendations for screening and prevention.

  3. The Use of Contraceptives and Sexually Transmitted Disease Among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Andrew A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the types of contraceptives used by a population of university students; the relationship of type of contraceptive used to sociodemographic characteristics and patterns of sexual activity, and the relationship of contraceptive use to sexually transmitted disease. (M M)

  4. Integrated Artificial Intelligence Approaches for Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashistha, Rajat; Chhabra, Deepak; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2018-06-01

    Mechanocomputational techniques in conjunction with artificial intelligence (AI) are revolutionizing the interpretations of the crucial information from the medical data and converting it into optimized and organized information for diagnostics. It is possible due to valuable perfection in artificial intelligence, computer aided diagnostics, virtual assistant, robotic surgery, augmented reality and genome editing (based on AI) technologies. Such techniques are serving as the products for diagnosing emerging microbial or non microbial diseases. This article represents a combinatory approach of using such approaches and providing therapeutic solutions towards utilizing these techniques in disease diagnostics.

  5. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexually-transmitted viral diseases in women: clinical and epidemiological aspects and advances in laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Piazzetta Pinto

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have long been known, but they have only recently been recognized as causes of significant long-term morbidity, mainly as a result of increased knowledge concerning viral STDs. The relationship of these diseases with conditions such as anogenital cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has made viral STDs an important issue in the healthcare of women and infants, and in reproductive health. The evolution of the AIDS pandemic is now characterized by growing differences between rich and poor nations. New diagnostic tools include rapid tests of blood, urine and saliva samples. New techniques, such as computerized cytology, have been developed for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV. Women infected with HIV are at a greater risk of being co-infected with HPV, and they are also more prone to the progression and persistence of HPV lesions. The herpes simplex virus presents high rates of co-infection with HIV, and it plays a particularly important role in increasing transmission rates of this virus.

  7. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  8. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently presented STDs syndromes among the 21- 30 year age group were genital ulcer disease (GUD) (40.86%), genitourinary symptoms high risk (GUS - HR) (20.46%), urethral discharge (UD) (15.65%) and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) (13.37%). The four constituted 90.34% of all case presentations.

  10. Black piedra of the pubic hairs - a sexually transmitted disease ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Block piedra affecting only the hairs of the pubic region is reported in a recently married young male. His wife was found to have similar disease on the hairs of the scalp and pubic region. A sexual mode of transmission of the disease to the patient from his wife is suggested.

  11. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.

  13. Imaging Diagnostic in Coats' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losowska-Kaniwska, D.; Bieganski, T.; Stefanczyk, L.

    2005-01-01

    Coats' disease is a rare congenital vascular abnormality of the retina consisting of multiple telangiectasis, breakdown of the retina-blood barrier, and formation of subretinal lipoproteinaceous exudate, leading to retinal detachment. Globe imaging in Coats' disease precisely shows retinal abnormalities and typical subretinal exudates. These lesions are nonspecific and differentiation from other causes of exudative retinal detachment should be performed. Globe imaging using US, CT, and MR was performed in five patients with decreased visual acuity (4 boys and 1 girl), aged 1-16 years, with a diagnosis or suspicion of Coats' disease etinal thickening in the temporal quadrant was observed in one child. In the other four children, V-shaped retinal detachments with exudate accumulated beneath the detached retina were observed. All affected globes showed decreased anterior-posterior diameters compared with the contralateral eye. Calcifications of the retinal regions were not present. (author)

  14. Prion diseases are efficiently transmitted by blood transfusion in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, F.; McCutcheon, S.; Goldmann, W.; Chong, A.; Foster, J.; Siso, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Jeffrey, M.; Hunter, N.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, following on from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, led to concerns about the potential risk of iatrogenic transmission of disease by blood transfusion and the introduction of costly control measures to protect blood supplies. We previously reported preliminary data demonstrating the transmission of BSE and natural scrapie by blood transfusion in sheep. The final results of this experiment, reported here, give unexpectedly ...

  15. Diagnostic methods of fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is defined as an abnormal accumulation of lipids into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Different kinds of fatty liver diseases are becoming the most important etiologies of end-stage liver disease in the western world. Because fatty liver is a theoretically reversible process, timely and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for potential therapeutic options. This work describes major diagnostic methods and discusses particular advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.

  16. Optimal Control of Vertically Transmitted Disease: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    horizontal transmission, administration of the antiviral drug to infected individuals lessens the chance of vertical transmission. Thus the vaccine and antiviral drug play different roles in controlling the disease, which has both vertical and horizontal transmission. We develop a 3D model with Susceptible–Infected–Recovered under vaccination to the susceptible and antiviral treatment to the infected and consider a control theoretic approach using the Pontryagin maximum principle to analyse the costeffectiveness of the control process. Our results demonstrate that a mixed intervention strategy of vaccination and antiviral drug in a proper ratio is the most effective way to control the disease. We show that cost-effectiveness of both intervention strategies intimately depends on disease-related parameters, such as force of infection, probability of being infected to offspring from infected mothers, loss of immunity or reinfection and also on cost of treatment.

  17. Wars and sexually transmitted diseases in the Indian Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, V D; Talwar, S; Panvelkar, V V; Tutakne, M A

    1992-01-01

    A large majority of the world's soldiers are young, away from home, of low rank, and of low educational level. Many consume large quantities of alcohol and other drugs to cope. This combination of factors leads many soldiers to have sex with prostitutes and other casual partners, placing them at high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs. The worldwide incidence of STD for the US Army in 1978 was 98 per 1000 soldiers. The authors reviewed the records of STD cases treated in the Indian armed forces during the period 1938-78 to find that there was a decline in STDs in the Indian Army from 5.22 per 1000 in 1895 to 2.12 per 1000 in 1978. There was, however, an increase in the incidence of STD during war in the Indian Army, albeit marginal compared to global figures. The incidence of STD in the Indian Armed Forces has been much lower than in any other country. Chancroid was the most common STD, affecting most commonly soldiers aged 21-30 years. Prostitutes remained the most common source of infection. Better education appears to decrease the incidence of infection, there was no homosexuality recorded, marital status had little impact upon the risk of contracting STD, prophylactic measures were taken by only 6% of individuals, and 5% of infected soldiers in 1965 and 7% in 1971 were repeat patients. 60% of the men contracted their STD while on leave just prior to entering the theater of war. The rapid expansion of armed forces which results in relaxed recruiting standards, individual separation from sources of moral influence, the lack of disciplinary and moral control by superiors, the uncertainty of survival, emotional strains, illiteracy, and the lack of adequate recreational facilities support the increased incidence of STD during war. Reasons for the comparatively low incidence of STD among Indian soldiers include good management and discipline, religious faith, social customs, fear of social stigmatization upon contracting STD, close surveillance by military

  18. sexually transmitted diseases at queen elizabeth central hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    15.65%) and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) (13.37%). The four constituted 90.34% of all case presentations. Balanitis (BA) was the least common at 0.32% or 86 cases in three years. While the incidence of genitourinary ...

  19. Community-based survey of sexually transmitted disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the magnitude of STI syndromes was made with and without including vaginal discharge and/or pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID). Likewise, the two-week prevalence of reported STI syndromes (urethral discharge in males and genital ulcers in both sexes) was 2.5%, while the other estimate of magnitdude of ...

  20. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Attitudes Towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self reported STD included syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, genital warts and pelvic inflammatory diseases. Condom use was not associated with prevention against pregnancy demonstrating that knowledge cannot be translated into action and behavior change without modification of attitudes and beliefs. Reasons cited for ...

  1. Evaluation of chlamydia and gonorrhea screening criteria: San Francisco sexually transmitted disease clinic: 1997 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemins, E L; Kent, C K; Flood, J; Klausner, J D

    2000-03-01

    The advent of more sensitive diagnostic testing technologies and competition in public healthcare spending have resulted in a reevaluation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening practices in an attempt to target populations at greatest risk. Screening among populations with a < 2% prevalence of chlamydia and a < 1% prevalence of gonorrhea may not be cost-effective. To identify subpopulations with a low prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhea. The prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonorrhea among asymptomatic STD patients screened from 1997 to 1998 at San Francisco City Clinic was stratified by demographic and behavioral risk factors. The prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhea was 3.4% and 1.1% among asymptomatic women and 4.0% and 1.0% among asymptomatic men, respectively. Two low-prevalence subpopulations identified among asymptomatic patients were women older than 29 years (chlamydia, 1.2%) and men who have sex with women (gonorrhea, 0.8%). These data identified low-prevalence subpopulations among asymptomatic STD patients. As a result, the STD screening criteria at San Francisco City Clinic were changed accordingly.

  2. Minority women with sexually transmitted diseases: sexual abuse and risk for pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, J D; Piper, J; Shain, R N; Perdue, S T; Newton, E R

    2001-02-01

    Mexican American and African American women (N = 617) with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) underwent a targeted physical exam and questioning regarding sexual abuse, current genitourinary symptomatology, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) risk behaviors to determine the relationship between sexual abuse and risk for PID. Sexually abused women (n = 194) reported higher PID risk behaviors, including earlier coitus, more sex partners, higher STD recurrence, and a tendency toward delayed health-seeking behavior. They also reported more severe genitourinary symptomatology, confirmed by physical exam, and presumptive diagnoses of PID. These characteristics identify sexually abused women at high risk for PID. Because of its considerable impact on risk for PID, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in clinical management of women with STD and for diagnosis of PID. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. [Survey of sexually transmitted diseases in the region of Rio Cuarto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, I L; Pájaro, M C; Godino, S; Pascual, L; Rodríguez, I; Agüero, M; Ordóñez, C

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are acquired mainly through sexual intercourse, being one of the most frequent groups of infectious diseases worldwide and consequently an important public health problem. The aim of this paper was to determine the current state of STD and to compare different diagnostic methods in the population studied. A total of 1060 samples from vaginal flows, endocervical material and urethral discharge were studied during 3 years. Of the total samples, 583 were positive, 493 in women and 90 in men. Microorganisms found in women were: Gardnerella vaginalis (39.3%), Candida albicans (21.1%), Trichomonas vaginalis (17.3%), Candida trachomatis (11.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.2%): Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urelyticum (6.5%) and Treponema pallidum (1.4%), the associations found were, Gardnerella vaginalis with Trichomonas vaginalis 5.5%; Gardnerella vaginalis with Candida albicans 4.9%; Trichomonas vaginalis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2.2%) and Gardnerella vaginalis with Chlamydia trachomatis (1.9%). In men, gonococcal urethritis (UG) represented 37.7% non UG 55.6% and Treponema pallidum 6.7%. These results indicate a decrease in sifilis and in UG when compared to previous studies showing that gonococcal cervicitis had also decreased. We found an important increase in the prevalence of urethritis and non gonococcal cervicitis in agreement with world statistics which consider these diseases as the most common venereal ones. It is necessary to increase the search for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women due to vertical transmission. It should be noted that, in spite of certain fluctuations, the incidence of the STD in our area is still unacceptably high.

  4. Spectra transmitted by mortar barite in X-Ray qualities applied in diagnostic radiology as shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Airton T., E-mail: airton.almeida@fundacentro.gov.br [Fundacaoo Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Araujo, F.G.S. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (REDEMAT/UFOP), MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M.S., E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, M.A.P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Concrete which contains water, cement and aggregate, is widely used in building construction such as medical hospitals. The CdZnTe spectrometry system was used to acquire the transmitted spectra in the RQR qualities and the stripping procedure was performed by taking into account both the contributions of efficiency and x-ray escape fraction, experimentally determined. The samples were prepared in rectangular plate format with dimensions of (5 x 5) cm with thicknesses varying from 0.2cm to 2cm and exposed to x-ray beams generated. The HVL and the mean energy in this energy range was determined. (author)

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases: educational intervention among teenagers in a technical-professional teaching center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dair García de la Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.

  6. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  7. [Diagnostic resources for sexually transmitted infections in laboratories in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Montserrat; Juvé, Rosa; Alberny, Mireia; Andreu, Antonia; Loureiro, Eva; Matas, Lourdes; Vilamala, Anna; Casabona, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of describing both the capacity and organization of the laboratories in Catalonia to diagnose sexually transmitted infections, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2005 and March 2006, which included 140 laboratories. Ninety-eight laboratories performed some STI tests, 45 received more than 50 vaginal swabs per month, 42 diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis, but only six used polymerase chain reaction techniques. None diagnosed venereal lymphogranuloma. Eighty were able to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 76 by means of culture and 63 analyzed its antibiotic resistance. A total of 23, 22, 22 and 14 laboratories received more than 500 blood samples for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis, respectively. Non-treponemic and treponemic tests were available in 84 and 52 laboratories, respectively. In Catalonia, most STIs can be diagnosed but new technologies need to be introduced. Moreover, the efficiency of biological sample circuits should be improved.

  8. Celiac Disease: Diagnostic Standards and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaswala, Dharmesh H.; Veeraraghavan, Gopal; Kelly, Ciaran P.; Leffler, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) affects at least 1% of the population and evidence suggests that prevalence is increasing. The diagnosis of CD depends on providers being alert to both typical and atypical presentations and those situations in which patients are at high risk for the disease. Because of variable presentation, physicians need to have a low threshold for celiac testing. Robust knowledge of the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease has served as a catalyst for the development of novel diagnostic tools. Highly sensitive and specific serological assays including Endomysial Antibody (EMA), tissue transglutaminase (tTG), and Deamidated Gliadin Peptide (DGP) have greatly simplified testing for CD and serve as the foundation for celiac diagnosis. In addition, genetic testing for HLA DQ2 and DQ8 has become more widely available and there has been refinement of the gluten challenge for use in diagnostic algorithms. While diagnosis is usually straightforward, in special conditions including IgA deficiency, very young children, discrepant histology and serology, and adoption of a gluten free diet prior to testing, CD can be difficult to diagnose. In this review, we provide an overview of the history and current state of celiac disease diagnosis and provide guidance for evaluation of CD in difficult diagnostic circumstances. PMID:28943611

  9. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on

  10. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health

  11. Intravaginal practices, vaginal flora disturbances, and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwean women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wijgert, J. H.; Mason, P. R.; Gwanzura, L.; Mbizvo, M. T.; Chirenje, Z. M.; Iliff, V.; Shiboski, S.; Padian, N. S.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred sixty-nine Zimbabwean women were studied to determine whether the use of intravaginal practices (cleaning with the fingers, wiping the vagina, and inserting traditional substances) are associated with disturbances of vaginal flora and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  12. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  13. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  14. Spermicide acceptability among patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, S K; Spruyt, A B; Feldblum, P J; Sunkutu, M R; Glover, L H; Steiner, M J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study assessed the acceptability of three nonoxynol-9 spermicides among persons attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS. Spermicidal foam, suppositories, and foaming tablets were evaluated. Women (n = 114) and men (n = 150) attending an sexually transmitted disease clinic were enrolled. After each participant used two products, each for 2 weeks, consistency of use and acceptability were evaluated. RESULTS. At admission, most women (74%) and men (58%) were not using any family planning method. Moreover, most women (85%) and men (98%) had at least one sexually transmitted disease or genital infection. During the study, the proportion of coital episodes protected by spermicide use was high, yet loss to follow-up and discontinuation were also substantial. Discontinuation was frequently unrelated to acceptability. Women and men rated all three products positively along several acceptability parameters. Foam was the least desirable delivery system due to excess messiness. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible to distribute spermicides to women and men at increased risk for sexually transmitted disease and that the products will be used. Further research should be done among different populations and include other spermicidal delivery mechanisms. PMID:7625503

  15. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  16. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  17. 1993 ABC of Sexually Transmitted Diseases· Introduction to Minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    covering the major sexually transmitted disease syndromes such as urethral and vaginal discharges and genital ... will certainly be a worthwhile investment. J. Terblanche. ABC of Brainstem Death· ... In the early 1980's the cultural implications of brainstem death were largely unexplored. Today the criteria must be.

  18. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-07-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  19. SEEKING MEDICAL-CARE FOR A SEXUALLY-TRANSMITTED DISEASE - DETERMINANTS OF DELAY-BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENAARS, PEM; ROMBOUTS, R; KOK, G

    1993-01-01

    Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their social and economic impact and their role in increasing transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Unfortunately, a common response to illness is

  20. The radiological 'second opinion' online through the Internet. Report on implementation and analysis of the diagnostic certainty of transmitted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, J.; Donk, E. van der; Ostendorf, B.; Zielinski, C.; Liebig, T.; Stroszczinski, C.; Loez-Haenninen, E.; Lemke, A.J.; Gillessen, C.; Guervit, Oe.; Amthauer, H.; Kleinholz, L.; Bartelink, H.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous medical on-line services have already been established in the world-wide Internet. In connection with the Information service TELESCAN, sponsored by the EU, a pilot project has been initiated which offers a radiological 'second opinion' via the transmission of radiological findings and images that have been previously rendered anonymous. In addition to a description of the basic implementation, tests of the diagnostic certainty of the transmitted over the Internet, and then evaluated on the receiver's monitor. Both the transfer of originally generated digital image files (in ACR-NEMA or DICOM) as well as graphic files after digitization of X-ray films, for example by a document camera, is possible via e-mail. Visualization by the receiver requires the use of current proprietary software for special medical image formats, while standard graphic formats such as GIFF or JPEG can be visualized with the usual Internet software. In an ROC analysis, 56 individual images of cranial computed tomographs, half with pathological findings such as space-occupying lesions, infarcts, or brain edema, were tested with regard to the diagnostic certainty after digitization and transmission. In comparison with the original film findings, there was a slight but statistically not significant reduction in diagnostic certainty of the images evaluated on screen after transfer via the Internet. We believe that this result is due to the low local resolution, low dynamic range, the high image noise and of CT arising from the window technique. The same parameters are probably valid for MRI. (orig.) [de

  1. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana's signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission.

  2. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  3. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas with 249 cases (73.5% children and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission.

  4. [Sexuality Risk Factors among People with Suspect of Sexually Transmitted Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morente, María Ángeles; Cano-Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Ocón, María Teresa; Castro-López, Esperanza; Jiménez-Bautista, Francisco; Hueso-Montoro, César

    2017-01-25

    Describing determinants factors in Sexually Transmitted Diseases is necessary to evaluate and design effective measures for prevention and treatment. The aim of this research was to determine the sexual risk factors of people who are treated at Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre and to analyze differences based on gender. Cross-sectional study on 496 clinical reports, period of time 2010 to 2014, of people who come to the Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation Centre of Granada, for suspected of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sociodemographic, clinical and sexual patterns data were collected. Calculation of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test to compare proportions were performed. 56% men and 44% women. The mean age was 29,01 years (SD=9,07). Most of the sample were single (85,9%). 54,2% had a higher education level. The most prevalent infections were the Human Papilloma-virus (18,8%), followed Molluscum contagiosum (5,6%) and Candidiasis (3,8%). Significant differences were found by sex with sexual behavior, there are more gay men (n=89) and bisexual (n=22) than women (n=4, n=7, respectively) (p smaller than 0,001); differences between sex and sexual life were also found, finding higher prevalence of men with 10-20 couples (n=23) and more than 20 couples (n=20) than women (n=10, n=4, respectively). The user profile is a young, single, with higher education. The most prevalent infection is the Human Papillomavirus. Men are a vulnerable population for contracting sexually transmitted diseases because of their sexual practices.

  5. Mononucleated Blood Cell Populations Display Different Abilities To Transmit Prion Disease by the Transfusion Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Lacroux, Caroline; Litaise, Claire; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Arnold, Mark; Simmons, Hugh; Aron, Naima; Costes, Pierrette; Tillier, Cécile; Cassard, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous experiments carried out in a sheep scrapie model demonstrated that the transfusion of 200 μl of prion-infected whole blood has an apparent 100% efficacy for disease transmission. These experiments also indicated that, despite the apparent low infectious titer, the intravenous administration of white blood cells (WBC) resulted in efficient disease transmission. In the study presented here, using the same transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal model, our aim was to determine the minimal number of white blood cells and the specific abilities of mononucleated cell populations to transmit scrapie by the transfusion route. Our results confirmed that the transfusion of 100 μl, but not 10 μl, of fresh whole blood collected in asymptomatic scrapie-infected donor sheep can transmit the disease. The data also show that the intravenous administration of 105 WBCs is sufficient to cause scrapie in recipient sheep. Cell-sorted CD45R+ (predominantly B lymphocytes), CD4+/CD8+ (T lymphocytes), and CD14+ (monocytes/macrophages) blood cell subpopulations all were shown to contain prion infectivity by bioassays in ovine PrP transgenic mice. However, while the intravenous administration of 106 CD45+ or CD4+/8+ living cells was able to transmit the disease, similar numbers of CD14+ cells failed to infect the recipients. These data support the contention that mononucleated blood cell populations display different abilities to transmit TSE by the transfusion route. They also represent an important input for the risk assessment of blood-borne prion disease transmission and for refining the target performance of leukoreduction processes that currently are applied to mitigate the transmission risk in transfusion medicine. IMPORTANCE Interindividual variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) transmission through blood and blood-derived products is considered a major public health issue in transfusion medicine. Over the last decade, TSE in sheep has emerged as a

  6. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Sexually Transmitted Disease in Women

    OpenAIRE

    McGowin, Chris L.; Anderson-Smits, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 pub...

  7. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  8. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSTICS OF CARCINOID HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Ravnik

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carcinoid heart disease is a rare heart disease which affects endocard and heart valves on the right side of heart. It affects only patients with manifested carcinoid syndrome, which is thought to be the consequence of secretory active metastases of carcinoid tumour. The carcinoid endocardial plaques cause structural changes of tricuspid and pulmonic valve and later on their stenosis and/or insufficiency.Patients and methods. In this article we introduce a carcinoid valve heart disease (CVHD scoring system for easier end exact echocardiographic diagnostics. Four echocardiographic parameters are beeing estimated: structural changes of tricuspid valve, tricuspid valve regurgitation, stenosis of pulmonic valve and pulmonic valve regurgitation.Conclusions. The scoring system allows us to make an early diagnosis and evaluation of progression of carcinoid heart disease, which is very important for planning the treatment process. Our experiences confirm the usefulness of this scoring system in echocardiographic follow–up of patients with carcinoid syndrome.

  9. Expanding molecular diagnostics of helminthiasis: Piloting use of the GPLN platform for surveillance of soil transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J Cunningham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to control and eradicate polio as a global health burden have been successful to the point where currently only three countries now report endemic polio, and the number of cases of polio continues to decrease. The success of the polio programme has been dependant on a well-developed network of laboratories termed the global polio laboratory network (GPLN. Here we explore collaborative opportunities with the GPLN to target two of the 18 diseases listed as a neglected tropical diseases (NTD namely soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH and Schistosomiasis (SCH. These were chosen based on prevalence and the use of faecal materials to identify both polio, STH and SCH. Our study screened 448 faecal samples from the Ghana GPLN using three triplex TaqMan assays to identify Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp, Trichuris trchiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. Our results found a combined helminth prevalence of 22%. The most common helminth infection was A. lumbricoides with a prevalence of 15% followed by N. americanus (5%, Ancylostoma spp. (2.5%, Schistosoma spp. (1.6% and S. stercoralis (1%. These results show that it is possible to identify alternative pathogens to polio in the samples collected by the GPLN platform and to introduce new diagnostic assays to their laboratories. The diagnostic methods employed were also able to identify S. stercoralis positive samples, which are difficult to identify using parasitological methods such as Kato-Katz. This study raises the possibility of collaboration with the GPLN for the surveillance of a wider range of diseases which would both benefit the efforts to control the NTDs and also increase the scope of the GPLN as a diagnostic platform.

  10. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted. 

  11. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  12. Improving sexually transmitted disease management in the private sector: the Jamaica experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Hoffman, I F; Brathwaite, A; Wedderburn, M; Figueroa, P; Behets, F; Dallabetta, G; Hoyo, C; Cohen, M S

    1998-01-01

    To improve the quality of sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management in Jamaica by providing comprehensive continuing medical education to private practitioners who manage 60% of all STDs on the island. Six half-day STD seminars were presented at 3-4-month intervals and repeated in three separate geographic locations. All Jamaican practitioners received invitations. The subjects were as follows: urethritis, genital ulcer disease, HIV infection, vaginal discharge syndrome, STDs in children and adolescents, and a review seminar. The program effectiveness was evaluated with a written, self-reported pre-test and a telephone post-test that measured changes in clinical management. Six hundred and twenty eight practitioners attended at least one seminar. Comparing pre- versus post-test scores, there were practitioner improvement trends in all four of the general STD management categories: counseling/education (69.8-73.3%; P > 0.05); diagnostics/screening (57.2-71.0%; P= 0.042); treatment (68.3-74.5%; P> 0.05); and knowledge (66.4-83.2%; P= 0.002). Obtaining syphilis serologies during pregnancy rose from 38.3 to 83.8% (P= 0.001), and providing effective treatment for gonorrhea rose from 57.8 to 81.1 % (P= 0.002), but correct responses on treatment for mucopurulent cervicitis at the post-test was a low 32.4%. The introduction of continuing medical education for improved STD care targeting private physicians in Jamaica was successful based on high attendance rates and self-reported STD management practices. However, efforts should continue to address the weaknesses found in STD management and counseling and to reach the providers who did not participate. In the global effort to reduce HIV transmission by improving STD care services, continuing education programs that target the private sector can be successful and should be included as a standard activity to improve care and provide a public/private link to STD/HIV control.

  13. The evaluation of GM6-based ELISA and ICT as diagnostic methods on a Mongolian farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Batdorj; Amgalanbaatar, Tovuu; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Suganuma, Keisuke; Otgonsuren, Davaajav; Mossaad, Ehab; Narantsatsral, Sandagdorj; Battur, Banzragch; Battsetseg, Badgar; Xuan, Xuenan; Inoue, Noboru

    2017-09-15

    Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T. equiperdum GM6 and the GM6 of another Trypanozoon, which also shared the same cellular localization. This finding suggests the utility of rTeGM6-4r-based serodiagnostic methods for epidemiological studies and the diagnosis of both surra and dourine in Equidae. Fifty blood samples were examined from a herd of horses. The diagnostic value of an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and an rTeGM6-4r-based immunochromatographic test (ICT) were measured in comparison to a T. evansi crude antigen-based ELISA, which is a diagnostic method recommended by the OIE. However, this is not a perfect diagnostic method for trypanosomosis. Positive serum samples were detected in 46%, 42% and 28% of the tested horses using an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA, crude antigen-based ELISA and rTeGM6-4r-based ICT, respectively. The sensitivity of rTeGM6-based ELISA was 81%, the specificity was 79%, and the agreement was moderate. We conclude that rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and ICT represent alternative options for baseline epidemiological studies and the on-site diagnosis of horse trypanosomoses in the field, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Seropositivity to Chlamydia trachomatis in prostitutes: relationship to other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino-de-Araujo, A; de-los-Santos Fortuna, E

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and its relationship with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was investigated by serological determinations in a group of 45 women working as prostitutes in Santos, State of São Paulo. Seropositivity to HIV-1 was demonstrated in 4 (9%) of the cases and to HIV-2 in one case. Syphilis and hepatitis B were detected in 29% and 43% of the 45 women, respectively. Specific antibodies to C. trachomatis were found in all subjects. The high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis and C. trachomatis in this population was related to predisposing factors such as number of sexual contacts, sexual practices, drug use and episodes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  15. Climate Chage in Spain and its Influence on Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Iriso Calle; Rubén Bueno Marí; Eusebio de las Heras; Javier Lucientes; Ricardo Molina

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades Spain has experienced a resurgence of some vector-transmitted diseases which were thought to be under control and the appearance of new ones. Likewise, the arrival of new vectors and, in some cases, their establishment and expansion is creating to new public health risks. In general, these phenomena have been associated with complex ecological and climate-driven changes which have favored and increased the densities of vectors and their reservoirs, but they have also b...

  16. Climate Chage in Spain and its Influence on Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Iriso Calle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades Spain has experienced a resurgence of some vector-transmitted diseases which were thought to be under control and the appearance of new ones. Likewise, the arrival of new vectors and, in some cases, their establishment and expansion is creating to new public health risks. In general, these phenomena have been associated with complex ecological and climate-driven changes which have favored and increased the densities of vectors and their reservoirs, but they have also been affected by processes that have been triggered or accelerated by man such as globalization, urban development, deforestation and land-use changes.Changes in the distribution of vectors and their capacity to transmit pathogens owing to climate change will become more evident in areas that lie within their distribution limits, as is Spain’s case.This is compounded by Spain’s proximity to Africa and the potential entry of new vectors and pathogens from this continent.This scenario necessitates setting up action programs aimed at both identifying risks posed by vectors and preventing vector-borne diseases, and efficiently managing possible outbreaks that could occur in the future.We have reviewed the scenarios which Spain is expected to experience in connection with climate change and its impact on the incidence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, phlebotomine sand flies, ticks and other arthropods, and rodents.

  17. Seronegative coeliac disease: clearing the diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepatti, Annalisa; Sanders, David S; Biagi, Federico

    2018-05-01

    Seronegative coeliac disease is a poorly defined form of coeliac disease that poses an important challenge to clinicians particularly with regards to the differential diagnosis. This is probably because of lack of a consensus on its definition and incorrect use of specific coeliac serology. Seronegative coeliac disease (SCD) is uncommon and epidemiological data are scarce and contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a critical summary of the most recent work on this topic and a definition of SCD. SCD is rare among coeliac patients but conversely SCD remains one of the most common causes of seronegative villous atrophy. The diagnostic workup of seronegative villous atrophy (SNVA) must ensure exclusion of other enteropathies before starting patients on a lifelong gluten-free diet. This is crucial in order to ensure that patients are not given the wrong diagnosis, which in turn can have implications for their inappropriate treatment and long-term morbidity. Finally, there is some data to suggest that seronegative enteropathies have a higher mortality than conventional coeliac disease. Seronegative coeliac disease is a rare condition that accounts for a very small percentage of cases in the large population of coeliac patients. Strict criteria for the diagnosis of this condition need to be fulfilled and prompt identification of these patients is crucial in order to ensure the appropriate intervention on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Implementation of Rapid Molecular Infectious Disease Diagnostics: the Role of Diagnostic and Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messacar, Kevin; Parker, Sarah K; Todd, James K; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    New rapid molecular diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases enable expedited accurate microbiological diagnoses. However, diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship are necessary to ensure that these technologies conserve, rather than consume, additional health care resources and optimally affect patient care. Diagnostic stewardship is needed to implement appropriate tests for the clinical setting and to direct testing toward appropriate patients. Antimicrobial stewardship is needed to ensure prompt appropriate clinical action to translate faster diagnostic test results in the laboratory into improved outcomes at the bedside. This minireview outlines the roles of diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship in the implementation of rapid molecular infectious disease diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  20. Diagnostic challenges of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Bellacosa, Lara; Barbaro, Maria R; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Barbara, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Colonic diverticulosis is a common condition in Western industrialized countries occurring in up to 65% of people over the age of 60 years. Only a minority of these subjects (about 10-25%) experience symptoms, fulfilling Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosis (IBS-like symptoms) in 10% to 66% of cases. Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms attributed to diverticula in the absence of macroscopically evident alterations other than the presence of diverticula. Due to the different peak of incidence, the overlap between SUDD and IBS is predominantly present in middle-aged or older patients. In these cases, it is very complex to establish if the symptoms are related to the presence of diverticula or due to an overlapping IBS. In fact, the link between gastrointestinal symptoms and diverticula is unclear, and the mechanism by which diverticula may induce the development of IBS-like symptoms remains to be elucidated. Currently, the etiology and pathophysiology of SUDD, particularly when IBS-like symptoms are present, are not completely understood, and thus these two entities remain a diagnostic challenge not only for the general practitioner but also for the gastroenterologist. Although many issues remain open and unresolved, some minimize the importance of a distinction of these two entities as dietary and pharmacological management may be largely overlapping.

  1. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric renal inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Schroeder, B.A.; Starshak, R.J.

    1986-08-15

    Some form of imaging procedure should be used to document the presence of infection of the upper urinary tract in troublesome cases in children. During the past several years, sonography, nuclear radiology, and computed tomography (CT) have had a significant influence on renal imaging. The purpose of this article is to reevaluate the noninvasive imaging procedures that can be used to diagnose pediatric renal inflammatory disease and to assess the relative value of each modality in the various types of renal infection. The authors will not discuss the radiologic evaluation of the child who has had a previous renal infection, in whom cortical scarring or reflux nephropathy is a possibility; these are different clinical problems and require different diagnostic evaluation.

  2. [Knowledge of university students in Szeged, Hungary about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devosa, Iván; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Fáyné Dombi, Alice; Barabás, Katalin

    2016-04-03

    Promiscuity and lack of use of reliable contraceptive methods increase the probability of sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of unwanted pregnancies, which are quite common among university students. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of university students about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases, and to assess the effectiveness of the sexual health education in secondary schools, with specific focus on the education held by peers. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out in a randomized sample of students at the University of Szeged (n = 472, 298 women and 174 men, average age 21 years) between 2009 and 2011. 62.1% of the respondents declared that reproductive health education lessons in high schools held by peers were reliable and authentic source of information, 12.3% considered as a less reliable source, and 25.6% defined the school health education as irrelevant source. Among those, who considered the health education held by peers as a reliable source, there were significantly more females (69.3% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.001), significantly fewer lived in cities (83.6% vs. 94.8%, p = 0.025), and significantly more responders knew that Candida infection can be transmitted through sexual intercourse (79.5% versus 63.9%, p = 0.02) as compared to those who did not consider health education held by peers as a reliable source. The majority of respondents obtained knowledge about sexual issues from the mass media. Young people who considered health educating programs reliable were significantly better informed about Candida disease.

  3. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  4. Perceived versus actual condom skills among clients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Cabral, R J

    1994-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether individual self-reports of perceived ability to use a condom correctly correlated with the actual ability to do so. Participants in the study were 3,059 clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The findings revealed that the participants' perceived self-efficacy with regard to using a condom effectively was a poor indicator of their clinically demonstrated skills using a penile model as scored on the 6-point Condom Skills Index...

  5. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...

  6. VULNERABILITY TO ACQUISITION OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN PROFESSIONAL TRUCK DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Jonas Rauber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The truckers live in constant geographical displacement and have a lifestyle itself, which seems to facilitate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and this factor precludes the articulation of health policies. Thus the aim of this is the vulnerability of truckers Evidence sexually transmitted diseases and the influence of the profession as a risk factor for acquiring these diseases. This is a qualitative study, conducted with three truckers on the banks of the BR 163, in the urban area of the municipality of Sinop in Mato Grosso, the data collection was conducted through semi-structured interview, and the speeches were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed by the method of content analysis. This study has a favorable ethical opinion by the Committee for Ethics and Research of the University Hospital Julio Muller. The results suggested that the profession of truck driver is susceptible to the individual to acquire STDs, since it remains for long hours away from their homes and live in a way that fosters sexual practices with casual partners and unprotected.

  7. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  8. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  9. Occupational Hazards, Public Health Risks: Sex Work and Sexually Transmitted Infections, their Epidemiological Liaisons and Disease Control Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Steen (Richard)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a large and diverse category within communicable diseases, comprising more than thirty-five pathogens transmissible through sexual contact. [1] Common, curable bacterial and protozoal STIs manifest with

  10. Management approaches for suspected and established Lyme disease used at the Lyme disease diagnostic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Gary P; McKenna, Donna; Nowakowski, John

    2016-01-14

    2015 marks the 27th year that the Lyme Disease Diagnostic Center, located in New York State in the United States, has provided care for patients with suspected or established deer tick-transmitted infections. There are five deer tick-transmitted infectious in this geographic area of which Lyme disease is the most common.For patients with erythema migrans, we do not obtain any laboratory testing. However, if the patient is febrile at the time of the visit or reports rigors and high-grade fevers, we consider the possibility of a co-infection and order pertinent laboratory tests.Our preferred management for Lyme disease-related facial palsy and/or radiculopathy is a 2-week course of doxycycline. Patients who are hospitalized for Lyme meningitis are usually treated at least initially with ceftriaxone. We have not seen convincing cases of encephalitis or myelitis solely due to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the absence of laboratory evidence of concomitant deer tick virus infection (Powassan virus). We have also never seen Lyme encephalopathy or a diffuse axonal peripheral neuropathy and suggest that these entities are either very rare or nonexistent.We have found that Lyme disease rarely presents with fever without other objective clinical manifestations. Prior cases attributed to Lyme disease may have overlooked an asymptomatic erythema migrans skin lesion or the diagnosis may have been based on nonspecific IgM seroreactivity. More research is needed on the appropriate management and significance of IgG seropositivity in asymptomatic patients who have no history of Lyme disease.

  11. «La vida alegre». How Important is Condom Used for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PINTOR HOLGUÍN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Action takes place in Spain in the mid?eighties (1987 with the change in Spanish society and the appearance of the first cases of AIDS in our country. From a comical sight, the adventures of a dermatologist particularly interested on sexually transmitted diseases prevention; especially in patients with risk behaviors, such as homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts injecting. The entire film revolves around the importance of condom use in preventing all sexually transmitted diseases.

  12. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  13. Behavior assessment of women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Vitória, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Lima, Bettina Moulin Coelho; Giami, Alain; Golub, Jonathan E; Talhari, Sinesio

    2012-01-01

    Studies about sexual risk behaviors can provide information to support design strategies to control the spread of HIV infection. To assess sexual risk behaviors among women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Vitória, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed among women attending an STD/AIDS reference center. Enrolled participants were interviewed and provided a blood sample to determine HIV status. A total of 276 women participated. among 284 selected; 109 (39.5%) were HIV-positive and 167 (60.5%) HIV-negative. Median age was 31 years (interquartile range (IQR)24-36) and 69% of women were between 18 and 34 years of age. Women reported high access to information about STD (87%) and AIDS (90%) but information about sexuality was less common (55%). HIV-positive women asked their partners to use condoms more often than HIV-negatives (31% vs. 5%, p=0.02), and were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse (65% vs. 33%, psexual intercourse (99.6%) and needle sharing (99.2%) were most frequently answered correctly, while questions regarding risk of HIV transmission through blood donation (57%) were least. Though this population reports easy access to information and services for HIV/sexually transmitted diseases, most report little understanding of unsafe sexual behaviors, particularly HIV-negative women.

  14. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  15. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Juvenile Prostitutes and Street Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Caffaro Rouget

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Four groups of adolescents – 35 juvenile prostitutes, 36 street youth, 31 monogamous sexually active adolescents and 35 non-sexually active adolescents – were studied between January 1, 1988 and December 31, 1988 for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases and other genital pathogens. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases found in the juvenile prostitutes (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 49%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 83% is in contrast to other studies, which document much lower rates of infection. This could be due to the fact that there are few studies done on juvenile prostitutes as a well defined group. Despite high risk sexual behaviour, the consistent use of contraception was low. No contraceptives were used by 57% of the juvenile prostitutes and 85% of the street youth. None of the adolescents sought medical attention although 48% of the juvenile prostitutes and 53% of the street youth had genital symptoms. It appears that the present public health education and health care delivery do not reach this high risk population.

  16. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880

  17. ALThe incidence of sexually transmitted infections and contagious skin diseases in the Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnaider D.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and epidemiological analysis of the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI and the most frequently reported infectious skin diseases in the Saratov region. To estimate the contribution of immigrants to the formation and number of episodes of infections with sexually transmission in the region. Materials and methods. Retrospective evaluation of the incidence and manifestations of the epidemiological process conducted by evaluating data obtained from the forms of state statistical reporting (№ 9 and № 34, annual report of Saratov regional dermatovenerologic dispensary (2009-2013. Results. We carried out a comparative analysis of the incidence of STI and the most common infectious skin diseases of the population of Saratov region and noted resistant dynamics to decrease. Conclusion. Population displacement within the country and the influx of immigrants from the former CIS countries, have a significant impact on the epidemiological situation in the Saratov region

  18. Abordagem nas doenças sexualmente transmissíveis Approach in sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis estão entre os problemas de saúde pública mais comuns em todo o mundo. Entre suas consequências estão a infertilidade feminina e masculina, a transmissão de mãe para filho, determinando perdas gestacionais ou doença congênita, e o aumento do risco para a infecção pelo HIV. Dessa forma, este guideline tem o objetivo de contribuir para melhorar a qualidade de atenção às pessoas com infecções sexualmente transmissíveis mais frequentes no Brasil, trazendo de forma didática e concreta o estado atual dos conhecimentos para os dermatologistas e médicos em geral que atuam no atendimento dessas pessoas e as principais recomendações para o diagnóstico e tratamento das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis mais recorrentes.Nowadays, sexually transmitted diseases are one of the most common public health issues. Among its consequences are the possibility of transmission from mother to baby - which may cause miscarriages and congenital disease, male and female infertility, and the increase of HIV infection risk. Therefore, the main goal of these guidelines is to contribute to the improvement of the treatment for sexually transmitted diseases patients by presenting to the medical community how today's science stands on the matter and also what the recommendation for diagnosing and treating a patient are.

