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Sample records for transmission line magnet

  1. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  2. Design of the Yang magnetically-insulated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yuanchao; Song Shenyi

    2002-01-01

    The authors have designed a new magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) for the Yang accelerator. The differences between the existing line and the designing one are given. The electric strength of some special regions on the lines and the inductance of the lines have been calculated. The authors have checked the states of magnetic insulation on the designing line

  3. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF MAIN MAGNET TRANSMISSION LINE EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    A main magnet chain forms a pair of transmission lines. Pulse-reflection-caused voltage and current differentiation throughout the magnet chain can have adverse effect on main magnet field quality. This effect is associated with magnet system configuration, coupling efficiency, and parasitic parameters. A better understanding of this phenomenon will help us in new design and existing system upgrade. In this paper, we exam the transmission line effect due to different input functions as well as configuration, coupling, and other parameters.

  4. Environmental pollution by magnetic field associated with power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Abdel-Salam H. A.; Ghania, Samy M. [Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University (Banha Branch), 9-EI-Hakim Be-Amr EI-Ahh Str, EI- Khalafawy, Shoubra, Cairo (Egypt); Mohmoudh, Shaher A. [Ministry of Electricity and Energy (Egypt)

    2002-11-01

    Environmental pollution has a major effect on human health and other life types. A source of environmental pollution is the magnetic field produced near high and extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines. Magnetic fields from AC EHV lines have been discussed in this paper. The field profiles and their contribution to environmental pollution are studied, these being under transmission lines with different line system configurations, using the three dimensional approaches. These line system configurations are more commonly used in Egypt and other countries. The obtained results are found to be useful for discussing the comparison of the field densities on the human body and other life types at the ground level under or near the lines. (Author)

  5. Electric and magnetic field reduction by alternative transmission line options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.R. (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)); Dale, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Klein, K.W. (Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Ground level electric, and more recently magnetic, fields from overhead power transmission lines are increasingly important considerations in right of way specification, with states setting or planning to set edge of right of way limits. Research has been conducted in high phase order power transmission wherein six of twelve phases are used to transmit power in less physical space and with reduced electrical environmental effects than conventional designs. The first magnetic field testing, as reported in this paper, has verified predictive methods for determination of magnetic fields from high phase order lines. Based on these analytical methods, field profiles have been determined for lines of different phase order of comparable power capacity. Potential advantages of high phase order as a means of field mitigation are discussed. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Simulation of loss electron in vacuum magnetically insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengfei; Li Yongdong; Liu Chunliang; Wang Hongguang; Guo Fan; Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Su Zhaofeng; Sun Jianfeng; Sun Jiang; Gao Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the beginning of magnetic insulated period, loss electron in coaxial vacuum magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) strikes anode and the bremsstrahlung photons are generated in the mean time. Based on the self-limited flow model, velocity in direction of energy transport, energy spectrum and angular distribution of loss electron are simulated by PIC code, energy spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons as well calculated though Monte Carlo method. Computational results show that the velocity of loss electron is less than 2.998 x 108 m/s, the angular excursion of electron is not much in a board extent of energy spectrum. These results show an indirect diagnosis of vacuum insulted transmission line working status based on loss electron bremsstrahlung. (authors)

  7. Transmission line properties of long strings of superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the electrical characteristics of a long string of superconducting magnets, such as in a superconducting storage ring or accelerator. As the magnets have a shunt capacitance to ground as well as a series inductance, travelling waves can propagate along the string, as in a transmission line. As the string is of finite length, standing waves can also exist. In accelerator quality superconducting magnets, considerable effort has been devoted to minimizing ac losses, the net result being that the magnet string has a high Q precisely at the frequencies which are important for the standing and travelling waves. The magnitude of these effects are estimated, and the solution to be used at Fermilab will be discussed

  8. Microparticle-initiated losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.W.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The author's discuss the effects of high and hypervelocity microparticles in magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and how they may be a possible source for ion production near the anode in early stages of the voltage pulse, and current carriers during and after the power pulse, resulting in power flow losses. Early losses in the voltage pulse, due to microparticles, are estimated to be approximately 0.3 mA/cm/sup 2/. Blistering of the electrode surface, thought to be due to H/sup -/ bombardment, was also observed and appears to be consistent with losses due to negative ions previously reported by one of the authors

  9. Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Martin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It is desirable to optimize (minimizing both the inductance and electron flow the magnetically insulated vacuum sections of low impedance pulsed-power drivers. The goal of low inductance is understandable from basic efficiency arguments. The goal of low electron flow results from two observations: (1 flowing electrons generally do not deliver energy to (or even reach most loads, and thus constitute a loss mechanism; (2 energetic electrons deposited in a small area can cause anode damage and anode plasma formation. Low inductance and low electron flow are competing goals; an optimized system requires a balance of the two. While magnetically insulated systems are generally forgiving, there are times when optimization is crucial. For example, in large pulsed-power drivers used to energize high energy density physics loads, the electron flow as a fraction of total current is small, but that flow often reaches the anode in relatively small regions. If the anode temperature becomes high enough to desorb gas, the resulting plasma initiates a gap closure process that can impact system performance. Magnetic-pressure driven (z pinches and material equation of state loads behave like a fixed inductor for much of the drive pulse. It is clear that neither fixed gap nor constant-impedance transmission lines are optimal for driving inductive loads. This work shows a technique for developing the optimal impedance profile for the magnetically insulated section of a high-current driver. Particle-in-cell calculations are used to validate the impedance profiles developed in a radial disk magnetically insulated transmission line geometry. The input parameters are the spacing and location of the minimum gap, the effective load inductance, and the desired electron flow profile. The radial electron flow profiles from these simulations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions when driven at relatively high voltage (i.e., V≥2  MV.

  10. Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pace VanDevender

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv gap closure and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.

  11. Energy losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines due to microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.W.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the effects of high-velocity and hypervelocity microparticles in the magnetically insulated transmission lines of multiterawatt accelerators used for particle beam fusion and radiation effects simulation. These microparticles may be a possible source for plasma production near the anode and cathode in early stages of the voltage pulse, and current carriers during and after the power pulse, resulting in power flow losses. Losses in the current pulse, due to microparticles, are estimated to be approximately 12 mA/cm 2 (0.3 kA) as a lower limit, and --0.3 A/cm 2 (7.2 kA) for microparticle initiated, anode plasma positive ion transport. We have calculated the velocities reached by these microparticles and the effects on them of Van der Waals forces. Field emission from the particles and their effects on cathode and anode plasma formation have been examined. Particle collision with the electrodes is also examined in terms of plasma production, as in the electron deposition in the particles in transit across the anode-cathode gap. Blistering of the electrode surface, thought to be due to H - bombardment was also observed and appears to be consistent with losses due to negative ions previously reported by J. P. VanDevender, R. W. Stinnett, and R. J. Anderson [App. Phys. Lett. 38, 229 (1981)

  12. Recent progress of the improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jian-De; Liu, Jin-Liang; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Cheng-Wei; Luo, Ling

    2008-03-01

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube driven by a 550 kV, 57 kA, 50 ns electron beam. It has allowed us to generate 2.4 GW pulse of 22 ns duration. The recent progress of the improved MILO is presented in this paper. First, a field shaper cathode is introduced into the improved MILO to avoid the cathode flares in the triple point region. The experimental results show that the cathode flares are avoided, so the lifetime of the velvet cathode is longer than that of the taper cathode. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot reproducibility is better than that of the taper cathode. Second, In order to prolong the pulse duration and increase the radiated microwave power, a self-built 600 kV, 10 Omega, 80 ns pulser: SPARK-03 is employed to drive the improved MILO. Simulation and experimental investigation are performed. In simulation, when the improved MILO is driven by a 600 kV, 57 kA electron beam, high-power microwave is generated with output power of 4.15 GW, frequency of 1.76 GHz, and relevant power conversion efficiency of 12.0%. In experiments, when the diode voltage is 550 kV and current is 54 kA, the measured results are that the radiated microwave power is above 3.1 GW, the pulse duration is above 40 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.755 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 10.4%.

  13. Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutsel, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoltzfus, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fowler, William E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LeChien, Keith R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mazarakis, Michael G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, James K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulville, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Savage, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stygar, William A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McKenney, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Peter A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacRunnels, Diego J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Finis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Porter, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.

  14. Magnetic insulation in triplate and coaxial vacuum transmission lines. Report PIFR-1009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Capua, M.; Pellinen, D.G.

    1980-08-01

    An experimental investigation was made of magnetically insulated transmission lines for use in an electron beam fusion accelerator. The magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines would transfer the power pulses from many modules to a single diode region or multiple diodes to generate currents on the order of 100 MA. This approach may allow present limits on power flow through dielectric vacuum interfaces to be overcome. We have investigated symmetric parallel plate (triplate) transmission lines with a wave impedance of 24 Ω and a spacing of 1.9 cm, and coaxial transmission lines (coax) with a wave impedance of 42 Ω and a spacing of 2.9 cm

  15. Self-limiting current for magnetically insulated coaxial vacuum transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.

    1976-11-01

    Existing cold fluid theories for magnetic insulation are analyzed and applied to the transmission line configuration. The relevance of these results to the propagating short pulse problem, and to DC operation, are discussed

  16. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring, Roger; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; Wake, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized

  17. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring,; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; /Fermilab; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized.