  19. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C; Katokele, Stark; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Balfour, Lexi; Reiff, Mark; Lancaster, Warren; Noden, Bruce H; Bock, Ronnie; Stothard, J Russell

    2015-01-01

    Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia. This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools) at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped) and very quickly (28 working days). All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, Pmaps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively) performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%. This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are recommended.

  20. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia.This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped and very quickly (28 working days. All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001 and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001 or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001. Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001. Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%.This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are

  1. Prevalence of HIV-1 among attenders at sexually transmitted disease clinics: analyses according to country of birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrigle, C. A.; Nicoll, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the importance of world region of birth as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection, the likelihood of having an HIV-1 infection diagnosed and the likelihood of having another coexisting acute sexually transmitted infection (STI) among attenders at genitourinary medicine clinics. SUBJECTS: Specimens from attenders having routine syphilis serology at 15 sexually transmitted disease clinics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland participating in the unliked anonymous se...

  2. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; De Clercq, Eva M; Amenu, Kebede; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Revie, Crawford W

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to map the global risk of the major arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus by identifying areas where the diseases are reported, either through active transmission or travel-related outbreaks, as well as areas where the diseases are not currently reported but are nonetheless suitable for the vector. Data relating to five arboviral diseases (Zika, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever (RVF)) were extracted from some of the largest contemporary databases and paired with data on the known distribution of their vectors, A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The disease occurrence data for the selected diseases were compiled from literature dating as far back as 1952 to as recent as 2017. The resulting datasets were aggregated at the country level, except in the case of the USA, where state-level data were used. Spatial analysis was used to process the data and to develop risk maps. Out of the 250 countries/territories considered, 215 (86%) are potentially suitable for the survival and establishment of A. aegypti and/or A. albopictus. A. albopictus has suitability foci in 197 countries/territories, while there are 188 that are suitable for A. aegypti. There is considerable variation in the suitability range among countries/territories, but many of the tropical regions of the world provide high suitability over extensive areas. Globally, 146 (58.4%) countries/territories reported at least one arboviral disease, while 123 (49.2%) reported more than one of the above diseases. The overall numbers of countries/territories reporting autochthonous vector-borne occurrences of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and RVF, were 85, 111, 106, 43, and 39, respectively. With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of

  3. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors of minority women with sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.

  5. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a nonsystematic review of policy evidence for STD prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact STD prevention through social determinants of health. We also describe potential policy opportunity in these areas. It should be noted that we found gaps in policy evidence for some areas; thus, additional research would be useful for public health policy interventions for STD prevention.

  6. Individual and community risk factors and sexually transmitted diseases among arrested youths: a two level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2009-08-01

    High rates of infection for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been noted among youths involved in the juvenile justice system. Although both individual and community-level factors have been found to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk, their relative importance has not been tested in this population. A two-level logistic regression analysis was completed to assess the influence of individual-level and community-level predictors on STD test results among arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility. Results from weighted two level logistic regression analyses (n = 1,368) indicated individual-level factors of gender (being female), age, race (being African American), and criminal history predicted the youths' positive STD status. For the community-level predictors, concentrated disadvantage significantly and positively predicted the youths' STD status. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed.

  7. Detecting, Preventing, and Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescent Arrestees: An Unmet Public Health Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Rollie, Matthew; Childs, Kristina; Salvatore, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Studies of detained and incarcerated adolescent offenders in the United States indicate that these juveniles have an elevated risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, many more arrestees enter the “front end” of the juvenile justice system than are detained or incarcerated, and research into the STD risk profiles and service needs of this larger group is lacking. An expansion of STD testing (including of asymptomatic youths), prevention, and treatment is needed, as is improved knowledge about gender- and race-specific services. A pilot program in Florida has shown that juvenile justice and public health systems can collaborate to implement STD testing among new arrestees. With integrated linkages to treatment and prevention after release, this model could greatly reduce the STD burden in this underserved, high-risk population. PMID:19372535

  8. Punction methods of diagnostics and treatment of thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Tolstokorov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to study the punction methods role under diagnostics and treatment of different thyroid diseases. The authors of this article present treatment methods of 121 patients with different thyroid diseases. The received results allow to draw a conclusion, that punction methods of diagnostics and treatment of thyroid disease can be used as independent methods of treatment and in a complex with other medication remedies

  9. Mycoplasma genitalium: an emerging cause of sexually transmitted disease in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L McGowin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.

  10. Mycoplasma genitalium: an emerging cause of sexually transmitted disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowin, Chris L; Anderson-Smits, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.

  11. Exploring sexual health among female sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, San Francisco 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Sally C; Bernstein, Kyle T; Philip, Susan S

    2013-03-01

    Current data on sexual health in the United States is limited, in part, because of a lack of measurement tools. It is difficult for programs to develop a holistic approach to improving sexual health that is data-driven and evaluable without a tool that encompasses sexual health beyond the absence of disease. The objective of this study was to understand possible factors associated with sexual health and reported differences in sexual health among women. We conducted a survey measuring sexual health among women seeking care at the municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in San Francisco between January 25, 2010, and June 15, 2010. Records were matched on variables including basic demographics, reason for visit, symptoms at visit, history of an STD, and STD diagnosis at the visit. A total of 822 women completed the questionnaire during the study period. Women reporting no recent sexual activity reported feeling more insecure, angry, isolated, and limited because of health compared with women with recent sexual activity. However, few differences were seen among women based on symptoms and diagnosis at visit. Given the minimal differences based on symptoms and disease, this suggests that there are other factors that impact the quality of life and sexual health. Creating tools that can be used to measure sexual health is a necessary first step for programs to understand the sexual health of a community. More broad-based assessments of sexual health in a variety of populations will be critical to identifying points of intervention and progress toward success.

  12. Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Geoffrey P

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination programs provide both direct protection to those immunized and herd immunity, which is indirect protection of those who remain susceptible, owing to a reduced prevalence of infections. The well-understood impact of vaccination against ubiquitous childhood infections is compared with that of vaccination against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and theoretical insights are derived from a review of mathematical modeling studies. Typically, a large fraction of cases of STIs are acquired by those with modest risk, and these cases could be prevented by low-efficacy vaccines. If coverage is good, vaccination of only one sex can protect the other sex. Candidate vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital herpes are in the final stages of testing. The former is likely to be highly efficacious for a limited number of disease-causing HPV types, and the latter has provided protection against disease in women who initially were seronegative for both herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and HSV-2, with 73% efficacy. In models, this vaccine had a substantial impact when infectiousness was assumed to be reduced along with incidence of disease. With such vaccines on the horizon, the requirements for vaccine delivery need to be considered, particularly who should be vaccinated and at what age.

  13. Tolerance to a whitefly-transmitted virus causing muskmelon yellows disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva, J; Nuez, F

    1992-08-01

    Muskmelon yellowing disease was one of the most serious problems affecting muskmelon crops along the south-east coast of Spain throughout the 1980s. The causal agent of this disease is a virus that we call muskmelon yellows virus (MYV); MYV is transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood. It has proven impossible to find sources of resistance to MYV within a wide collection of Spanish muskmelon landraces and exotic varieties. However, 'Nagata Kin Makuwa' and PI 161375, lines of Asiatic origin, show tolerance to this disease. These two lines were studied together with two others ('Galia' and 'Piel de Sapo' type) that are very susceptible to MYV. The crosses between them (susceptible x tolerant) and the segregant generations derived from these crosses were also investigated. The studies were carried out in two different places and years. The expression of tolerance is influenced by the environment. A parabolic type relationship exists between the average value of percentage of tolerant plants and their variation. This allowed us to quantify the expected response in the segregant generations. The results observed in these generations agreed with a simple genetic control of tolerance. This tolerance, combined with protective measures which delay the infection, can contribute notably to mitigating the effects of MYV.

  14. Ultrasound diagnostics ofbowel diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the first step in the diagnosis of acute and chronic diseases of the abdominal cavity by imaging methods. In an increasing number of cases ultrasound examination is used to diagnose lesions located in the intestines, which beside the mesenteries and the omentum are an important part of the abdomen. The aim of this overview paper is to present the current possibilities of ultrasonography in the assessment of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently it is possible to present the anatomy of the intestinal wall, vascular network and the surrounding tissue with a great precision, even through transabdominal access. It is facilitated by digital sonograms, especially using harmonic imaging, spatial and XRES imaging as well as variable transducer pressure. Even better results can be obtained using endoscopic ultrasound, which can be equipped with a Doppler blood flow imaging facility and elastography. In addition, endoscopic ultrasound can be used to guide the collection of material for cytology or pathomorphology examination and the performance of various medical procedures. Over the recent years the diagnostic value of ultrasound increased following the introduction of intestinal hydrosonography and ultrasound contrast media, which also work very well in fistulography. Therefore, it is not surprising that ultrasonography used by an experienced practitioner makes it possible to diagnose the vast majority of intestinal pathologies and their complications as well as the results of the treatment applied. This is especially applicable to infectious, inflammatory, ischaemic and various neoplastic diseases. In the case of neoplastic lesions the stage of local advancement of the process can be determined, especially using endosonography. In a transabdominal examination this method achieves high efficacy in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and in diverticulitis of

  15. Methamphetamine use among women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2013-08-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) use is a continuing problem in the United States and is associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few studies have examined the meth use/STI risk association among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California, from 2009 to 2010. Routinely collected clinic intake data were used to compare the prevalence of meth use among women with different demographics/sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of meth use. There were 1.4% (n = 277) women who reported meth use, with a mean age of 29 years. Prevalence was highest among Whites and those reporting both male and female partners. Most women who reported meth use also reported polysubstance use. In a multivariable model controlling for age, race/ethnicity, condom use, having a new sex partner, and other illicit substance use, women who reported sex with an injection drug user were nearly 10 times more likely to report meth use as compared with those who did not (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.86-16.75). Other factors associated with meth use included sex with a recently incarcerated partner (AOR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16-4.86), anonymous partner (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54-4.04), and transactional sex (AOR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.69-6.32). Women who tested positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea were 1.48 times more likely to use meth as compared with those who did not. Female meth users have high-risk behaviors that could increase their risk for STIs/HIV.

  16. Diagnostic Approach in Infants and Children with Mitochondrial Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Shiang Chi

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the molecular classification scheme and associated phenotypes in infants and children with mitochondrial diseases, in addition to providing an overview of the basic biochemical reactions and genetic characteristics in the mitochondrion, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic methods. A diagnostic algorithm for identifying mitochondrial disorders in pediatric neurology patients is proposed.

  17. Personality dimensions of sexually transmitted disease repeaters assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjekíc, M; Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vlajinac, H; Marinkovíc, J

    2002-01-01

    To assess the personality characteristics of patients with repeated sexually transmitted diseases (STD). A case-control study comparing 101 STD repeaters (subjects with a lifetime history of three or more STDs) with 182 controls who had no history of STD. All subjects attended the City Department for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade (Yugoslavia) from June 1997 to April 1998. Personality characteristics was assessed by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). The analysis of MCMI test showed that STD repeaters had higher scores on narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid scales. The difference between STD repeaters and the controls was significant on antisocial, psychotic thinking and psychotic delusion scales, although scores on clinical syndromes were low for both cases and controls. Discriminant analysis showed that antisocial personality was predictive for STD repeaters. This study support the hypothesis that STD repeaters are different from controls in terms of their psychological characteristics. The behaviour of STD repeaters is ego-syntonic, which makes the treatment of their personality difficult and emphasizes the importance of work on primary and secondary prevention of STD.

  18. Transmission of sexually transmitted disease in complex network of the Penna model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Chunguang

    2007-04-01

    The Penna model is a computational model which can encompass the inheritance, mutation, evolution and ageing phenomena of population successfully. Some researchers considered social interactions in an asexual Penna model, got a complex network and found some interesting properties. We consider a sexual Penna model to study the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our model can also generate a complex network and we observed some properties in real networks, such as small-world and assortative mixing. In the real world, the fatality of STD is changing with the advancing of medicine and it can affect our life. In this paper, we uncover the effect induced by the fatality of STD. We found that fatality plays an important role in the transmission of STD because whether the STD will disappear or continue to exist depends on the fatality of STD. Also, the fatality of STD can affect the evolution of inherited diseases and average life span. Some properties found in the model should be useful for the prevention and control of STD.

  19. Changing beliefs and behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases in vulnerable women: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in women at risk of STDs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action by using conventional content analysis method. An empowerment program regarding STDs (Action was performed among 32 (with convenient sample drug user women with addicted husbands referring to the counseling center for vulnerable women (drop in enter in Isfahan in 2015. The knowledge of quiddity, transmission, and prevention of STDs, as well as some items of life skills such as self-awareness, interpersonal communication, and assertive behavior were taught in an educational program. Teaching methods were lectures, group, and individual training and role play. The impact of the program on modified belief and behavior change regarding STDs was evaluated with structured interviews. Results: Analysis of the obtained results yielded three categories. The categories were awareness of STD, believing in being at risk, and decision and change. Conclusions: Promoting self-care and prevention through education programs based on action research can make a significant reduction in the incidence of problems and cause a behavior change in women with the disease or those at risk for STDs.

  20. No evidence for a sustained increase in sexually transmitted diseases among heterosexuals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a 12-year trend analysis at the sexually transmitted disease outpatient clinic, Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, Akke K.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Fennema, Han S. A.; Adams, Karin; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are on the rise, mainly among men having sex with men (MSM). GOAL: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether STD increases as seen in MSM are also visible among heterosexuals. STUDY DESIGN: Attendees of the STD clinic in Amsterdam, The

  1. Diagnostic radiology in the rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Martin, W.

    1986-01-01

    In the radiological investigation of joint disease there are several signs which are helpful in making a diagnosis, Individually these signs will often suggest the presence of joint disease but may not be specific. However when present in combination or when considering the anatomic distribution, a definitive diagnosis is possible. Several of the signs of rheumatic disease can occur in other nonrheumatic conditions

  2. Implications of host genetic variation on the risk and prevalence of infectious diseases transmitted through the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B; Davidson, R; Conington, J; Roughsedge, T; Hutchings, M R; Villanueva, B

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that host genetic heterogeneity in the response to infectious challenge can affect the emergence risk and the severity of diseases transmitted through direct contact between individuals. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the degree and direction of influence owing to different definitions of genetic variation, most of which are not in line with the current understanding of the genetic architecture of disease traits. Also, the relevance of previous results for diseases transmitted through environmental sources is unclear. In this article a compartmental genetic-epidemiological model was developed to quantify the impact of host genetic diversity on epidemiological characteristics of diseases transmitted through a contaminated environment. The model was parameterized for footrot in sheep. Genetic variation was defined through continuous distributions with varying shape and degree of dispersion for different disease traits. The model predicts a strong impact of genetic heterogeneity on the disease risk and its progression and severity, as well as on observable host phenotypes, when dispersion in key epidemiological parameters is high. The impact of host variation depends on the disease trait for which variation occurs and on environmental conditions affecting pathogen survival. In particular, compared to homogeneous populations with the same average susceptibility, disease risk and severity are substantially higher in populations containing a large proportion of highly susceptible individuals, and the differences are strongest when environmental contamination is low. The implications of our results for the recording and analysis of disease data and for predicting response to selection are discussed.

  3. The production of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases in young people: a bibliometric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Spindola

    2015-07-01

      ABSTRACT Objective: To identify and characterize the scientific production of nurses related to young people's vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Method: Descriptive study of transverse cutting (2009-2013, bibliometric research, conducted through the search of publications on the Health Virtual Library and the catalog of theses and dissertations of Brazilian Association of Nursing. The sample consisted of 40 articles, 05 theses and 05 dissertations. Results: The most of the publications were carried out by nurses’ teachers with doctoral degree. The theme of HIV/aids, focus of health education, field research and qualitative analysis of the findings had greater representativeness in the sample analyzed. Conclusion: Although STD have been manifested in young people and the Health Ministry of Brazil showing the increased incidence of HIV/aids in this group, the scientific literature on the subject in the studied timeframe is irregular and reduced. Descriptors: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Adolescent, Young adult, Bibliometrics.   RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar y caracterizar la producción científica de enfermería relacionado a la vulnerabilidad de los jóvenes con enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Método: Estudio descriptivo de tipo bibliométrico (2009-2013, de corte transversal realizado en la Biblioteca Virtual de salud y en el catálogo de tesis y disertaciones de la Asociación Brasileña de enfermería. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 40 artículos, 05 tesis y 05 disertaciones. Resultados: La mayoría de las publicaciones se llevó a cabo por enfermeras docentes con grado de doctorado. El tema del VIH/SIDA, el enfoque de educación para la salud, la investigación de campo y análisis cualitativo de los resultados tuvieron mayor representatividad en la muestra analizada. Conclusión: Aunque las enfermedades de transmisión sexual si manifiesta en los jóvenes y los documentos del Ministerio de salud de Brasil demostra el aumento

  4. HIV-1 prevalence and risk factors among sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, F R; Jack, N; Murphy, J R; Edwards, J; Mahabir, B; Paul, R; White, F; Bartholomew, C; Blattner, W A

    1995-04-01

    To study trends in prevalence and to ascertain risk factors for HIV-1 among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attenders in Trinidad. Serial cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1987-1988 and 1990-1991 at a centralized STD clinic in Port of Spain. A case-control study was carried out to examine in greater detail the demographic and behavioral risk factors for HIV-1 among self-declared heterosexuals in this population. HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-3.9] in 1987-1988 to 13.6% (95% CI, 11.8-15.6) in 1990-1991. Age > or = 40 years [odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8], urban residence (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and human T-lymphotropic virus-I seropositivity (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0) were significant risk factors for HIV-1 in 1990-1991. In the case-control analysis, significant independent risk factors for men included current genital ulcer disease (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.2-12.5), current genital warts (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.0), having ever had syphilis (OR, 3.2; 95% CI 1.6-6.1), and use of crack cocaine in the preceding 6 months (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.7-14.2). Corresponding risk factors for women were commercial sex work (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.3-25.7), initiation of sexual activity before age 14 years (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0), and past non-gonococcal cervicitis (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.3-13.1). HIV-1 in this setting is primarily heterosexually transmitted in a milieu of unprotected sexual activity fuelled by a crack cocaine epidemic. Targeted interventions to prevent, detect and treat STD and crack cocaine addiction, as well as disrupt their adverse synergism, may substantially reduce HIV-1 transmission in this population.

  5. Barrier methods of contraception, spermicides, and sexually transmitted diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oro, L C; Parazzini, F; Naldi, L; La Vecchia, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To understand whether barrier methods of contraception (BMC) and/or spermicides lower the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted disease (STD) and to quantify the protection. DESIGN--Review of published experimental studies, in vitro and in vivo evidence on the issue. SUBJECTS--We reviewed 22 papers that examined the impermeability of BMC in vitro against STD agents or the effect of spermicides, and 60 papers reporting results of epidemiological studies on the risk of STD in users of BMC. RESULTS--There was in vitro evidence that both BMC and spermicides were effective against most sexually transmissible agents. Doubts remain on the effectiveness of BMC and spermicides in normal conditions of use, particularly against human papilloma virus. Natural membrane condoms are not impermeable and pores are seen by electron microscopy. Epidemiological studies show a consistent reduction in the risk for use of condoms against gonococcal (most studies giving relative risk, RR, estimates around 0.4 to 0.6) and HIV infection (RRs between 0.3 and 0.6 in most studies). Spermicides protect women against gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis; their role against other STDs is less clear and there is some indication of an irritative effect on the vaginal mucosa that is likely to be dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS--A large amount of evidence indicates that BMC reduce the risk of gonorrhoea and HIV transmission, but the results are--at least in quantitative terms--less consistent for other diseases. Implications for individual choices and public health approaches should relate to frequency of exposure and severity of the disease too. PMID:7705860

  6. Molecular Diagnostics Update for the Emerging (If Not Already Widespread) Sexually Transmitted Infection Agent Mycoplasma genitalium: Just About Ready for Prime Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Erik

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important and emerging agent of sexually transmitted infection in females and males, carrying the potential for postinfection genital tract sequelae. Past efforts to identify this organism on a routine basis, which were problematic due to the fastidious nature of the bacterium and its antigenic intricacies, have recently become supplemented by molecular diagnostics. A number of these assays are available commercially. This minireview describes the format and performance indices of a number of M. genitalium DNA- and RNA-based amplification assays; many of these assays have contributed to an improved clinical and epidemiologic understanding of this organism. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Diagnostics of parasitic diseases. Myths of the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kozlov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of parasitic diseases in many medical laboratories is carried out with a bad quality. Principal causes are the low level of qualification of laboratorians and a small amount of laboratory methods which are used. The majority of practising doctors has bad knowledge about diseases. All this serves as base for occurrence in the market of medical services of various pseudoscientific methods of diagnostics of parasitic diseases, such as Voll-method and its analogues, including a method of bioresonant diagnostics, scanning of the crushed drop of blood, including a dark field method, diagnostics on pulse, detection of toxins of parasites in salivaric crystal amilase and others. These methods cannot be scientific to be the methods of demonstrative medicine often lead to development of parasitic phobias of patients.

  8. Diagnostic and treatment difficulties in Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Păunică

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases are related to a special pathology having a great psychosocial and economic impact, being represented by chronic diseases which often affects the adult/ active population and that require a long-term treatment. The incidence of Crohn's disease has recorded an increasing trend amongst the general population. However, the incidence of regional enteritis is somewhat lower than in the case of ulcerohemorrhagic rectocolitis. The highest prevalence of Crohn's disease is encountered among the populations with a high standard of living; the onset of the disease occurs between 15 and 35 years, but there are also rare cases with onset in childbirth or over 60 years of age. Men and women are approximate equally affected by Crohn's disease. The main purpose of the treatment is to keep under control the disease, and to increase the quality of life with the following goals: diminishing intestinal inflammatory lesions, relieving symptoms and inducing remission, preventing relapses and complications, as well as maintaining proper nutrition. Appropriate treatment should be adapted to the different clinical-evolutionary forms of Crohn's disease, the succession of different treatment methods being therefore different. Surgical treatment plays a much more limited role in Crohn's disease than in ulcerhemorrhagic rectocolitis. Operational interventions are frequently followed by relapses, and surgical resections should be limited to macroscopically affected segments.

  9. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS IN MEN AFTER PREVIOUS SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kalininа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the efficacy and safety of natural complex multi-component biologically active additives (BAA to food Spermstrong and Testogenona in the diagnosis and treating 63 men with reproductive disorders after illness, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. During the 12 weeks 41 patients the primary group assigned Spermstrongom combination therapy in combination with Testogenonom, 22 patient control group received only Spermstrong. Immediate treatment results evaluated through 4 weeks and distant through 12 weeks after stopping treatment. It has been established that the appointment of a combination therapy of complex components Spermstrong and Testogenon was statistically significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment. In the main group was marked by a more pronounced positive clinical effect through 12 weeks after treatment in 84.5 % of patients receiving combination therapy (increase the concentration and mobility of spermatozoa to normozoospermii, increase testosterone levels to normal values, improving the quality of erections, improve blood flow in the prostate gland, testes, in the control group who received Spermstrong, the effect is achieved in two times fewer patients, i. e. normozoospermija in 40.9 % have patients. The results confirm that the components of the Spermstrong complexes and Testogenon in combination therapy is effective, safe, have no side effects and can be used in complex treatment of reproductive disorders in men who have STDs, as well as for prophylaxis of incremental sexual glands: prostate, testicules and improve sexual function. 

  10. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Karen W; Parsell, Bradley W; Leichliter, Jami S; Habel, Melissa A; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients.

  11. Urinary tract infection among women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E S; Fennell, C L; Stamm, W E

    1984-01-01

    The symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings for 69 women who were seen at a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and who had acute urinary tract infection (UTI) were compared with those for women who had vaginitis, gonorrhea, or chlamydial infection. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were the two most common causes of acute cystitis in this population and accounted for 62 (90%) of 69 infections. Forty-three percent of the women had positive tests for antibody-coated bacteria (ACB), an observation implying renal infection although symptoms of upper tract infection were infrequent. Frequency, urgency, dysuria, and suprapubic tenderness were significantly associated with cystitis, whereas vaginal discharge and vulvar itching were associated with vaginitis. There was, however, considerable overlap in symptoms among the four groups of women, and their accurate differentiation required objective information based upon pelvic examination, examination of vaginal fluid, and urinalysis. In the absence of vaginitis on wet mount and mucopurulent cervicitis on examination, pyuria, as determined by examination of centrifuged urine, had an 88% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 61% positive predictive value, and 93% negative predictive value for acute UTI. Because of the high prevalence of positive ACB tests and the possibility that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be mistaken for cystitis, we prefer a five- to seven-day course of antibiotics over single-dose therapy for treatment of patients with possible UTI in the setting of an STD clinic.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence and risk behaviors in patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, B; Campbell, P J; Preiksaitis, J K; Fonseca, K

    1997-09-01

    To investigate the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C infection in association with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sexual practices, and injection drug use. All eligible men and women attending two STD clinics in Alberta, Canada, from May 1994 to May 1995 were studied. Anonymous, unlinked serosurveys were performed using leftover sera drawn for routine syphilis, hepatitis B, or HIV testing. Self-administered questionnaires collected a wide range of data: demographic, sexual behaviors, condom use, STD history, the exchange of drugs or money for sex, and drug and alcohol use. HIV seroprevalence in the overall sample group (n = 6,668) was 1.5%. Univariate analysis showed significant relationships for age between 30 years and 49 years, men having sex with men, injection drug use regardless of sexual orientation, history of STD, anal sex, and exchanging money or drugs for sex. At the multivariate level, only men having sex with men, injection drug use, and age more than 30 years remained predictive of HIV infection. The prevalence of hepatitis C was 3.4% with significant associations being injection drug use and exchanging money or drugs for sex. The behavioral associations between sex practices, injection drug use, and HIV and hepatitis C seroprevalence warrant ongoing investigation. Continuing prevention programs targeted at safer sex practices (particularly for men having sex with men) and the use of clean needles are needed.

  13. Competitive Exclusion and Coexistence of Pathogens in a Homosexually-Transmitted Disease Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Caichun; Jiang, Jifa

    2011-01-01

    A sexually-transmitted disease model for two strains of pathogen in a one-sex, heterogeneously-mixing population has been studied completely by Jiang and Chai in (J Math Biol 56:373–390, 2008). In this paper, we give a analysis for a SIS STD with two competing strains, where populations are divided into three differential groups based on their susceptibility to two distinct pathogenic strains. We investigate the existence and stability of the boundary equilibria that characterizes competitive exclusion of the two competing strains; we also investigate the existence and stability of the positive coexistence equilibrium, which characterizes the possibility of coexistence of the two strains. We obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence and global stability about these equilibria under some assumptions. We verify that there is a strong connection between the stability of the boundary equilibria and the existence of the coexistence equilibrium, that is, there exists a unique coexistence equilibrium if and only if the boundary equilibria both exist and have the same stability, the coexistence equilibrium is globally stable or unstable if and only if the two boundary equilibria are both unstable or both stable. PMID:21347222

  14. Explosive spread of HIV-1 and sexually transmitted diseases in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C A; Vathiny, O V; Gorbach, P M; Leng, H B; Berlioz-Arthaud, A; Whittington, W L; Holmes, K K

    1998-04-18

    A cross-sectional study conducted in 5 locations in Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Svay Pak, Sihanoukville, Battambang, and Sisophon) in 1996, compared prevalences of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 314 women seeking reproductive health services, 322 male police and military personnel, and 437 brothel-based sex workers (SWs). Among SWs, 38.7% had chlamydial and/or gonococcal infection and 13.8% were syphilis seroreactive. Among police and military personnel, 2.1% had chlamydial infection, 5.0% had gonorrhea, and 6.6% were syphilis seroreactive. 5.3% of reproductive health care clients had chlamydial and/or gonococcal infection and 4.0% were syphilis seroreactive. HIV prevalence was 40.6% among SWs (range by site, 19-51%), 12.5% among police and military personnel (range, 6-16%), and 4.5% in the reproductive health client group (range, 3-7%). Assays of serum specimens from 9 HIV-1-seropositive individuals revealed subtype E, suggesting that Cambodia's HIV epidemic is a result of regional spread from Thailand rather than importation by UN peacekeeping troops. 56% of police and military personnel acknowledged having sex with a prostitute in the month preceding the survey and 88.5% reported such an encounter in the past year; only 38% reported consistent condom use with commercial SWs. The high rates of HIV and other STDs identified in this study indicate an urgent need for preventive interventions, particularly ones focused on the commercial sex industry.

  15. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

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    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  16. Gender gaps, gender traps: sexual identity and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases among women in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Vivian Fei-ling; Quan, Vu Minh; Chung, A; Zenilman, Jonathan; Hanh, Vu Thi Minh; Celentano, David

    2002-08-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and 18 women in the general population of northern Vietnam. A framework integrating Andersen's behavioral model of health services use and Zurayk's multi-layered model was used to conceptualize women's health-seeking behavior for STD symptoms. Both men and women noted clear gender differences in sexual roles and expectations. According to participants, a woman's primary roles in northern Vietnam are socially constructed as that of a wife and mother-and in these roles, she is expected to behave in a faithful and obedient manner vis à vis her husband. It emerged that men's marital and sexual roles are less clearly defined by traditional norms and are more permissive in their tolerance of premarital and extramarital sex. For women, however, these activities are socially condemned. Finally, since STDs are associated with sexual promiscuity, both men and women expressed anxiety about telling their partners about an STD; women's expressions were characterized more by fear of social and physical consequences, whereas men expressed embarrassment. Community level interventions that work towards disassociating STDs from traditional social norms may enable Vietnamese women to report possible STD symptoms and promote diagnosis and care for STDs.

  17. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS ABOUT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES/AIDS

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    Elisângela de Souza Marques

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research was to verify the knowledge of the school adolescents, of a public school in Goiânia – Goiás, about STD/Aids. The research is characterized as descriptive and was made from 2003 January to October, with students of the related school 7th and 8th classes’ and 2nd and 3rd high school classes. The data had been collected by structuralized questionnaire. The research had evaluated 113 students and 46% of them were male and 54% were female. The age goes to 12 to 19 years old. 15% of the students told that they already had sexual relations. It was observed that, although 90,43% of the students have showed previous knowledge of the subject, when they were asked about how much they knew about DST/AIDS, many of them had answered incorrectly. The research suggests an effective implementation of educative programs about the theme in all the schools and school levels. KEYWORDS: Public Health Nursing; Teen Health; Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  18. [Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and the use of the condom among sex workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Díaz, L; Gorra, M L; Sosa, T R; Velásquez Luna, M; Gálvez Valdivieso, M; Rodríguez Guzmán, L M

    2001-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and the use of condoms by sex workers, assisted in a health module. A cross sectional study, was performed with prostitutes in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz through a self-administered questionnaire in a period from January 3 to February 9, 2001. The questionnaire evaluated gynecology-obstetric background, STD and the use of condoms. Clinical records and laboratory tests were evaluated for STD screening. A total number of 196 sex workers from 71 work places were evaluated. The average age was 29.5 +/- 3.3 years. One hundred and eleven (57%) reported being single. 189 (96.4%) presented at least a case of vaginosis during the year 2000 and 148 (75.5%) were diagnosed having vulvovaginitis due to fungus. Syphilis was identified in 4 (2%) cases and (0.5%) acquired immune deficiency syndrome. 45 (23%) reported they always use a condom and 113 (58%) use condoms very often. There is a high prevalence of vulva and vagina disorders, as well as syphilis. High rates of sex workers use condoms.

  19. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  20. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415

  1. Drug use and sexually transmitted diseases among female and male arrested youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front end of the justice system. Female-male, multi-group latent class analyses identified two subgroups, High Risk and Lower Risk, of youths described by a latent construct of risk based on drug test results, STD test results, and a classification for the seriousness of arrest charge. The results found: (1) a similar classification distinguished High Risk and Lower Risk male and female youths, and (2) important gender group differences in sexual risk related factors (e.g., substance use during sexual encounters). Among the youths in this sample who tested positive for an STD, 66% of the girls and 57% of the boys were released back into the community after arrest. Overall, our findings raise serious public health and social welfare concerns, for both the youths and the community. Prevention and intervention implications of these findings are also discussed.

  2. Gender and racial differences in risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among justice-involved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Childs, Kristina; Belenko, Steven; Schmeidler, James; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Gender and racial differences in infection rates for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been reported within community-based populations, but little is known of such differences within juvenile offending populations. Moreover, while research has demonstrated that certain individual-level and community-level factors affect risky behaviors associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD), less is known about how multi-level factors affect STD infection, particularly among delinquent populations. The present study investigated gender and racial differences in STD infection among a sample of 924 juvenile offenders. Generalized linear model regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of individual-level factors such as age, offense history, and substance use and community-level factors such as concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, and family disruption on STD status. Results revealed significant racial and STD status differences across gender, as well as interaction effects for race and STD status for males only. Gender differences in individual-level and community-level predictors were also found. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed.

  3. Opa typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Yin, Yue-Ping; Dai, Xiu-Qin; Yu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Hong-Chun; Zhu, Bang-Yong; Gao, Xing; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    Gonorrhoea has been one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. A clear understanding of its transmission dynamics is important in formulating prevention and control measures. To investigate the distribution of opa types in patients attending at STD clinics in China and to evaluate the concordance between epidemiologic data and opa-typing results. Opa typing was conducted for 330 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from the patients at 4 STDs clinics in China, and the epidemiologic data were collected as well. A total of 309 opa types were detected from the 330 isolates. Two hundred ninety-two opa types were unique, and 17 opa types were found in more than 1 patient. Opa typing confirmed all 9 sexual links that were revealed by epidemiologic information and further identified 9 opa clusters and 8 similar pairs. Opa typing is a discriminatory tool that can be used in epidemiologic studies on gonococcal infections. This technique is more powerful than epidemiologic data to identify sexual links and improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of gonorrhoea.

  4. Integrating syndromic case management of sexually transmitted diseases into primary healthcare services in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwat, E B; Egah, D Z; Peter, J; Barau, C; Majang, Y; Mafuyai, S; Imade, G E; Bukbuk, D N

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a huge public health problem; both the aetiological and clinical approaches to management have limitations. WHO has therefore developed an alternative strategy--the syndromic case management approach. This paper reports a training of healthcare providers at the Primary Health Centers aimed at integrating STD care into other services in the PHCs to improve management at the community level. Sixteen nurses, from eight PHCs were trained on this new strategy. The training included: identification of STDs, use of flow charts, patient education and counseling, clinic management issues and record keeping and reporting. Over a period of eight weeks post training, about 731 clients were attended to, 451 (61.7%) had signs and symptoms of various STDs (genital discharge, genital ulcer, genital warts and lower abdominal pains). They were treated using the syndromic case approach. About 18.6% (84/451) were males and 81.4% (367/451) were Females. Singles (never married) constituted 32.8% (148/451) while 28.6% were married. About 26.6% and 12.0% were divorced and separated respectively. Age group 20-35 years was at highest risk of infection Syndromic case management of STDs can be conveniently integrated into the primary health care delivery system in Nigeria.

  5. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambete, Kennedy D; Mtaturu, Zephania

    2006-09-01

    In Tanzania, it is considered a taboo for teachers and parents to talk with children about sexual matters including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in schools and at home because of cultural and religious barriers. Political pressure also keeps sexual education and thus education on STDs out of classrooms. Generally, there is disagreement over STDs education on what to teach, by whom, and to what extent. To assess the knowledge of STDs, and attitude towards sexual behavior and STDs among secondary school students. This was a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. A sample size of 635 students was determined by simple random sampling. Majority of the students (98%) said have heard about STDs; however their knowledge of the symptoms associated with STDs was poor. Similarly 147 (23%) students did not know other means of STDs transmission rather than sexual intercourse. A number of students who were capable of identifying all tracer STDs was comparable between the ordinary (10.5%) and advanced (10.6%) level students (p parents as source of information (p < 0.001). Regarding vulnerability to STDs, 503 (79%) students said female students were more vulnerable to STDs compared to males. The level of knowledge about STDs (ability to identify tracer STDs, to describe symptoms associated with STDs and their mode of transmission) is poor with regard to the students' levels of education. Female students are more vulnerable to STDs compared to male counterparts. Mass media is still the more effective means of educating the students on STDs.

  6. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Correlates among Female Attendees of Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its risk factors among the female attendees of sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Zhejiang Province, China. A self-administered questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional design was administered to attendees at four STD clinics in 2007. Of the 313 female STD clinic attendees, 42.5% reported that they had at least one unintended pregnancy; the induced abortion rate was 39.0%. Over their lifetime, 12.1% responded “use condoms always/often” and 5.4% “always/often used oral contraceptives.” The risk factors for the unintended pregnancy identified by the multivariate analysis were as follows: being married, experience of nonconsensual sex, and a history of STD, having two and over two sexual partners. Unintended pregnancies and induced abortion by female STD clinic attendees have reached an alarming prevalence. Doctors at STD clinics should attach importance not only to the STD problem of the female attendees, but also to the unintended pregnancy and the associated factors. Targeted contraceptive counseling and intervention should be promoted at STD clinics as a strategy to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the reproductive health services in China.

  7. Long-term comparative pharmacovigilance of orally transmitted Chagas disease: first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyolé; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Noya, Oscar; Castro, Julio; Ossenkopp, John; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Suárez, José Antonio; Noya-Alarcón, Oscar; Naranjo, Laura; Gutiérrez, Humberto; Quinci, Giuseppa; Torres, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Two old drugs are the only choice against Trypanosoma cruzi and little is known about their secondary effects in the acute stage of oral-transmitted Chagas disease (ChD). A cross-sectional analytical surveillance study was conducted in a sizable cohort of patients seen during the largest acute foodborne ChD microepidemic registered so far. Individuals were treated with benznidazole (BNZ) or nifurtimox (NFX). 'Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events' was assessed to categorize side effects according to severity. Out of 176 treatments applied, 79% had one or more adverse effects, which predominated in adults (97.8%) as compared to children (75.5%). Risk of side effects with NFX was significantly higher than BNZ. Four adults and a child treated with NFX had severe side effects (pulmonary infarction, facial paralysis, neutropenia, blurred vision, bone marrow hypoplasia) warranting hospitalization, and drug suspension. Adverse effects frequently reported with NFX were abdominal pain, hyporexia, weight loss, headache, nausea and lymphocytosis, whereas skin rash, neurosensory effects, hyporexia, fatigue, pyrosis, abdominal pain and eosinophilia were observed with BNZ. Frequency and severity of side effects during treatment of acute oral infection by T. cruzi demand direct supervision and close follow-up, even in those asymptomatic, to prevent life-threatening situations.

  8. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective Cohort study of two Danish Religious minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour.  Methods: We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care...

  9. Routine HIV screening of sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders has favourable cost-effectiveness ratio in low HIV prevalence settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; van der Meijden, WI; Swart, W; Postma, MJ

    2002-01-01

    HIV screening for attenders of clinics for sexually transmitted disease (STD) may identify individuals with high-risk sexual behaviour and avert HIV infections in partners. Extending our previous analysis in AIDS, we performed an economic evaluation of HIV screening of STD-clinic attenders in

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  11. Fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are decreasing due to better hygienic standards at travel destination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaten, Gijs G.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Coutinho, Roel A.; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether changes in attack rates of fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are related to changes in pretravel vaccination practices or better hygienic standards at travel destination. Methods. National surveillance data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of

  12. The National Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention/Training Clinic Program and the Training of Health Care Providers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Stephen; Kaetz, Susan

    1989-01-01

    A nationwide network of clinics to educate health care providers about clinical aspects of sexually transmitted diseases has succeeded and led to development of a 13-clinic network for training in the clinical, epidemiological, psychological, and social aspects of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), drawing on the earlier clinic…

  13. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, Rachel L; Smith, Jennifer L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Brooker, Simon J

    2014-01-21

    Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 - 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 - 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations at risk however, the burden

  14. Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease in Male Patients Attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic: First Assessment in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Blanco, Orestes; Correa, Consuelo; Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Rodríguez, Islay

    2016-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in particular genital ulcer disease (GUD) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in resource-constrained countries. Surveillance of autochthonous etiologies provides epidemiological information contributing to the prevention and treatment of STIs. We investigated the etiology and factors associated with GUD among male patients attending a STD clinic in Havana, Cuba. Swabs from genital ulcers of 113 male patients, collected from May 2012 to June 2015, were analyzed using PCR for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis. We also investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with the presence of these pathogens in GUD. At least one of the pathogens was detected in 70% of patients. The occurrence of the pathogens was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (51.3%), T. pallidum (29.2%), and C. trachomatis (1.8%). Co-infections occurred as follows: T. pallidum-HSV-2 (10.6%), C. trachomatis-HSV-2 (0.9%) and C. trachomatis-T. pallidum (0.9%). Herpes simplex virus type 1 and H. ducreyi were not detected. Ages 15 to 40 years, HIV-positive serostatus, and no condom use were significant risk factors for the presence of HSV-2 in genital ulcers. Our preliminary results highlight the predominance of HSV-2 and T. pallidum as the leading GUD etiologies in the study population and identified risk factors associated with HSV-2. This information should help to inform guidelines for better management of GUD in Havana, Cuba.