  18. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  19. Manitoba Hydro long-term high-voltage transmission line magnetic field monitoring project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.S.; Ng, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the licensing process to construct a new 230 kV transmission line on an existing right-of-way in Manitoba, an electrical effects study was conducted in 1998. The study was part of the environmental assessment program crucial in obtaining government approval to construct the line. Some residents living adjacent to the new transmission circuit expressed concerns about alleged adverse health effects associated with long-term exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines. In order to verify the accuracy of the predicted magnetic field levels submitted to the regulatory body in the the electrical effects study and to instill confidence in the residents of the affected communities, a three-year magnetic monitoring project was conducted between 2003 and 2005 along the right-of-way after the new 230kV transmission line was energized by Manitoba Hydro. This paper described the monitoring program, with reference to location; equipment; data analysis; and discussion of results. It was concluded that the long-term monitoring project demonstrated that the magnetic field prediction methodology was well understood and accurate, and provided valuable long-term magnetic field characteristics at the edge of the right-of-way. In addition, when there is opposition to a transmission line, public consultation and education were found to be the best options to arrive at a solution. 3 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  20. Terawatt power division and combination using self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, J.T.; Peterson, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines are necessary for the efficient transport of the terawatt pulses used in electron and ion accelerators. For some applications it is desirable to divide one transmission line into two, or to combine outputs of two or more lines into one, by means of self-magnetically insulated convolutes. Tests have been made on a coaxial-to-triaxial convolute in which connections between negative inner and outer lines are made by pins passing through holes in the intermediate positive conductor. Measurements in the 2 MV, 400 kA, 40 ns pulse Mite facility indicate virtually 100% current transport through the convolute and the ability to vary the division of current between the inner and outer lines of the triax by choice of inner line impedance. These measurements, and results obtained with this convolute connected to the ion diode for which it was designed, will be presented

  1. Design of a 2 Tesla transmission line magnet for the VLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, G W; Novitski, I

    2000-01-01

    A prototype of the transmission line magnet for the Very Large Hadron Collider is being designed at Fermilab. This is a single-turn warm iron superconducting magnet in a "Double-C" configuration. Iron poles form a high quality alternating-gradient magnet field in two 20 mm height beam gaps. Simple magnet construction and manufacturing processes and a room temperature iron yoke give a significant reduction in magnet cost. Open beam gaps simplify magnetic measurements and vacuum chamber installation. The magnet mechanical stability was investigated for several mechanical models. A high field quality over the whole range (0.1 T-2.0 T) of field variation was calculated using correcting holes in the iron poles. The magnet optimization was carried out by POISSON, OPERA 2D and ANSYS codes. The results of magnet design and model tests are presented. (6 refs).

  2. A short model excitation of an asymmetric force free superconducting transmission line magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wake, M.; Sato, H.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Carcagno, R.; Foster, W.; Hays, S.; Kashikhin, V.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Rabehl, R,; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    A short model of asymmetric force free magnet with single beam aperture was tested at Fermilab together with the excitation test of VLHC transmission line magnet. The design concept of asymmetric force free superconducting magnet was verified by the test. The testing reached up to 104 kA current and no indication of force imbalance was observed. Since the model magnet length was only 10cm, A 0.75m model was constructed and tested at KEK with low current to ensure the validity of the design. The cool down and the excitation at KEK were also successful finding very small thermal contraction of the conductor and reasonable field homogeneity.

  3. Magnetically insulated transmission line used for relativistic electron beam injection into SPAC-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Tetsuya; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Mohri, Akihiro.

    1980-10-01

    For the purpose to inject the electron beam with energy of about 1.5 MeV and current of about 100 kA into the SPAC-6 (torus device), a magnetically insulated transmission line was designed and constructed. The motion of electrons in the line was theoretically analyzed. The requirements for the design of the transmission line were as follows-: (a) condition of magnetic insulation, (b) suppression against reverse gas flow from the beam source to the torus, (c) care to minimize the influence of strong torus magnetic field, (d) reduction of inductance and (e) safety engineering measures, e.g., separation valve in the MITL between the beam source and the SPAC-6. The transmission line of 2.4 m long was designed and constructed. The wave forms of electric potential and current were measured. The transmission efficiency of current along the axis and the efficiency as a function of current at the end of the line were also measured. The reason of the loss of current is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  4. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Pointon, T.D.; Savage, M.E.; Seidel, D.B.; Magne, I.; Vezinet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds

  5. Study of electric and magnetic fields on transmission lines using a computer simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelo Mojica, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine and reduce levels of electric and magnetic fields with different configurations used by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad in power transmission lines in Costa Rica. The computer simulation program PLS-CADD with EPRI algorithm has been used to obtain field values close to those actual to lines easements that have worked to date. Different configurations have been compared on equal terms and the lowest levels of electric and magnetic fields are determined. The most appropriate configuration of the tower has been obtained and therefore has decreased exposure to electromagnetic fields people, without affecting the energy demand of the population. (author) [es