  15. Diagnostic Evaluation of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey F. Peipert

    1994-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of PID is extremely important for the effective management of the acute illness and for the prevention of long-term sequelae. The diagnosis of PID is difficult, with considerable numbers of false-positive and false-negative diagnoses. An abnormal vaginal discharge or evidence of lower genital tract infection is an important and predictive finding that is often underemphasized and overlooked. This paper reviews the clinical diagnosis and supportive laboratory tests for the diagnosis of PID and outlines an appropriate diagnostic plan for the clinician and the researcher.

  16. Ferret Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Nico J

    Neoplastic disease is common in ferrets. Approximately half of all tumors diagnosed in ferrets are located in the endocrine or hemolymphatic system. Many factors may influence the choice of treatment. Medical management of adrenal tumors has a greater disease-free period compared to adrenalectomy.

  17. Hirayama disease: diagnostic essentials in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Chourmouzi, Danae; Terzoudi, Aikaterini; Georgiou, Nikiforos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini

    2017-12-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with progressive muscular weakness of the upper extremities. MRI of the cervical spine established the final diagnosis of Hirayama disease (HD). HD is a rare disease with benign progress. Neurologists and radiologists should be aware of the specific neuroimaging signs of this rare clinical entity.

  18. Need for revisiting the role of sexually transmitted disease clinics in government hospitals in India

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    Madhulekha Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Government of India provides treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs through government's sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics with the mandate of providing curative and preventive services for clients in the context of STIs. However, besides the patients suffering from STDs, other clients with problems related to reproductive and sexual health also attend these clinics. This study aimed to assess the profile and treatment-seeking behavior of clients attending STD clinics in government hospitals in India. Materials and Methods: This multicentric, cross-sectional study with 5098 participants was conducted over 2 months in identified 19 Indian states. Chi–square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage with STDs (62.98% was nearly double than those with non-STDs (37.1%. Around 8.2% of patients had an STD and were also HIV positive. Compared to the total STD cases, only 9% of the partners had turned up for screening. Of significance were the non-STD cases who presented with both physical and psychological symptoms including infertility. Among males, it was mainly sexual dysfunction and balanoposthitis, and in females, lower abdominal pain and bacterial vaginosis. Only 27.3% reported that they had come directly to the government facility/clinic. Nearly 38% of males and 30% of females had tried home remedies before coming to the government clinic. Majority (77.9% of the clients reported that they had never been counseled on any aspect of STD or HIV. Conclusion: The profile of clients in the various clinics across the country indicates that the name “STD Clinic” is a misnomer since the presenting complaints of clients are varied, and related not only to STDs but also to other reproductive tract problems. Furthermore, the average new patient load observed in our study is low and this was attributed to the name “STDs” given to these clinics. Renaming them as “Reproductive Health

  19. Web 2.0 Tools in the Prevention of Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lorente, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2018-03-22

    The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. ©María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  20. The rapid evolution of molecular genetic diagnostics in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Alexander E; Kubisch, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has revolutionized molecular genetic diagnostics in monogenic disorders. The present review gives a brief overview of different MPS-based approaches used in clinical diagnostics of neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) and highlights their advantages and limitations. MPS-based approaches like gene panel sequencing, (whole) exome sequencing, (whole) genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing have been used to identify the genetic cause in NMDs. Although gene panel sequencing has evolved as a standard test for heterogeneous diseases, it is still debated, mainly because of financial issues and unsolved problems of variant interpretation, whether genome sequencing (and to a lesser extent also exome sequencing) of single patients can already be regarded as routine diagnostics. However, it has been shown that the inclusion of parents and additional family members often leads to a substantial increase in the diagnostic yield in exome-wide/genome-wide MPS approaches. In addition, MPS-based RNA sequencing just enters the research and diagnostic scene. Next-generation sequencing increasingly enables the detection of the genetic cause in highly heterogeneous diseases like NMDs in an efficient and affordable way. Gene panel sequencing and family-based exome sequencing have been proven as potent and cost-efficient diagnostic tools. Although clinical validation and interpretation of genome sequencing is still challenging, diagnostic RNA sequencing represents a promising tool to bypass some hurdles of diagnostics using genomic DNA.

  1. Osgood-Schlatter disease--ultrasonographic diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreju, Florentin; Ciurea, Paulina; Rosu, Anca

    2010-12-01

    Osgood-Schlatter disease is a condition that is caused by traction of the muscle-tendon unit at tibial tuberosity, which affects adolescents who exercise. The predisposing factors include rapid growth and physical activity, particularly running and jumping. Osgood- Schlatter disease causes intermittent pain, which can be aggravated by running, cycling and climbing stairs. We present the case of a young boy, soccer player, which presented for pain at the level of the tibial tuberosity. Ultrasonography showed changes at the distal part of the patellar tendon and at the tibial tuberosity, consistent with Osgood-Schlatter disease.

  2. Alzheimer's disease: new diagnostic and therapeutic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso Calogero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lectures of M. Racchi on History and future perspectives of Alzheimer Biomarkers and of G. Scapagnini on Cellular Stress Response and Brain Ageing are summarized. Alzheimer's disease (AD is a heterogeneous and progressive neurodegenerative disease, which in Western society mainly accounts for clinica dementia. AD prevention is an important goal of ongoing research. Two objectives must be accomplished to make prevention feasible: i individuals at high risk of AD need to be identified before the earliest symptoms become evident, by which time extensive neurodegeneration has already occurred and intervention to prevent the disease is likely to be less successful and ii safe and effective interventions need to be developed that lead to a decrease in expression of this pathology. On the whole, data here reviewed strongly suggest that the measurement of conformationally altered p53 in blood cells has a high ability to discriminate AD cases from normal ageing, Parkinson's disease and other dementias. On the other hand, available data on the involvement of curcumin in restoring cellular homeostasis and rebalancing redox equilibrium, suggest that curcumin might be a useful adjunct in the treatment of neurodegenerative illnesses characterized by inflammation, such as AD.

  3. Diagnostic indicators for blood stasis syndrome patients with gynaecological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Ko, Mi Mi; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, So Min; Lee, Ju Ah

    2017-06-20

    To investigate the important diagnostic indicators for blood stasis syndrome (BSS) in patients of childbearing age with gynaecological diseases. A partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to BSS symptoms data of patients with gynaecological diseases, and the diagnostic indicators used by doctors of Korean medicine (DKMs) among BSS patients with gynaecological diseases were also investigated. A total of 103 patients of childbearing age with gynaecological diseases and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Among the 103 patients, 63 (61.7%) and 40 (38.8%) were diagnosed with BSS and non-BSS, respectively, and BSS patients exhibited a more severe extent of disease. A score plot of PLS-DA showed clearly different patterns among the 3 groups. Based on the variable importance on projection of PLS-DA model, menstrual pains, dark lumps in the menstrual blood, ileocoecal tenderness and resistance, sharp pains, and sublingual varicosities were selected as the top fifive most important indicators. Moreover, more than 75% of DKMs chose dark lumps in menstrual blood, menstrual pain, and dark menstrual blood as the diagnostic indicators of BSS in patients with gynaecological diseases, and more than 49% of them also considered sharp pains, dark red tongue, sublingual varicosities, and tendency to bruise easily as diagnostic indicators of BSS. DKMs focused on menstrual symptoms and certain gynaecological symptoms to diagnose BSS patients of childbearing age with female diseases.

  4. Diagnostic Imaging of Dental Disease in Pet Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications. MRI is a diagnostic imaging technique additional to CT used primarily to enhance soft tissues, including complex odontogenic abscesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integration of family planning services into a sexually transmitted disease clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlay, Judith C; McEwen, Dean; Bell, Deborah; Maravi, Moises; Rinehart, Deborah; Fang, Hai; Devine, Sharon; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Dreisbach, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy are significant and costly public health concerns. Integrating family planning services (FPS) into STD visits provides an opportunity to address both concerns simultaneously. Our objectives were to create an electronic eligibility reminder to identify male and female patients eligible for FPS during an STD clinic visit and measure FPS use, additional cost of integrated services, and patient/provider satisfaction and to explore the impact on incident pregnancy and STDs. Quasi-experimental design compared enrollment and patient/provider satisfaction before (2008) and after implementation (2010). Incident pregnancy and STD 12 months after the initial visit before and after were explored. Time and cost were calculated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. A total of 9695 clients (male, 5842; female, 3853) in 2008 and 10,021 clients (male, 5852; female, 4169) in 2010 were eligible for FPS. Enrollment in FPS increased (2008: 51.6%, 2010: 95.3%; P < 0.01). Total additional cost was US$29.25/visit, and additional staff time was 4.01 minutes for integrated visits. Staff satisfaction increased and client satisfaction remained high. Among women returning within 12 months (39.6% in 2008, 37.1% in 2010), pregnancies were lower among enrolled versus nonenrolled women for 2008 (7.7% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.01) and 2010 (13.1% vs. 25.9%, P = 0.05). Incident STDs did not differ. An electronic eligibility reminder of FPS increased FPS use. Integration of FPS with STD services is feasible, is well accepted, and increases costs minimally. Integration may reduce pregnancy rates without increasing STD rates.

  6. Longitudinal prediction of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, R; Leichliter, J S; Brackbill, R

    2000-05-01

    Although adolescent use of condoms has been increasing, incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among young people remains high. To identify adolescent behavioral risk factors for acquiring STDs, this study assessed adolescent self-reports of acquired chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis within 1 year after a baseline interview. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health for this study. Data were collected in the homes of survey respondents, using audio-computer-assisted self-interview (audio-CASI) technology and interviews. Participants were enrolled in grades 7-11 from 134 U.S. schools. A cohort of 4593 sexually experienced adolescents was followed for 1 year. We conducted separate analyses for both genders. About 3.1% of the male adolescents and nearly 4.7% of the female adolescents reported having had at least one STD after the baseline interview. For both genders, self-reported STD infection before baseline interview was the best predictor of self-reported STD infection 1 year after baseline interview. Female adolescents were more likely to report diagnosis with an STD after baseline if they self-identified as a minority race (other than Asian) and perceived that their mother did not disapprove of their having sex. Female adolescents were less likely to report STDs if they perceived that adults care about them. No additional variables predicted STD diagnosis after baseline for male adolescents. We conclude that past history of STD infection is the most important indicator of subsequent STD infection among adolescents. Thus, this study suggests the benefit of specific clinical efforts designed to promote preventive behavior among adolescents newly diagnosed with an STD.

  7. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  8. High prevalence of rectal gonorrhea and Chlamydia infection in women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Jose A; Carr Reese, Patricia; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-03-01

    Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections.

  9. Reasons for HIV antibody test refusal in a heterosexual sexually transmitted disease clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P A; Weber, M; Ford, W L; Cheng, F; Kerndt, P R

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate acceptance of confidential HIV antibody testing and reasons for test refusal among heterosexual clients of Los Angeles County sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. From January 1993 through June 1994, all blood specimens routinely collected for syphilis serology were tested blindly for HIV antibody at seven STD clinics. Patients were counseled and offered a confidential HIV test. Rate of refusal of confidential testing and primary reason for test refusal were examined by demographic group and HIV serostatus, as determined in the blinded survey, for all heterosexual clients. Of 20,125 persons offered confidential testing, 35.6% refused the test. Test refusal was higher among men (38.7%) than women [31.1%; adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.4] and among blacks (38.6%) than whites (28.6%; adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-2.0). The most common reason for refusal was 'already know my HIV status' (40.6%), followed by 'don't want to know' (23.9%), and 'not at risk' (19.4%). Confidentiality concerns were cited as the primary reason for refusal by 2.2%. Among the 180 (0.9%) persons who tested positive in the blinded survey, 99 (55.0%) refused the confidential test. Of the 44 seropositive persons who refused the confidential test because they "already knew their HIV status', 29 (65.9%) reported their previous test to be negative. Efforts are needed to increase acceptance of confidential HIV testing in this heterosexual population and should (1) include a client-centered counseling approach that facilitates accurate self-assessment of risk and addresses the misperception that a prior negative test result implies an absence of risk, and (2) highlight the potential benefits of early intervention medical and psychosocial services.

  10. Recently Arrested Adolescents are at High Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenko, Steven; Dembo, Richard; Weiland, Doris; Rollie, Matthew; Salvatore, Christopher; Hanlon, Alexandra; Childs, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Background Adolescent offenders may be at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). With previous research and interventions focused on incarcerated adolescents, data are needed on STD prevalence and risk factors among newly arrested youth released to the community, a far larger subgroup. Methods Participants were recruited from all arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center during the last half of 2006 (506 males, 442 females). Participants voluntarily providing urine samples for drug testing as part of standard protocol were also consented to having their specimens split and tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, using an FDA-approved nucleic acid amplification test. Results STD prevalence was similar to those previously reported among incarcerated adolescents: 11.5% tested positive for chlamydia, 4.2% for gonorrhea, and 13.2% for either or both infections. Prevalence was significantly higher among females: 19.2% of females had either or both infections compared with 10.5% of males. Prevalence was higher for 17 to 18 year olds (15.2% of males, 25.5% of females), blacks, detained youths, drug users, and those engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Previous STD testing experience was limited. Conclusions The study indicated that a voluntary STD screening protocol is feasible for arrested youth entering the juvenile justice system, and these offenders are at high risk for STDs. Because most arrested youths are released back to the community, routine testing and treatment of recently arrested youths, and expanded access to risk reduction and prevention programs, can yield substantial public health benefits. PMID:18461014

  11. The cost of implementing rapid HIV testing in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggman, Ashley A; Feaster, Daniel J; Leff, Jared A; Golden, Matthew R; Castellon, Pedro C; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R; Schackman, Bruce R

    2014-09-01

    Rapid HIV testing in high-risk populations can increase the number of persons who learn their HIV status and avoid spending clinic resources to locate persons identified as HIV infected. We determined the cost to sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics of point-of-care rapid HIV testing using data from 7 public clinics that participated in a randomized trial of rapid testing with and without brief patient-centered risk reduction counseling in 2010. Costs included counselor and trainer time, supplies, and clinic overhead. We applied national labor rates and test costs. We calculated median clinic start-up costs and mean cost per patient tested, and projected incremental annual costs of implementing universal rapid HIV testing compared with current testing practices. Criteria for offering rapid HIV testing and methods for delivering nonrapid test results varied among clinics before the trial. Rapid HIV testing cost an average of US $22/patient without brief risk reduction counseling and US $46/patient with counseling in these 7 clinics. Median start-up costs per clinic were US $1100 and US $16,100 without and with counseling, respectively. Estimated incremental annual costs per clinic of implementing universal rapid HIV testing varied by whether or not brief counseling is conducted and by current clinic testing practices, ranging from a savings of US $19,500 to a cost of US $40,700 without counseling and a cost of US $98,000 to US $153,900 with counseling. Universal rapid HIV testing in STD clinics with same-day results can be implemented at relatively low cost to STD clinics, if brief risk reduction counseling is not offered.

  12. What public school teachers teach about preventing pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D; Silverman, J

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Identifying psychosocial and social correlates of sexually transmitted diseases among black female teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Joan Marie; Whiteman, Maura K; Carter, Marion W; Snead, M Christine; DiClemente, Ralph J; Murray, Collen Crittenden; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Kottke, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    Black teenagers have relatively high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and recent research suggests the role of contextual factors, as well as risk behaviors. We explore the role of 4 categories of risk and protective factors on having a biologically confirmed STD among black, female teenagers. Black teenage girls (14-19 years old) accessing services at a publicly funded family planning clinic provided a urine specimen for STD testing and completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview that assessed the following: risk behaviors, relationship characteristics, social factors, and psychosocial factors. We examined bivariate associations between each risk and protective factor and having gonorrhea and/or chlamydia, as well as multivariate logistic regression among 339 black female teenagers. More than one-fourth (26.5%) of participants had either gonorrhea and/or chlamydia. In multivariate analyses, having initiated sex before age 15 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.87) and having concurrent sex partners in the past 6 months (aOR, 1.55) were positively associated with having an STD. Living with her father (aOR, 0.44), believing that an STD is the worst thing that could happen (aOR, 0.50), and believing she would feel dirty and embarrassed about an STD (aOR, 0.44) were negatively associated with having an STD. Social factors and attitudes toward STDs and select risk behaviors were associated with the risk for STDs, suggesting the need for interventions that address more distal factors. Future studies should investigate how such factors influence safer sexual behaviors and the risk for STDs among black female teenagers.

  14. Sex, birth control and sexually transmitted diseases: teens voice their beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a telephone survey of US teenagers in the spring of 1996 to gather information about what teenagers believe they need in terms of sex education and who they would like to teach them. It was found that although 55% of the teenagers believed their parents to be their most complete and reliable source of information about contraception and sex, they actually received more information from school sources. The respondents indicated that 54% of their parents had failed to discuss contraception with them, and 45% of the parents had not discussed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In many cases, parents waited until "too late" to broach these subjects. Information about contraception was usually too general to be of practical use. The survey also revealed that the teenagers exhibited inconsistent use of contraception. While 55% of the sexually active teens indicated that they worry about pregnancy, only 48% stated that they always use contraception. When asked why teenagers had unplanned pregnancies, most responded that the teenagers felt immune from pregnancy, indicating a need for more information about the specific risks of pregnancy. About half of the young people believe that teenagers have sexual intercourse because they think they are ready. The other reason cited by more than half of the respondents was to increase popularity. Teenagers, thus, need specific information about how to prevent pregnancy and STDs and about how to resist pressure to have sex (and avoid situations, such as alcohol or drug use, which are conducive to sexual behavior). While 69% of the respondents recognize teen pregnancy as a "big" problem, they have unrealistic expectations about their ability (should they become pregnant) to finish high school or to marry the mother/father of the child, and they underestimate their potential need for public assistance or their willingness to resort to abortion.

  15. Nurses’ knowledge levels and Behaviours about Sexually Transmitted diseases and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Irem Budakoglu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to determine the knowledge level and behaviors of nurses towards AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD who are working at Baskent University Ankara Hospital\tDesign: There were 321 nurses at Baskent University Ankara Hospital at January 2005. Two hundred fifty six (79.7% of them participated the study. The data was collected with a questionnaire.\tMain outcome measures: The nurses who were answered the question “Are you using any method in order to prevent STD?” as\t“needless” were accepted as “sexually inactive”. The level of AIDS knowledge was evaluated over 100 point scale.\tRESULTS: The mean age of nurses was 25.8±0.2 (19-38, while 69.8% of them were college or faculty graduate and 71.1% of them were single. AIDS (94.4%, syphilis (70.6% and gonorrhea (60.2% were the first three STD implicated by nurses. The average value of AIDS knowledge of nurses was 83.8±0.8. The average value of nurses who had bachelor’s degree or doctorate, who were\tat the 26-27 age group, who were married or widowed and sexually inactive group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Only 31 nurses (20.1% declared that they have been using any preventive method for STD.\tCONCLUSIONS: It is determined, although the status of STD and AIDS knowledge of nurses are high, but the percentage of usage of any preventive method is low.

  16. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314101160

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  17. Cushing's disease: diagnostic evaluation, therapeutics and prognostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.A.A.; Jugue, S.M.; Moura, O.M.D.; Gross, K.; Halpern, A.; Nicolau, W.; Liberman, B.; Bloise, W.; Mendonca, B.; Cabral, N.D.; Marino Junior, R.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Aspects as clinical, diagnosis, laboratory tests and radiological evaluations concerning Cushing's disease are analysed in 56 patients. Several options of non medicamental therapy are presented. The relationship between preoperative data (hormonal and radiological information), postoperative findings and hypophyseal adenomectomy is discussed. (M.A.C.)

  18. Harmonized diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, J C; Blennow, K; Froelich, L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two major sets of criteria for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recently have been published, one from an International Working Group (IWG) and the other from working groups convened by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the Alzheimer's Association (AA...

  19. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Ahad S.; Durand, Robert; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Early disease detection is not only vital to reduce disease severity and prevent complications, but also critical to increase success rate of therapy. Saliva has been studied extensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its ease and non-invasive accessibility along with its abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. This review will update the clinician on recent advances in salivary biomarkers to diagnose autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome,...

  20. Diagnostic methods of fatty liver disease; Diagnostik der Fettleber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). FE MRT

    2017-09-15

    Fatty liver disease is defined as an abnormal accumulation of lipids into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Different kinds of fatty liver diseases are becoming the most important etiologies of end-stage liver disease in the western world. Because fatty liver is a theoretically reversible process, timely and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for potential therapeutic options. This work describes major diagnostic methods and discusses particular advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.

  1. X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases; Roentgendiagnostik von Thoraxerkrankungen. Von der Deskription zur Diagnose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulke, H.M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum

    2013-11-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases covers the following issues: diagnostic procedures, inflammatory thorax diseases, malign thorax diseases, heart and large blood vessels, hear insufficiency, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, interstitial pulmonary diseases, intensive care and traumatology.

  2. [Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in HIV positive women in southern Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Shirli; Schlaeffer, Francisc; Leibenson, Lilach; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Shemer, Yonat; Sagi, Orly; Borer, Abraham; Riesenberg, Klaris

    2013-04-01

    Co-infection of HIV and other sexualLy transmitted diseases (STDs) is common. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine yearly screening for STDs in HIV carriers. There is only scarce data on the prevalence of STD in HIV positive individuals in Israel and no current recommendations on this issue are available. To evaluate the prevalence of STDs, in HIV positive females attending the HIV Clinic at the Soroka University Medical Center in Beer Sheva and to compare prevalence and risk factors for STDs between HIV female carriers of Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian origin. Eighty five HIV-positive women were enrolled in the study. Demographic data and sexual behavior were obtained and medical records were reviewed. Cervical swabs for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Herpes simplex 1 and 2, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis and serum samples for hepatitis B, C and syphilis were obtained. Thirty two of the study participants (37.6%) had at least one STD and in eleven cases (12.9%) two or more STDs were found. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most frequent pathogen (29.4%). Prevalence for Mycoplasma hominis, HSV1 and 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and HBV was low. Despite significant differences in sexual behavior between women of Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian origin there were no differences in the prevalence of STDs in the two groups. HCV was significantly more prevalent in women of non-Ethiopian origin, due to high use of intravenous drugs in this group. There was no correlation between CD4 levels and the prevalence of STDs in both groups. A relatively low prevalence of STDs among female HIV carriers was found, despite low condom use. The exclusion of males in this study may have contributed to this. The most frequent pathogen found in this study was asymptomatic Ureaplasma urealyticum (29.4%). As this pathogen may cause premature delivery and fetal death it seems important to routinely screen HIV-positive fertile women for its presence. A

  3. An epidemiological approach to sexually transmitted diseases--with special reference to contact tracing and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, K

    1991-01-01

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) are a major health problem all over the world. The diseases are often spread by unsuspecting asymptomatic individuals. One important means of controlling STD is thus the identification of asymptomatic persons. The purposes of this thesis were a) to describe methods of identifying infected individuals through contact tracing and screening, b) to evaluate contact tracing routines, c) to compare epidemiological characteristics of two different groups of chlamydia-infected women and their partners and d) to see if data from contact tracing could be used in a model describing partner choice and STD spread. A microepidemic of penicillinase-producing gonococci was effectively controlled through contact tracing by cooperating counsellors. Serotyping of gonococci and graphic description proved of great help in mapping the contact chain. Contact tracing integrated in the psychosocial long-term care of HIV-infected patients resulted in identification of a great number of previously unidentified individuals. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) among asymptomatic patients of family planning clinics revealed a 7.3% Ct prevalence. Four factors were significantly correlated to the risk of being infected: age 18-23, duration of present relationship less than 1 year, failure to use condoms and no previous history of genital infection. Abstention from testing was especially high in areas with low socio-economic status. In these areas, increased resources for health care are needed. Five different levels of management of Ct infections were compared. Increased measures to verify that reported partners were examined decreased reinfections and after Ct was included in the STD Act more reported partners than before came for examination. Index patients found by chlamydia screening and their partners have a lower average number of recent partners than index patients visiting an STD clinic and their partners. Partners of female patients in the STD

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases between the vulnerable populations in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Z. Trumova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic continues to expand in Eastern Europe and Central Asia according to UNAIDS data (2012, Geneva. The rate of new HIV infections AIDS – related mortality has increased by 25 % from 2001 to 2009 in Kazakhstan (WHO data, 2012. The number of new HIV infections among newly diagnosed patients attributed to heteroand homosexual contact has been steadily increasing. There is also higher rate of HIV among Injecting Drug Users. There is an increase incidence of co-infections especially sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, comorbid STIs increase patients' susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV (Guenthner PC, Secor WE, Dezzutti CS., 2005; Kissinger P, Amedee A, Clark RA, et al. , 2009. HIV/AIDS shares transmission characteristics with other sexual and blood-borne agents. Higher sexual mixing rates and lack of condom use are conspicuous risk factors (Vermund et al. 2009. However, while all groups are affected by HIV, some are more vulnerable than others: sex workers (SWs, men who have sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU. All these findings determined to set up the goal of this research. The purpose of the study is еpidemiologic situation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS and related STIs in the Republic of Kazakhstan and in some vulnerable population groups to HIV infection. Materials and methods. To study the dynamics of HIV/STIs in Kazakhstan (cumulatively an analysis of 2012–2013 years statistics was conducted. Testing for HIV/STI of blood samples of the vulnerable groups was carried out in the laboratories of AIDS centers. The algorithm of confirming the diagnosis of HIV infection included a twofold enzyme immunoassay (EIA study of blood samples. Samples with positive results of the first EIA were retested using expert test systems; in case with a positive result of the second EIA a confirmatory test was conducted using a method of HIV-1 Western blot in the reference

  5. Diagnostic radiology of thoracic diseases. Textbook and atlas. 4. compl. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The book on diagnostic radiology of thoracic diseases covers the following topics: diagnostic techniques and normal diagnostic findings using x-ray radiography, CT, scintigraphy, angiography, bronchography, ultrasonography and NMR imaging; malformations; infections; emphysema, chronic lung diseases and asthma; inhalation damage and pneumoconiosis; neoplasm; vascular diseases; thorax injuries, pleura diseases, heart diseases, mediastinum diseases; midriff diseases; thoracic wall diseases; pathological pattern in CT; radiological indications and differential diagnostics; thoracic interventions.

  6. Diagnostic disclosure in Alzheimer's disease: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Raicher

    Full Text Available Abstract Although growing, the literature on research into attitudes of general and specialized physicians towards disclosing the diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD, or the current practice on AD disclosure, remains limited. Moreover, information is also scarce on what caregivers, or indeed patients themselves, wish to know with regard to their diagnosis. The goal of the present article was to present a review of the current available literature on the topic of truth telling in dementia, especially in AD. The studies discussed in this review were mainly conducted in Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom, as well as the United States. Disclosure of AD diagnosis is not a common practice among physicians. In the clinical context, the discussion on diagnosis disclosure can be valuable for improving the care of AD patients and their families.

  7. Complement pathways and meningococcal disease : diagnostic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, A G; Truedsson, L; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2001-01-01

    Complement is an immunological effector system that bridges innate and acquired immunity in several ways. There is a striking association between susceptibility to meningococcal disease and various forms of complement deficiency (1,2). In defense against bacterial infection, the most important...... activation on the bacterial surface (6,7). The newly discovered mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation appears to be protective against many types of infection (8) and adds previously unsuspected aspects of innate immunity to complement-mediated defense. Interestingly, immune responses...... function of complement is probably to serve as a mediator of antibody-dependent immunity. Specific antibodies can trigger activation of the classical and the alternative pathways of complement activation (3-5). It is well known that antibody-independent mechanisms interfere with alternative pathway...

  8. A study on sexually transmitted diseases in patients in a STD clinic in a district hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a global health problem of great magnitude. The pattern of STDs differs from country to country and from region to region. The increased risk of the transmission of HIV is known to be associated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and despite the presence of the National STD Control Program in India the number of people with STDs remains high. Aim: The aim of our study was to study the profile of patients in a STD clinic in North India and to study various sexually transmitted infections in both male and female patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study of the patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital in North India from December 2009 to December 2012 was done. A total of 2700 patients attending the STDclinic in three years from December 2009 to December 2012 were taken up for the study. Results: The commonest sexually transmitted infection in males was herpes genitalis (30% followed by 20% cases of genital warts. 10% patients had gonorrhoea, genital molluscum contagiosum, syphilis and genital scabies each and 5% patients had nongonococcal urethritis. Only 5% of the total patients had chancroid, donovanosis and LGV. The commonest sexually transmitted infection in females was vaginal discharge seen in 40% patients, lower abdominal pain in 20% patients, herpes genitalis in 15% patients followed by 20% cases of genital warts and syphilis each. Genital molluscum contagiosum was seen in 5% patients only. Conclusions: The treatment of STD’s is important as both non-ulcerative and ulcerative STDs increase the susceptibility to or transmissibility of HIV infection and as such, an increase in STD prevalence as revealed by clinic attendance in this study was bound to facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS. Perhaps it is high time health planners adopted a more aggressive and result oriented HIV/AIDS/STD awareness campaign strategy.

  9. Diagnostic value of MRI in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Reiko; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kakinoki, Yoshio; Ono, Yuko; Kobayashi, Naotoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    Thirty-four patients with cerebrovascular disease were studied with both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cranial computed tomography (CT). They were 29 cerebral or cerebreller infarction and 5 cerebral bleeding. From the clinical symptoms, supratentorial lesions were suspected in 17 patients. Areas of abnormal density on CT were detected in all these patients. Areas of abnormal intensity on MRI were detected in 14 patients. Based on the infratentorial MRI, in four patients who have not shown any abnormal symptoms asyptomatic small lesions were detected. Infratentorial lesions were suspected in 17 patients. Areas of abnormal density on CT were detected in 6 patients (35%), while areas of abnormal intensity on MRI were detected in 13 patients (77%). Abnormal regions, which failed to be demonstrated on MRI were enhanced with Gd-DTPA in a patient with midbrain infarction. In a patient with Wallenberg's syndrome, area of abnormal intensity shown by MRI was consistent with lateral medullary infarct identified by autopsy. The results indicate that MRI is more useful than CT for detecting brainstem lesions in stroke. (author).

  10. Chagas Disease Diagnostic Applications: Present Knowledge and Future Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouz, V; Agüero, F; Buscaglia, C A

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a lifelong and debilitating illness of major significance throughout Latin America and an emergent threat to global public health. Being a neglected disease, the vast majority of Chagasic patients have limited access to proper diagnosis and treatment, and there is only a marginal investment into R&D for drug and vaccine development. In this context, identification of novel biomarkers able to transcend the current limits of diagnostic methods surfaces as a main priority in Chagas disease applied research. The expectation is that these novel biomarkers will provide reliable, reproducible and accurate results irrespective of the genetic background, infecting parasite strain, stage of disease, and clinical-associated features of Chagasic populations. In addition, they should be able to address other still unmet diagnostic needs, including early detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission, rapid assessment of treatment efficiency or failure, indication/prediction of disease progression and direct parasite typification in clinical samples. The lack of access of poor and neglected populations to essential diagnostics also stresses the necessity of developing new methods operational in point-of-care settings. In summary, emergent diagnostic tests integrating these novel and tailored tools should provide a significant impact on the effectiveness of current intervention schemes and on the clinical management of Chagasic patients. In this chapter, we discuss the present knowledge and possible future steps in Chagas disease diagnostic applications, as well as the opportunity provided by recent advances in high-throughput methods for biomarker discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chagas disease diagnostic applications: present knowledge and future steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouz, Virginia; Agüero, Fernán; Buscaglia, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a life-long and debilitating illness of major significance throughout Latin America, and an emergent threat to global public health. Being a neglected disease, the vast majority of Chagasic patients have limited access to proper diagnosis and treatment, and there is only a marginal investment into R&D for drug and vaccine development. In this context, identification of novel biomarkers able to transcend the current limits of diagnostic methods surfaces as a main priority in Chagas disease applied research. The expectation is that these novel biomarkers will provide reliable, reproducible and accurate results irrespective of the genetic background, infecting parasite strain, stage of disease, and clinical-associated features of Chagasic populations. In addition, they should be able to address other still unmet diagnostic needs, including early detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission, rapid assessment of treatment efficiency or failure, indication/prediction of disease progression and direct parasite typification in clinical samples. The lack of access of poor and neglected populations to essential diagnostics also stress the necessity of developing new methods operational in Point-of-Care (PoC) settings. In summary, emergent diagnostic tests integrating these novel and tailored tools should provide a significant impact on the effectiveness of current intervention schemes and on the clinical management of Chagasic patients. In this chapter, we discuss the present knowledge and possible future steps in Chagas disease diagnostic applications, as well as the opportunity provided by recent advances in high-throughput methods for biomarker discovery. PMID:28325368

  12. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Libo; Luo Yunxiao; Wang Jianfeng; Chen Dawei; Cheng Guanghui; Jin Yuke

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Thyroid Diseases has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, this standard was enacted according to the relevant laws and regulations. It is mainly used for diagnosis of thyroid diseases caused by occupational radiation, and it also can serve as a guide to diagnose thyroid disease induced by medical radiation. To implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the radiation thyroid diseases patient correctly and timely, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  13. Positive predictive value of serological diagnostic measures in celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftedal, Peter; Nielsen, Christian; Madsen, Jonas Trolle

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) antibodies, immunoglobulin A (IgA) anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG), IgA endomysium antibody (EMA), IgA and IgG anti-gliadin antibodies (IgA and IgG AGA) are first-line diagnostic tools used in selecting patients for duodenal biopsy. The goal of this study was to evaluate...

  14. Diagnostic value of CT scanning in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulcke, J.A.L.; Leuven Univ.; Herpels, V.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of myopathies has become easier since the CT technique is available. In this article the possibilities of CT for diagnostic procedures of neuromuscular diseases are pointed out. Density measurements increase differentiation of atrophy or hypertrophy of muscles as well as other pathological changes. (orig.)

  15. A case of incomplete and refractory Kawasaki disease: Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD) – i.e. cases that do not full all the diagnostic criteria – requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of incomplete KD that was refractory to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and subsequently responded to treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone.

  16. Sarcomatous Change in Polyostotic Paget's Disease-A Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a 56-year-old man presented to highlight the clinical features and diagnostic difficulties of Paget's disease in our environment. The patient had a four year history of intractable body pains and at different times had pathological fracture, loss of vision, conductive hearing loss, frequent intermittent anaemia ...

  17. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Almeida, Paulo César de; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-08-18

    to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. validar texto educativo no contexto das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis para pessoas com deficiência visual para torná-lo acessível a essa população. estudo de validação, em ambiente virtual. Coleta de dados de maio a setembro de 2012, por meio da utilização dos e-mails eletrônicos dos sujeitos, compostos por sete especialistas em conteúdo na temática, através de instrumento próprio. Análise ocorreu com base nas considerações dos especialistas sobre os Objetivos, Estrutura e Apresentação e Relevância. nos blocos de Objetivos e Estrutura e Apresentação, 77 (84,6%) e 48 (85,7%) eram totalmente adequados ou adequados, respectivamente. No bloco de Relevância, os itens 3.2 - Permite transferência e generalização da aprendizagem, e 3.5 - Mostra aspectos necessários para informar a família, revelaram índices de concordância ruins de 0,42 e 0,57, respectivamente. Após a análise, o texto foi

  18. The urgent need for robust coral disease diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Joseph Pollock

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Coral disease has emerged over recent decades as a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, with declines in coral cover and diversity of Caribbean reefs providing an example of the potential impacts of disease at regional scales. If similar trends are to be mitigated or avoided on reefs worldwide, a deeper understanding of the factors underlying the origin and spread of coral diseases and the steps that can be taken to prevent, control, or reduce their impacts is required. In recent years, an increased focus on coral microbiology and the application of classic culture techniques and emerging molecular technologies has revealed several coral pathogens that could serve as targets for novel coral disease diagnostic tools. The ability to detect and quantify microbial agents identified as indicators of coral disease will aid in the elucidation of disease causation and facilitate coral disease detection and diagnosis, pathogen monitoring in individuals and ecosystems, and identification of pathogen sources, vectors, and reservoirs. This information will advance the field of coral disease research and contribute knowledge necessary for effective coral reef management. This paper establishes the need for sensitive and specific molecular-based coral pathogen detection, outlines the emerging technologies that could serve as the basis of a new generation of coral disease diagnostic assays, and addresses the unique challenges inherent to the application of these techniques to environmentally derived coral samples.

  19. Fast infectious diseases diagnostics based on microfluidic biochip system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics is one of the most important tools currently in use for clinical pathogen detection due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and low consume of sample and reagent is keyword to low cost molecular diagnostics. In this paper, a sensitive DNA isothermal amplification method for fast clinical infectious diseases diagnostics at aM concentrations of DNA was developed using a polycarbonate (PC microfluidic chip. A portable confocal optical fluorescence detector was specifically developed for the microfluidic chip that was capable of highly sensitive real-time detection of amplified products for sequence-specific molecular identification near the optical diffraction limit with low background. The molecular diagnostics of Listeria monocytogenes with nucleic acid extracted from stool samples was performed at a minimum DNA template concentration of 3.65aM, and a detection limit of less than five copies of genomic DNA. Contrast to the general polymerase chain reaction (PCR at eppendorf (EP tube, the detection time in our developed method was reduced from 1.5h to 45min for multi-target parallel detection, the consume of sample and reagent was dropped from 25μL to 1.45μL. This novel microfluidic chip system and method can be used to develop a micro total analysis system as a clinically relevant pathogen molecular diagnostics method via the amplification of targets, with potential applications in biotechnology, medicine, and clinical molecular diagnostics.

  20. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations.

  1. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  2. Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya M Assefa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys.Stool samples were collected from children (n = 652 attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates.Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14 and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84. Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24. Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected.The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings.

  3. THE CURRENT METHODS FOR MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS OF FISH DISEASES (REVIEW

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    O. Zaloilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The methods of molecular diagnostic (MMD gradually become widespread in modern fish farming. MMD contain a wide variety of specific approaches, each of which has distinct limits of their possible applications and is characterized by individual peculiarities in practical performance. In addition to high sensitivity and the possibility of rapid diagnostics, the main advantage of molecular methods is to determine the uncultivated infectious agents. DNA amplification allows identifying pathogenic microorganisms at very small quantities even in the minimum sample volume. Molecular methods of diagnostic enable the determination of infection in latent or acute phases. These methods allow showing the differences between pathogens with similar antigenic structures. The current literature data on this subject usually show a methodology in the narrow context of the tasks or practical results obtained through such approaches. Thus, a synthesis of existing information on the mechanisms of action and the limits of the typical problems of basic methods of molecular diagnostics are an urgent task of fish breeding. In particular, the following description will more effectively choose one or several approaches to identify pathogens in fish. Findings. This paper reviews the basic molecular methods that are used in the world's aquaculture for diagnosis of various diseases in commercial fish species. Originality. This work is a generalization of data on the principles and mechanisms for the implementation of diagnostics based on modern molecular techniques. For each of the mentioned approaches, the most promising areas of application were shown. The information is provided in the form of a comparative analysis of each methodology, indicating positive and negative practical aspects. Practical value. The current review of modern methods of molecular diagnostic in aquaculture is focused on practical application. Generalizing and analytical information can be

  4. Molecular Diagnostics of Ageing and Tackling Age-related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, James A

    2017-01-01

    As average life expectancy increases there is a greater focus on health-span and, in particular, how to treat or prevent chronic age-associated diseases. Therapies which were able to control 'biological age' with the aim of postponing chronic and costly diseases of old age require an entirely new approach to drug development. Molecular technologies and machine-learning methods have already yielded diagnostics that help guide cancer treatment and cardiovascular procedures. Discovery of valid and clinically informative diagnostics of human biological age (combined with disease-specific biomarkers) has the potential to alter current drug-discovery strategies, aid clinical trial recruitment and maximize healthy ageing. I will review some basic principles that govern the development of 'ageing' diagnostics, how such assays could be used during the drug-discovery or development process. Important logistical and statistical considerations are illustrated by reviewing recent biomarker activity in the field of Alzheimer's disease, as dementia represents the most pressing of priorities for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the chronic disease in humans most associated with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostics of vascular diseases as a cause for acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchems, M.S.; Aschoff, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular pathologies are rare causes of an acute abdomen. If the cause is a vascular disease a rapid diagnosis is desired as vascular pathologies are associated with high mortality. A differentiation must be made between arterial and venous diseases. An occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is the most common reason for acute mesenteric ischemia but intra-abdominal arterial bleeding is also of great importance. Venous pathologies include thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein, the mesenteric vein and the vena cava. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is predestined for the diagnostics of vascular diseases of the abdomen. Using multiphasic contrast protocols enables reliable imaging of the arterial and venous vessel tree and detection of disorders with high sensitivity and specificity. Although conventional angiography has been almost completely replaced by MDCT as a diagnostic tool, it is still of high importance for minimally invasive interventions, for example in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.) [de

  6. The Diagnostic Value of Skin Disease Diagnosis Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Arabkermany, Zahra; Gilasi, Hamidreza

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation is a necessary measure to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of all systems, including expert systems. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of expert system for diagnosis of complex skin diseases. A case-control study was conducted in 2015 to determine the diagnostic value of an expert system. The study population included patients who were referred to Razi Specialized Hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from patients without the selected skin diseases. Data collection tool was a checklist of clinical signs of diseases including pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and scabies. The sample size formula estimated 400 patients with skin diseases selected by experts and 200 patients without the selected skin diseases. Patient selection was undertaken with randomized stratified sampling and their sign and symptoms were logged into the system. Physician's diagnosis was determined as the gold standard and was compared with the diagnosis of expert system by SPSS software version 16 and STATA. Kappa statistics, indicators of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and confidence intervals were calculated for each disease. An accuracy of 90% was considered appropriate. Comparing the results of expert system and physician's diagnosis at the evaluation stage showed an accuracy of 97.1%, sensitivity of 97.5% and specificity of 96.5% The Kappa test indicated a high agreement of 93.6%. The expert system can diagnose complex skin diseases. Development of such systems is recommended to identify all skin diseases.

  7. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  8. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Leta

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of reports that include multiple arboviral diseases highlights the expanding range of their common transmission vectors. The shared features of these arboviral diseases should motivate efforts to combine interventions against these diseases.

  9. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a specialized STD healthcare center: epidemiology and demographic profile from January 1999 to December 2009*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Vieira Junior, Elso Elias; Moysés, Ana Carolina Marteline Cavalcante; de Lima, Fernão Dias; de Morais, Fátima Regina Borges; Vizinho, Natalina Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually Transmitted Diseases are still considered a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. OBJECTIVE To examine Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevalence and the sickness impact profile of STDs in a reference health center specializing in the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. METHOD We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the medical records and interviews of 4,128 patients who had attended the center from January 1999 to December 2009. RESULTS Male patients outnumbered (76%) females (24%), Caucasians outnumbered (74.3%) those of mixed race (14.8%), blacks (10.8%) and Asians (0.1%). STD occurrence was higher in the 20-29 age group (46.2%) This population included 34.7% high school graduates, 8.7% college graduates and 0.8% illiterates. As for affective-sexual orientation, 86.5% were heterosexual, 7.8% homosexual and 5.5% bisexual. Regarding patients' sexual practices over the previous 30 days, 67.7% reported sexual intercourse with one person, 8.6% had had sex with two persons and 3.9%, with three or more people. The highest incidence of STD was condyloma acuminata, affecting 29.4% of all the patients, genital candidiasis 14.2%, and genital herpes 10.6%. Of the 44.3% who submitted to serologic testing for HIV detection 5% were positive, with a ratio of 6.8 males to 1 female. CONCLUSIONS STD prevalence remains high in Brazil and it is necessary to invest in early detection, prevention and treatment. PMID:24068122

  10. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  11. Establishment of the first International Repository for Transfusion-Relevant Bacteria Reference Strains: ISBT Working Party Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Diseases (WP-TTID), Subgroup on Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Störmer, M.; Arroyo, A.; Brachert, J.; Carrero, H.; Devine, D.; Epstein, J. S.; Gabriel, C.; Gelber, C.; Goodrich, R.; Hanschmann, K.-M.; Heath, D. G.; Jacobs, M. R.; Keil, S.; de Korte, D.; Lambrecht, B.; Lee, C.-K.; Marcelis, J.; Marschner, S.; McDonald, C.; McGuane, S.; McKee, M.; Müller, T. H.; Muthivhi, T.; Pettersson, A.; Radziwon, P.; Ramirez-Arcos, S.; Reesink, H. W.; Rojo, J.; Rood, I.; Schmidt, M.; Schneider, C. K.; Seifried, E.; Sicker, U.; Wendel, S.; Wood, E. M.; Yomtovian, R. A.; Montag, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) still remains a significant problem in transfusion with potential important clinical consequences, including death. The International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Diseases, Subgroup

  12. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    Full Text Available A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  13. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtner, J; Bieri, M; Buffoni, G; Gilioli, G; Gopalan, H; Greiling, J; Tikubet, G; Van Schayk, I

    2001-01-01

    A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  14. CT enteroclysis in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, M.; Annabhani, A.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The role of CT enteroclysis is gaining on importance in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. The aim of the study was to present own experiences in CT enteroclysis application, with the use of a 64-detector CT unit. Material/Methods: CT enteroclyses were performed in 60 patients: 53 with the suspicion of the Crohns disease, 2 suspected for carcinoid, 1 with suspicion of the fistula between the small bowel and the bladder, 2 suspected for the tumor of the ileo-caecal region, and in 1 case, the aim of examination was to carry out an evaluation of the postsurgical state of the bowel-bowel anastomosis. We used own endoscopic technique of catheter insertion into the bowel, which shortens the examination time and improves patients comfort. Results: The catheter was correctly introduced into the small bowel in 58 patients (endoscopy had to be repeated in 4 cases). Only 2 examinations failed, because patients refused repeated endoscopy. Radiological signs of the Crohns disease were found in 50 out of 53 patients. In the 3 remaining patients, the appearance of the small bowel was normal. In 5 non-Crohns disease patients, CT enteroclysis enabled a good visualization of the pathology (tumors, fistula). Conclusions: CT enteroclysis with the use of the 64-detector CT unit is a valuable method in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. It could supplement or precede capsule endoscopy. (authors)

  15. Endoscopic and ultrasound diagnostics as contemporary method in diagnostics of dog stomach diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of pathological processes in the dog stomach determines a correct diagnosis or differential diagnosis, which presents the basic prerequisite for rational therapy. In addition to the conventional type of clinical examination which covers the taking of anamnestic data, observation of the patient and laboratory tests, there are also certain computerized diagnostic methods (magnetic resonance and scanner which are the most precise and most reliable in the verification of stomach diseases. However, the listed approaches are either insufficiently relevant in making the diagnosis or are too expensive and demanding for the everyday clinical practice. These are the reasons why veterinary medicine today increasingly resorts to the use of other forms of imaging diagnostics, and, as its representatives, the video endoscopic, ultrasound and X-ray examination of the digestive tract.

  16. Understanding Celiac Disease From Genetics to the Future Diagnostic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Salazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the permanent inflammation of the small bowel, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. It is associated with a number of symptoms, the most common being gastrointestinal. The prevalence of this illness worldwide is 1%. One of the main problems of CD is its difficulty to be diagnosed due to the various presentations of the disease. Besides, in many cases, CD is asymptomatic. Celiac disease is a multifactorial disease, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes are predisposition factors. Nowadays, molecular markers are being studied as diagnostic tools. In this review, we explore CD from its basic concept, manifestations, types, current and future methods of diagnosis, and associated disorders. Before addressing the therapeutic approaches, we also provide a brief overview of CD genetics and treatment.

  17. Endoscopic and radiological diagnostics of esophagus diseases in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Vanja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the range of diagnostic methods for determining diseases of the esophagus and to make them more present in everyday practise, it is desirable to work out in more detail the procedure of endoscopic and radiological examinations, determine their limitations and possibilities, describe the topographic-anatomical and morphological status of the esophagus in an endoscopic and radiological picture, as well as to define which diseases of this organ are most represented. The paper presents the results of six-month investigations of esophagus diseases in dogs of different breeds and ages. A total of 15 animals were examined: 2 golden retrievers, 2 rottweilers, 5 German shepherds, 3 giant schnauzers, 2 cross-breeds, and 1 dalmatian. Cases of chronic esophagitis were described, as well as the presence of a foreign body and megaesophagus, and the prescribed therapy for all these diseases.

  18. Affected by Inflammatory Diseases: Diagnostic and Pathogenetic Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pontillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human glycolytic enzyme α-enolase was associated with human diseases and with inflammation. An ELISA test was developed to measure anti-α-enolase AAE IgG and AAE IgA in the serum from patients affected by inflammatory diseases with the purpose to evaluate it as a novel diagnostic marker. 80 healthy blood donors and 194 paediatric patients affected by Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, celiac disease (CD, Crohn's Disease (CrD, hereditary periodic fever (HPF, and PFAPA syndrome were included in the study. HPF patients showed high levels of AAE antibodies, whereas JIA, CD, and CrD presented only partial results. Benign fevers such as PFAPA were almost negative for AAE Abs. These findings suggested that the genetic dysfunction of inflammasome associated with HPF could lead to the formation of AAE Abs that could be used for an early and easy diagnosis.

  19. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  20. Value of MR examinations in diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, T.; Bem, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) is one of the newest achievements in diagnostic medicine. Practical validation of MR in cardiovascular diseases is very important, due to growing interest of cardiologists in this method and information in literature about usefulness of MR in radiology. In years 1996-2004, Lower Silesian Center of Diagnostic Imaging examined 134 patients with cardiovascular diseases with MR. Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) - 23 cases, patients after correction of the CoA- 17 cases, hypoplastic aortic arch - 5 cases, complex aortic arch abnormalities- 7 cases, congenital cardiac defects- 9 cases, patients after surgical correction of the heart defect - 12 cases, control after heart operation in an adult - 1 case, suspicion of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), myocarditis and cardiomyopathies - 32 cases, primary and secondary tumors of the heart- 4 cases, left ventricle aneurysms - 9 cases. All the patients underwent USG examination, in 25 cases digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and hemodynamic examination were performed. In 6 cases CT of the chest was performed. Correlation between MR and USG, DSA, CT examinations was evaluated. In our material, the best results of MR examinations were achieved in diagnostics of the thoracic aorta disease. Measurements of the aorta diameter in MR strictly correlate with the results obtained in USG examination. In complex aortic arch abnormalities, MR seldom can replace DSA examination - only in easier cases, but it can help and reduce the time of DSA examination. MR may evaluate the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary vessels. MR perfectly visualizes morphology of the cardiac chambers, their spatial relationship, contractility and connection to great vessels. Assessment of septal defects and valves morphology in MR is inferior to USG examination. MR enables recognition of the ARVD. Less satisfactory results were obtained in diagnostics of myocarditis. MR is a perfect method of visualization and evaluation of

  1. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, K.; Summers, D. M.; Romero, C.; Taratuto, A.; Heinemann, U.; Breithaupt, M.; Varges, D.; Meissner, B.; Ladogana, A.; Schuur, M.; Haik, S.; Collins, S. J.; Jansen, Gerard H.; Stokin, G. B.; Pimentel, J.; Hewer, E.; Collie, D.; Smith, P.; Roberts, H.; Brandel, J. P.; van Duijn, C.; Pocchiari, M.; Begue, C.; Cras, P.; Will, R. G.; Sanchez-Juan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic

  2. Men who have sex with men: perceptions about sexual risk, HIV and sexually transmitted disease testing, and provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Goldhammer, Hilary; Belanoff, Candice; Tetu, Ashley M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2007-02-01

    This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of the barriers and facilitators related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV screening among at-risk Boston men who have sex with men (MSM). The cohort was recruited by a modified respondent-driven sampling technique and used one-on-one semistructured interviews and a quantitative survey to examine participants' understanding of STDs and HIV, perceptions of risk for disease, reasons for getting (or not getting) tested, and experiences with testing. The study found that although most of the MSM knew the signs and symptoms of HIV, they were less familiar with STDs. MSM were most likely to be screened if they had symptoms or were told by a partner of a recent exposure. However, many barriers to STD/HIV screening among MSM still exist, including lack of awareness of symptoms, misperceptions about the ways STDs are transmitted, and perceived impediments from the healthcare system, including misgivings about provider sensitivity. To decrease current increases in HIV/STDs among MSM, new strategies that include community and provider education are needed.

  3. Six-year follow-up survey of sexually transmitted diseases in Brasilia, the Capital of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Barbosa, Augusto; Coutinho Feijó, Gilvânia; da Silva, Joaquim Xavier; Rama Leal, Isabel Irene; Wanderley Paes Barbosa, Tânia

    2002-06-01

    The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.

  4. Diseases and Molecular Diagnostics: A Step Closer to Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shailendra; Purohit, Purvi; Misra, Radhieka; Pareek, Puneet; Goel, Apul; Khattri, Sanjay; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Misra, Sanjeev; Sharma, Praveen

    2017-10-01

    The current advent of molecular technologies together with a multidisciplinary interplay of several fields led to the development of genomics, which concentrates on the detection of pathogenic events at the genome level. The structural and functional genomics approaches have now pinpointed the technical challenge in the exploration of disease-related genes and the recognition of their structural alterations or elucidation of gene function. Various promising technologies and diagnostic applications of structural genomics are currently preparing a large database of disease-genes, genetic alterations etc., by mutation scanning and DNA chip technology. Further the functional genomics also exploring the expression genetics (hybridization-, PCR- and sequence-based technologies), two-hybrid technology, next generation sequencing with Bioinformatics and computational biology. Advances in microarray "chip" technology as microarrays have allowed the parallel analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes simultaneously. Sequence information collected from the genomes of many individuals is leading to the rapid discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. Further advances of genetic engineering have also revolutionized immunoassay biotechnology via engineering of antibody-encoding genes and the phage display technology. The Biotechnology plays an important role in the development of diagnostic assays in response to an outbreak or critical disease response need. However, there is also need to pinpoint various obstacles and issues related to the commercialization and widespread dispersal of genetic knowledge derived from the exploitation of the biotechnology industry and the development and marketing of diagnostic services. Implementation of genetic criteria for patient selection and individual assessment of the risks and benefits of treatment emerges as a major challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. Thus this field is revolutionizing current era and

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis in Children of Poor Families in Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Harvy Joy; Uy, Jhanna; Bataller, Ramil; Gatchalian, Janis Ruth; De La Calzada, Betty; Uy, Justine Alessandra; Dayrit, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) continue to be a public health problem in the Philippines. We assessed the association of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis with selected health-related and socioeconomic variables in four villages in Leyte, Philippines. Stool specimens from 418 adults and 533 of their children from 209 families were examined through the Kato-Katz technique. STH and schistosomiasis were present in 64.6% and 12.5%, respectively, of study participants. Analysis through the generalized linear mixed model revealed a number of associations between infection in parents and their children. Findings indicate that years of disease prevention and control efforts in these areas have been unable to bring down prevalence in children and their parents. Eliminating NTDs as public health problems will require a systems thinking approach beyond implementation of vertical control programs alone. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic molecular imaging applications in vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty. PMID:21310769

  7. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The chronic nature of Crohn's disease (CD) implicates necessity of multiple control assessments throughout patient's life. It is accepted that in patients with CD requiring disease monitoring, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) are--apart from endoscopy--imaging studies of first choice. In practice, diagnostic imaging of patients with CD is troublesome, since MRE is an expensive and complicated study, and CTE exposes patients to high doses of ionizing radiation. Therefore, there is a need for new, both non-invasive and effective, methods of imaging in CD. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is a relatively new method using gas-filled microbubbles serving as contrast agent. It allows for detailed assessment of blood perfusion within intestine wall and peri-intestinal tissues, which enables detection and monitoring of inflammation and its qualitative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to describe CEUS examination technique and its clinical applications in patients with Crohn's disease.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of the third year medical students in a university about sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods

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    Bünyamin Akça

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The passage from childhood to adulthood is the period when health habits and sexual behaviors start to form. Thus, the topics of sexual health and reproductive health should be approached with priority during this period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of students of the medical faculty with respect to sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods.Methods: The questionnaire that contains 23 headings created by the researchers after relevant literature reviews was administered to the third-semester students of the Izmir Katip Celebi University Medical Faculty in face-to-face interviews after obtaining their verbal consent. The study data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 demo software bundle. Conditions in which the p-value was under 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Results: The mean age of the students that participated in the study (n=104 was 21.88 ± 1.9 years of age, 51% (n=53 of the students were female, and 49.0% (n=51 were male. Among the students, 93% stated that they had received education about preventing pregnancy. Two of the  most well-known prevention methods by the participants were condoms in 99.0% (n=103 and oral contraceptives in 95.2% (n=99. The rate of correct answers given about all of the risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (sex workers, polygamy, homosexuality, being sexually active, substance addiction was 22.1% (n=23.Conclusion: Identifying the level of knowledge in the youth about STDs in early periods, determining the services they require, cooperating with related institutions to review the adequacy of information online, and educating youth about STDs are important in preventing these diseases and also in the treatment of existing diseases before they lead to more problems.

  9. Characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease where no sexually transmitted infection is identified: a cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected sexual health clinic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Jane L; De Livera, Alysha M; Fairley, Christopher K; Guy, Rebecca J; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chen, Marcus Y; Hocking, Jane S

    2017-02-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurs when pathogens, often sexually transmitted, ascend to the upper genital tract, yet a causative pathogen is not detected in a substantial proportion of diagnosed PID. We assessed the characteristics associated with PID in women in whom chlamydia, gonorrhoea, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) were not detected ('pathogen-negative-PID'). Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected clinical data from new female patients attending a sexual health clinic between 2006 and 2013. Women were eligible if they had been diagnosed with PID and tested for genital chlamydia, gonorrhoea, MG and BV. Logistic regression was conducted to identify characteristics associated with pathogen-negative-PID. Among 330 women with clinically diagnosed PID, 204 (61.8%, 95% CI 56.3% to 67.1%) had pathogen-negative-PID. Compared with pathogen-positive-PID, pathogen-negative-PID cases were more likely to be aged ≥30 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.0), had less evidence of vaginal inflammation (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9) and reported less unprotected sex (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0). These findings highlight uncertainties around PID diagnosis and aetiology. Pathogen-negative-PID could represent (i) a false positive diagnosis where the woman does not have a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or PID, (ii) PID of another microbiological aetiology or associated with a past STI or (iii) PID where the cervical infection has cleared. However, until diagnostic biomarkers are available, PID treatment should be based on clinical features and sexual risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. [Sexually transmitted infections in male prison inmates: risk of development of new diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Recio, Raquel; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Santabárbara Serrano, Javier

    2016-01-01

    To measure incidence and main risk factors related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Daroca Prison (Zaragoza, Spain). A retrospective cohort study (2005-2013) to measure the incidence of STI and a cross-sectional study to measure risk factors. Of the 203 inmates, 79 developed an STI, 37 had a previous STI, 55.2% lacked knowledge on STI prevention, and 28.9% showed behaviours unfavourable for STI prevention. The incidence rate was 6.5 STIs per 1,000 inmates-year. The most frequent STIs were hepatitis B (39.7%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (19.1%), herpes simplex (16.2%) and HIV (8.8%). The risk (hazard ratio, HR) of acquiring a new STI was significantly higher in inmates with a history of previous STI (HR=2.61; 95%CI: 1.01 to 6.69), and was at the limit of significance for non-preventive behaviour (HR=2.10; 95%CI: 0.98 to 4.53), but not in knowledge related to STIs (HR=1.33; 95%CI: 0.58 to 3.07). The most important risk factors in prison are behaviours related to STIs and previous history of STIs. Other factors are being a repeat offender, injecting drug use, or being in a methadone programme. Health personnel and peer education can facilitate prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p benefits from condom use (p benefits of condom use (p = 0.016), and perceived risk for HIV (p = 0.033). They explained 36% of behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  12. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchsbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  13. Sexually transmitted infection testing of adult film performers: is disease being missed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Chitale, Rohit A; Rigg, Robert; Goldstein, Binh Y; Kerndt, Peter R; Tavrow, Paula

    2012-12-01

    Undiagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be common in the adult film industry because performers frequently engage in unprotected oral and anal intercourse, STIs are often asymptomatic, and the industry relies on urine-based testing. Between mid-May and mid-September 2010, a consecutive sample of adult film industry performers recruited from a clinic in Los Angeles, California, that provides medical care to performers was offered oropharyngeal, rectal, and urogenital testing for Gonorrhea, and rectal and urogenital testing for Chlamydia. During the 4-month study period, 168 participants were enrolled: 112 (67%) were female and 56 (33%) were male. Of the 47 (28%) who tested positive for Gonorrhea and/or Chlamydia, 11 (23%) cases would not have been detected through urogenital testing alone. Gonorrhea was the most common STI (42/168; 25%) and the oropharynx the most common site of infection (37/47; 79%). Thirty-five (95%) oropharyngeal and 21 (91%) rectal infections were asymptomatic. Few participants reported using condoms consistently while performing or with their personal sex partners. Adult film industry performers had a high burden of STIs. Undiagnosed asymptomatic rectal and oropharyngeal STIs were common and are likely reservoirs for transmission to sexual partners inside and outside the workplace. Performers should be tested at all anatomical sites irrespective of symptoms, and condom use should be enforced to protect workers in this industry.

  14. Allergic fungal airway disease: pathophysiologic and diagnostic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Kerry; Fairs, Abbie; Pashley, Catherine H; Wardlaw, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Fungal spores are ubiquitously present in indoor and outdoor air. A number can act as aeroallergens in Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-sensitized individuals and some thermotolerant fungi germinate in the lung where they can cause a combined allergic and infective stimulus leading to a number of clinical presentations characterized by evidence of lung damage. We discuss which biomarkers are useful in helping to guide diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of allergic fungal airway disease (AFAD). Diagnostic biomarkers, such as specific IgEs and fungal culture, for AFAD are limited by sensitivity, although this may be improved with novel agents such as specific IgEs to fungal components and quantitative PCR. Total IgE and hypereosinophilia are nonspecific and do not clearly relate to disease activity. High attenuation mucus and proximal bronchiectasis are specific, albeit insensitive markers of AFAD. Biomarkers that predict prognosis and treatment response are yet to be defined. This review summarizes the fungi involved and the current debate regarding the diagnostic criteria to define fungal-associated lung disease. We advocate the phasing out of the term allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and the use of a more inclusive term such as AFAD, together with a more liberal set of criteria based largely on IgE sensitization to thermotolerant fungi, which identifies those patients at risk of developing lung damage.

  15. Pelvic inflammatory disease: Contemporary diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID is polymicrobial infection in women characterized by inflammation of the upper genital tract, including endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, occasionally leading to the formation of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA. PID primarily affects young, sexually active women, and it is highly correlated with having several sexual partners, intrauterine contraceptive device and sexually transmited diseases. The spectrum of disease is caused most commonly by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 30-50% of cases. PID is responsible for severe acute morbidity and significant long-term sequelae, including tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. The following clinical features are suggestive of a diagnosis of PID: bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever (higher than 38°C, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, cervical motion tenderness and adnexal tenderness, with or without a palpable mass. In laboratory findings, there is presence of excess leucocytes, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein. Transvaginal ultrasound scanning may be helpful, and its sensitivity is up to 85%. It can identify inflamed and dilated tubes and tubo-ovarian masses. Magnetic resonance imaging can be helpful in a final diagnosis in 95% of cases. In 15-30% of suspected cases, there is no laparoscopic evidence of disease. Treatment regimens for PID include broadspectrum antibiotics, including coverage for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The usage of parenteral or oral therapy, inpatient or outpatient regimens, depends on the patient’s clinical condition. Considering the potential complications of disease, there is a need for good health educational programmes in reproductive period.

  16. Cavity ring down spectrometry for disease diagnostics using exhaled air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revalde, G.; Grundšteins, K.; Alnis, J.; Skudra, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report the current stage of the development of a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) system using exhaled human breath analysis for the diagnostics of different diseases like diabetes and later lung cancer. The portable CRDS system is made in ultraviolet spectral region using Nd:Yag laser 266 nm pulsed light. Calibration of the CRDS system was performed using generated samples by KinTek automated permeation tube system and self-prepared mixtures with known concentration of benzene and acetone in air. First experiments showed that the limits of detection for benzene and acetone are several tens of ppb.

  17. US Public Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinical Services in an Era of Declining Public Health Funding: 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Heyer, Kate; Peterman, Thomas A; Habel, Melissa A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Arnold Pang, Stephanie S; Stenger, Mark R; Weiss, Gretchen; Gift, Thomas L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the infrastructure for US public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinical services. In 2013 to 2014, we surveyed 331 of 1225 local health departments (LHDs) who either reported providing STD testing/treatment in the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey or were the 50 local areas with the highest STD cases or rates. The sample was stratified by jurisdiction population size. We examined the primary referral clinics for STDs, the services offered and the impact of budget cuts (limited to government funding only). Data were analyzed using SAS, and analyses were weighted for nonresponse. Twenty-two percent of LHDs cited a specialty STD clinic as their primary referral for STD services; this increased to 53.5% of LHDs when combination STD-family planning clinics were included. The majority of LHDs (62.8%) referred to clinics providing same-day services. Sexually transmitted disease clinics more frequently offered extragenital testing for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (74.7%) and gonorrhea culture (68.5%) than other clinics (52.9%, 46.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). The majority of LHDs (61.5%) reported recent budget cuts. Of those with decreased budgets, the most common impacts were fewer clinic hours (42.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-61.2), reduced routine screening (40.2%; 95% CI, 21.7-58.8) and reductions in partner services (42.1%; 95% CI, 23.6-60.7). One quarter of those with reduced STD budgets increased fees or copays for clients. Findings demonstrate gaps and reductions in US public STD services including clinical services that play an important role in reducing disease transmission. Furthermore, STD clinics tended to offer more specialized STD services than other public clinics.

  18. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Byass, Peter; Logan, James; Tozan, Yesim; Louis, Valérie; Gubler, Duane J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children. We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted. We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7%) and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3%) students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months). There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04). Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes mosquitoes inside

  19. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattamaporn Kittayapong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children.We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted.We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7% and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3% students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months. There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04.Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes

  20. Knowledge and attitude of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents in Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokuwebe, M E; Daini, B; Falayi, E O; Oyebade, O

    2016-09-01

    Globally, sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a public health problem. In Nigeria, adolescents form a substantial proportion (22%) of the population and are particularly prone to STDs because of the influence of peer pressure and urge to experiment sexual activity. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of adolescents towards the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The survey study was descriptive cross- sectional and carried out among consenting secondary school students aged 10-24 years completing a self- administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitude in relation to sexually transmitted diseases in Ikeji- Arakeji, Oriade Local government, Osun State, Nigeria. The proportionate sampling technique was used to recruit 341 participants into the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Male-Female distributions were 46.3% and 53.7% respectively. Mean age at first sex (sex initiation) was 16.8 years (approximately 17years) and about 97% of the respondents knew about STDs. The media/ magazine was the major source of information about STDs, accounting for more than half (57%) of the responses on sources of STD information followed closely from that from friends with 31%. Parent's source of information was about 11%. Knowledge of STDs centred mainly on HIV/AIDS with 83% and there was a poor knowledge (78%) of its symptoms. About 40% of all respondents had initiated sex at the time of the study and 46% of the adolescents, as against 54%, thought it was bad to initiate sex before marriage. There was a significant association between perception about initiating sex before marriage and ever having sex using bivariate analysis x(2)=268.4, Psex initiation (F=318.47 and P=0.000). Post-hoc analysis showed that each of the different groups (sources of information) was distinct. Adolescents' knowledge of STDs generally limited to HIV/AIDS and perception about sex significantly influenced the decision to initiate sex. There is

  1. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

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    Christopher M Stone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account.We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0 for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control.Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple interventions required for malaria with the long duration predicted to be required for filariasis elimination.

  2. Diagnostic Validity of RI Angiocardiography in Cardiac Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Yop; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1972-01-01

    The employment of gamma-ray scintillation camera with the use of short-lived radioisotopic pharmaceuticals, such as 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate, have enabled us to perform RI (radioisotopic) angiocardiography. Although conventional cardiac catheterization or angiocardiography using contrast media have been an important diagnostic tool, they may carry some risks or serious complications. The author investigated on RI angiocardiography in twelve normal and twenty five patients with cardiovascular diseases in an effort to evaluate its diagnostic value. The results obtained with this study are as follows; l. In normal subjects, the scintillation camera transit time of arm-to-right heart was found to be 2.1±0.67 seconds, right heart-to-lung 1.5±0.40 seconds and lung-to-left heart 3.5±0.86 seconds. 2. Transformation or displacement of the heart and the great vessel are easily discriminated by RI angiocardiography. Both in the cases with tricuspid atresia and tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular septal defects are well recognized by sequential RI angiocardiography. 3. It is also helpful in determining the site and extent of obstruction, and estimating the postoperative course both in the cases with superior vena cava syndrome and pulmonary stenosis. 4. Pericarditis with effusion is readily diagnosed by RI angiocardiogram showing characteristic 'dead space' between intracardiac and intrapulmonary radioactivity. 5. It was found that the diagnostic accuracy of this study was 78.4%. It is concluded that above results obtained are useful and accurate enough for the diagnostic screening method for clinical practice.

  3. Diagnostic Validity of RI Angiocardiography in Cardiac Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwan Yop; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    The employment of gamma-ray scintillation camera with the use of short-lived radioisotopic pharmaceuticals, such as {sup 99m}Tc sodium pertechnetate, have enabled us to perform RI (radioisotopic) angiocardiography. Although conventional cardiac catheterization or angiocardiography using contrast media have been an important diagnostic tool, they may carry some risks or serious complications. The author investigated on RI angiocardiography in twelve normal and twenty five patients with cardiovascular diseases in an effort to evaluate its diagnostic value. The results obtained with this study are as follows; l. In normal subjects, the scintillation camera transit time of arm-to-right heart was found to be 2.1+-0.67 seconds, right heart-to-lung 1.5+-0.40 seconds and lung-to-left heart 3.5+-0.86 seconds. 2. Transformation or displacement of the heart and the great vessel are easily discriminated by RI angiocardiography. Both in the cases with tricuspid atresia and tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular septal defects are well recognized by sequential RI angiocardiography. 3. It is also helpful in determining the site and extent of obstruction, and estimating the postoperative course both in the cases with superior vena cava syndrome and pulmonary stenosis. 4. Pericarditis with effusion is readily diagnosed by RI angiocardiogram showing characteristic 'dead space' between intracardiac and intrapulmonary radioactivity. 5. It was found that the diagnostic accuracy of this study was 78.4%. It is concluded that above results obtained are useful and accurate enough for the diagnostic screening method for clinical practice.

  4. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Diagnostics and contemporary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease represents avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a growing child. It commonly affects children aged 2-14 years, mostly boys, and has familiar pattern. The etiology of this disease is unknown. It is based on avascular necrosis due to variations of the femoral head vascular supply, trauma, coagulation of endocrine disturbances. The disease presents with limping and pain localized in the hip with projection to thigh and knee, frequently accompanied by the limitation of abduction and internal rotation, as well as slight limitation in flexion of about 20 degrees. Plain radiography is most informative additional diagnostic procedure, enabling assessment of the stage of disease, containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum, acetabular coverage and the extent of disease. Main treatment goal is obtaining the spherical congruity of the hip joint. This can be achieved by abduction bracing, varization femoral osteotomies and various innominate osteotomies (sometimes combined with femoral osteotomies. Children younger than four years of age, with minimal femoral head involvement, do not need any treatment. These children with a larger involvement, older than four years of age, with possible containment in hip abducion, should be treated by one of the following procedures: Salter innominate osteotomy, Salter innominate osteotomy with femoral shortening, or triple pelvic osteotomy. The patients with containment of the hip is not possible in abduction (related to subluxation and femoral head crush, should be treated by Chiari pelvic osteotomy.

  5. Immune-Mediated Inner Ear Disease: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penêda, José Ferreira; Lima, Nuno Barros; Monteiro, Francisco; Silva, Joana Vilela; Gama, Rita; Condé, Artur

    2018-03-07

    Immune Mediated Inner Ear Disease (IMIED) is a rare form of sensorineural bilateral hearing loss, usually progressing in weeks to months and responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Despite recent advances, there is no consensus on diagnosis and optimal treatment. A review of articles on IMIED from the last 10 years was conducted using PubMed ® database. IMIED is a rare disease, mostly affecting middle aged women. It may be a primary ear disease or secondary to autoimmune systemic disease. A dual immune response (both cellular and humoral) seems to be involved. Cochlin may be the inner ear protein targeted in this disease. Distinction from other (core common) forms of neurosensory hearing loss is a challenge. Physical examination is mandatory for exclusion of other causes of hearing loss; audiometry identifies characteristic hearing curves. Laboratory and imaging studies are controversial since no diagnostic marker is available. Despite recent research, IMIED diagnosis remains exclusive. Steroids are the mainstay treatment; other therapies need further investigation. For refractory cases, cochlear implantation is an option and with good relative outcome. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Principles of validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Assay validation requires a series of inter-related processes. Assay validation is an experimental process: reagents and protocols are optimized by experimentation to detect the analyte with accuracy and precision. Assay validation is a relative process: its diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity are calculated relative to test results obtained from reference animal populations of known infection/exposure status. Assay validation is a conditional process: classification of animals in the target population as infected or uninfected is conditional upon how well the reference animal population used to validate the assay represents the target population; accurate predictions of the infection status of animals from test results (PV+ and PV-) are conditional upon the estimated prevalence of disease/infection in the target population. Assay validation is an incremental process: confidence in the validity of an assay increases over time when use confirms that it is robust as demonstrated by accurate and precise results; the assay may also achieve increasing levels of validity as it is upgraded and extended by adding reference populations of known infection status. Assay validation is a continuous process: the assay remains valid only insofar as it continues to provide accurate and precise results as proven through statistical verification. Therefore, the work required for validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases does not end with a time-limited series of experiments based on a few reference samples rather, to assure valid test results from an assay requires constant vigilance and maintenance of the assay, along with reassessment of its performance characteristics for each unique population of animals to which it is applied. (author)

  7. Status of soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren in Laguna Province, the Philippines: Determined by parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mationg, Mary Lorraine S; Gordon, Catherine A; Tallo, Veronica L; Olveda, Remigio M; Alday, Portia P; Reñosa, Mark Donald C; Bieri, Franziska A; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Steinmann, Peter; Halton, Kate; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Gray, Darren J

    2017-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are the most common parasitic infections in impoverished communities, particularly among children. Current STH control is through school-based mass drug administration (MDA), which in the Philippines is done twice annually. As expected, MDA has decreased the intensity and prevalence of STH over time. As a result, the common Kato Katz (KK) thick smear method of detecting STH is less effective because it lacks sensitivity in low intensity infections, making it difficult to measure the impact of deworming programs. A cross-sectional study was carried out over a four-week period from October 27, 2014 until November 20, 2014 in Laguna province, the Philippines. Stool samples were collected from 263 schoolchildren, to determine the prevalence of STH and compare diagnostic accuracy of multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with the KK. A large discrepancy in the prevalence between the two techniques was noted for the detection of at least one type of STH infection (33.8% by KK vs. 78.3% by qPCR), Ascaris lumbricoides (20.5% by KK vs. 60.8% by qPCR) and Trichuris trichiura (23.6% by KK vs. 38.8% by qPCR). Considering the combined results of both methods, the prevalence of at least one type of helminth infection, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura were 83.3%, 67.7%, and 53.6%, respectively. Sensitivity of the qPCR for detecting at least one type of STH infection, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura were 94.1%, 89.9%, and 72.3% respectively; whereas KK sensitivity was 40.6%, 30.3%, and 44.0%, respectively. The qPCR method also detected infections with Ancylostoma spp. (4.6%), Necator americanus (2.3%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.8%) that were missed by KK. qPCR may provide new and important diagnostic information to improve assessment of the effectiveness and impact of integrated control strategies particularly in areas where large-scale STH control has led to low prevalence and/or intensity of infection.

  8. Diagnostic delays in rheumatic diseases with associated arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Batko, Bogdan; Sochocka-Bykowska, Małgorzata; Zoń-Giebel, Aleksandra; Gola, Zbigniew; Guzera, Zbigniew; Maślińska, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the length of delay in diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, and to indicate the main factors responsible for such delays. A retrospective multi-centre questionnaire survey carried out among 197 patients with diagnosed inflammatory rheumatic diseases or undergoing the diagnostic process. The most common early symptoms of inflammatory rheumatic disease included joint pain (94%), joint swelling (78%), morning joint stiffness (77%), fatigue (76%), and sleep disturbed by joint pain (74%). When asked about the reasons for seeking medical help, most patients indicated intensification of the symptoms (89%) and the fact that the symptoms made them unable to perform daily activities or work (86%). Limited access to specialists (70%) and the conviction that the symptoms will resolve spontaneously (57%) had the biggest impact on delaying a visit to a doctor. Before visiting a rheumatologist, the patients consulted their symptoms with their general practitioners (GPs, 95%), orthopaedicians (43%), and neurologists (29%). Almost half of the patients (48%) consulted their symptoms with at least 2 non-rheumatologists, whereas as many as 21% of patients visited 4 or more specialists. After the onset of symptoms of rheumatic disease, 28% of patients delayed seeing any doctor for 4 months or longer. 36% of patients waited 4 months or longer for a referral to a rheumatologist. The great majority of the patients (85%) made an appointment with a rheumatologist within a month of receiving a referral. 25% of patients waited 4 months or longer to see a rheumatologist. Diagnostic delays result from both the level of patients' awareness (ignoring early symptoms) and improper functioning of the health care system. In the case of the health care system, the source of delays is not only "queues to rheumatologists", but also referring patients to non-rheumatologists.

  9. Diagnostic value of the impairment of olfaction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Swaantje; Eckert, Angelika; Woitalla, Dirk; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Turewicz, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Eisenacher, Martin; May, Caroline; Meyer, Helmut E; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory impairment is increasingly recognized as an early symptom in the development of Parkinson's disease. Testing olfactory function is a non-invasive method but can be time-consuming which restricts its application in clinical settings and epidemiological studies. Here, we investigate odor identification as a supportive diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease and estimate the performance of odor subsets to allow a more rapid testing of olfactory impairment. Odor identification was assessed with 16 Sniffin' sticks in 148 Parkinson patients and 148 healthy controls. Risks of olfactory impairment were estimated with proportional odds models. Random forests were applied to classify Parkinson and non-Parkinson patients. Parkinson patients were rarely normosmic (identification of more than 12 odors; 16.8%) and identified on average seven odors whereas the reference group identified 12 odors and showed a higher prevalence of normosmy (31.1%). Parkinson patients with rigidity dominance had a twofold greater prevalence of olfactory impairment. Disease severity was associated with impairment of odor identification (per score point of the Hoehn and Yahr rating OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26-2.77). Age-related impairment of olfaction showed a steeper gradient in Parkinson patients. Coffee, peppermint, and anise showed the largest difference in odor identification between Parkinson patients and controls. Random forests estimated a misclassification rate of 22.4% when comparing Parkinson patients with healthy controls using all 16 odors. A similar rate (23.8%) was observed when only the three aforementioned odors were applied. Our findings indicate that testing odor identification can be a supportive diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease. The application of only three odors performed well in discriminating Parkinson patients from controls, which can facilitate a wider application of this method as a point-of-care test.

  10. Review of Dercum’s disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Emma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition and clinical picture We propose the minimal definition of Dercum’s disease to be generalised overweight or obesity in combination with painful adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum’s disease include fatty deposits, easy bruisability, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, depression, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, weakness and joint aches. Classification We suggest that Dercum’s disease is classified into: I. Generalised diffuse form A form with diffusely widespread painful adipose tissue without clear lipomas, II. Generalised nodular form - a form with general pain in adipose tissue and intense pain in and around multiple lipomas, and III. Localised nodular form - a form with pain in and around multiple lipomas IV. Juxtaarticular form - a form with solitary deposits of excess fat for example at the medial aspect of the knee. Epidemiology Dercum’s disease most commonly appears between the ages of 35 and 50 years and is five to thirty times more common in women than in men. The prevalence of Dercum’s disease has not yet been exactly established. Aetiology Proposed, but unconfirmed aetiologies include: nervous system dysfunction, mechanical pressure on nerves, adipose tissue dysfunction and trauma. Diagnosis and diagnostic methods Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and should be made by systematic physical examination and thorough exclusion of differential diagnoses. Advisably, the diagnosis should be made by a physician with a broad experience of patients with painful conditions and knowledge of family medicine, internal medicine or pain management. The diagnosis should only be made when the differential diagnoses have been excluded. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnoses include: fibromyalgia, lipoedema, panniculitis, endocrine disorders, primary psychiatric disorders, multiple symmetric lipomatosis, familial

  11. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  12. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Infectious Disease Diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available The ability to make rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a great step forward in global health. Many molecular diagnostic assays are developed based on using thermal cyclers to carry out polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcription PCR for DNA and RNA amplification and detection, respectively. Unfortunately, most commercial thermal cyclers are expensive and need continuous electrical power supply, so they are not suitable for uses in low-resource settings. We have previously reported a low-cost and simple approach to amplify DNA using vacuum insulated stainless steel thermoses food cans, which we have named it thermos thermal cycler or TTC. Here, we describe the use of an improved set up to enable the detection of viral RNA targets by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR, thus expanding the TTC's ability to identify highly infectious, RNA virus-based diseases in low resource settings. The TTC was successful in demonstrating high-speed and sensitive detection of DNA or RNA targets of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and dengue fever. Our innovative TTC costs less than $200 to build and has a capacity of at least eight tubes. In terms of speed, the TTC's performance exceeded that of commercial thermal cyclers tested. When coupled with low-cost endpoint detection technologies such as nucleic acid lateral-flow assay or a cell-phone-based fluorescence detector, the TTC will increase the availability of on-site molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings.

  13. Vulnerable Women’s Self-Care Needs in Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Alimohammadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases (STD due to their special conditions and poor knowledge about these diseases in the society. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the vulnerable women’s self-care needs in knowledge, attitude and practice concerning STD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-descriptive study conducted in 2014. The data collection was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 120 vulnerable women referring to centers affiliated to health and well-being center in Isfahan participated in this study. They were selected through proportional rationing sampling and filled out a researcher developed questionnaire containing information on personal characteristics, self-care knowledge, attitude, and practice needs toward the STD. The data were analyzed using statistical methods including Spearman & Pearson correlation co-efficient, independent t-test and ANOVA. All analyses were carried out using SPSS, 20. Results: Based on the results, most of the subjects mentioned that their priorities of self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice were “familiarization with the types and contamination ways of sexually transmitted diseases” (57.9%; “diagnosis of STD only makes us anxious” (24.8, and “the method of washing the genital area before and after intercourse” 41.3%, respectively. There was a significant association among marital status, education, history of addiction, and self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that vulnerable women not only knew their need about STD, but also paid attention to their attitude and practice needs toward STD. Therefore, educational programs should be designed and administrated by the experts, based on vulnerable women’s self-care needs concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice to prevent and control STD in vulnerable individuals.

  14. An assessment of the GYT: Get Yourself Tested campaign: an integrated approach to sexually transmitted disease prevention communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Kachur, Rachel E; Ford, Jessie; Hogben, Matthew; Habel, Melissa A; Kantor, Leslie M; Clark, Elizabeth; Sabatini, Jamie; McFarlane, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Youth in the United States bear a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Stigma, misconceptions, and access challenges keep many from getting tested or treated. The GYT: Get Yourself Tested campaign was launched in 2009 to reduce stigma and promote STD communication and testing. This evaluation sought to assess the first 2 years of campaign engagement and associations with STD testing among youth. Campaign engagement with select GYT on-the-ground events, social media sites, and STD testing locator tools was measured through process/media tracking metrics. Sexually transmitted disease testing patterns were assessed using data from Planned Parenthood affiliates (2008-2010) and national trend data from clinics participating in national infertility prevention activities (2003-2010). On-the-ground events reached an estimated 20,000 youth in 2009 and 52,000 youth in 2010. Across 2009 to 2010, GYT's Facebook page gained 4477 fans, Twitter feed gained 1994 followers, and more than 140,000 referrals were made to the STD testing locator. From April 2008 to 2010, there was a 71% increase in STD testing and a 41% increase in chlamydia testing at reporting Planned Parenthood affiliates (representing ∼118 health centers). Chlamydia case positivity rates during this period were stable at 6.6% (2008) and 7.3% (2010). Trend data indicate that testing was higher in spring 2009 and 2010 compared with other periods during those years; this pattern is commensurate with STD Awareness Month/GYT activities. Data quality is limited in a manner similar to many STD prevention efforts. Within these limitations, evidence suggests that GYT reaches youth and is associated with increased STD testing.

  15. Diagnostic delay in Crohn's disease is associated with a complicated disease course and increased operation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Dehlavi, Mohamed-Ali; Fournier, Nicolas; Safroneeva, Ekaterina; Straumann, Alex; Pittet, Valérie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Michetti, Pierre; Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan R

    2013-11-01

    The impact of diagnostic delay (a period from appearance of first symptoms to diagnosis) on the clinical course of Crohn's disease (CD) is unknown. We examined whether length of diagnostic delay affects disease outcomes. Data from the Swiss IBD cohort study were analyzed. Patients were recruited from university centers (68%), regional hospitals (14%), and private practices (18%). The frequencies of occurrence of bowel stenoses, internal fistulas, perianal fistulas, and CD-related surgery (intestinal and perianal) were analyzed. A total of 905 CD patients (53.4% female, median age at diagnosis 26 (20-36) years) were stratified into four groups according to the quartiles of diagnostic delay (0-3, 4-9, 10-24, and ≥25 months, respectively). Median diagnostic delay was 9 (3-24) months. The frequency of immunomodulator and/or antitumor necrosis factor drug use did not differ among the four groups. The length of diagnostic delay was positively correlated with the occurrence of bowel stenosis (odds ratio (OR) 1.76, P=0.011 for delay of ≥25 months) and intestinal surgery (OR 1.76, P=0.014 for delay of 10-24 months and OR 2.03, P=0.003 for delay of ≥25 months). Disease duration was positively associated and non-ileal disease location was negatively associated with bowel stenosis (OR 1.07, P<0.001, and OR 0.41, P=0.005, respectively) and intestinal surgery (OR 1.14, P<0.001, and OR 0.23, P<0.001, respectively). The length of diagnostic delay is correlated with an increased risk of bowel stenosis and CD-related intestinal surgery. Efforts should be undertaken to shorten the diagnostic delay.

  16. Emerging sexually transmitted viral infections: 1. Review of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Rachel J; Manavi, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    This is the first in a series of articles reviewing four viral infections, Ebola virus, Zika virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 and hepatitis C virus, with an emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of their sexual transmission. With current day speed and ease of travel it is important for staff in sexual healthcare services to know and understand these infections when patients present to them and also to be able to advise those travelling to endemic regions. Following the recent resurgence in West Africa, this first article looks at Ebola virus disease (EVD). EVD has a high mortality rate and, of note, has been detected in the semen of those who have cleared the virus from their blood and have clinically recovered from the disease. As the result of emerging data, the WHO now recommends safe sex practices for all male survivors of EVD for 12 months after the onset of the disease or after having had two consecutive negative tests of semen specimens for the virus. This review provides an up-to-date summary of what is currently known about EVD and its implications for sexual health practice.

  17. [Impact of changes in the environment on vector-transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, J; Carnevale, P

    1997-01-01

    We have defined the relationship between infectious diseases and environmental conditions and considered the development of this relationship to its current situation, where human intervention is occurring more often and is becoming more aggressive. The increase in the transport of freight and passengers by air has allowed parasite vectors to spread quickly and easily over large distances. Every country can now be reached from any other country within a couple of days. Usually, foreign species are unable to establish themselves and to persist in the new environment; but the recent arrival of Aedes albopictus in Albania, Italy and the Americas is a cause for concern. Demographic pressure has increased the need for land and the exploitation of new areas leads to large changes in the vegetation. The classic example of this man-made damage is the destruction of tropical forest in Western Africa, but the destruction of herbaceous vegetation, such as papyrus, in East Africa, could also have serious epidemiological consequences. Streams and rivers have been managed for power production and irrigation. The use of dams, both large and small, and the culture of rice in paddy-fields produces large expanses of water which are suitable breeding grounds for mosquitoes and snails, the vectors of human diseases such as malaria and schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. They are, however, of lesser importance in Asia and the Americas. Urbanization imposes a set of very similar structures on a specific rural environment. The effect of these two factors on each other determines the pathologies associated with each town. The suburban area is a specific environment where both urban and rural diseases occur and are made worse by poor hygiene conditions (waste, sewage, etc.). However, not all man-made changes to the environment cause a deterioration in public health. Urban and agricultural development projects must consider these issues and should use medical and environmental studies to

  18. An experimental means of transmitting pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. fry in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, I; Joiner, C; Bayley, A; Rimmer, G; Bateman, K; Feist, S W; Stone, D; Paley, R

    2015-03-01

    A challenge model for pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fry, was developed comparing two salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtypes: SAV1 and SAV5. Viral doses of 3 × 10(5) TCID50  mL(-1) for SAV1 and 3 × 10(4) for SAV5 were tested in triplicate tanks, each containing 450 salmon fry. Cumulative mortalities of 1.2% were recorded. Titres of virus recovered from the mortalities ranged from 10(2) to 10(7) TCID50  mL(-1) . Fry were sampled at 3, 5 and 7.5 weeks post-challenge. Sampling after 3 weeks revealed a high prevalence of infection in the absence of clinical signs, and infectious virus was recovered from 80% and 43% of sampled fry infected with SAV1 and SAV5, respectively. After 5 weeks pancreas, heart and red skeletal muscle lesions were generally observed, whilst degeneration in white skeletal muscle was observed only in fish infected with SAV1. In situ hybridisation confirmed the presence of viral genome in infected pancreas, heart and muscle. After 7.5 weeks, infectious virus (both isolates) was recovered from 13.3% of the fish sampled, with a viral titre of 10(2) TCID50  mL(-1) . Clearly, salmon fry are susceptible to SAV infection and pancreas disease. © 2014 Crown Copyright. Journal of Fish Diseases © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Jin, Miao; Wang, Li; Qin, Bin; Wang, Kang

    2017-03-01

    The Movement Disorder Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's disease (MDS-PD Criteria) was introduced by the Movement Disorder Society in 2015 for research purposes. However, its use for clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease still needs further revision. This study compares the UK-Criteria versus MDS-PD Criteria in the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease referred to the China-Japan Friendship Hospital of Beijing, China. To compare the MDS-PD Criteria with the UK-Criteria and discuss the feasibility of the clinical application of MDS-PD Criteria as a general guide to clinical diagnosis of PD in Chinese PD patients. 150 patients of neurology clinic of China-Japan Friendship Hospital of Beijing were recruited in our research. They were divided into three groups: UK-Criteria group, MDS-PD Criteria group and a combined group of UK and MDS-PD Criteria. Clinical history was collected while physical and auxiliary examinations were done by a trained neurologist according to the corresponding criteria. An interrater reliability analysis using the Kappa statistic claimed substantial agreement (κ = 0.626) between the MDS-PD Criteria and the UK-Criteria. The differences between the diagnostic results of these two criteria were statistically significant by paired Chi-square test (p = 0.000). It was found that levodopa-induced dyskinesia had a good positive predictive value, while early bulbar impairment and inspiratory dysfunction presented a negative predictive value. The MDS-PD Criteria emphasize the importance of non-motor symptoms, keeping the motor symptoms as the core for the clinical diagnosis of PD, and establish categories of diagnosis features and levels of certainty which are more complete and organized to be used and replicated by non specialized physicians to evaluated patients with Parkinsonism. The higher sensitivity of MDS-PD Criteria compared with UK-Criteria is worth being widely used in clinical work.

  20. Plain abdominal radiographs in patients with Crohn's disease: radiological findings and diagnostic value.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, K

    2012-08-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield and clinical value of plain film of the abdomen (PFA) in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) patients and to determine whether performance of PFA yields definitive diagnostic information or whether additional imaging examinations are required.

  1. Wilson's disease in children: clinical and diagnostic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayesha, H.; Choudhry, A.A.; Javed, M.T.; Javed, F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical and diagnostic laboratory features of Wilsons disease in children and adolescents. Design: A prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study included patients diagnosed as Wilson s disease at the Department of Pediatrics Allied Hospital, Punjab medical College, Faisalabad from May 1997 to June 2001. Patients and methods: Patients presenting with liver or suggestive neurological disease were investigated. Others were diagnosed as a result of family screening. Diagnosis of neurologic disease was made if two of the following were present: Typical neurological findings, Kayser Fleischer corneal rings and low serum ceruloplasmin ( 100 mu gm) free serum copper (>10 mu gm/dl). In other forms and for family screening, 24 hours. Urinary copper (> 100 mu gm), free serum copper (>10 mu gm/dl), and wherever possible liver biopsy for histopathology and cytochemical staining by rubeanic acid was also done. Results: Twenty-seven patients with a mean age of 10.2 years were diagnosed as suffering from Wilson disease. Mean age for hepatic and neurological disease was 9 years and 11.5 years respectively. Youngest patient (neurologic) was 6 years old. 48% cases presented with neurological, 41% with hepatic and 4% with skeletal manifestations while 7 % were asymptomatic. Mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 6.1 months. Dysarthria (84.6%), tremors (69.2%), rigidity and poor school performance and hand writing (61.5%), dysphagia (46.1%) and dystonia (38.5%), were the most common neurologic findings. Chronic liver disease was seen in 73 % while acute forms were seen in 27 % cases. Two cases presented with fulminant hepatic failure. Consanguineous marriage of the parents was found in 70 % and family history of disease was present in 65 % cases. K-F (Kayser Fleischer) rings and low serum ceruloplasmin(<20 mg/dl) was found in 85% of all patients. In non neurologic types other tests of copper metabolism were done. Elevated urinary

  2. Thyroid nodular disease: their usefulness of diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ayala, Irene Maria; Sanchez Luthard, Maria de los Angeles; Martins Schmitz; Gomez, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid nodular disease is defined by the presence of nodules of thyroid of solid, liquid or mixed consistency, they are or non concrete. Solitary nodule thyroid, diffuse and multinodular goiter forms can be presented in. The thyroid nodule is a frequent clinical problem, the clinical prevalence in adult population is of 4%. Objective: to make a bibliographical revision to near the utility of the different methods available for the thyroid nodular pathology diagnosis and determining which of them turns out more specific to differentiate benignancy from malignancy in the found nodules. Materials and Methods: the bibliographical search was made in the data base Medline (Pubmed), in scientific magazines of the region and text books. Criteria of inclusion: bibliographical references pertaining to medical magazines and free full text with an antiquity nongreater to 8 years were included. Conclusion: the presence of thyroid nodules constitutes a reason for frequent consultation, the main diagnostic method at the moment is the fine needle aspiration cytology, due to its simple accomplishment, low cost, not requiring the hospitalization of the patient, and being fundamental in the decision making of the doctor. This diagnostic method is, in addition, the one that with greater certainty allows to differentiate benign from malignant nodules. (authors) [es

  3. Review of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to Canine Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menciotti, Giulio; Borgarelli, Michele

    2017-09-26

    The most common heart disease that affects dogs is myxomatous mitral valve disease. In this article, we review the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease, and we also present some of the latest technological advancements in this field.

  4. Characteristics of women reporting multiple recent sex partners presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagoner, Nicholas J; Harbison, Hanne Sybil; Drewry, Jonathan; Turnipseed, Elizabeth; Hook, Edward W

    2011-03-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees are considered to be at higher risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than the general population. However, little is known about STD clinic subpopulations and their unique risks for STI's. The goal of this project was to begin to characterize an important STD clinic subpopulation, the small proportion of women reporting a recent history of multiple sex partners. Screening of electronic medical records from 2007 identified 347 (7%) women with ≥4 partners in the last 12 months. Records for women with ≥4 sex partners were matched with women reporting 1 sex partner in the last 12 months. Demographic, sexual history, STI history, and laboratory diagnosis(es) were extracted from the electronic medical record and compared using a case-control study design. Approximately 5000 women presented to our STD clinic in 2007; 7.0% reported≥4 sex partners. Women with ≥4 sex partners were less often black and on average younger than women with single partners (Median age, 24 vs. 29). They reported more nonvaginal sex, more same-sex contacts, but more consistent condom use than women with single partners. Dyspareunia, genital lesions, abdominal pain, and skin findings were more commonly reported by women with ≥4 sex partners. Women with multiple partners were also more likely to report ever having had ≥3 STI's and were more likely to report a history of gonorrhea or syphilis. They were also more likely to be diagnosed at presentation with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. Women reporting multiple sex partners are an important minority among STD clinic attendees. Understanding the antecedents to high risk sexual behavior as determined by partner number is an important step in reducing STI's in this group.

  5. The incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending nine sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Feaster, Daniel J; Duan, Rui; Cohen, Stephanie; Diaz, Chanelle; Castro, Jose G; Golden, Matthew R; Henn, Sarah; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R

    2016-02-01

    Trichomoniasis (TV) is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV. The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors associated with incidence TV among female STD clinic attendees in the USA. Data were collected from women participating in a randomised controlled trial evaluating brief risk reduction counselling at the time of HIV testing to reduce sexually transmitted infections (STIs) incidence in STD clinics. Participants recruited from STD clinics underwent STI testing at baseline and 6-month follow-up. TV testing was performed using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test. 1704 participants completed study assessments. Prevalence of TV was 14.6%, chlamydia 8.6%, gonorrhoea 3.0%, herpes simplex virus 2 44.7% and HIV 0.4%. Cumulative 6-month incidence of TV was 7.5%. Almost 50% of the incident TV cases had TV at baseline and had received treatment. Factors associated with incidence of TV were having chlamydia, TV and HIV at baseline: TV relative risk (RR)=3.37 (95% CI 2.35 to 4.83, pTV is common among STD clinic attendees; and baseline TV is the main risk factor for incident TV, suggesting high rates of reinfection or treatment failures. This supports the importance of rescreening women after treatment for TV, evaluating current treatment regimens and programmes to ensure treatment of sexual partners. NCT01154296. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Comparative Study of the Sensitivity of Different Diagnostic Methods for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Adjei, Ohene; Awua-Boateng, Nana-Yaa; Nienhuis, Willemien A.; Kunaa, Letitia; Siegmund, Vera; Nitschke, Joerg; Thompson, William; Klutse, Erasmus; Agbenorku, Pius; Schipf, Alexander; Reu, Simone; Racz, Paul; Fleischer, Bernhard; Beissner, Marcus; Fleischmann, Erna; Helfrich, Kerstin; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Loescher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    Background. Several diagnostic laboratory methods are available for case confirmation of Buruli ulcer disease. This study assessed the sensitivity of various diagnostic tests in relation to clinical presentation of the disease, type of diagnostic specimen, and treatment history. Methods. Swab

  7. Molecular diagnostics for the sigatoka disease complex of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, Mahdi; Abeln, Edwin C A; Kema, Gert H J; Waalwijk, Cees; Carlier, Jean; Vries, Ineke de; Guzmán, Mauricio; Crous, Pedro W

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease diagnosis in the Mycosphaerella complex of banana is based on the presence of host symptoms and fungal fruiting structures, which hamper preventive management strategies. In the present study, we have developed rapid and robust species-specific molecular-based diagnostic tools for detection and quantification of M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Conventional species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were developed based on the actin gene that detected DNA at as little as 100, 1, and 10 pg/mul from M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae, respectively. Furthermore, TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed based on the beta-tubulin gene and detected quantities of DNA as low as 1 pg/mul for each Mycosphaerella sp. from pure cultures and DNA at 1.6 pg/mul per milligram of dry leaf tissue for M. fijiensis that was validated using naturally infected banana leaves.

  8. [DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučak, J; VučK, E; Balint, I

    2016-12-01

    According to consensus definition, chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes urinary excretion of albumin >30 mg/day and/ or reduction in kidney function defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for a period longer than three months, in the presence of kidney tissue damage verified by imaging or histologic methods. In developed world, the first cause of CKD is diabetes, followed by arterial hypertension, and the less frequent causes are inflammatory disease (glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis) and congenital condition (polycystic kidney disease). Currently, there is valid classification under the acronym CGA, where C stands for the cause, G for glomerular filtration rate (GFR category) and A for the level of albuminuria category. In early stages, patients usually have no symptoms but there are changes in creatinine values, estimated GFR (eGFR) reduction and presence of albuminuria, especially in patients at risk. Determining the grade of renal impairment is important because of different approaches to treatment, monitoring, expected complications, and patient education. Due to improved diagnostic methods and population aging, CKD is diagnosed ever more increasingly. Family physicians should be familiar with the basic principles of screening and diagnosis of CKD to provide them with appropriate care in collaboration with secondary and tertiary health care.

  9. [Chronic interstitial lung disease in children: Diagnostic approach and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuger, M; Clair, M-P; El Ayoun Ibrahim, N; L'Excellent, S; Nizery, L; O'Neill, C; Tabone, L; Truffinet, O; Yakovleff, C; de Blic, J

    2016-05-01

    Chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children is a heterogeneous group of rare lung disorders characterized by an inflammatory process of the alveolar wall and the pulmonary interstitium that induces gas exchange disorders. The diagnostic approach to an ILD involves three essential steps: recognizing the ILD, appreciating the impact, and identifying the cause. The spectrum of clinical findings depends to a large extent on age. In the newborn, the beginning is often abrupt (neonatal respiratory distress), whereas there is a more gradual onset in infants (failure to thrive, tachypnea, indrawing of the respiratory muscles). In older children, the onset is insidious and the diagnosis can only be made at an advanced stage of the disease. The diagnosis is based on noninvasive methods (clinical history, respiratory function tests, chest X-ray, and high-resolution CT scan) and invasive techniques (bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy, video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy, and open lung biopsy). The treatment of interstitial lung disease in children depends on the nature of the underlying pathology. The most common therapeutic approach involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents for their anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. Children with ILD also need support therapy (oxygen therapy, nutritional support, treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, vaccination). Lung transplantation is discussed in patients with severe respiratory failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Water bags as a potential vehicle for transmitting disease in a West African capital, Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Adriano A; Machado, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Street vendors of chilled packaged water have an increasing role in meeting the drinking water demand of people on the move in developing nations. Hygienic conditions can be questionable, and water quality screening scarce or non-existent. In order to ascertain the quality of the packaged water sold by street vendors in Bissau, the capital of the Western African country Guinea-Bissau, water bags were screened in 2011 and during the 2012 cholera outbreak for key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Water used to fill the hand-filled hand-tied bags originated from communal tap water and melted ice. All samples (n=36) were microbiologically contaminated, although levels showed a pronounced variability (e.g. 7-493 372 cfu 250 ml(-1) for Escherichia coli). In 2012, the fecal contamination levels increased (pbags obtained from the neighborhood where the outbreak started. Findings showed that all packaged water samples were unfit for human consumption and during the 2012 cholera outbreak represented a potential vehicle for the spread of the disease. The design of measures to decrease the risk associated to the consumption of highly contaminated chilled water is clearly required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Sickle Cell Disease Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampier, Carlton; Palermo, Tonya M; Darbari, Deepika S; Hassell, Kathryn; Smith, Wally; Zempsky, William

    2017-05-01

    Pain in sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and high health care costs. Although episodic acute pain is the hallmark of this disorder, there is an increasing awareness that chronic pain is part of the pain experience of many older adolescents and adults. A common set of criteria for classifying chronic pain associated with SCD would enhance SCD pain research efforts in epidemiology, pain mechanisms, and clinical trials of pain management interventions, and ultimately improve clinical assessment and management. As part of the collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy initiative developed the outline of an optimal diagnostic system for chronic pain conditions. Subsequently, a working group of experts in SCD pain was convened to generate core diagnostic criteria for chronic pain associated with SCD. The working group synthesized available literature to provide evidence for the dimensions of this disease-specific pain taxonomy. A single pain condition labeled chronic SCD pain was derived with 3 modifiers reflecting different clinical features. Future systematic research is needed to evaluate the feasibility, validity, and reliability of these criteria. An evidence-based classification system for chronic SCD pain was constructed for the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy initiative. Applying this taxonomy may improve assessment and management of SCD pain and accelerate research on epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatments for chronic SCD pain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  12. [The diagnostic value and limits of diagnostic parameters for Wilson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X

    2017-12-20

    identify all the affected alleles in suspected individuals. If no mutation is identified, the diagnosis of WD could not be excluded. None of the laboratory parameters alone allows a definite diagnosis of WD. The WD diagnostic scoring system based on a composite of key parameters helps clinicians to gauge the degree of certainty of the diagnosis: WD scores greater than 4, the diagnosis of WD is highly likely; score 0 or 1, the diagnosis is unlikely. However, the WD diagnosis could not be excluded in suspected patients who do not perform genetic test and hepatic copper determination. Patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease may have scores more than 4.

  13. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Mario J.; Villacis, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Yumiseva, Cesar A.; Moncayo, Ana L.; Baus, Esteban G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus) infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl) and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl) mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl) and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl) also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]). Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli. Conclusions/Significance To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained

  14. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J Grijalva

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation.An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]. Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli.To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained, and monitored vector control intervention that is

  15. Men’s Perception of Raped Women: Test of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Hypothesis and the Cuckoldry Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.

  16. Willingness to Use Health Insurance at a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic: A Survey of Patients at 21 US Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William S; Cramer, Ryan; Tao, Guoyu; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L; Hoover, Karen W

    2016-08-01

    To survey patients of publicly funded sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics across the United States about their willingness to use health insurance for their visit. In 2013, we identified STD clinics in 21 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance reports. Patients attending the identified STD clinics completed a total of 4364 surveys (response rate = 86.6%). Nearly half of the insured patients were willing to use their health insurance. Patients covered by government insurance were more likely to be willing to use their health insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (odds ratio [OR] =  3.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.79, 4.65), and patients covered by their parents' insurance were less likely to be willing to use their insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.52, 1.00). Reasons for unwillingness to use insurance were privacy and out-of-pocket cost. Before full implementation of the Affordable Care Act, privacy and cost were barriers to using health insurance for STD services. Barriers to using health insurance for STD services could be reduced through addressing issues of stigma associated with STD care and considering alternative payment sources for STD services.

  17. Re-evaluation of the diagnostic criteria for Wilson disease in children with mild liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Emanuele; Ranucci, Giusy; Vajro, Pietro; Vegnente, Angela; Iorio, Raffaele

    2010-12-01

    The diagnosis of Wilson disease (WD) is challenging, especially in children. Early detection is desirable in order to avoid dramatic disease progression. The aim of our study was to re-evaluate in WD children with mild liver disease the conventional diagnostic criteria and the WD scoring system proposed by an international consensus in 2001. Forty children with WD (26 boys and 14 girls, age range = 1.1-20.9 years) and 58 age-matched and sex-matched patients with a liver disease other than WD were evaluated. Both groups were symptom-free and had elevated aminotransferases as predominant signs of liver disease. In all WD patients, the diagnosis was supported by molecular analysis, the liver copper content, or both. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of ceruloplasmin at the cutoff value of 20 mg/dL showed a sensitivity of 95% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 83%-99.4%] and a specificity of 84.5% (95% CI = 72.6%-92.6%). The optimal basal urinary copper diagnostic cutoff value was found to be 40 μg/24 hours (sensitivity = 78.9%, 95% CI = 62.7%-90.4%; specificity = 87.9%, 95% CI = 76.7%-95%). Urinary copper values after penicillamine challenge did not significantly differ between WD patients and control subjects, and the ROC analysis showed a sensitivity of only 12%. The WD scoring system was proved to have positive and negative predictive values of 93% and 91.6%, respectively. Urinary copper excretion greater than 40 μg/24 hours is suggestive of WD in asymptomatic children, whereas the penicillamine challenge test does not have a diagnostic role in this subset of patients. The WD scoring system provides good diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Knowledge and perceptions of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health among female students in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Zaman Mou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young people are most vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health issues is also common in this group. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health of young female university students (19-27 years in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 402 female students from seven universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic information, knowledge, and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health. Descriptive analysis was used, and data were presented as frequencies and percentages. Results: The majority of the participants were young, unmarried, undergraduate students. Most of the participants reported that they knew about STDs (79% and HIV/AIDS (66%. However, knowledge about the modes of transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. HIV/AIDS was considered by 90% participants as a public health threat to Bangladesh, mostly due to illiteracy (76%, increased mortality (20%, existence of risky sexual behavior (18%, and aggression of Western culture (31%. About 65% of the participants mentioned that AIDS can be prevented by safe sexual practice, 55% mentioned prevention through upholding religious values and moral education, and 59% mentioned that education about AIDS would help prevent transmission. Conclusions: Although a majority of young Bangladeshi female students reported knowing about HIV/AIDS, their knowledge regarding transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. Strategies for creating reproductive health education targeted at young female students are essential for the prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS.

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Help Archive Site Map Información en español Employee Information Connect with NIAID Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google+ Youtube Flickr Instagram Pinterest Email Website Policies & Notices ...

  20. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluranti J. Obisesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32±11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p<0.0001. The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere.

  1. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  2. Innovation in sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: internet and mobile phone delivery vehicles for global diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-03-01

    Efficacious behavioral interventions and practices have not been universally accepted, adopted, or diffused by policy makers, administrators, providers, advocates, or consumers. Biomedical innovations for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV prevention have been embraced but their effectiveness is hindered by behavioral factors. Behavioral interventions are required to support providers and consumers for adoption and diffusion of biomedical innovations, protocol adherence, and sustained prevention for other STDs. Information and communication technology such as the Internet and mobile phones can deliver behavioral components for STD/HIV prevention and care to more people at less cost. Recent innovations in STD/HIV prevention with information and communication technology-mediated behavioral supports include STD/HIV testing and partner interventions, behavioral interventions, self-management, and provider care. Computer-based and Internet-based behavioral STD/HIV interventions have demonstrated efficacy comparable to face-to-face interventions. Mobile phone STD/HIV interventions using text-messaging are being broadly utilized but more work is needed to demonstrate efficacy. Electronic health records and care management systems can improve care, but interventions are needed to support adoption. Information and communication technology is rapidly diffusing globally. Over the next 5-10 years smart-phones will be broadly disseminated, connecting billions of people to the Internet and enabling lower cost, highly engaging, and ubiquitous STD/HIV prevention and treatment support interventions.

  3. Using Reported Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Illustrate Potential Methodological Issues in the Measurement of Racial and Ethnic Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Patel, Chirag G; Gift, Thomas L; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-09-01

    Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures. The disparity measures we calculated included the black-white rate ratio, the Index of Disparity (weighted and unweighted by subgroup population), and the Gini coefficient. The 4 examples we developed included illustrations of potential differences in relative and absolute disparity measures, potential differences in weighted and nonweighted disparity measures, the importance of the reference point when calculating disparities, and differences in disparity measures in the assessment of trends in disparities over time. For example, the gonorrhea rate increased for all minority groups (relative to whites) from 1992 to 1993, yet the Index of Disparity suggested that racial/ethnic disparities had decreased. Although imperfect, disparity measures can be useful to quantify racial/ethnic disparities in STDs, to assess trends in these disparities, and to inform interventions to reduce these disparities. Our study uses reported STD rates to illustrate potential methodological issues with these disparity measures and highlights key considerations when selecting disparity measures for quantifying disparities in STDs.

  4. GYT: Get Yourself Tested Campaign Awareness: Associations With Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Testing and Communication Behaviors Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Mary; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Friedman, Allison; Habel, Melissa; Kachur, Rachel; Hogben, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    The GYT: Get Yourself Tested campaign promotes sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV testing and communication with partners and providers among youth. We evaluated these behaviors in relation to campaign awareness among youth through a national survey. We collected data from 4017 respondents aged 15 to 25 years through an online panel survey designed to be representative of the US population. The GYT campaign targeted 4 key behaviors: STD testing, HIV testing, talking to partners about testing, and talking to providers about testing. Respondents who were aware of the GYT campaign (24.4%) were more likely to report engaging in each of the 4 target behaviors. Associations remained significant when stratified by race and sex and when taking into account sexuality, sexual activity, age, insurance status, and use of campaign partner-provided services. Awareness of the GYT campaign is related to the 4 target behaviors promoted by the campaign, suggesting that health promotions campaigns oriented toward youth can be successful in increasing STD-related, health-seeking behavior, including among populations disproportionately affected by STD.

  5. Mediators of the relation between partner violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P

    2011-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including sexual risk behavior. This cross-sectional study explored mediators of the relationship between IPV and risky sexual behavior in 717 women recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Participants were recruited from a public STD clinic in upstate New York as part of a randomized controlled trial that was designed to evaluate several sexual risk reduction interventions. They completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview in a private room. Among these women, 18% reported IPV in the past 3 months and 57% reported lifetime experience of IPV. Recent IPV was associated with greater sexual risk, as measured by more episodes of unprotected sex (overall and with a steady partner). Although IPV was associated with depressive symptoms and drug use before sex, these variables did not mediate the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior. The results indicate that IPV is common among women who attend an STD clinic and warrants increased attention. Research is needed to better understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk in women, to optimize the design of effective interventions.

  6. Care-Seeking Behavior After Notification Among Young Women With Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections After Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Arlene M; Gaydos, Charlotte; Chung, Shang-En; Johnson, Betty H; Huettner, Steven; Trent, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Objective To determine the level of nurse case management and outreach required to notify young women with sexually transmitted infection (STI) positive test results after pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and percent seeking treatment. Participants (N = 153) were enrolled in a clinical trial of young women diagnosed with PID and followed for 3 months for recurrent STIs. Vaginal swabs were obtained at 1 and 3 months. All participants were notified of positive STIs at 1 and 3 months and treatment arranged. Data were analyzed with logistic regression for comparison of treatment status by number of nurse contacts. Results Over the 3-month period, 59 participants (38.6%) tested positive for one or more STIs and all received notification. Only 50% (19/38) of participants with STI at 1 month and 43% (16/37) at 3 months received treatment. Conclusions Despite the high notification rate of positive test results for young adults with recurrent STIs, many failed to seek treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Infecciones de transmisión sexual, calidad del semen e infertilidad Sexually transmitted diseases, quality of semen, and infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Victoria Rodríguez Pendás

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es insistir en la asociación que existe entre el incremento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual y la infertilidad masculina. Se muestran numerosas investigaciones realizadas en este campo que demuestran el rol de estas infecciones en la etiología de la infertilidad, y se describen algunas de las principales infecciones en el semen que provocan la declinación de la fertilidad masculina y sus consecuencias en la salud reproductiva de los hombres. Con este trabajo de revisión nos proponemos resaltar la necesidad de incluir en el estudio de la infertilidad masculina el control microbiológico del semen, particularmente útil en los servicios de salud reproductiva, donde el riesgo de prevalencia de infecciones asociadas a la infertilidad provoca una reproducción fallida con consecuencias emocionales y sociales en la parejaAim of this paper is to insist on association between the sexually transmitted diseases increase and male infertility. We present most researches performed in this field emphasizing the role of these infections in infertility origin, and we describe also some of main semen infections causing decrease of male fertility, and its consequences on reproductive health of men. Aim of this review paper is to highlight the need of to include in male infertility study, the metabolic control of semen, where risk of infections prevalence associated to infertility provokes a failure reproduction with emotional and social consequences in couple

  8. Contexts of risk and networks of protection: NYC West Indian immigrants' perceptions of migration and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Susie; Higgins, Jenny A; Beckford-Jarrett, Sharlene T; Augenbraun, Michael; Bylander, Kimberly E; Mantell, Joanne E; Wilson, Tracey E

    2011-05-01

    To generate insights into how migration shapes sexual risk and protection, we interviewed 36 female and 20 male West Indian immigrants attending a public sexually transmitted disease clinic in Brooklyn, New York, between 2004 and 2005. Migration theory suggests that shifts in sexual partnership patterns, bi-directional travel and changes in sexual norms may alter risk. We found evidence of sexual mixing across ethnic groups: a large proportion of participants' partners were not born in the West Indies, despite what is expected among first generation immigrants. Recent travel 'home', another potential source of risk, was uncommon. In open-ended interviews, two themes around sexual and social networks emerged. First, immigrants believed that access to wider, more anonymous sexual networks in New York City (NYC) and the weakening of social controls that limit multiple partnerships (especially for women) promoted greater risk. Second, immigrants experienced greater opportunities for protection in NYC, both through exposure to safer sex messages and availability of condoms. Reported changes in their own condom use, however, were not attributed to migration. West Indian immigrants' risk in NYC may be driven by access to wider sexual networks but failure to alter reliance on 'networks of knowledge' for protection. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  9. THE KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF A GROUP OF STUDENTS IN CELAL BAYAR UNIVERSITY ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar ERBAY DUNDAR

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Young adulthood is a period when concepts like family planning (FP and sexually transmitted diseases (STD?s become important. This cross-sectional study was performed to measure the knowledge level of Biology and Turkish Language / Literature students of Manisa Celal Bayar University about FP and STD?s. The questionnaire measures knowledge level of FP-STD?s and sociodemographic variables was performed to 299 students (73 % of the population undar observation. The data is evaluated by chi square test and Student?s t test in SPSS 10.0 statistics program. The mean age of the study group is 21.3±1.9, 31.8% get informed about FP by friends, 95.4% of girls know about oral contraseptives (oc?s and 88.3% of girls know about IUD?s; 96.1% of boys know about oc?s and 79.4% of them know about condom. The mean knowledge point of FP is 11.2±3.7 of girls, 9.0±3.9 of boys (p0.05. The effective variables of STD?s knowledge is age group.Medico-social section of universities is a very important places for consulting FP and STD?s to the students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 66-78

  10. Sociodemographic, Sexual Behavior, and Microbiological Profiles of Men Attending Public Health Laboratories for Testing for Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviben, Mario; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav; Vraneš, Jasmina

    2017-07-01

    In order to identify the groups at risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), we assessed the sociodemographic profiles of men testing for STD, their sexual habits, and the results of microbiological analysis. During a three-year period, a total of 700 men older than 18 years of age completed the questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and sexual behavior. Urethral swabs were taken for microbiological analysis. Thirty-three percent of respondents reported not using condoms. Those that do not use condoms were predominantly less educated, unmarried but in steady relationships, employed, with children, and smokers. Alcohol or drug usage before sexual intercourse was disclosed by 21.4% of respondents, and 10.3% respondents reported sexual intercourses with commercial sex workers. Finally, 24.0% respondents reported sexual relations abroad. In 28.1% of subjects, one or more pathogens were observed in urethral swabs. The most commonly diagnosed microorganism was Ureaplasma urealyticum, followed by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This study identified several factors that may contribute to the general risk of STD transmission, which will serve to better understand the transmission dynamics and implementation of adequate prevention programs.

  11. Validity and Reliability of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Assessment Tool Among Vulnerable Women Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively.Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior.Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs.

  12. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  13. Use of Expedited Partner Therapy for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in College and University Health Centers in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Martinez, Nina; Roberts, Craig; Habel, Melissa A; Leino, E Victor; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-10-01

    We examined expedited partner therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhea in college and university health centers by institutional and policy characteristics. Expedited partner therapy awareness and use was low (44.1% used), did not differ by institutional characteristics, and differed by policy environment. Our findings suggest missed opportunities for sexually transmitted disease prevention in college and university health centers.

  14. Potential impact and acceptability of Internet partner notification for men who have sex with men and transgender women recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential impact of Internet partner notification among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease. Use of Internet partner notification was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes.

  15. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  16. The Influence of Knowledge and Awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on Change in Sexual Behaviour of Fresh Undergraduates of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, W. O.; Okewole, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of knowledge and awareness of sexually transmitted diseases on change in sexual behaviour of fresh undergraduates with a view to providing useful suggestions for positive sexual behaviour of adolescents. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. A sample of 600 fresh undergraduates was selected from the…

  17. Impact of a Routine, Opt-Out HIV Testing Program on HIV Testing and Case Detection in North Carolina Sexually-Transmitted Disease Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Pamela W.; Messer, Lynne C.; Myers, Evan R.; Weber, David J.; Leone, Peter A.; Miller, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of routine, opt-out HIV testing programs in clinical settings is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an expanded, routine HIV testing program in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics on HIV testing and case detection.

  18. Modern parameterization and explanation techniques in diagnostic decision support system: a case study in diagnostics of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukar, Matjaž; Kononenko, Igor; Grošelj, Ciril

    2011-06-01

    Coronary artery disease has been described as one of the curses of the western world, as it is one of its most important causes of mortality. Therefore, clinicians seek to improve diagnostic procedures, especially those that allow them to reach reliable early diagnoses. In the clinical setting, coronary artery disease diagnostics are typically performed in a sequential manner. The four diagnostic levels consist of evaluation of (1) signs and symptoms of the disease and electrocardiogram at rest, (2) sequential electrocardiogram testing during the controlled exercise, (3) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, and (4) finally coronary angiography, that is considered as the "gold standard" reference method. Our study focuses on improving diagnostic performance of the third, virtually non-invasive, diagnostic level. Myocardial scintigraphy results in a series of medical images that are obtained by relatively inexpensive means. In clinical practice, these images are manually described (parameterized) by expert physicians. In the paper we present an innovative alternative to manual image evaluation-an automatic image parameterization on multiple resolutions, based on texture description with specialized association rules. Extracted image parameters are combined into more informative composite parameters by means of principal component analysis, and finally used to build automatic classifiers with machine learning methods. Our experiments with synthetic datasets show that association-rule-based multi-resolution image parameterization works very well for scintigraphic images of the heart. In coronary artery disease diagnostics we confirm these results as our approach significantly improves on clinical results in terms of diagnostic performance. We improve diagnostic accuracy by 17%, specificity by 12% and sensitivity by 22%. We also significantly improve the number of reliably diagnosed patients by 19% for positive diagnoses, and 16% for negative diagnoses, so that no costly

  19. Diagnostic imaging of aortic diseases; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Aortenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A. [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kodolitsch, Y. von [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this overview is the comparison between noninvasive tomographic imaging modalities such as surface echochardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with the previous gold standard angiography in the setting of acute and chronic aortic diseases. Methods: The groundwork for the comparison between various noninvasive modalities is the validation of findings with angiography or intraoperative and histopathological results. Results and conclusions: Nonivasive modalities such as transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are suitable methods for reliable diagnosis or exclusion of aortic dissection both in the ascending and descending segment of the thoracic aorta. Ohter more rare pathologies of the aorta such as intramural hemorrhage as a precursor of dissection, aortic ulcers, aneurysms as well as congenital and posttraumatic lesions may also be subjected to transesophageal echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging with excellent sensitivity and specificity; both techniques have also proven to be safe procedures in critically ill patients and have, in our view, replaced angiography for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Thus, in acute aortic diseases invasive angiographic procedures should be relegated to a complementary role, while transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography (especially helical CT) in acute, and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic cases represent prefered diagnostic options. In addition to primary diagnostics the noninvasive approaches using transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are superbly suitable for serial follow-up imaging in all forms of aortic pathology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Ziel der Uebersicht ist der Vergleich nichtinvasiver diagnostischer Schnittbildverfahren wie Echokardiographie, transoesophageale Echokardiographie, Computertomographie und

  20. Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in sexually transmitted diseases - more for screening less for diagnosis: An evaluation of clinical manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmishtha G Tada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is the cause of most genital herpes. Now, HSV-1 has become an important cause and represents even about 30% of genital herpes in some countries. So, study related to genital herpes should consider both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Aim: To examine trends in HSV-1 and 2 seroprevalence by Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in all type of sexually transmitted disease (STD patients and also to evaluate correlation of serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in STD. Materials and Methods: 150 patients attending the STD clinic attached to a tertiary care hospital of Ahmedabad were included in the study. Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM correlations with clinical manifestations of recurrent and non-recurrent type of genital herpes patients and other non-herpetic STD patients were studied. Results: The overall serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in STD seroprevalence were 15.66%. Female has significant higher prevalence (P < 0.05. STD cases and HSV seroprevalence were specially concentrated in persons aged 21 to 30 years. Among those positive with HSV, the distribution of STD are wide spread and found in non-herpetic group at high frequency. Out of total 23 serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM positive, 12 and 11 are distributed in herpetic and non-herpetic STDs, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Though serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in STDs are less diagnostic, they help to see the iceberg part of the infection among the population concerned in recent scenario or in another words, it provides recent infective burden.

  1. Cervical cancer screening among women who attend sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics: background paper for 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S Deblina; Saraiya, Mona

    2011-12-01

    In April 2008, experts reviewed updates on sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and treatment in preparation for the revision of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) STD Treatment Guidelines. This included a review of cervical cancer screening in the STD clinical setting. Key questions were identified with assistance from an expert panel. Reviews of the literature were conducted using the PubMed computerized database and shared with the panel. Updated information was incorporated in the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. We recommend that STD clinics offering cervical screening services screen and treat women according to guidelines by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Cancer Society, the US Preventive Services Task Force, and the American Society for Colposcopists and Cervical Pathologists. New to the 2010 guidelines are higher age for initiating cervical screening (age ≥ 21 years) and less frequent intervals of screening (at least every 3 years). New recommendations include new technologies, such as liquid-based cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests. Liquid-based technologies are not recommended over conventional testing. HPV DNA tests are recommended as adjunct tests and with new indications for use in cervical screening and management. Stronger recommendations were issued for STD clinics offering cervical screening services to have protocols in place for follow-up of test results and referral (eg, colposcopy). Important additions to the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines include information on updated algorithms for screening and management of women and recommendations for use of liquid-based cytology and high-risk HPV testing.

  2. Diagnostic function of the neuroinflammatory biomarker YKL-40 in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, Filippo; Lista, Simone; Cavedo, Enrica; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Hampel, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Neuroinflammation is a crucial mechanism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases pathophysiology. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) YKL-40 - an indicator of microglial activation - has recently been identified by proteomic studies as a candidate biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Areas covered: We review the impact of CSF YKL-40 as a pathophysiological biomarker for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. CSF YKL-40 concentrations have been shown to predict progression from prodromal mild cognitive impairment to AD dementia. Moreover, a positive association between CSF YKL-40 and other biomarkers of neurodegeneration - particularly total tau protein - has been reported during the asymptomatic preclinical stage of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Albeit preliminary, current data do not support an association between APOE-ε4 status and CSF YKL-40 concentrations. When interpreting the diagnostic/prognostic significance of CSF YKL-40 concentrations in neurodegenerative diseases, potential confounders - including age, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, diagnostic criteria for selecting cases/controls - need to be considered. Expert opinion/commentary: CSF YKL-40 represents a pathophysiological biomarker reflecting immune/inflammatory mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases, associated with tau protein pathology. Besides being associated with tau pathology, CSF YKL-40 adds to the growing array of biomarkers reflecting distinct molecular brain mechanisms potentially useful for stratifying individuals for biomarker-guided, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies emerging from precision medicine.

  3. Recent advances in diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rishi D; Vaezi, Michael F

    2017-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has a large economic burden with important complications that include esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and adenocarcinoma. Despite endoscopy, validated patient questionnaires, and traditional ambulatory pH monitoring, the diagnosis of GERD continues to be challenging. Areas covered: This review will explore the difficulties in diagnosing GERD with a focus on new developments, ranging from basic fundamental changes (histology and immunohistochemistry) to direct patient care (narrow-band imaging, impedance, and response to anti-reflux surgery). We searched PubMed using the noted keywords. We included data from full-text articles published in English. Further relevant articles were identified from the reference lists of review articles. Expert commentary: Important advances in novel parameters in intraluminal impedance monitoring such as baseline impedance monitoring has created some insight into alternative diagnostic strategies in GERD. Recent advances in endoscopic assessment of esophageal epithelial integrity via mucosal impedance measurement is questioning the paradigm of prolonged ambulatory testing for GERD. The future of reflux diagnosis may very well be without the need for currently employed technologies and could be as simple as assessing changes in epithelia integrity as a surrogate marker for GERD. However, future studies must validate such an approach.

  4. Microbiosensor for Alzheimer's disease diagnostics: detection of amyloid beta biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; Piatyszek, Rudolph; Cirrito, John R; Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2012-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects about 35.6 million people worldwide, and if current trends continue with no medical advancement, one in 85 people will be affected by 2050. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a cost-effective, easy to use, sensor platform to diagnose and study AD. The measurement of peptide amyloid beta (Aβ) found in CSF has been assessed as an avenue to diagnose and study the disease. The quantification of the ratio of Aβ1-40/42 (or Aβ ratio) has been established as a reliable test to diagnose AD through human clinical trials. Therefore, we have developed a multiplexed, implantable immunosensor to detect amyloid beta (Aβ) isoforms using triple barrel carbon fiber microelectrodes as the sensor platform. Antibodies act as the biorecognition element of the sensor and selectively capture and bind Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 to the electrode surface. Electrochemistry was used to measure the intrinsic oxidation signal of Aβ at 0.65 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), originating from a single tyrosine residue found at position 10 in its amino acid sequence. Using the proposed immunosensor Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 could be specifically detected in CSF from mice within a detection range of 20-50 nM and 20-140 nM respectively. The immunosensor enables real-time, highly sensitive detection of Aβ and opens up the possibilities for diagnostic ex vivo applications and research-based in vivo studies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Diagnostic Utility of Auto-Antibodies in Inflammatory Muscle Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

    2015-01-01

    To date, there are four main groups of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM): polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) and sporadic inclusion body myositis; based on clinical presentation and muscle pathology. Nevertheless, important phenotypical differences (either muscular and/or extra-muscular manifestations) within a group persist. In recent years, the titration of different myositis-specific (or associated) auto-antibodies as a diagnostic tool has increased. This is an important step forward since it may facilitate, at a viable cost, the differential diagnosis between IIM and other myopathies. We have now routine access to assays for the detection of different antibodies. For example, IMNM are related to the presence of anti-SRP or anti-HMGCR. PM is associated with anti-synthetase antibodies (anti-Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, OJ, and EJ) and DM with anti-Mi-2, anti-SAE, anti-TIF-1-γ and anti-NXP2 (both associated with cancer) or anti-MDA5 antibodies (associated with interstitial lung disease). Today, over 30 myositis specific and associated antibodies have been characterised, and all groups of myositis may present one of those auto-antibodies. Most of them allow identification of homogenous patient groups, more precisely than the classical international classifications of myositis. This implies that classification criteria could be modified accordingly, since these auto-antibodies delineate groups of patients suffering from myositis with consistent clinical phenotype (muscular and extra-muscular manifestations), common prognostic (cancer association, presence of interstitial lung disease, mortality and risk of relapse) and treatment responses. Nevertheless, since numerous auto-antibodies have been recently characterised, the exact prevalence of myositis specific antibodies remains to be documented, and research of new auto-antibodies in the remaining seronegative group is still needed.

  6. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to support the operation of ITER and the planned experimental programme an extensive set of plasma and first wall measurements will be required. The number and type of required measurements will be similar to those made on the present-day large tokamaks while the specification...... of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  7. Better Tests, Better Care: Improved Diagnostics for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M.; Gilbert, David N.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Hanson, Kimberly E.; May, Larissa; Quinn, Thomas C.; Tenover, Fred C.; Alland, David; Blaschke, Anne J.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Joseph, W. Patrick; Karchmer, Tobi; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Reller, L. Barth; Jackson, Audrey F.

    2013-01-01

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians. PMID:24200831

  8. The diagnostic potential of salivary protease activities in periodontal health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomadaki, K.; Bosch, J.A.; Oppenheim, F.G.; Helmerhorst, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterised by proteolytic processes involving enzymes that are released by host immune cells and periodontal bacteria. These enzymes, when detectable in whole saliva, may serve as valuable diagnostic markers for disease states and progression. Because the substrate

  9. Prevalence and correlated factors of sexually transmitted diseases-chlamydia, Neisseria, cytomegalovirus--in female rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sion; Shin, Jonghwan; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Jin Joo; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Bhally, Hasan

    2011-08-01

    Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was not well known in female rape victims. To assess the prevalence and correlated factors of STIs--especially Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in female rape victims presenting to a dedicated regional referral center in South Korea after settle down of intergrated service center for sexual abuse in study hospital. Positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result for CT, NG, and CMV. A retrospective observational analysis was conducted from December 2008 to February 2010. All females, regardless of age and previous sexual history, who were victims of rape, and self presented or referred to the regional center for medical care and couselling were included. Relevant diagnostic tests for STIs--including PCR by cervical swab-were performed. Analysis for virgin (VIR) and nonvirgin (non-VIR) groups was done separately to compare certain clinical characteristics. A total of 316 females were included. Overall STI prevalence was 32.91%; CT in a majority (28.85%) followed by NG (6.27%), CMV(1.37%). In VIR group, prevalence of STI was 26.67%; 20.00% in CT, 4.55% in GN, 2.33% in CMV. A small and non-significant difference in STI was noted in VIR and non-VIR groups (26.67% vs. 34.26%, respectively). STI prevalence was higher in young women 20 to 24 years of age and girls 15 to 19 years of age compared with other age groups. Age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.909, confidence interval [CI]: 0.851-0.971) and pyuria (OR: 3.454, CI: 1.567-7.614) were determined as significant correlated factors after multivariate regression analysis. Prevalence of CT and GN in female rape victims was introduced and it was higher than that in the general population. Even in the VIR group, it was high. CMV prevalence in the female genital tract was reported firstly. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. The diagnostic efficiency of biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, J.M.; Heegaard, N.H.; Falkenhorst, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory markers have a prominent place among the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Here we investigate the capability of protein 14-3-3, total-tau (t-tau), threonin-181-phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF......) together with the prion protein gene genotype to discriminate patients with sCJD (n=21) from neurological controls (n=164) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=49). Low p-tau/t-tau ratio was the best single marker for sCJD with 90% specificity against neurological controls at 86% sensitivity whilst NSE...

  11. The diagnostic efficiency of biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Justyna Maria Czarna; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg; Falkenhorst, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    ) together with the prion protein gene genotype to discriminate patients with sCJD (n=21) from neurological controls (n=164) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=49). Low p-tau/t-tau ratio was the best single marker for sCJD with 90% specificity against neurological controls at 86% sensitivity whilst NSE......Laboratory markers have a prominent place among the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Here we investigate the capability of protein 14-3-3, total-tau (t-tau), threonin-181-phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF...

  12. Relative risks and population attributable fraction of incident HIV associated with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases and treatable symptomatic sexually transmitted diseases in Rakai District, Uganda. Rakai Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R H; Wawer, M J; Sewankambo, N K; Serwadda, D; Li, C; Moulton, L H; Lutalo, T; Wabwire-Mangen, F; Meehan, M P; Ahmed, S; Paxton, L A; Kiwanuka, N; Nalugoda, F; Korenromp, E L; Quinn, T C

    1999-10-22

    To assess the linkage of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and treatable STD to HIV incidence. Analysis of a randomized trial of STD control for HIV prevention, Rakai, Uganda. Consenting adults 15-59 years of age were seen at 10-monthly home visits, interviewed regarding STD symptoms, and asked to provide samples for HIV and STD diagnoses. HIV incidence was determined in 8089 HIV-negative subjects over 10 457 person years. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HIV acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) and discharge/dysuria were used to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of HIV acquisition. HIV transmission risks associated with STD symptoms in HIV-positive partners of 167 HIV discordant couples and the numbers of sexual partners reported by HIV-positive subjects were used to estimate the PAF of HIV transmission attributable to STD. HIV prevalence was 16%. The risk of HIV acquisition was increased with GUD (RR 3.14; CI 1.98-4.98) and in males with discharge/dysuria (RR 2.44; CI 1.17-5.12), but not in females with discharge/dysuria. The PAF of HIV acquisition was 9.5% (CI 2.8-15.8%) with any of the three STD symptoms. The PAF for GUD was 8.8% (CI 3.7-13.8), but only 8.2% of reported GUD was caused by treatable syphilis or chancroid . The PAF for discharge/dysuria in males was 6.7% (CI 1.1-13.8), but only 25% of symptomatic males had concurrent gonorrhea or chlamydial infection. No significant differences were seen in PAF between study treatment arms. The PAF of HIV transmission associated with STD symptoms in HIV-positive persons was indirectly estimated to be 10.4%. In this mature, generalized HIV epidemic setting, most HIV seroconversion occurs without recognized STD symptoms or curable STD detected by screening. Therefore, syndromic management or other strategies of STD treatment are unlikely to substantially reduce HIV incidence in this population. However, STD is associated with significant

  13. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success.

  14. Health Communication and Social Marketing Campaigns for Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control: What Is the Evidence of their Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.

  15. A network analysis of sexually transmitted diseases and online hookup sites among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Crowley, Christina; Rose, Jennifer S; Kershaw, Trace; Tributino, Alec; Montgomery, Madeline C; Almonte, Alexi; Raifman, Julia; Patel, Rupa; Nunn, Amy

    2018-01-04

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about the use of websites and mobile phone applications to meet sexual partners ("hookup sites") and association with STD diagnoses. We performed a demographic and behavioral assessment of 415 MSM presenting to the Rhode Island STD clinic. Bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between using hook up sites and testing positive for syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia. Venue-based affiliation networks were created to evaluate hookup sites and their association with STD diagnoses. Among 415 MSM, 78% reported meeting a partner online in the last 12 months, and 25% tested positive for at least one STD. Men who met partners online were more likely to be white (67% versus 54%, p=0.03) and have >10 lifetime partners (87% versus 58%, pTinder (22%). In the multivariable analysis, only Scruff use was associated with testing positive for an STD (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.09-4.94). However, among men who met partners online, 75% of men diagnosed with an STD had met a sexual partner on Grindr, including 100% of those who were diagnosed with gonorrhea. Use of hookup sites was nearly ubiquitous among MSM undergoing STD screening. Specific hookup sites were significantly associated with STD diagnoses among MSM. Greater efforts are needed to promote STD screening and prevention among MSM who meet partners online. The majority of MSM surveyed at an STD clinic reported using an online application (hookup site) to find sex partners. Use of specific hookup sites may increase risk of an STD diagnosis. However, widespread use of hookup sites offer opportunities for STD screening and prevention messaging.

  16. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services.

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E O; Sadiq, Magaji N

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Urine samples, Endocervical swabs and Urethral swab were collected from consecutive patients attending the Infertility and STD clinics in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) between June and December 2012, after administering a questionnaire by the attending physician and also obtaining an informed consent.Samples were analyzed using Diaspot Chlamydia kit, a rapid immunoassay test for the detection of genital chlamydial antigen in urinogenital samples. A total of 125 consecutive samples were collected, comprising 69 females and 56 males aged between 14 - 55 years. Twelve samples tested positive for C. trachomatis antigen giving a prevalence rate of 9.6%. The age group prevalence were as follows 25 - 29 yrs (17.1%), 20 - 24 (16.7%), 15 - 19 (12.5%), 30 - 34 (11.1%) and > 49 years (9.0%). Married patients were associated with higher infection rate than single (8.3%), and divorced patients (33.3%). A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of C. trachomatis infection and its complications. Previous STD exposure was associated with increased risk of Chlamydia infection. C. trachomatis infection if unchecked will continue to pose a threat to reproductive life with its established complications. Since asymptomatic cases are common in the population regular screening should be encouraged for every adult especially before commencement of marital life.

  18. Delay in Seeking Care for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Young Men and Women Attending a Public STD Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Angela M; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Clark, Duncan B; Cook, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Delay in seeking care for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has adverse consequences for both the individual and population. We sought to identify factors associated with delay in seeking care for STDs. Subjects included 300 young men and women (aged 15-24) attending an urban STD clinic for a new STD-related problem due to symptoms or referral for an STD screening. Subjects completed a structured interview that evaluated STD history, attitudes and beliefs about STDs, depression, substance use, and other factors possibly associated with delay. Delay was defined as waiting > 7 days to seek and obtain care for STDs. Nearly one-third of participants delayed seeking care for > 7 days. Significant predictors for delay included self-referral for symptoms as the reason for visit (OR 5.3, 95% CI: 2.58 - 10.98), and the beliefs "my partner would blame me if I had an STD" (OR 2.44, 95% CI: 1.30 - 4.60) and "it's hard to find time to get checked for STDs" (OR 3.62, 95% CI: 1.95 - 6.69), after adjusting for age, race, sex, and other factors. Agreeing with the statement "would use a STD test at home if one were available" was associated with a decrease in delay (OR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09 - 0.60). Many young persons delay seeking care for STDs for a number of reasons. Strategies to improve STD care-seeking include encouragement of symptomatic persons to seek medical care more rapidly, reduction of social stigmas, and improved access to testing options.

  19. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors from the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, David D; Mayer, Kenneth H; Pequegnat, Willo; Abdala, Nadia; Green, Annette M; Handsfield, H Hunter; Hartwell, Tyler D

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the baseline prevalence and correlates of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risk behaviors among individuals at high risk for HIV recruited in five low- and middle-income countries. Correlations of risk behaviors and demographic factors with prevalent STDs and the association of STDs with HIV prevalence are examined. Between 2,212 and 5,543 participants were recruited in each of five countries (China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe). Standard protocols were used to collect behavioral risk information and biological samples for STD testing. Risk factors for HIV/STD prevalence were evaluated using logistic regression models. STD prevalence was significantly higher for women than men in all countries, and the most prevalent STD was Herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2). HIV prevalence was generally low (below 5%) except in Zimbabwe (30% among women, 11.7% among men). Prevalence of bacterial STDs was generally low (below 5% for gonorrhea and under 7% for syphilis in all sites), with the exception of syphilis among female sex workers in India. Behavioral and demographic risks for STDs varied widely across the five study sites. Common risks for STDs included female gender, increasing number of recent sex partners, and in some sites, older age, particularly for chronic STDs (i.e., HSV-2 and HIV). Prevalence of HIV was not associated with STDs except in Zimbabwe, which showed a modest correlation between HIV and HSV-2 prevalence (Pearson coefficient = .55). These findings underscore the heterogeneity of global STD and HIV epidemics and suggest that local, focused interventions are needed to achieve significant declines in these infections.

  20. The relationship between recent alcohol use and sexual behaviors: gender differences among sexually transmitted disease clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Heidi E; McCaul, Mary E; Santora, Patricia B; Erbelding, Emily J

    2008-11-01

    Binge drinking is associated with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Few studies have investigated this by gender or in an STD clinic. This cross-sectional study examined the association between binge drinking and risky sexual behaviors/STDs among patients attending an urban STD clinic. A total of 671 STD clinic patients were tested for STDs, and queried about recent alcohol/drug use and risky sexual behaviors using audio computer-assisted-self-interview. The association between binge drinking and sexual behaviors/STDs was analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for age, employment, and drug use. Binge drinking was reported by 30% of women and 42% of men. Gender differences were found in rates of receptive anal sex which increased linearly with increased alcohol use among women but did not differ among men. Within gender analyses showed that women binge drinkers engaged in anal sex at more than twice the rate of women who drank alcohol without binges (33.3% vs. 15.9%; p women who abstained from alcohol (11.1%; p women binge drinkers than women abstainers (40.5% vs. 16.8%; p women binge drinkers compared to women abstainers (10.6% vs. 2.2%; p sexual behaviors/gonorrhea remained after controlling for drug use. Among men, rates of risky sexual behaviors/STDs were high, but did not differ by alcohol use. Rates of binge drinking among STD clinic patients were high. Among women, binge drinking was uniquely associated with risky sexual behaviors and an STD diagnosis. Our findings support the need to routinely screen for binge drinking as part of clinical care in STD clinics. Women binge drinkers, in particular, may benefit from interventions that jointly address binge drinking and risky sexual behaviors. Developing gender-specific interventions could improve overall health outcomes in this population.

  1. Erectile dysfunction drug receipt, risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert L; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Fiellin, David A; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Rodriquez-Barradas, Maria C; Kraemer, Kevin L; Gibert, Cynthia L; Braithwaite, R Scott; Goulet, Joseph L; Mattocks, Kristin; Crystal, Stephen; Gordon, Adam J; Oursler, Krisann K; Justice, Amy C

    2010-02-01

    Health care providers may be concerned that prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD) will contribute to risky sexual behavior. To identify characteristics of men who received EDD prescriptions, determine whether EDD receipt is associated with risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and determine whether these relationships vary for certain sub-groups. Cross-sectional study. Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven sexually-active, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men recruited from eight Veterans Health Affairs outpatient clinics. Data were obtained from participant surveys, electronic medical records, and administrative pharmacy data. EDD receipt was defined as two or more prescriptions for an EDD, risky sex as having unprotected sex with a partner of serodiscordant or unknown HIV status, and STDs, according to self-report. Overall, 28% of men received EDD in the previous year. Eleven percent of men reported unprotected sex with a serodiscordant/unknown partner in the past year (HIV-infected 15%, HIV-uninfected 6%, P sexual behavior (11% vs. 10%, p = 0.9) and STDs (7% vs 7%, p = 0.7). In multivariate analyses, EDD receipt was not significantly associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in the entire sample or in subgroups of substance users or men who had sex with men. EDD receipt was common but not associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in this sample of HIV-infected and uninfected men. However, risky sexual behaviors persist in a minority of HIV-infected men, indicating ongoing need for prevention interventions.

  2. Project youth inform--a school-based sexually transmitted disease/acquired immune deficiency syndrome education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, T; Chan, R K; Goh, C L

    1995-07-01

    A pilot project, ¿Youth Inform¿ endorsed by the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education, Singapore, was undertaken in 1992 for 2 years. It aims to enhance sexually transmitted disease (STDs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) control in Singapore by providing structured information for young people between the ages of 16 to 20 years in Polytechnics, Junior Colleges, Centralised Institutes and Pre-University Centres. Project Youth Inform comprises 8 components. They include a focus group discussion, a training seminar for teachers, a lecture/slide presentation cum question-and-answer session, an educational booklet/bookmark, exhibitions, a video, provisions for anonymous questions, and an evaluation. The programme is conducted during school hours at the premises of the institutions and the attendance per session is between 150 to 350 students. A total of 152 sessions have been completed for all the schools. It is ongoing and is currently administered by the School Health Service and Training and Health Education Department. Feedback from principals, teachers and students was gathered formally through surveys and informally through interviews and observations. One thousand students were randomly selected for the survey to assess their responses towards the programme. Eighty-six percent reported that they found it educational and informative. Indicators found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the programme were timing, vocabulary used (medical terms) and integration of the programme into the school's curriculum. In conclusion, Project Youth Inform was on the whole positively received. However, it is essential to constantly accommodate and adapt to new facts and methods of teaching and maintain close coordination with the Ministries and the schools. An effective STD/acquired immune deficiency syndrome programme is an important step towards the prevention, management and control of the epidemic.

  3. Measuring Adolescent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage: A Match of Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic and Immunization Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathela, Preeti; Jamison, Kelly; Papadouka, Vikki; Kabir, Rezaul; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F; Schillinger, Julia A

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescents. By the end of 2013, 64% of female and 40% of male New York City residents aged 13-18 years had received ≥1 HPV vaccine dose. Adolescents attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics are at high risk for HPV exposure and could benefit from vaccination. Our objective was to estimate HPV vaccination coverage for this population. We matched records of New York City's STD clinic patients aged 13-18 years during 2010-2013 with the Citywide Immunization Registry. We assessed HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥3 doses among those who initiated) as of clinic visit date and by patient demographics. We compared receipt of ≥1 dose for HPV, tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis, and meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Eighty-two percent of clinic attendees (13,505/16,364) had records in the Citywide Immunization Registry. Receipt of ≥1 HPV dose increased during 2010-2013 (females: 57.6%-69.7%; males: 1.5%-36.3%). Among females, ≥1-dose coverage was lowest among whites (53.4%) and highest among Hispanics (73.3%); among males, ≥1-dose coverage was lowest among whites (6.9%) and highest among Asians (20.9%). Series completion averaged 57.7% (females) and 28.0% (males), with little variation by race/ethnicity or poverty level. Receipt of ≥1 dose was 59.7% for HPV, 82% for tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis, and 76% for meningococcal conjugate vaccines. HPV vaccine initiation and completion were low among adolescent STD clinic patients; coverage was lower compared with other recommended vaccines. STD clinics may be good venues for delivering HPV vaccine, thereby enhancing efforts to improve HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. FAECAL CALPROTECTIN IN NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE INFLAMMATORY ENTERIC DISEASES AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Tat'yanina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the opportunities to define the level of faecal calprotectin in diagnostics of the inflammatory enteric diseases (grohn's disease and colitis gravis among children. It was established that children, suffering from the inflammatory enteric diseases, the concentration of faecal calprotectin increases, thus, correlating with the clinical and endoscopic activity of the disease, as well as with the spread of the intestinal impairment. Faecal calprotectin may be a reliable marker of the inflammation activity in the event of grohn's disease and colitis gravis.Key words: faecal calprotectin, inflammatory enteric diseases, colitis gravis, grohn's disease, diagnostics, children.

  5. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-11-07

    By examining published, empirical data we show that men and women consistently differ in the shape of the distribution of the number of sexual partners. The female distribution is always relatively narrow-variance is low-with a big majority of women having a number of partners close to the average. The male distribution is much wider-variance is high-with many men having few sex partners and many others having more partners than most females. Using stochastic modelling we demonstrate that this difference in variance is, in principle, sufficient to cause a difference in the gender prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive approximate expressions for equilibrium prevalences in the two different scenarios. We find that the size of the difference in gender prevalence depends on the variance ratio (the ratio between the variances of the male and female sex partner distributions), on the expected number of life-time partners, and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed by the action of high-risk individuals (mostly males).

  6. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  7. [Molecular diagnostics of infectious diseases for the ambulatory practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, A

    2014-10-08

    Molecular diagnostics methods are not limited to specialized centers anymore. They play an important role for the diagnostic of infections commonly encountered in the clinical practice. Especially the detection of pathogens difficult to cultivate, such as viruses, has been greatly improved by these methods. Often, PCR has become the gold standard for the diagnostics of these pathogens. However, PCR cannot be used in any case, and it is not fail proof. Therefore, it is important to know when to use molecular methods and what are their strengths and weaknesses, in order to prescribe them rationally. This article reviews the characteristics of molecular tests and their main indications in the ambulatory setting.

  8. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay seroreactivity among healthy Indian donors and its association with other transfusion transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA among blood donors in Delhi and to study their correlation with other markers of transfusion transmitted infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg so as to establish the utility of TPHA over and above venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDRL, not only as a marker for testing T. pallidum infection, but also as a marker of high risk behavior. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi for a period of 2 years. Donated blood was screened for TPHA seroreactivity along with screening for anti HIV I and II, anti-HCV, HBsAg by third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 8082 serum samples of blood donors were collected from healthy blood donors in our blood bank. They were classified into two groups- test group and control group based on TPHA positivity. The co-occurrence of HBsAg, HIV and HCV infection were determined in TPHA positive blood donors (test group in comparison with TPHA negative blood donors (control group. Results: We found the TPHA seroreactivity to be 4.4% in Delhi′s blood donors. Nearly 8.2% (663/8082 of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection by at least one pathogen (syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B virus/HCV and 6.63% (44/663 donors with positive serology had multiple infections (two or more. Quadruple infection was seen in one donor, triple infection was seen in three donors and double infection was seen in 40 donors. Prevalence of HIV seroreactivity was found to be statistically significant and HCV seroreactivity statistically insignificant in TPHA positive group in comparison to TPHA negative group. Discussion: In our study, the

  9. Utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among sexually transmitted disease clinics attendees with coexisting drinking problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazardous drinking, to examine socio-demographic factors associated with ICT use, and to explore individuals’ interests in engaging in ICT-based health interventions. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaires examining alcohol consumption and ICT use were administered to 396 persons attending two non-urban STD clinics. Descriptive statistics for ICT use were calculated for both hazardous drinkers and the entire sample. Multivariable logistic regression models among hazardous drinkers identified factors significantly associated with use of each kind of ICT. Results The mean age of the 396 participants was 25 years, 66% were females and 60% were African-Americans. One third of the sample met the criteria of hazardous drinking. ICT use in hazardous drinkers included 94% reporting having internet access at least monthly, 82% reporting having an email account, 85% reporting currently owning a cell phone, and 91% reporting use of any cell phone application. More than two thirds (73%) of hazardous drinkers were willing to play health-related video games during clinic waiting time, slightly higher than the entire sample (69%). Multivariable analyses indicated that younger age were significantly related to monthly internet use, and multifunction cell phone use, while being males and younger age were significantly associated with monthly video game playing. Conclusions Our study demonstrates commonality of ICT use among STD clinic attendees with hazardous drinking, indicating the viability of

  10. Use of Dual Methods for Protection from Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescent African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Melissa; Whiteman, Maura K; Kraft, Joan Marie; Goedken, Peggy; Wiener, Jeffrey; Kourtis, Athena P; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    To characterize factors associated with dual method contraceptive use in a sample of adolescent women. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of sexually active African American women aged 14-19 years who attended an urban Title X clinic in Georgia in 2012 (N = 350). Participants completed a computerized survey to assess contraceptive and condom use during the past 2 sexual encounters with their most recent partner. Dual method use was defined as use of a hormonal contraceptive or intrauterine device and a condom. We applied multinomial logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations, to examine the adjusted association between dual method use (vs use of no methods or less effective methods alone; eg, withdrawal) and select characteristics. Dual methods were used by 20.6% of participants at last sexual intercourse and 23.6% at next to last sexual intercourse. Having a previous sexually transmitted disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-4.18), negative attitude toward pregnancy (aOR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.19-4.28), and a mother who gave birth as a teen (aOR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.21-4.52) were associated with higher odds of dual method use. Having no health insurance (aOR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.82), 4 or more lifetime sexual partners (aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.78), sex at least weekly (aOR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.99), and agreeing to monogamy with the most recent partner (aOR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96) were associated with decreased odds of dual method use. Dual method use was uncommon in our sample. Efforts to increase use of dual methods should address individual and relationship factors. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among sexually transmitted disease clinics attendees with coexisting drinking problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingdi; Dodd, Virginia J; Oliverio, James C; Cook, Robert L

    2014-03-26

    Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazardous drinking, to examine socio-demographic factors associated with ICT use, and to explore individuals' interests in engaging in ICT-based health interventions. Cross-sectional questionnaires examining alcohol consumption and ICT use were administered to 396 persons attending two non-urban STD clinics. Descriptive statistics for ICT use were calculated for both hazardous drinkers and the entire sample. Multivariable logistic regression models among hazardous drinkers identified factors significantly associated with use of each kind of ICT. The mean age of the 396 participants was 25 years, 66% were females and 60% were African-Americans. One third of the sample met the criteria of hazardous drinking. ICT use in hazardous drinkers included 94% reporting having internet access at least monthly, 82% reporting having an email account, 85% reporting currently owning a cell phone, and 91% reporting use of any cell phone application. More than two thirds (73%) of hazardous drinkers were willing to play health-related video games during clinic waiting time, slightly higher than the entire sample (69%). Multivariable analyses indicated that younger age were significantly related to monthly internet use, and multifunction cell phone use, while being males and younger age were significantly associated with monthly video game playing. Our study demonstrates commonality of ICT use among STD clinic attendees with hazardous drinking, indicating the viability of using ICT to assist screening and

  12. Modeling ecodevelopmental context of sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk and protective behaviors among African-American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining

  13. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted ... has sex can get an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk. In ...

  14. Intraoral fiber-optic-based diagnostic for periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Gutierrez, Dora M.; Everett, Matthew J.; Brown, Steve B.; Langry, Kevin C.; Cox, Weldon R.; Johnson, Paul W.; Roe, Jeffrey N.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this initial study was to begin development of a new, objective diagnostic instrument that will allow simultaneous quantitation of multiple proteases within a single periodontal pocket using a chemical fiber optic senor. This approach could potentially be adapted to use specific antibodies and chemiluminescence to detect and quantitate virtually any compound and compare concentrations of different compounds within the same periodontal pocket. The device could also be used to assay secretions in salivary ducts or from a variety of wounds. The applicability is, therefore, not solely limited to dentistry and the device would be important both for clinical diagnostics and as a research too.

  15. Intraoral fiber optic-based diagnostic for periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P W; Gutierrez, D M; Everett, M J; Brown, S B; Langry, K C; Colston, B W; Roe, J N

    2000-01-21

    The purpose of this initial study was to begin development of a new, objective diagnostic instrument that will allow simultaneous quantitation of multiple proteases within a single periodontal pocket using a chemical fiber optic sensor. This approach could potentially be adapted to use specific antibodies and chemiluminescence to detect and quantitate virtually any compound and compare concentrations of different compounds within the same periodontal pocket. The device could also be used to assay secretions in salivary ducts or from a variety of wounds. The applicability is, therefore, not solely limited to dentistry and the device would be important both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool.

  16. Clinical Factors and Disease Course Related to Diagnostic Delay in Korean Crohn's Disease Patients: Results from the CONNECT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Mo Moon

    Full Text Available Diagnostic delay frequently occurs in Crohn's disease (CD patients because of diagnostic limitations. However, diagnostic delay and its related factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors associated with diagnostic delay and to evaluate the impact of diagnostic delay on clinical course in a Korean CD patient cohort. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1,047 CD patients registered in the Crohn's Disease Clinical Network and Cohort study in Korea. The mean interval of diagnostic delay was 16.0 ± 33.1 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at diagnosis (≥40 years (p = 0.014, concomitant upper gastrointestinal (UGI disease (p = 0.012 and penetrating disease behavior at diagnosis (p = 0.001 were positively associated with long diagnostic delay (≥18 months. During the longitudinal follow-up, long diagnostic delay was independently predictive of further development of intestinal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.93; p = 0.017, internal fistulas (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.33; p = 0.011, and perianal fistulas (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80; p = 0.016. However, as for the risk of abscess formation, bowel perforation, and CD-related abdominal surgery, no significant association with diagnostic delay was observed. Older age at diagnosis, UGI involvement, and penetrating behavior are associated with long diagnostic delay in Korean CD patients. Moreover, diagnostic delay is associated with an increased risk of CD-related complications such as intestinal stenosis, internal fistulas, and perianal fistulas.

  17. Spectrum of Diseases and Diagnostic Values of Ultrasound in Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of Radiology and 1Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile‑Ife, Osun, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Aim and Objective: ... Diagnostic value of ultrasound in acute abdomen. 7. Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... indicated the degree of agreement beyond chance. The Kappa value could range ...

  18. Diagnostic probability function for acute coronary heart disease garnered from experts' tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Johann; Held, Ulrike; Miettinen, Olli S

    2013-11-01

    Knowing about a diagnostic probability requires general knowledge about the way in which the probability depends on the diagnostic indicators involved in the specification of the case at issue. Diagnostic probability functions (DPFs) are generally unavailable at present. Our objective was to illustrate how diagnostic experts' case-specific tacit knowledge about diagnostic probabilities could be garnered in the form of DPFs. Focusing on diagnosis of acute coronary heart disease (ACHD), we presented doctors with extensive experience in hospitals' emergency departments a set of hypothetical cases specified in terms of an inclusive set of diagnostic indicators. We translated the medians of these experts' case-specific probabilities into a logistic DPF for ACHD. The principal result was the experts' typical diagnostic probability for ACHD as a joint function of the set of diagnostic indicators. A related result of note was the finding that the experts' probabilities in any given case had a surprising degree of variability. Garnering diagnostic experts' case-specific tacit knowledge about diagnostic probabilities in the form of DPFs is feasible to accomplish. Thus, once the methodology of this type of work has been "perfected," practice-guiding diagnostic expert systems can be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Diseases: Challenges and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Falci, Diego R.; Stadnik, Claudio M. B.; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, particularly in the context of immunosuppression. Diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases is usually complicated by factors such as poor clinical suspicion and unspecific clinical findings. Access to modern diagnostic tools is frequently limited in developing countries. Here, we describe five real-life clinical cases from a Brazilian tertiary hospital, in order to illustrate how to best select diagnostic tests in patie...

  20. Determination of average conversion coefficients between kerma in air and H⁎(10) using primary and secondary X-ray beams and transmitted in the diagnostic radiology energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian regulation establishes 1.14 Sv/Gy as unique conversion coefficient to convert air-kerma into the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H⁎(10) disregarding its beam quality dependence. The present study computed mean conversion coefficients from primary, secondary and transmitted X-ray beams through barite mortar plates used in shielding of dedicated chest radiographic facilities in order to improve the current assessment of H⁎(10). To compute the mean conversion coefficients, the weighting of conversion coefficients corresponding to monoenergetic beams with the spectrum energy distribution in terms of air-kerma was considered. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national regulation is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient is not adequate for deriving the H⁎(10) from air-kerma measurements. (author)

  1. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes.

  2. Perspective Insights into Disease Progression, Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Approaches in Alzheimer's Disease: A Judicious Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Tasleem Jan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive accumulation of β-amyloid fibrils and abnormal tau proteins in and outside of neurons. Representing a common form of dementia, aggravation of AD with age increases the morbidity rate among the elderly. Although, mutations in the ApoE4 act as potent risk factors for sporadic AD, familial AD arises through malfunctioning of APP, PSEN-1, and−2 genes. AD progresses through accumulation of amyloid plaques (Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs in brain, which interfere with neuronal communication. Cellular stress that arises through mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum malfunction, and autophagy contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of AD. With high accuracy in disease diagnostics, Aβ deposition and phosphorylated tau (p-tau are useful core biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of AD patients. Although five drugs are approved for treatment in AD, their failures in achieving complete disease cure has shifted studies toward a series of molecules capable of acting against Aβ and p-tau. Failure of biologics or compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB in most cases advocates development of an efficient drug delivery system. Though liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles are widely adopted for drug delivery modules, their use in delivering drugs across the BBB has been overtaken by exosomes, owing to their promising results in reducing disease progression.

  3. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease

  4. Bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection among women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic: a longitudinal analysis of possible causal links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio; Warner, Lee; Fleenor, Michael E; Hook, Edward W; Brill, Ilene; Weaver, Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Interactions between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, are not well understood. Furthermore, evidence regarding the sexual transmission of BV is equivocal. We assessed associations between incident BV and incidences of gonorrhea and/or chlamydial infection ("gonorrhea/chlamydia"), as well as similarities in associations for the two processes, among 645 female patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Alabama followed prospectively for 6 months from 1995 to 1998. We identified predictors of both incident BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia and used bivariate logistic regression to determine whether these predictors differed. Participants completed 3188 monthly, follow-up visits. Several factors associated with incident BV involved sexual intercourse: young age (sexual behavior in the acquisition of BV and confirm that BV facilitates acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia and vice versa independently from other risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Pre-surgical radiologic diagnostics of pancreas diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifried, C.

    1979-01-01

    At the example of a comparative study with 112 patients it should be demonstrated that the different radiologic techniques are complementary in pancreas diagnostics with respect to their indication and proposition. The study yields the following procedure for the pancreas diagnostics: cysts and pancreatites are diagnosed by means of sonography and computed tomography. Stomach-colon-barium passage and intravenous cholangio cholecystography can be applied for clarification of functional reactions on the stomach-colon regions, respectively the biliary region. Only in a complicated process, e.g. in a sustaining tumor suspicion or before surgery should angiography be used. In pancreatitis also the endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatiography is used. Tumors are generally submitted to angiography for clarification of diagnosis, resiscivity, and vessel conditions. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Peripheral occlusive vascular disease: Diagnostic performance of MRA and DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Kugel, H.; Harnischmacher, U.; Heindel, W.; Altenburg, A.; Fischbach, R.; Schmidt, R.

    1995-01-01

    In 59 patients with arterial flow disturbances 2-D inflow sequence of the abdominal and lower leg arteries were prospectively obtained on a 1.5 T MR-imager and were compared with additional DSA examinations. Supplementary Phase Contraste RSE ('Rapid Sequential Excitation') sequences were carried out in 29 patients. MRA and DSA angiograms were evaluated in random order by 4 readers using a questionnaire. The assessment of image quality were evaluated by variance analysis. Diagnostic performance of MRA and DSA was assessed by comparison of the readers' diagnostic assessments with reference diagnoses established by a radiologist and a vascular surgeon with full knowledge of all data concerning a patient. Image quality of inflow MRA was considered inferior to i.a. DSA (p [de

  7. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced nervous system disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation-Induced Nervous System Disease has been issued and implemented by the Ministry of health. This standard contained three independent criteria of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These three kinds of disease often go together in clinic,therefore,the three diagnostic criteria were merged into radioactive nervous system disease diagnostic criteria for entirety and maneuverability of the standard. This standard was formulated based on collection of the clinical practice experience, extensive research of relevant literature and foreign relevant publications. It is mainly applied to diagnosis and treatment of occupational radiation-induced nervous system diseases, and to nervous system diseases caused by medical radiation exposure as well. In order to properly implement this standard, also to correctly deal with radioactive nervous system injury, the main contents of this standard including dose threshold, clinical manifestation, indexing standard and treatment principle were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance in diagnostics of internal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaya, L.T.; Uvarov, N.I.; Shashura, Yu.V.; Miklyaev, I.Yu.; Zhmuro, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Use of NMR-tomography in general and differential diagnosis of brain diseases, diseases of internal organs (liver, galbludder, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, organs small pelvis, thoracic cavity, soft tissues and bone-jopint system) is shown. Physical-technical bases of getting NMR image are presented. Problems of reproducibility, accuracy and interpretation of investigation results are discussed. 253 refs.; 1 tab

  9. Absence of consensus in diagnostic criteria for familial neurodegenerative diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2012-04-01

    A small proportion of cases seen in neurodegenerative conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson\\'s disease and Alzheimer disease are familial. These familial cases are usually clinically indistinguishable from sporadic cases. Identifying familial cases is important both in terms of clinical guidance for family members and for gene discovery.

  10. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Bruno; Hampel, Harald; Feldman, Howard H; Scheltens, Philip; Aisen, Paul; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Benali, Habib; Bertram, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Broich, Karl; Cavedo, Enrica; Crutch, Sebastian; Dartigues, Jean-François; Duyckaerts, Charles; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Gauthier, Serge; Genthon, Remy; Gouw, Alida A; Habert, Marie-Odile; Holtzman, David M; Kivipelto, Miia; Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, José-Luis; O'Bryant, Sid E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Schneider, Lon S; Sperling, Reisa; Teichmann, Marc; Carrillo, Maria C; Cummings, Jeffrey; Jack, Cliff R

    2016-03-01

    During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current and future molecular diagnostics for ocular infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thuy; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-11-01

    Confirmation of ocular infections can pose great challenges to the clinician. A fundamental limitation is the small amounts of specimen that can be obtained from the eye. Molecular diagnostics can circumvent this limitation and have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional culture. The purpose of this review is to describe new molecular methods and to discuss the applications of next-generation sequencing-based approaches in the diagnosis of ocular infections. Efforts have focused on improving the sensitivity of pathogen detection using molecular methods. This review describes a new molecular target for Toxoplasma gondii-directed polymerase chain reaction assays. Molecular diagnostics for Chlamydia trachomatis and Acanthamoeba species are also discussed. Finally, we describe a hypothesis-free approach, metagenomic deep sequencing, which can detect DNA and RNA pathogens from a single specimen in one test. In some cases, this method can provide the geographic location and timing of the infection. Pathogen-directed PCRs have been powerful tools in the diagnosis of ocular infections for over 20 years. The use of next-generation sequencing-based approaches, when available, will further improve sensitivity of detection with the potential to improve patient care.

  12. Perceptions of key participants about Botswana adolescents' risks of unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV: Qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowe, Mabel K M; Seloilwe, Esther; Dithole, Kefalotse; St Lawrence, Janet

    2017-10-01

    The qualitative research findings are reported on the perceptions of key participants in Botswana about adolescent sexuality problems and the feasibility (with suggestions) of an adolescent prevention intervention. Twenty adult key participants who were selected through purposive sampling from schools and youth centers responded to open-ended questions during face-to-face individual in-depth interviews that were conducted between December, 2011 and January, 2012 in Gaborone, Botswana. The data were analyzed by using an inductive content analysis. Five major themes and 12 subthemes emerged from the interviews. The key participants discussed situations that exposed adolescents to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy. They also discussed unsafe sexual practices, the consequences of unprotected sex, poor parent-adolescent communication on sexuality, and the need for a sexuality education program. Policy changes are needed to improve collaboration between adolescents, parents, teachers, and youth officers in order to address adolescent sexuality problems. Further research is needed to explore the ways in which to improve sexuality communication between these groups. The results of the study provide valuable information on the sexuality risks that expose adolescents to HIV, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections and the strategies for the prevention of these risks, thus informing targeted interventions for risk reduction for adolescents. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. High Resistance to Azithromycin in Clinical Samples from Patients with Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangyong; Bu, Jin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Geng; Cao, Juan; Tang, Zhongshu; Gan, Quan; Wei, Pingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Azithromycin is used as an alternative medicine in patients with syphilis who are intolerant to penicillin. Nevertheless, the report of treatment failure of azithromycin for patients with syphilis has raised concerns in China in the past years. In this study, 178 patients with early syphilis, who were treated in sexually transmitted infections clinics in four cities in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were enrolled to investigate the regional prevalence of Treponema pallidum strain resistant to azithromycin. Nested PCR was performed to amplify the 23S ribosomal RNA (23SrRNA) gene. The point mutation of A2058G in 23SrRNA, which confers Treponema pallidum resistance to azithromycin, was measured by endonuclease digestion of PCR amplification products using MboII. A2058G point mutation was detected in 91.0% (162/178; 95% CI, 86.8%, 95.2%) of the specimens, but no difference in prevalence of azithromycin resistance was found between the patients who had taken antibiotics before enrollment and the patients who had not (91.8% vs. 89.4%), nor between the patients with and without past sexually transmitted infections (87.1% vs. 93.1%). We concluded that azithromycin may not be suitable for syphilis as a treatment option in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region because of the extremely high prevalence of resistance in the general syphilis population.

  14. [Paget's disease of bone: Diagnostic and therapeutic updates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaya, R; Alaya, Z; Nang, M; Bouajina, E

    2018-03-01

    Paget's disease of bone is the second most common metabolic bone disease after osteoporosis. Its pathogenesis is not yet clearly understood. Geographic distribution and epidemiological variations suggest a role of genetic and environmental factors in its pathophysiology. The frequency of the Paget's disease of bone increases with age. Its discovery can be fortuitous. Prognosis mainly depends on the occurrence of complications involving bones and joints, neurological, cardiovascular or metabolic systems. Treatment of symptomatic forms currently relies on bisphosphonates that have transformed its prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  16. MicroRNAs and human diseases: diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Raihana; Ul Hussain, Mahboob

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in various human diseases, ranging from cancer to cardiovascular hypertrophy. The expression profiles of the miRNAs clearly differentiate the normal from the pathological state and thus their potential as novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of several human diseases is immense. Emerging data on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases have paved the way to test their ability to act as novel therapeutic tools. In the present review, we will explore the current knowledge about the role of miRNAs in various human diseases. In addition, we will focus on the emerging evidences demonstrating the potential of miRNAs as novel biomarkers and the strategies to use them as therapeutic tools.

  17. Diagnostic approach to chronic kidney disease | Naiker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be considered to be present if a patient has a glomerular filtration rate 3 months. These include proteinuria, haematuria and radiological abnormalities. Regardless of the stage of CKD, the approach is mainly similar.

  18. Diagnostic criteria for depression in Parkinson's disease: a study of symptom patterns using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkstein, Sergio; Dragovic, Milan; Jorge, Ricardo; Brockman, Simone; Merello, Marcelo; Robinson, Robert G; Bruce, David; Wilson, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Although major depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders among patients with Parkinson's disease, diagnostic criteria have yet to be validated. The main aim of our study was to validate depressive symptoms using latent class analysis for use as diagnostic criteria for major depression in Parkinson's disease. We examined a consecutive series of 259 patients with Parkinson's disease admitted to 2 movement disorders clinics for regular follow-ups. All patients were assessed with a comprehensive psychiatric interview that included structured assessments for depression, anxiety, and apathy. The main finding was that all 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) diagnostic criteria for major depression (ie, depressed mood, diminished interest or pleasure, weight or appetite changes, sleep changes, psychomotor changes, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, poor concentration, and suicidal ideation) identified a patient class (severe depression group) with high statistical significance. Latent class analysis also demonstrated a patient class with minimal depressive symptoms (no-depression group), and a third patient class with intermediate depressive symptoms (moderate depression). Anxiety and apathy were both significant comorbid conditions of moderate and severe depression. Taken together, our findings support the use of the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria for major depression for use in clinical practice and research in Parkinson's disease and suggest that anxiety may be included as an additional diagnostic criterion. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Accuracy of diagnostic antibody tests for coeliac disease in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giersiepen, Klaus; Lelgemann, Monika; Stuhldreher, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence from 2004 to September 2009 on the performance of laboratory-based serological and point of care (POC) tests for diagnosing coeliac disease (CD) in children using histology as reference standard.......The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence from 2004 to September 2009 on the performance of laboratory-based serological and point of care (POC) tests for diagnosing coeliac disease (CD) in children using histology as reference standard....

  20. Graves' disease: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges (multimedia activity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Grebe, Stefan K G; Lupo, Mark A; McDonald, Nicole; Sipos, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States. Graves' disease occurs more often in women with a female:male ratio of 5:1 and a population prevalence of 1% to 2%. A genetic determinant to the susceptibility to Graves' disease is suspected because of familial clustering of the disease, a high sibling recurrence risk, the familial occurrence of thyroid autoantibodies, and the 30% concordance in disease status between identical twins. Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by the infiltration of immune effector cells and thyroid antigen-specific T cells into the thyroid and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor expressing tissues, with the production of autoantibodies to well-defined thyroidal antigens, such as thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor is central to the regulation of thyroid growth and function. Stimulatory autoantibodies in Graves' disease activate the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor leading to thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated thyroid hormone production and secretion. Below-normal levels of baseline serum thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, normal to elevated serum levels of T4, elevated serum levels of T3 and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor autoantibodies, and a diffusely enlarged, heterogeneous, hypervascular (increased Doppler flow) thyroid gland confirm diagnosis of Graves' disease (available at: http://supplements.amjmed.com/2010/hyperthyroid/faculty.php). This Resource Center is also available through the website of The American Journal of Medicine (www.amjmed.com). Click on the “Thyroid/Graves' Disease” link in the “Resource Centers” section, found on the right side of the Journal homepage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  2. A possible new diagnostic biomarker in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kork, Felix; Holthues, Jan; Hellweg, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Early diagnosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of great importance since only a sufficient treatment in early stages of this disease helps to keep patients in an autonomous state for as long as possible. Until now, there is no single diagnostic biomarker for AD derived from material...

  3. Early diagnostics and Alzheimer's disease: Beyond ‘cure’ and ‘care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, Y.M.; van Lente, H.

    Research on early diagnostics for Alzheimer's disease is supported by what has been labeled as aging-and-innovation discourse, in which innovation is assumed to (partially) resolve the societal problems related to aging. This discourse draws on a specific way of understanding Alzheimer's disease and

  4. CLINICAL APPROACH TO THE DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF HERDITARY AND ACQUIRED NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS In the context of a neuromuscular disease diagnostic evaluation, the clinician still must be able to obtain a relevant patient and family history and perform focused general, musculoskeletal, neurologic and functional physical examinations to direct further diagnostic evaluations. Laboratory studies for hereditary neuromuscular diseases include relevant molecular genetic studies. The EMG and nerve conduction studies remain an extension of the physical examination and help to guide further diagnostic studies such as molecular genetic studies, and muscle and nerve biopsies. All diagnostic information needs to be interpreted not in isolation, but within the context of relevant historical information, family history, physical examination findings, and laboratory data, electrophysiologic findings, pathologic findings, and molecular genetic findings if obtained. PMID:22938875

  5. Knowledge, attitudes & practices (KAP) of general practitioners (GPS) regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) and HIV/AIDS in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Fawwad Ahmed; Khanani, Mohammad Rafiq; Siddiqui, Saad Ebrahim; Manzar, Nabeel; Raza, Sajjad; Qamar, Salima

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the KAP of GPs in Karachi who treat most of the cases of STDs in their private clinics. It was a cross sectional survey conducted by interviewing 103 GPs from different towns of Karachi through an interviewer administered questionnaire based on WHO protocol for control of STDs. Regarding organisms transmitted through sexual intercourse, 94.2% knew about Neisseria gonorrhoeae while only 38.8% knew about T.Pallidum. Only 26.2% had heard about WHO syndromic management of STDs. Regarding treatment of a HIV positive patient 40.8% said they referred them to an AIDS control programme. Ninety four percent knew the value of sexual history but 55.3% were aware of the recommended treatment regimen. Knowledge and Attitudes of GPs was reasonably good but improvement is required with respect to management of STDs & HIV. Targeted continuing medical education programmes and special training sessions are recommended.

  6. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Lanata, Claudio F

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the gl...

  7. Prion disease. The characteristics and diagnostic points in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjo, Nobuo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2010-01-01

    Prion disease develops when normal prion proteins change into transmissible abnormal prion proteins and the converted proteins accumulate in the brain. The Japanese Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Surveillance Committee has identified 1,320 patients with prion diseases in the 10 years since 1999 (classified into 3 types: sporadic, 77.2%; hereditary, 16.7%; and environmentally acquired, 6.1%). Compared with patients in other countries, a relatively larger number of Japanese patients characteristically have dura mater graft-associated CJD and hereditary prion diseases. All the environmentally acquired cases, except 1 case of variant CJD, were acquired from dura grafts. Although most patients were diagnosed with a classical subtype of sporadic CJD (sCJD), whose features include rapidly progressing dementia, myoclonus, hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and periodic synchronous discharge in electroencephalography, the number of cases with atypical symptoms, such as MM2 (0.8%), MV2 (0.2%), VV1 (0%), and VV2 (0.2%) subtypes of sCJD cases, was not negligible. Appropriate diagnosis should be made based on clinical features, neuroradiological findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings (14-3-3 and total tau proteins), and genetic analysis of polymorphisms. Hereditary prion diseases are classified into 3 major phenotypes: familial CJD (fCJD); Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS), which mainly presents as spinocerebellar ataxia; and fatal familial insomnia. Many mutations of the prion protein gene have been identified, but V1801 (fCJD), P102L (GSS), and E200K (fCJD) mutations were the most common among the fCJD cases in Japan. Without a family history, genetic testing is necessary to distinguish even seemingly ''sporadic'' CJD from fCJD. Accurate diagnosis is important for clarification of the pathological process, prevention of secondary infection, and also psychological support. (author)

  8. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: updated diagnostic criteria, treatment algorithm, and the utility of brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manix, Marc; Kalakoti, Piyush; Henry, Miriam; Thakur, Jai; Menger, Richard; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative condition with a rapid disease course and a mortality rate of 100%. Several forms of the disease have been described, and the most common is the sporadic type. The most challenging aspect of this disease is its diagnosis-the gold standard for definitive diagnosis is considered to be histopathological confirmation-but newer tests are providing means for an antemortem diagnosis in ways less invasive than brain biopsy. Imaging studies, electroencephalography, and biomarkers are used in conjunction with the clinical picture to try to make the diagnosis of CJD without brain tissue samples, and all of these are reviewed in this article. The current diagnostic criteria are limited; test sensitivity and specificity varies with the genetics of the disease as well as the clinical stage. Physicians may be unsure of all diagnostic testing available, and may order outdated tests or prematurely request a brain biopsy when the diagnostic workup is incomplete. The authors review CJD, discuss the role of brain biopsy in this patient population, provide a diagnostic pathway for the patient presenting with rapidly progressive dementia, and propose newer diagnostic criteria.

  9. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M. de; Verbeeten, B.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  10. The capacity of diagnostic laboratories in Kenya for detecting infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotved, H-C; Yatich, Kennedy K; Sam, Shem Otoi; Ndhine, Edwardina Otieno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present data of the diagnostic capacity of Kenyan laboratories to diagnose a number of human pathogens. The study is based on the data obtained from a biosecurity survey conducted in Kenya in 2014/2015 and data from the Statistical Abstract of Kenya for 2015. The biosecurity survey has previously been published; however, the survey also included information on laboratory capacity to handle a number of pathogens, which have not been published. Data were retrieved from the survey on 86 laboratory facilities. The data include information from relevant categories such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories. The disease incidence in Kenya ranges widely from malaria and diarrhea with an incidence rate of around 10.000 per year to diseases such as cholera and yellow fever with an incidence rate of 1 per year or less for all age groups. The data showed that diseases with the highest number of diagnostic facilities were mainly malaria-, HIV-, tuberculosis-, and diarrhea-related infectious diseases. The study generally shows that the laboratory facilities have the capacity of detecting the infectious diseases with the highest incidence rates. Furthermore, it seems that the number of facilities able to detect a particular disease is related to the incidence rate of the disease.

  11. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Zerr; K. Kallenberg; D.M. Summers; C. Romero; A. Taratuto; U. Heinemann; M. Breithaupt; D. Varges; B. Meissner; A. Ladogana (Anna); M. Schuur (Maaike); S. Haik; S.J. Collins (Steven); G.H. Jansen (Gerard); G.B. Stokin; J. Pimentel; E. Hewer; D. Collie; P. Smith; H. Roberts; J.P. Brandel; P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); C. Begue; P. Cras (Patrick); R.G. Will; P. Sanchez-Juan (Pascual)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSeveral molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications

  12. Spectrum of Diseases and Diagnostic Values of Ultrasound in Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The common spectrum of diseases encountered on US in this study included appendicitis (66 [44%]), ectopic pregnancy (34 [22%]), intestinal obstruction (13 [8.7%]) while the least finding was renal abscess 1 (0.7%). The correlation of US findings with surgical findings in this study showed sensitivity, specificity, and ...

  13. Diagnostic dilemmas in Alzheimer's disease: Room for shared decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Kunneman, Marleen; Bouwman, Femke H.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2017-01-01

    The launch of the NIA-AA research criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis illustrates the large advances that have been made in the field of AD diagnosis. These new possibilities however also introduce new dilemmas into the consulting room, and this provides room for shared decision making

  14. Age and diagnostic performance of Alzheimer disease CSF biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattsson, N.; Rosen, E.; Hansson, O.; Andreasen, N.; Parnetti, L.; Jonsson, M.; Herukka, S.K.; Flier, W.M. van der; Blankenstein, M.A.; Ewers, M.; Rich, K.; Kaiser, E.; Verbeek, M.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.; Tsolaki, M.; Mulugeta, E.; Aarsland, D.; Visser, P.J.; Schroder, J.; Marcusson, J.; Leon, M.; Hampel, H.; Scheltens, P.; Wallin, A.; Eriksdotter-Jonhagen, M.; Minthon, L.; Winblad, B.; Blennow, K.; Zetterberg, H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Core CSF changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) are decreased amyloid beta(1-42), increased total tau, and increased phospho-tau, probably indicating amyloid plaque accumulation, axonal degeneration, and tangle pathology, respectively. These biomarkers identify AD already at the predementia

  15. Modern immunomorphological aspects of diagnostics of periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovskaya L.U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers of destruction of periodontal tissue and alveolar bone belong to the mediators, participating in maintenance of chronic inflammatory process in the clinical attachment. Purpose: To reveal changes of cytokine profile of gingival fluid and proliferative activity of cells of gum at patients with inflammatory periodontal diseases. Material and methods. Immunohistochemical research of biopsy gum material of 70 patients with periodontal disease with monoclonal antibodies: Ki-67 (marker of proliferative activity of cells, Bcl-2 (apoptosis marker; method of the solid-phase immunofermental analysis for level definition interleukin -6, 10, 12, 18 in gingival fluid (about — and anti-inflammatory markers. Results. It is shown that level definition of cytokines in gingival fluid allows to monitor the activity of the inflammatory process in the periodontal tissues, and the morphometric analysis of periodontal cells reflects degree of its weight. Conclusion. The use of molecular markers in inspection of patients with periodontal disease is the informative method, allowing to predict development and course of chronic periodontal disease.

  16. Anaesthesia for diagnostic muscle biopsy in an infant with Pompe's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, K R; Broadman, L M

    1986-11-01

    The anaesthetic management of children with glycogen-storage disease type IIa (Pompe's disease) presents a variety of challenges. A modification of a femoral nerve block, the inguinal paravascular block, as described by Winnie, was used in conjunction with intravenous ketamine to provide anaesthesia for a diagnostic muscle biopsy in a 5.5-month-old infant with Pompe's disease. A peripheral nerve stimulator was used to locate the femoral nerve in lieu of eliciting a paraesthesia.

  17. [Adolescents' knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, and human papillomavirus vaccination: results of a survey in a French high school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, C; Duron, S; Robin, F; Verret, C; Imbert, P

    2013-08-01

    Teenager sexuality is a public health issue. In teenagers attending a high school, we assessed their knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, and cervical cancer. Then in girls, we estimated the anti-HPV vaccination coverage and focused on factors associated with poor knowledge of these topics. This was a knowledge, attitudes, and practices cross-sectional study conducted at the beginning of the 2010-2011 school year in the Saint-Cyr military high school, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Among 669 adolescents (M/F sex-ratio, 2.3; mean age, 17 years [IC 95%, 15-20]), 40% had already had sex and 92% had used contraception. Boys and girls had a poor level of knowledge on infectious transmitted diseases. Regarding knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer, a better level was significantly associated with female gender (P=10(-4)). In multivariate analysis, male gender, age under 18 years, lack of dialogue with parents on these subjects, low socioeconomic status of parents, and absence of health education were significantly associated with poor knowledge on these topics. These data should help healthcare providers better target access and content of sexual health education training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of self-care training program based on Orem's model on the behaviors leading to sexually transmitted disease in vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghersad, Zahra; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Boroumandfar, Zahra; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases due to their high-risk behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-care training program based on Orem's model on the behaviors leading to sexually transmitted diseases in vulnerable women. This field trial was initially conducted on 100 women covered under health services and welfare organization in Isfahan city, who were selected by rationing ssampling. For needs assessment, they filled the self-care needs assessment questionnaire in three domains of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Then, at the stage of intervention (self-care training), 64 subjects were selected through convenient sampling and were assigned to experimental and control groups by random allocation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical tests through SPSS 18. Results showed that mean scores of knowledge ( P < 0.001), attitude ( P < 0.001), practice ( P = 0.04), and behavior change ( P = 0.01) were significantly higher immediately after and 3 months after intervention, compared to before intervention, but there was no significant difference in mean scores between immediately after and 3 months after intervention. With regard to these results, it can be concluded that if the educational programs are planned based on clients' real needs assessment, the learners follow the educational materials, related to their problems, more seriously and it results in a notable behavior change in them.

  19. Clinical patterns of venous diseases and diagnostic demands on radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienert, V.

    1988-01-01

    The author deals with the clinical signs and treatment of the valvular incompetence of the venae saphenae in varicosis of the lower extremities, varicosis or insufficiency of the venae perforantes (an insufficiency of the deep venous system, manifested by an insufficiency of the valvular system of the vena femoralis and venae saphenae but not representing a post-thrombotic syndrome), phlebothrombosis and postthrombosis. Routine phlebography for diagnosing a number of venous diseases has become redundant especially by the use of noninvasive methods such as Doppler ultrasound and light reflection rheography. However, if there is a suspicion of a deep thrombosis in the leg, phlebography is imperative. Dermatological phlebography specialists would like the radiologists to supply them with phlebographic criteria for the disease pattern of the insufficiency of the venae perforantes, vena femoralis and venae saphenae as mentioned above. Whether Duplex scanning can replace phlebography in the long run remains to be seen. (orig.) [de

  20. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: The development of a diagnostic platform using next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke; Væth, Signe; Thorsen, Kasper

    Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neurological diseases. Today, more than 70 CMT related genes are known to cause inherited neuropathy. The diagnostic strategy in most laboratories is based on Sanger-sequencing of few genes. In our patient cohort......, Sanger sequencing of 4 genes have led to a diagnosis in approximately 30% of the patients. Aims: 1) Development of a targeted NGS platform containing 63 genes that currently are found to be associated with CMT. 2) Analysis of the increased diagnostic yield using this platform to analyze 200 CMT samples...... previously analyzed using Sanger sequencing without identification of a disease causing mutation. Materials and Methods: Libraries for 200 patient samples obtained for CMT diagnostics were prepared using Illumina Truseq and target enrichment using SeqCap EZ Choise Library (Nimblegen). The libraries were...

  1. Muscle diseases with prominent joint contractures: Main entities and diagnostic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymard, B; Ferreiro, A; Ben Yaou, R; Stojkovic, T

    2013-01-01

    Muscle diseases may have various clinical manifestations including muscle weakness, atrophy or hypertrophy and joint contractures. A spectrum of non-muscular manifestations (cardiac, respiratory, cutaneous, central and peripheral nervous system) may be associated. Few of these features are specific. Limb joint contractures or spine rigidity, when prevailing over muscle weakness in ambulant patients, are of high diagnostic value for diagnosis orientation. Within this context, among several disorders, four groups of diseases should systematically come to mind including the collagen VI-related myopathies, the Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies, the SEPN1 and FHL1 related myopathies. More rarely other genetic or acquired myopathies may present with marked contractures. Diagnostic work-up should include a comprehensive assessment including family history, neurological, cardiologic and respiratory evaluations. Paraclinical investigations should minimally include muscle imaging and electromyography. Muscle and skin biopsies as well as protein and molecular analyses usually help to reach a precise diagnosis. We will first describe the main muscle and neuromuscular junction diseases where contractures are typically a prominent symptom of high diagnostic value for diagnosis orientation. In the following chapters, we will present clues for the diagnostic strategy and the main measures to be taken when, at the end of the diagnostic work-up, no definite muscular disease has been identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Accuracy in celiac disease diagnostics by controlling the small-bowel biopsy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charlotta; Halvarsson, Britta; Norström, Fredrik; Myléus, Anna; Carlsson, Annelie; Danielsson, Lars; Högberg, Lotta; Ivarsson, Anneli; Karlsson, Eva; Stenhammar, Lars; Sandström, Olof

    2011-05-01

    In a Swedish celiac disease screening study (Exploring the Iceberg of Celiacs in Sweden), we systematically reviewed the clinical diagnostic procedures with the aim to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and to take advantage of lessons learned for improving diagnostic routines. A school-based celiac disease screening study involving 5 Swedish centers, with 10,041 invited 12-year-olds with 7567 consenting participation. All 192 children with elevated serological markers were recommended to undergo small-bowel biopsy, performed and evaluated according to local clinical routines. All of the mucosal specimens were reevaluated by 1 and, when needed, 2 expert pathologists to reach diagnostic consensus. Small-bowel biopsies were performed in 184 children: 130 by endoscopy and 54 by suction capsule. Endoscopic biopsies were inconclusive in 0.6%, compared with 7.4% of biopsies by suction capsule. A patchy enteropathy was found in 9.1%. Reevaluation by the expert pathologist resulted in 6 additional cases with celiac disease and 1 cleared. Sixteen children with normal or inconclusive biopsies, 4 after endoscopy, and 12 after suction capsule were endoscopically rebiopsied, resulting in another 8 cases. The celiac disease prevalence of 30 of 1000 (95% confidence interval 26-34) was not statistically different from that previously reported. The present review revealed the importance of controlling each step of the diagnostic procedure. Several cases would have been missed by relying only on local routines. To improve the quality of childhood celiac disease diagnostics, we recommend multiple endoscopic biopsies from both proximal and distal duodenum and standardized evaluation by a pathologist with good knowledge of celiac disease.

  3. Unraveling Diagnostic Uncertainty Surrounding Lyme Disease in Children with Neuropsychiatric Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Michael P; Garro, Aris

    2018-01-01

    Lyme disease is endemic in parts of the United States, including New England, the Atlantic seaboard, and Great Lakes region. The presentation has various manifestations, many of which can mimic psychiatric diseases in children. Distinguishing manifestations of Lyme disease from those of psychiatric illnesses is complicated by inexact diagnostic tests and misuse of these tests when they are not clinically indicated. This article aims to describe manifestations of Lyme disease in children with an emphasis on Lyme neuroborreliosis. Clinical scenarios will be presented and discussed. Finally, recommendations for clinical psychiatrists who encounter children with possible Lyme disease are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Critical Review of Diagnostic Methods Used in Chronic Pancreatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan T Beck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a balanced assessment of the various pancreatic function tests and imaging techniques used in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease. Function tests that study the digestive capacity of the pancreas (fat absorption of dietary lipids, fluorescein- or radiolabelled fats, bentiromide test, etc have high specificity, but very low sensitivity. This is because 90% of pancreas has to be destroyed before steatorrhea or creatorrhea occurs. Tests that directly measure pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretion (secretin test, etc are more accurate and may detect pancreatic dysfunction even before anatomical changes occur. Measurement of pancreatic enzymes in serum or urine, or the decreased decline of serum amino acids during their incorporation into pancreatic enzymes, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to help diagnose pancreatic disease. Sensitive and specific tumour markers are not yet available. Thus screening tests are not cost-effective - if they are negative, they do not exclude pancreatic disease; and if positive, they have to be confirmed by more specific tests. Imaging techniques are the most commonly used methods of investigation. The usefulness of abdominal survey films, barium studies, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography is critically reviewed. Most of the radiological methods can be combined with cytology or biopsy. Histology demonstrating malignancy establishes this diagnosis, but negative biopsies do not exclude malignant tumours. Presently only ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound can diagnose cancers sufficiently early to allow for possible `curative' surgery, and only endoscopic ultrasound is capable to stage tumours for the assessment of resectability.

  5. Ultrasonography - A diagnostic modality for oral and maxillofacial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Shirish Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many diseases present themselves in oral and maxillofacial regions and various modalities may be applied for their diagnosis, including intraoral and panoramic radiography, ultrasonography (USG, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine methods such as positron emission tomography. Of these modalities, USG is easy to-use for the detection of non-invasive and soft tissue related diseases in oral and maxillofacial regions. USG plays an important role in analyzing normal and abnormal structures. In particular, in oral and maxillofacial regions, the USG may be clinically applied to evaluate lymph nodes, subcutaneous, and oral cavity-related diseases. Aims: The aim was to correlate the findings of USG and histopathology for the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial pathology and to evaluate whether USG can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 clinically diagnosed patients with intraoral cancerous growths, swellings in maxillary and neck region were included in this study. Incision biopsy was obtained for confirming provisional clinical diagnosis. The selected cases were advised USG. All patients were then posted either for hemi-glossectomy, hemi-mandibulectomy, and partial maxillectomy with or without radical neck dissection. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and coefficient of correlation was used to statistically analyze significant relationship of both the methods. Result: In all 10 cases, USG correlated well with histopathology findings, it could also delineate tumor extent and measure tumor thickness. Conclusion: USG is an excellent method for the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions and can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology.

  6. Thirty Years Later: AIDS Experts Reflect on Efforts to Eradicate the Disease, Create Awareness about How It Is Transmitted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Even on paper three decades ago, HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, invoked fear and loathing. Despite increased public awareness and billions spent in search of a cure, the disease still generates fear today. As the disease has morphed into a global pandemic that is still without a cure, Black America battles the highest rate of new HIV infections…

  7. S3 guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, P.; Tacke, J.; Lawall, H.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the most important aspects of the new German S3 guidelines for the diagnostics and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) from March 2009. The guidelines include definitions and epidemiology of peripheral arterial occlusive disease, diagnostic methods including clinical and technical procedures as well as imaging methods, treatment by non-invasive, interventional and surgical methods and patient care during follow-up. In key messages recommendations are given which are graded corresponding to the scientific evidence concluded from the literature. (orig.) [de

  8. Lyme disease: the promise of Big Data, companion diagnostics and precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Johnson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. Recent studies based on Big Data registries show that >300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the USA, and up to two-thirds of individuals infected with B. burgdorferi will fail conventional 30-year-old antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. In addition, animal and human evidence suggests that sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete may occur. Improved companion diagnostic tests for Lyme disease need to be implemented, and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed to combat the epidemic. In particular, therapies based on the principles of precision medicine could be modeled on successful “designer drug” treatment for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C virus infection featuring targeted protease inhibitors. The use of Big Data registries, companion diagnostics and precision medicine will revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:27672336

  9. EARLY PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS OF INBORN HEART DISEASES OF FETUSES WITH NUCHAL TRANSLUCENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Shevchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an analysis of 38 events of inborn heart diseases of fetus with nuchal translucency, diagnosing on 11–16 weeks of pregnancy during consultative procedure. The spectrum of registered inborn heart diseases is represented by following nosologic forms: defect of interventricular partition, heart ectopy, atrioventricular canal, general arterial trunk, hypoplastic syndrome of the left sections of heart, fallot's tetrad, combination of defects of intracardiac partitions with diverticulum of ventricle. Frequency of registered inborn heart diseases and negative perinatal outcomes increased with the rise of thickness of nuchal translucency of fetus. transvaginal echocardiography with use of highly resolving ultra sonic equipment and new technology should be carried out in all cases of registration of widened nuchal translucency of fetus. It is decisive in improvement of diagnostics of inborn heart diseases, especially on early terms.Key words: inborn heart diseases, transvaginal echocardiography, prenatal diagnostics.

  10. [Chlamydia-like symptoms can have another etiology. Mycoplasma genitalium--an important and common sexually transmitted disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagrius, Carin; Loré, Britta

    2002-11-28

    The aetiological importance of Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis in non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is undisputed. Mycoplasma (M.) genitalium has been shown to be strongly associated with NGU and with mucopurulent cervicitis and also with acute endometritis independent of C. trachomatis. In this prevalence study we examined 946 patients, 445 women and 501 men, attending the STD clinic, for M. genitalium as well as C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. M. genitalium was detected in urethral samples from 17 (13.4 per cent) of 127 men with both symptoms and signs of urethritis and from 2 (1.3 per cent) of 160 men without (p cervicitis compared to 3 (2.2 per cent) of 139 women without (p = 0.005). Examinations of partners of female and male index patients indicated that M. genitalium is sexually transmitted. Some M. genitalium infected patients had a history of irregular vaginal bleeding, lower genital tract pain, epididymitis and arthritis. Investigation of the aetiological role of M. genitalium in salpingitis, epididymitis and sexually acquired arthritis is urgently needed.

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage in farmers' lung disease: diagnostic and physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Y; Bélanger, J; LeBlanc, P; Laviolette, M

    1986-01-01

    A group of 92 farmers had clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). There were 12 patients with acute farmers' lung disease (FLD) (group 1) and 37 farmers who had had acute FLD, of whom 22 were still on their farm (group 2) and 15 had ceased contact (group 3); others were normal dairy farmers, 23 serology positive to Micropolyspora faeni (group 4), 20 serology negative (group 5), and 42 normal controls (group 6). Of the 134 subjects, 59 had an increase in alveolar lymphocytes (greater than 22% lymphocytes in BAL) (12 in group 1, 19 in group 2, six in group 3, 14 in group 4, five in group 5, and three in group 6). Within each group there was no correlation between BAL lymphocytes (% and absolute number) and most pulmonary function tests. It is concluded that although an increase in BAL lymphocytes is always seen in acute FLD it may also be seen in the absence of clinically evident disease and that BAL lymphocytosis does not correlate with physiological changes in FLD. PMID:3426661

  12. Pre-analytical and post-analytical evaluation in the era of molecular diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases: cellularity control and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Spigaglia; Fabrizio Barbanti; Matteo Morandi; Maria Luisa Moro; Paola Mastrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Background. A national project on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), funded by the Center for Prevention and Control of Diseases of Italian Ministry of Health, was performed in 2012-2013. Microbiological laboratories of the National Public Heath System were invited by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità to provide information on CDI diagnostics through a closed answer questionnaire. Materials and Methods. In total, 14 regions and the independent province of Trento participated in and 278 fi...

  13. Metabolomics diagnostic approach to mustard airway diseases: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BiBi Fatemeh Nobakht Mothlagh Ghoochani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aims to evaluate combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolic profiling approaches, for discriminating between mustard airway diseases (MADs and healthy controls and for providing biochemical information on this disease. Materials and Methods: In the present study, analysis of serum samples collected from 17 MAD subjects and 12 healthy controls was performed using NMR. Of these subjects, 14 (8 patients and 6 controls were analyzed by GC-MS. Then, their spectral profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Results: A panel of twenty eight metabolite biomarkers was generated for MADs, sixteen  NMR-derived metabolites (3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, dimethylamine, creatine, citrulline, choline, acetic acid, acetoacetate, cholesterol, alanine, and lipid (mainly VLDL and twelve GC-MS-derived metabolites (threonine, phenylalanine, citric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. This composite biomarker panel could effectively discriminate MAD subjects from healthy controls, achieving an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 1 and 0.79 for NMR and GC-MS, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, a robust panel of twenty-eight biomarkers for detecting MADs was established. This panel is involved in three metabolic pathways including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism, and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and could differentiate MAD subjects from healthy controls with a higher accuracy.

  14. All Clinically-Relevant Blood Components Transmit Prion Disease following a Single Blood Transfusion: A Sheep Model of vCJD

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Christopher; Tan, Boon Chin; Smith, Antony; Groschup, Martin H.; Hunter, Nora; Hornsey, Valerie S.; MacGregor, Ian R.; Prowse, Christopher V.; Turner, Marc; Manson, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    Variant CJD (vCJD) is an incurable, infectious human disease, likely arising from the consumption of BSE-contaminated meat products. Whilst the epidemic appears to be waning, there is much concern that vCJD infection may be perpetuated in humans by the transfusion of contaminated blood products. Since 2004, several cases of transfusion-associated vCJD transmission have been reported and linked to blood collected from pre-clinically affected donors. Using an animal model in which the disease manifested resembles that of humans affected with vCJD, we examined which blood components used in human medicine are likely to pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD via transfusion. We collected two full units of blood from BSE-infected donor animals during the pre-clinical phase of infection. Using methods employed by transfusion services we prepared red cell concentrates, plasma and platelets units (including leucoreduced equivalents). Following transfusion, we showed that all components contain sufficient levels of infectivity to cause disease following only a single transfusion and also that leucoreduction did not prevent disease transmission. These data suggest that all blood components are vectors for prion disease transmission, and highlight the importance of multiple control measures to minimise the risk of human to human transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion. PMID:21858015

  15. Sexually transmitted disease syndromic case management through public sector facilities: development and assessment study in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Amir; Javed, Wajiha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Walley, John; Munir, Muhammad Arif

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a priority health problem. We proposed a prospective study in two districts of Punjab, using an intervention package, which included guidelines and protocols on syndrome-based management of STIs, adapted in light of technical guidelines from the National AIDS Control Program and the World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to assess the operational effectiveness of STI case management guidelines and to assess factors that determine the adherence to guidelines for management of STIs at public health facilities in Pakistan. A prospective study lasting 18 months (January 2008 to June 2009), which reviewed early implementation experiences of updated case management guidelines for delivery of syndrome-based STI/reproductive tract infection care, through public-sector health care facilities. The project was implemented in two districts of Punjab, Sargodha and Jhang. A Cox regression model with stratification was done. The prevalence of STI was 26 per 100,000 patients. In women, the reported symptoms were 80% vaginal discharge and 12% abdominal pain. Forty-four percent of men had a genital ulcer and 29% of men had genital discharge. Age of participants ranged from 13 to 60 years. The study comprised 28.6% men and 71.4% women. The majority of the population attending these clinics was from rural areas (70%). The variables independently associated with adherence to guidelines were availability of male paramedic, age of patient, and type of diagnosis made. There was an important interaction (effect modification) present between the area of health facility and patient sex. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment costs for many STIs are expensive and thus an easier, low-cost, syndrome-based public health strategy is the adoption of the proposed STI syndrome case management guidelines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The diagnostic value of the bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efared, Boubacar; Ebang-Atsame, G; Rabiou, Sani; Diarra, Abdoulsalam S; Tahiri, Layla; Hammas, Nawal; Smahi, Mohamed; Amara, Bouchra; Benjelloun, Mohamed C; Serraj, Mounia; Chbani, Laila; El Fatemi, Hinde

    2017-03-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a diagnostic tool often used during the management of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, its diagnostic value in discrimination between entities comprising the very heterogenous group of ILD, is still a controversial issue. The objective of our study is to assess the diagnostic value of BAL in the management of ILD, by comparing the cytological findings in BAL fluid among the different diseases of this group. It was a retrospective, observational study of 151 patients between January 2012 and December 2015. BAL fluid cytology was performed to analyse the distribution of leucocytes population subsets in patients with ILD. The mean age was 52.78 years; 74.83% were women. The analysis of the following main groups of diseases was performed : sarcoïdosis (n = 30), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 22), other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (non specific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organising pneumonia and respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease; n = 20) and connective tissue disease (n = 14). Overall, out of 141 patients, 22% had sarcoïdosis, 15.6% had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 14.18% had other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and 9.9% had connective tissue disease (CTD). Mixed alveolitis was common in the 4 groups, sarcoïdosis had higher proportion of lymphocytes and IPF had higher neutrophils count. However, there was no significant statistical difference of BAL cellular count among these diseases (p > 0.05). Also, the prevalence of studied diseases did not change with variation of BAL cellular count (p > 0.05). Alone, the BAL cytological analysis has a limited value to provide substantial information that could lead to discriminate between diseases that form ILD. Thus, it must be always associated with other diagnostic methods.

  17. COMPLICATIONS OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE AND DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ilić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the leading diseases affecting people’s health and immunity worldwide. Nearly 30 thousand people in the USA die from chronic liver damage. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol. Alcohol is primarily a hepatotoxic agent. Hepatotoxicity of alcohol is clinically manifested by the development of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. It is characterized by appropriate symptomatology, depending on the degree of liver damage. Excessive use of alcohol for a long period of time, along with malnutrition, genetic and ethnic predisposition, leads to alcoholic cirrhosis and the development of its complications. Portal hypertension damages other organs and organ systems, causing hepatopulmonary syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc. For these reasons, alcoholism reduction is given priority, as well as reduction of morbidity and mortality of people with alcoholic chronic liver damage. Therefore, early diagnosis of alcohol abuse is necessary, as well as timely diagnosis of different degrees of alcoholic liver damage. The diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver damage is set on the basis of confirmed data of alcohol consumption; liver function test (serum markers aminotransferase, gammaglutamyl transferase, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin and albumin level; serum markers of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis markers are directly involved in sedimentation and dissolution of extracellular matrix, i.e. in the process of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis of liver tissues. They include markers and enzymes of metabolism, as well as cytokines and chemokines.

  18. Negotiating Ability of Using Condom to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS of Commercial Sex Worker Woman in Region Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Widodo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data from Board of Health in Surakarta City, on 8 September 2005, from 155 commercial sex worker woman had blood examined, there were 7 persons positive in HIV. One of factor affecting the high infection HIV/AIDS in women commercial sex worker was low use of condom. Aims of this research was to know factor-factor associated with didn’t use of condom and social aspect negotiations about using condom (education, economics status, working experience, devilling place, occupation, ethnic, religious, and income. This research is qualitative research using guided group discussion technique, in-depth interview, and participatory observation. Subject for this research were 30 persons, consist of 25 commercial sex worker, 3 guest, 1 room owner, and 1 parent. Independent variables in this research are social economics characteristic, demography and community characteristics. Dependent variables as PPSK capability in condom using negotiating to prevent sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. Commonly, despite knowing that everyone, including themselves, is vulnerable to AIDS infection, the respondents ignore asking the guest/partners for condom use. Most of them don’t ask for condom use due to their fear of either being the target of the guest anger and bad words, or losing money from them. Women commercial sex worker Silir in using condom and prevent sexual transmitted disease had free education from Board of Health in Surakarta City. In the street prostitutes are low support from peer, room owner, hotel owner, or guest about using condom for women commercial sex worker in illegal place, caused women commercial sex worker in the street more potential and high risk to spread sexual transmitted diseases than they were operated in Silir. The low capability of the street prostitutes for negotiating condom use with the guest customers results from: misperception on "safe-sex" behavior for seeking "help", economic and psychology pressure, free and

  19. Butyrylcholinesterase as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvesh, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The serine hydrolase butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), like the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), co-regulates metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the human brain BChE is mainly expressed in white matter and glia and in distinct populations of neurons in regions that are important in cognition and behavior, functions compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia with no cure nor means for definitive diagnosis during life. In AD, BChE is found in association with pathology, such as β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, particularly in the cerebral cortex where BChE is not normally found in quantity. Up to 30% of cognitively normal older adults have abundant Aβ deposition in the brain. We have designed an imaging agent that can detect, through autoradiography, BChE-associated Aβ plaques in the cerebral cortex of AD brains, but does not visualize Aβ plaques in brains of cognitively normal individuals. Furthermore, in an AD mouse model with BChE gene knocked out, there are up to 70% fewer fibrillar Aβ brain plaques, suggesting diminished BChE activity could prove beneficial as a curative approach to AD. To that end, we have examined numerous N-10-carbonyl phenothiazines that are specific inhibitors of human BChE, revealing important details of the enzyme's active site gorge. These phenothiazines can be designed without potential side effects caused by neurotransmitter receptor interactions. In conclusion, BChE is potentially an important target for diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  20. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  1. Cost Analysis and Performance Assessment of Partner Services for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, New York State, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Britney L; Tesoriero, James; Feng, Wenhui; Qian, Feng; Martin, Erika G

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the programmatic costs of partner services for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection. New York State and local health departments conducting partner services activities in 2014. A cost analysis estimated, from the state perspective, total program costs and cost per case assignment, patient interview, partner notification, and disease-specific key performance indicator. Data came from contracts, a time study of staff effort, and statewide surveillance systems. Disease-specific costs per case assignment (mean: $580; range: $502-$1,111), patient interview ($703; $608-$1,609), partner notification ($1,169; $950-$1,936), and key performance indicator ($2,697; $1,666-$20,255) varied across diseases. Most costs (79 percent) were devoted to gonorrhea and chlamydial infection investigations. Cost analysis complements cost-effectiveness analysis in evaluating program performance and guiding improvements. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. A novel diagnostic tool reveals mitochondrial pathology in human diseases and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Canugovi, Chandrika

    2013-01-01

    The inherent complex and pleiotropic phenotype of mitochondrial diseases poses a significant diagnostic challenge for clinicians as well as an analytical barrier for scientists. To overcome these obstacles we compiled a novel database, www.mitodb.com, containing the clinical features of primary...

  3. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 38 years after diagnostic use of human growth hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Croes (Esther); F. Forey; G.H. Jansen; P.C. Nijssen; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA 47 year old man is described who developed pathology proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) 38 years after receiving a low dose of human derived growth hormone (hGH) as part of a diagnostic procedure. The patient presented with a cerebellar syndrome, which is compatible with iatrogenic

  4. Diagnostic dilemmas in Fabry disease: a case series study on GLA mutations of unknown clinical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, B. E.; Hollak, C. E. M.; Poorthuis, B. J. H. M.; van den Bergh Weerman, M. A.; Florquin, S.; Kok, W. E. M.; Lekanne Deprez, R. H.; Timmermans, J.; Linthorst, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease' (FD) phenotype is heterogeneous: alpha-galactosidase A gene mutations (GLA) can lead to classical or non-classical FD, or no FD. The aim of this study is to describe pitfalls in diagnosing non-classical FD and assess the diagnostic value of plasma globotriaosylsphingosine. This is a

  5. Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, B; Feldman, H.H.; Jacova, C.; Hampel, H.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Blennow, K.; Dekosky, S.T.; Gauthier, S.; Selkoe, D.; Bateman, R.; Cappa, S.; Crutch, S.; Engelborghs, S.; Frisoni, G. B.; Fox, N.C.; Galasko, D.; Habert, M.O.; Jicha, G.A.; Nordberg, A.; Pasquier, F.; Rabinovici, G.; Robert, P.; Rowe, C.; Salloway, S.; Sarazin, M.; Epelbaum, S.; de Souza, L.C.; Vellas, B.; Visser, P.J.; Schneider, L.; Stern, Y.; Scheltens, P.; Cummings, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past 8 years, both the International Working Group (IWG) and the US National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association have contributed criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that better define clinical phenotypes and integrate biomarkers into the diagnostic process, covering

  6. Minimal residual disease diagnostics in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Need for sensitive, fast, and standardized technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); M. Brüggemann (Monika); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMonitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) has become routine clinical practice in frontline treatment of virtually all childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in many adult ALL patients. MRD diagnostics has proven to be the strongest prognostic factor, allowing for risk group

  7. Development of a diagnostic decision tree for obstructive pulmonary diseases based on real-life data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Esther I; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; van Heijst, Ellen; Kocks, Janwillem W H; Muilwijk-Kroes, Jacqueline B; Chavannes, Niels H; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and explore the diagnostic accuracy of a decision tree derived from a large real-life primary care population. Data from 9297 primary care patients (45% male, mean age 53±17 years) with suspicion of an obstructive pulmonary disease was derived from an

  8. Development of a diagnostic decision tree for obstructive pulmonary diseases based on real-life data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, E.I.; Veen, J.C. In 't; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Heijst, E. van; Kocks, J.W.; Muilwijk-Kroes, J.B.; Chavannes, N.H.; Molen, T. van der

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and explore the diagnostic accuracy of a decision tree derived from a large real-life primary care population. Data from 9297 primary care patients (45% male, mean age 53+/-17 years) with suspicion of an obstructive pulmonary disease was derived from an

  9. Integrating exhaled breath diagnostics by disease-sniffing dogs with instrumental laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs have been studied for many years as a medical diagnostic tool to detect a pre-clinical disease state by sniffing emissions directly from a human or an in vitro biological sample. Some of the studies report high sensitivity and specificity in blinded case-control studies. How...

  10. Diagnostic and prognostic implications of exercise testing in coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical indications for exercise testing as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the assessment of patients with ischemic heart disease have gradually evolved since Master introduced the two-step exercise test in 1929 (1). New information from correlations between

  11. X-ray diagnostics of most common periodontal diseases in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Nikola; Lazarević-Macanović Mirjana; Mitrović Branislava; Mitrović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Dental diseases in dogs and cats are of increasing importance in veterinary practice. If not diagnosed and treated on time, they can significantly affect the quality of life and pet health as well. Roentgenography of orofacial system, as a part of veterinary dentistry, is an important diagnostic tool that provides insight into diseases and irregularities of the teeth, shows macrostructure of bone parts, and also may indicate the etiology and genesis of vari...

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography using lower doses of radiation for patients with Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic resonance and ultrasonography have increasing roles in the initial diagnosis of Crohn\\'s disease, but computed tomography (CT) with positive oral contrast agents is most frequently used to identify those with acute extramural complications. However, CT involves exposure of patients to radiation. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT (at a dose comparable to that used to obtain an abdominal radiograph) with conventional-dose CT in patients with active Crohn\\'s disease.

  13. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF BARIUM ENEMA FINDINGS IN HIRSCHSPRUNG'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvasteh, Mehran; Askarpour, Shahnam; Ostadian, Nasrollah; Moghimi, Mohammad-Reza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April. Sixty patients were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: neonates with failure to pass meconium, abdominal distention, and refractory constipation who failed to respond with medical treatment. Transitional zone, delay in barium evacuation after 24 h, rectosigmoid index (maximum with of the rectum divided by maximum with of the sigmoid; abnormal if VPN, especificidade e sensibilidade foram calculados para cada achado. A idade média dos casos com a doença de Hirschsprung e sem foi 17,90±18,29 meses e 17,8±18,34 meses, respectivamente (p=0,983). Confirmou-se em 30 (M=20, F=10) dos casos. Falha no mecônio foi encontrada em 21 (70%) casos. Sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP e VPN foram de 90%, 80%, 81,8% e 88,8%, respectivamente, para a zona de transição no enema. Sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP e VPN foram 76,7%, 83,3%, 78,1% e 82,1%, respectivamente para o índice de retossigmoide. Sensitividade, especificidade, VPP e VPN foram 46,7%, 100%, 100% e 65,2%, respectivamente, para contração irregular detectada no enema baritado. Sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP e VPN foram de 23,3%, 100%, 100% e 56,6%, respectivamente, para a irregularidade da mucosa. O achado mais sensível foi zona de transição. Os achados mais específicos foram contração irregular, irregularidade da mucosa, e seguido por aparecimento de mucosa em forma de paralelepípedos.

  14. Principles of dispensary observation of patients with Parkinson's disease in a specialized clinical diagnostic room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivonos О.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to develop and implement of the order of the dispensary observation of Parkinson's disease patients. Material and methods, the dispensary observation of Parkinson's disease patients had been performed by neurologist and diagnostic room (CDR based on the outpatient department of health care institutions obeyed by FMBA of Russia in six Closed Administrative-Territorial Units: Seversk, Zarechniy, Ozersk, Lesnoy, Sarov and Zheleznogorsk. Neurologist examined of patients and put data to the Register's database. Register's database had 588 Parkinson's disease examined patients, 112 of them (19,1% had stage II of the disease by Hoehn and Yahr, 231 (39,3% patients — stage III by Hoehn and Yahr, 187 (31,8% patients — stage IV byHoehn and Yahr, 58 (9,9% patients — stage V by Hoehn and Yahr. The duration of the dispensary observation of Parkinson's disease patients was 4 years (2009-2012. Results. There are and implement the order of the observed and accounting of adult's group of Parkinson's disease patients were developed, who are registered in the clinical and diagnostic rooms, including the frequency of physician's visits, the list of diagnostic and treatment activities and efficiency endpoint of the dispensary observation. Conclusion. Implementation of the order of the dispensary observation according to the Register allowed to identify the main disabling PD's symptoms (depression, dementia, motor fluctuations and dyskinesia and timely correction of therapy.

  15. Integrated Hepatitis C Testing and Linkage to Care at a Local Health Department Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic: Determining Essential Resources and Evaluating Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Sarah; Seña, Arlene C; Hilton, Alison; Hurt, Christopher B; Wohl, David; Fleischauer, Aaron

    2018-04-01

    Guidance about integration of comprehensive hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related services in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is limited. We evaluated a federally funded HCV testing and linkage-to-care program at an STD clinic in Durham County, North Carolina. During December 10, 2012, to March 31, 2015, the program tested 733 patients for HCV who reported 1 or more HCV risk factor; 81 (11%) were HCV-infected (ie, HCV antibody-positive and HCV ribonucleic acid-positive). Fifty-one infected patients (63%) were linked to care. We concluded that essential program resources include reflex HCV ribonucleic acid testing; a dedicated bridge counselor to provide test results, health education, and linkage-to-care assistance; and referral relationships for local HCV management and treatment.

  16. Impact of educational lectures on female adolescents’ knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer in the city of Jundiaí, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Ramos Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of adolescents living in Vila Ana and Morada das Vinhas region, in the city of Jundiaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on prevention and diagnosis of the main sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and on cervical cancer, as well as the immediate impact of educational lectures. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed to assess the knowledge of a particular group of female adolescents about STDs and cervical cancer, by means of a questionnaire applied before and after educational lectures. Results: After the lecture, there was an increased number of correct answers about sexual education, knowledge about HPV (44%, and prevention of cervical cancer (22%. Conclusion: The adolescents in our study had little knowledge about STDs and cervical cancer, but educative lectures could change this reality at a low cost to Public Health services.

  17. Diagnostic value of multislice computed tomography angiography in coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhonghua; Jiang Wen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis of the diagnostic value of multislice CT (MSCT) angiography in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) when compared to conventional coronary angiography. Materials and methods: A search of PubMed and MEDLINE databases for English literature was performed. Only studies with at least 10 patients comparing MSCT angiography with conventional coronary angiography in the detection of CAD were included. Diagnostic value of MSCT angiography compared to coronary angiography was compared and analyzed at segment-, vessel- and patient-based assessment. Results: 47 studies (67 comparisons) met the criteria and were included in our study. Pooled overall sensitivity, specificity and 95% confidence interval for MSCT angiography in the detection of CAD were 83% (79%, 89%), 93% (91%, 96%) at segment-based analysis; 90% (87%, 94%), 87% (80%, 93%) at vessel-based analysis; and 91% (88%, 95%), 86% (81%, 92%) at patient-based analysis, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of MSCT angiography in evaluating assessable segments was significantly improved with 64-slice scanners when compared to that with 4- and 16-slice scanners (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis showed that MSCT angiography has potential diagnostic accuracy in the detection of CAD. Diagnostic performance of MSCT angiography has been significantly improved with the latest 64-slice CT, with resultant high qualitative and quantitative diagnostic accuracy. 16-slice CT was limited in spatial resolution which makes it difficult to perform quantitative assessment of coronary artery stenoses

  18. Added benefit of nucleic acid amplification testing for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis among men and women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Blackburn, Reaford J; Sinsky, Richard J; Austin, Erika L; Schwebke, Jane R

    2014-09-15

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. However, TV is not a reportable STI and, with the exception of HIV-positive women, there are no guidelines for screening in women or men. The objective of this study was to determine the added value of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of TV in men and women at high risk for infection as well as correlates of infection. This was a review of clinical and laboratory data of men and women presenting to the Jefferson County Department of Health Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Clinic and receiving a TV NAAT. During 2012-2013, 6335 patients (3821 women and 2514 men) received a TV NAAT on endocervical, urethral, or urine specimens. Overall TV prevalence was 20.2%; 27.0% in women and 9.8% in men. Correlates of TV among men included age >40 years, African American race, and ≥5 polymorphonuclear cells per high-power field on urethral Gram stain. Age >40 years, African American race, leukorrhea on wet mount, elevated vaginal pH, positive whiff test, and concurrent gonococcal infection were positively associated with TV among women. TV NAAT detected approximately one-third more infections among women than wet mount alone. TV prevalence among men and women was high in this study, suggesting that both groups should be routinely screened, including those aged >40 years. Improved detection of TV by routine implementation of NAATs should result in better control of this common, treatable STI. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diagnostic and therapeutic impact of MR enterography in Crohn’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, R.; Punwani, S.; Boulos, P.; Bloom, S.; McCartney, S.; Halligan, S.; Taylor, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the impact of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) on clinician diagnostic confidence and therapeutic strategy in patients under investigation for small bowel Crohn’s disease. Material and methods: Gastroenterologists completed a proforma before and following MRE in 51 patients (mean age 35 years, 26 female) under investigation for small bowel Crohn’s disease, indicating percentage confidence for presence/absence of small bowel involvement. In suspected disease, diagnostic confidence (using a scoring system from 1 = no to 6 = yes) was scored for subcategories: extent >30 cm (DE), terminal ileum (lTI), jejunal (JD), colonic disease (CoD), strictures (ST), activity (AD), extraluminal complications (EL), and surgical need (NS). Therapeutic strategy was recorded. Patients were divided into three groups: 1 = suspected disease, MRE normal (n = 15); 2 = suspected disease, MRE abnormal (n = 30); 3 = no suspected disease, MRE normal (n = 6). Binomial exact and paired t-tests were use to compare confidence pre and post-MRE. Results: Mean percentage confidence for the presence/absence of small bowel disease increased from 62 to 84% (p = 0.003), 87 to 98% (p = 0.0001), and 83 to 98% (p = 0.005) after MRE for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In suspected disease, confidence changed significantly for all of the subcategories (p < 0.001) except EL in group 1. The percentage of patients with a confidence change ranged from 40% (CoD) to 87% (lTI; group 1) and from 7% (EL) to 93% (DE; group 2). Therapeutic strategy changed in 31/51 (61%, 95% CI 47–74%), 14 with a reduction in planned therapy and 17 with an increase. Conclusion: MRE had a positive diagnostic impact in patients under investigation for small bowel Crohn’s disease and this influenced therapeutic strategy in 61% of the patients.

  20. Disease protection and allelopathic interactions of seed-transmitted endophytic pseudomonads of invasive reed grass (Phragmites australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F.; Kingsley, Katheryn I; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Micci, April; Soares, Marcos Antonio; Bergen, Marshall S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aimsNon-native Phragmites australis (haplotype M) is an invasive grass that decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands. We hypothesized that seeds of Phragmites carry microbes that improve seedling growth, defend against pathogens and maximize capacity of seedlings to compete with other plants.MethodsWe isolated bacteria from seeds of Phragmites, then evaluated representatives for their capacities to become intracellular in root cells, and their effects on: 1.) germination rates and seedling growth, 2.) susceptibility to damping-off disease, and 3.) mortality and growth of competitor plant seedlings (dandelion (Taraxacum officionale F. H. Wigg) and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.)).ResultsTen strains (of 23 total) were identified and characterized; seven were identified as Pseudomonas spp. Strains Sandy LB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and West 9 (Pseudomonas sp.) entered root meristems and became intracellular. These bacteria improved seed germination in Phragmites and increased seedling root branching in Poa annua. They increased plant growth and protected plants from damping off disease. Sandy LB4 increased mortality and reduced growth rates in seedlings of dandelion and curly dock.ConclusionsPhragmites plants associate with endophytes to increase growth and disease resistance, and release bacteria into the soil to create an environment that is favorable to their seedlings and less favorable to competitor plants.

  1. Motor onset and diagnosis in Huntington disease using the diagnostic confidence level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Long, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Ying; Raymond, Lynn A; Marder, Karen; Rosser, Anne; McCusker, Elizabeth A; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-12-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive deterioration, and psychiatric symptoms, with progressive motor impairments being a prominent feature. The primary objectives of this study are to delineate the disease course of motor function in HD, to provide estimates of the onset of motor impairments and motor diagnosis, and to examine the effects of genetic and demographic variables on the progression of motor impairments. Data from an international multisite, longitudinal observational study of 905 prodromal HD participants with cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats of at least 36 and with at least two visits during the followup period from 2001 to 2012 was examined for changes in the diagnostic confidence level from the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. HD progression from unimpaired to impaired motor function, as well as the progression from motor impairment to diagnosis, was associated with the linear effect of age and CAG repeat length. Specifically, for every 1-year increase in age, the risk of transition in diagnostic confidence level increased by 11% (95% CI 7-15%) and for one repeat length increase in CAG, the risk of transition in diagnostic confidence level increased by 47% (95% CI 27-69%). Findings show that CAG repeat length and age increased the likelihood of the first onset of motor impairment as well as the age at diagnosis. Results suggest that more accurate estimates of HD onset age can be obtained by incorporating the current status of diagnostic confidence level into predictive models.

  2. [Diagnostic value of neuropsychological tests in mild cognitive impairment comorbid with Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Ilona; Koczorowski, Andrzej; Koziorowski, Dariusz; Gawryś, Ludwika

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is present in on average one-fourth of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with no dementia diagnosis. Only recently has PD-MCI been treated as a new diagnostic entity. In 2012, unified criteria were adopted which allow both diagnosing MCI in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) and further classification taking into account the profile of cognitive dysfunctions and the probability of evolution towards dementia. The diagnostic criteria were presented in the form of stipulations and guidelines assuming that diagnostic process is based on the neuropsychological assessment of the patient. The notion of MCI had been borrowed and for a couple of years had been relying on definitions developed in relation to Alzheimer's disease. For the first time, in the proposed criteria memory dysfunction is not the basis of classification. Only two categories of dysfunctions have been retained, single-domain and multiple-domain. Whether the adopted criteria will contribute to an accurate diagnosis of cognitive dysfunctions and PD-specific dementing processes remains an open question. In spite of some limitations, the presented criteria can certainly improve the efficacy of monitoring the patient's state at the same time allowing the hope for an appropriate therapy and a higher quality of life. Moreover, the unification of diagnostic criteria will be crucial in assessing usefulness ofneuropsychological test instruments as a basic method of investigating neurodegenerative processes not only in PD.

  3. Smartphone-Based Mobile Detection Platform for Molecular Diagnostics and Spatiotemporal Disease Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinzhao; Pandian, Vikram; Mauk, Michael G; Bau, Haim H; Cherry, Sara; Tisi, Laurence C; Liu, Changchun

    2018-04-03

    Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, relatively sophisticated instruments, and trained personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected, and quantitative molecular diagnostics. Our platform combines bioluminescent assay in real-time and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (BART-LAMP) technology with smartphone-based detection, eliminating the need for an excitation source and optical filters that are essential in fluorescent-based detection. The incubation heating for the isothermal amplification is provided, electricity-free, with an exothermic chemical reaction, and incubation temperature is regulated with a phase change material. A custom Android App was developed for bioluminescent signal monitoring and analysis, target quantification, data sharing, and spatiotemporal mapping of disease. SCC's utility is demonstrated by quantitative detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in urine and saliva and HIV in blood within 45 min. We demonstrate SCC's connectivity for disease spatiotemporal mapping with a custom-designed website. Such a smart- and connected-diagnostic system does not require any lab facilities and is suitable for use at home, in the field, in the clinic, and particularly in resource-limited settings in the context of Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).

  4. Diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting He

    Full Text Available A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was performed in January 2015 to examine the available literature on validated diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease and to describe the characteristics of the models. Studies that were designed to develop and validate diagnostic models of pre-test probability for stable coronary artery disease were included. Data regarding baseline patient characteristics, procedural characteristics, modeling methods, metrics of model performance, risk of bias, and clinical usefulness were extracted. Ten studies involving the development of 12 models and two studies focusing on external validation were identified. Seven models were validated internally, and seven models were validated externally. Discrimination varied between studies that were validated internally (C statistic 0.66-0.81 and externally (0.49-0.87. Only one study presented reclassification indices. The majority of better performing models included sex, age, symptoms, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia as variables. Only two diagnostic models evaluated the effects on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes. Most diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease have had modest success, and very few present data regarding the effects of these models on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes.

  5. Diagnostic Tools for Inborn Errors of Human Immunity (Primary Immunodeficiencies and Immune Dysregulatory Diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annely M; Moyer, Ann M; Hasadsri, Linda; Abraham, Roshini S

    2018-02-22

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of diagnostic testing in primary immunodeficiency and immune dysregulatory disorders (PIDDs), particularly focusing on flow cytometry and genetic techniques, utilizing specific examples of PIDDs. Flow cytometry remains a vital tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of immunological diseases. Its utility ranges from cellular analysis and specific protein quantitation to functional assays and signaling pathway analysis. Mass cytometry combines flow cytometry and mass spectrometry to dramatically increase the throughput of multivariate single-cell analysis. Next-generation sequencing in combination with other molecular techniques and processing algorithms has become more widely available and identified the diverse and heterogeneous genetic underpinnings of these disorders. As the spectrum of disease is further clarified by increasing immunological, genetic, and epigenetic knowledge, the careful application of these diagnostic tools and bioinformatics will assist not only in our understanding of these complex disorders, but also enable the implementation of personalized therapeutic approaches for disease management.

  6. Towards first principle medical diagnostics: on the importance of disease-disease and sign-sign interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental problem in medicine and biology is to assign states, e.g. healthy or diseased, to cells, organs or individuals. State assignment or making a diagnosis is often a nontrivial and challenging process and, with the advent of omics technologies, the diagnostic challenge is becoming more and more serious. The challenge lies not only in the increasing number of measured properties and dynamics of the system (e.g. cell or human body) but also in the co-evolution of multiple states and overlapping properties, and degeneracy of states. We develop, from first principles, a generic rational framework for state assignment in cell biology and medicine, and demonstrate its applicability with a few simple theoretical case studies from medical diagnostics. We show how disease-related statistical information can be used to build a comprehensive model that includes the relevant dependencies between clinical and laboratory findings (signs) and diseases. In particular, we include disease-disease and sign-sign interactions and study how one can infer the probability of a disease in a patient with given signs. We perform comparative analysis with simple benchmark models to check the performances of our models. We find that including interactions can significantly change the statistical importance of the signs and diseases. This first principles approach, as we show, facilitates the early diagnosis of disease by taking interactions into accounts, and enables the construction of consensus diagnostic flow charts. Additionally, we envision that our approach will find applications in systems biology, and in particular, in characterizing the phenome via the metabolome, the proteome, the transcriptome, and the genome.

  7. CLINICAL MANIFESTATION, DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF KAWASAKI DISEASE: KNOWN DATA AND UNSOLVED QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. А. Lyskina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture deals with the most common systemic vasculitis in pediatric practice — Kawasaki disease. This disorder is associated with risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in children and young adults and at present is considered to be the main cause of the acquired heard diseases in children. The authors give historical aspects and modern opinions on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and treatment of Kawasaki disease. The data were summarized from Russian and foreign literature as well as from the own authors’ experience.

  8. Diagnostic accuracies of MR enterography and CT enterography in symptomatic Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Kjeldsen, Jens; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. In patients, with symptomatic Crohn's disease (CD), valid information about the presence or absence of small bowel disease activity and stenosis is clinically important. Such information supports decisions about medical or surgical therapy and can be obtained with MR...... diagnostic accuracies for detection of small bowel CD and stenosis. In symptomatic patients with CD and high disease prevalence, positive predictive values are favorable but negative predictive values are low. Consequently, MRE and CTE can be relied upon, if a positive result is obtained whereas a negative...

  9. Diagnostic Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  10. Scrapie Agent (Strain 263K) can transmit disease via the oral route after persistence in soil over years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bjoern; Thomzig, Achim; Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin H; Peters, Rainer; Beekes, Michael; Terytze, Konstantin

    2007-05-09

    The persistence of infectious biomolecules in soil constitutes a substantial challenge. This holds particularly true with respect to prions, the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or chronic wasting disease (CWD). Various studies have indicated that prions are able to persist in soil for years without losing their pathogenic activity. Dissemination of prions into the environment can occur from several sources, e.g., infectious placenta or amniotic fluid of sheep. Furthermore, environmental contamination by saliva, excrements or non-sterilized agricultural organic fertilizer is conceivable. Natural transmission of scrapie in the field seems to occur via the alimentary tract in the majority of cases, and scrapie-free sheep flocks can become infected on pastures where outbreaks of scrapie had been observed before. These findings point to a sustained contagion in the environment, and notably the soil. By using outdoor lysimeters, we simulated a contamination of standard soil with hamster-adapted 263K scrapie prions, and analyzed the presence and biological activity of the soil-associated PrP(Sc) and infectivity by Western blotting and hamster bioassay, respectively. Our results showed that 263K scrapie agent can persist in soil at least over 29 months. Strikingly, not only the contaminated soil itself retained high levels of infectivity, as evidenced by oral administration to Syrian hamsters, but also feeding of aqueous soil extracts was able to induce disease in the reporter animals. We could also demonstrate that PrP(Sc) in soil, extracted after 21 months, provides a catalytically active seed in the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reaction. PMCA opens therefore a perspective for considerably improving the detectability of prions in soil samples from the field.

  11. Recommendations for the use of molecular diagnostics in the diagnosis of allergic dis-eases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, D; Tonutti, E; Bizzaro, N; Brusca, I; Sargentini, V; Asero, R; Bilo, M B; Manzotti, G; Murzilli, F; Cecchi, L; Musarra, A

    2018-03-01

    The Study Group on Allergology of the Italian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (SIPMeL) and the Associazione Italiana degli Allergologi e Immunologi Territoriali e Ospedalieri (AAIITO) developed the present recommendations on the diagnosis of allergic diseases based on the use of molecular allergenic components, whose purpose is to provide the pathologists and the clinicians with information and algorithms enabling a proper use of this second-level diagnostics. Molecular diagnostics allows definition of the exact sensitization profile of the allergic patient. The methodology followed to develop these recommendations included an initial phase of discussion between all the components to integrate the knowledge derived from scientific evidence, a revision of the recommendations made by Italian and foreign experts, and the subsequent production of this document to be disseminated to all those who deal with allergy diagnostics.

  12. Toward First Principle Medical Diagnostics: On the Importance of Disease-Disease and Sign-Sign Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ramezanpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in medicine and biology is to assign states, e.g., healthy or diseased, to cells, organs or individuals. State assignment or making a diagnosis is often a nontrivial and challenging process and, with the advent of omics technologies, the diagnostic challenge is becoming more and more serious. The challenge lies not only in the increasing number of measured properties and dynamics of the system (e.g., cell or human body but also in the co-evolution of multiple states and overlapping properties, and degeneracy of states. We develop, from first principles, a generic rational framework for state assignment in cell biology and medicine, and demonstrate its applicability with a few simple theoretical case studies from medical diagnostics. We show how disease–related statistical information can be used to build a comprehensive model that includes the relevant dependencies between clinical and laboratory findings (signs and diseases. In particular, we include disease-disease and sign–sign interactions and study how one can infer the probability of a disease in a patient with given signs. We perform comparative analysis with simple benchmark models to check the performances of our models. We find that including interactions can significantly change the statistical importance of the signs and diseases. This first principles approach, as we show, facilitates the early diagnosis of disease by taking interactions into accounts, and enables the construction of consensus diagnostic flow charts. Additionally, we envision that our approach will find applications in systems biology, and in particular, in characterizing the phenome via the metabolome, the proteome, the transcriptome, and the genome.

  13. Computed tomography of neurodegenerative disease in childhood. Serial CT findings and their diagnostic values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Hojo, Hiroatsu

    1984-12-01

    Serial computed tomographic scans were performed on seven children with neurodegenerative disorders. In two cases of white-matter diseases (Krabbe's disease and metachromatic leukodystrophy), diffuse, low-density lesions of white matter were visible in the early stage of the diseases. In one case of adrenoleukodystrophy, regional low-density lesions of the white matter around the posterior horns and peculiar high-density strip lesions were visible in the early stage. In two cases of storage-type gray-matter diseases (Tay-Sachs' and infantile Gaucher's disease), there were no abnormalities in the early stage, but diffuse cortical atrophies in the late stage. In one case of Leigh's disease, there were small, low-density lesions of the basal ganglia and multiple low-density lesions of the gray matter in the early stage. In one case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, there were no abnormalities in the early stage, but small, low-density lesions of the basal ganglia and diffuse cerebral atrophies in the late stage. Diagnostic values were recognized dominantly in two cases of adrenoleukodystrophy and Leigh's disease. In the other cases, however, serial CT scans were useful in the diagnostic process. (author).

  14. Infectious Disease Management through Point-of-Care Personalized Medicine Molecular Diagnostic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Bissonnette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours often leads to unnecessary suffering and deaths; approaches to relieve this burden include rapid diagnostic procedures and more efficient transmission or interpretation of molecular microbiology results. Although rapid nucleic acid-based diagnostic testing has demonstrated that it can impact on the transmission of hospital-acquired infections, we believe that such life-saving procedures should be performed closer to the patient, in dedicated 24/7 laboratories of healthcare institutions, or ideally at point of care. While personalized medicine generally aims at interrogating the genomic information of a patient, drug metabolism polymorphisms, for example, to guide drug choice and dosage, personalized medicine concepts are applicable in infectious diseases for the (rapid identification of a disease-causing microbe and determination of its antimicrobial resistance profile, to guide an appropriate antimicrobial treatment for the proper management of the patient. The implementation of point-of-care testing for infectious diseases will require acceptance by medical authorities, new technological and communication platforms, as well as reimbursement practices such that time- and life-saving procedures become available to the largest number of patients.

  15. Ongoing sexually transmitted disease acquisition and risk-taking behavior among US HIV-infected patients in primary care: implications for prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Bush, Timothy; Henry, Keith; Overton, Edgar T; Hammer, John; Richardson, Jean; Wood, Kathy; Conley, Lois; Papp, John; Caliendo, Angela M; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the factors associated with HIV- and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care. We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN Study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected adults in primary care in 4 US cities. At enrollment and 6 months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal, and pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for Trichomonas vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD 6 months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in men who have sex with men. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ≥4 sex partners in the 6 months before testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD. STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active men who have sex with men who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care.

  16. [Assistance for customers with sexually transmitted diseases at pharmacies in the Federal District, Brazil: an intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Janeth de Oliveira Silva; Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo de; Melo, Gislane Ferreira de; Giavoni, Adriana; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar

    2008-03-01

    A quantitative survey was conducted to analyze the type of assistance provided by pharmacy employees for cases of STDs. Simulated customer visits and interviews were conducted in 70 pharmacies in Brasilia and Taguatinga, Brazil, randomly assigned to two groups, one of which participated in educational activities on STDs. There were 411 simulated client visits to the pharmacies, with the following results: recommendation to seek medical care in 30% of cases, while in 70% of cases the pharmacy employees themselves recommended some drug treatment (although only 16.4% admitted to such practice). None of these suggested treatments was appropriate, based on the syndromic approach. Recommendations for prevention and treatment of partners were rare. Pharmacists recommended consulting a physician more frequently than attendants, and the latter recommended medicines more frequently than the former. Pharmacy workers had only superficial knowledge of STDs. After an educational intervention, none of the indicators showed a significant improvement in either group. The observations point to the need for regulation and intervention to publicize educational practices for the control of diseases like STDs and for the rational use of medicines in pharmacies.

  17. Bayesian modeling and inference for diagnostic accuracy and probability of disease based on multiple diagnostic biomarkers with and without a perfect reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Johnson, Wesley O; Gardner, Ian A

    2016-03-15

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is used as a performance metric for quantitative tests. Although multiple biomarkers may be available for diagnostic or screening purposes, diagnostic accuracy is often assessed individually rather than in combination. In this paper, we consider the interesting problem of combining multiple biomarkers for use in a single diagnostic criterion with the goal of improving the diagnostic accuracy above that of an individual biomarker. The diagnostic criterion created from multiple biomarkers is based on the predictive probability of disease, conditional on given multiple biomarker outcomes. If the computed predictive probability exceeds a specified cutoff, the corresponding subject is allocated as 'diseased'. This defines a standard diagnostic criterion that has its own ROC curve, namely, the combined ROC (cROC). The AUC metric for cROC, namely, the combined AUC (cAUC), is used to compare the predictive criterion based on multiple biomarkers to one based on fewer biomarkers. A multivariate random-effects model is proposed for modeling multiple normally distributed dependent scores. Bayesian methods for estimating ROC curves and corresponding (marginal) AUCs are developed when a perfect reference standard is not available. In addition, cAUCs are computed to compare the accuracy of different combinations of biomarkers for diagnosis. The methods are evaluated using simulations and are applied to data for Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in cattle. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Magnetic resonance enterography with oral mannitol solution: Diagnostic efficacy and image quality in Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplay, M; Guneyli, S; Cebeci, H; Korkmaz, H; Emiroglu, H H; Sekmenli, T; Paksoy, Y

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy and image quality of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) using oral mannitol solution for the evaluation Crohn disease (CD). We retrospectively evaluated MRE examinations of 153 patients with an assumed or definitive diagnosis of CD. There were 65 men and 88 women, with a mean age of 35.7 years (range: 6-73years). MRE findings of the patients were compared to histopathologic results obtained by surgery-fiberoptic endoscopy. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy rate were calculated. Additionally, image quality of MRE was evaluated using a four-point scale (1=excellent, 4=poor/non-diagnostic). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy were 92.5%, 93% and 92.8%, respectively. Six patients had false-positive and five patients had false-negative findings. Three falsely positive patients had ulcerative colitis and three had non-specific terminal ileitis. A total of 765 small bowel segments were analyzed; 475 (62%) had an image quality score of 1 and 15 (2%), an image quality score of 4. MRE using oral mannitol solution provides excellent image quality for MRE and has high degrees of diagnostic efficacy in CD patients. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant for Complicated Skin Diseases through C5’s Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Kermany, Zahra Arab

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant can be used for complicated diagnosis of skin diseases, which are among the most common causes of disability. The aim of this study was to design and implement a computerized intelligent diagnostic assistant for complicated skin diseases through C5’s Algorithm. Method: An applied-developmental study was done in 2015. Knowledge base was developed based on interviews with dermatologists through questionnaires and checklists. Knowledge representation was obtained from the train data in the database using Excel Microsoft Office. Clementine Software and C5’s Algorithms were applied to draw the decision tree. Analysis of test accuracy was performed based on rules extracted using inference chains. The rules extracted from the decision tree were entered into the CLIPS programming environment and the intelligent diagnostic assistant was designed then. Results: The rules were defined using forward chaining inference technique and were entered into Clips programming environment as RULE. The accuracy and error rates obtained in the training phase from the decision tree were 99.56% and 0.44%, respectively. The accuracy of the decision tree was 98% and the error was 2% in the test phase. Conclusion: Intelligent diagnostic assistant can be used as a reliable system with high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and agreement. PMID:29114111

  20. Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant for Complicated Skin Diseases through C5's Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Kermany, Zahra Arab

    2017-09-01

    Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant can be used for complicated diagnosis of skin diseases, which are among the most common causes of disability. The aim of this study was to design and implement a computerized intelligent diagnostic assistant for complicated skin diseases through C5's Algorithm. An applied-developmental study was done in 2015. Knowledge base was developed based on interviews with dermatologists through questionnaires and checklists. Knowledge representation was obtained from the train data in the database using Excel Microsoft Office. Clementine Software and C5's Algorithms were applied to draw the decision tree. Analysis of test accuracy was performed based on rules extracted using inference chains. The rules extracted from the decision tree were entered into the CLIPS programming environment and the intelligent diagnostic assistant was designed then. The rules were defined using forward chaining inference technique and were entered into Clips programming environment as RULE. The accuracy and error rates obtained in the training phase from the decision tree were 99.56% and 0.44%, respectively. The accuracy of the decision tree was 98% and the error was 2% in the test phase. Intelligent diagnostic assistant can be used as a reliable system with high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and agreement.