  6. Measurements of a crenelated iron pole tip for the VLHC transmission line magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Di Marco, J; Kashikhin, V V; Makarov, A A; Schlabach, P; MacKay, W W

    1999-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) is under conceptual design in Fermilab. One option under development is a 2-Tesla warm iron 2-in-1 single turn superferric magnet built around an 80 kA superconducting transmission line. A normal-conducting test stand was built to optimize the iron lamination shape for this magnet. It uses a water- cooled copper winding to provide the 100 kA-turns needed to generate 2 Tesla fields in both 20 mm air gaps of the magnet. A magnetic measurement facility has been set up for magnetic field mapping, which includes a flat measurement coil, precision stage for coil motion and integrator. Results from a first test of the "crenelation" technique to mitigate the saturation sextupole in iron magnets are described and future plans are discussed. (5 refs).

  7. Influence of nonuniform external magnetic fields and anode--cathode shaping on magnetic insulation in coaxial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostrom, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Coaxial transmission lines, used to transfer the high voltage pulse into the diode region of a relativistic electron beam generator, have been studied using the two-dimensional time-dependent fully relativistic and electromagnetic particle simulation code CCUBE. A simple theory of magnetic insulation that agrees well with simulation results for a straight cylindrical coax in a uniform external magnetic field is used to interpret the effects of anode--cathode shaping and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Loss of magnetic insulation appears to be minimized by satisfying two conditions: (1) the cathode surface should follow a flux surface of the external magnetic field; (2) the anode should then be shaped to insure that the magnetic insulation impedance, including transients, is always greater than the effective load impedance wherever there is an electron flow in the anode--cathode gap

  8. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  9. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors for Superconducting Magnets and Power Transmission Lines in High Energy Physics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081689; Bajko, Marta

    In the framework of the Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL - LHC), a remarkable R&D effort is now ongoing at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in order to develop a new generation of accelerator magnets and superconducting power transmission lines. The magnet technology will be based on Nb$_{3}$Sn enabling to operate in the 11 - 13 T range. In parallel, in order to preserve the power converters from the increasing radiation level, high power transmission lines are foreseen to feed the magnets from free - radiation zones. These will be based on high temperature superconductors cooled down with helium gas in the range 5 - 30 K. The new technologies will require advanced design and fabrication approaches as well as adapted instrumentation for monitoring both the R&D phase and operation. Resistive sensors have been used so far for voltage, temperature and strain monitoring but their integration still suffers from the number of electrical wires and the complex compensat...

  10. Equivalent circuit modeling of space charge dominated magnetically insulated transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Kazuki; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    1997-12-31

    A new equivalent circuit model for space charge dominated MITLs (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines) was developed. MITLs under high power operation are dominated with space charge current flowing between anode and cathode. Conventional equivalent circuit model does not account for space charge effects on power flow. The model was modified to discuss the power transportation through the high power MITLs. With this model, it is possible to estimate the effects of space charge current on the power flow efficiency, without using complicated particle code simulations. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  11. Experimental research on Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Li, Zhiqiang; Ling, Junpu [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator is proposed and investigated experimentally. In the particle-in-cell simulation, the Ku-band MILO generates the microwave with a power of 1.62 GW and a frequency of 13 GHz at the input voltage of 474 kV. The device is fabricated based on the simulation results, and an experiment system is designed. In the preliminary experiments, output microwave with frequency of 13.02 GHz, power of 150 MW, and pulse width of 17 ns is generated, under the diode voltage of 450 kV. Analysis on the experiment results shows that plasma produced due to the large current hitting to the outside of the collection tank is the essential cause for the low amplitude of the microwave power and short pulse width.

  12. Numerical simulation of cathode plasma dynamics in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, C.; Genoni, T. C.; Welch, D. R.; Rose, D. V.; Clark, R. E.; Miller, C. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Kiefer, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    A novel algorithm for the simulation of cathode plasmas in particle-in-cell codes is described and applied to investigate cathode plasma evolution in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The MITL electron sheath is modeled by a fully kinetic electron species. Electron and ion macroparticles, both modeled as fluid species, form a dense plasma which is initially localized at the cathode surface. Energetic plasma electron particles can be converted to kinetic electrons to resupply the electron flux at the plasma edge (the “effective” cathode). Using this model, we compare results for the time evolution of the cathode plasma and MITL electron flow with a simplified (isothermal) diffusion model. Simulations in 1D show a slow diffusive expansion of the plasma from the cathode surface. But in multiple dimensions, the plasma can expand much more rapidly due to anomalous diffusion caused by an instability due to the strong coupling of a transverse magnetic mode in the electron sheath with the expanding resistive plasma layer

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTIGATION OF LAYOUT OF ACTIVE SCREENING SYSTEM OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATED BY GROUP OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Kuznetsov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and field experimental research of layout of the single-circuit active screening system of the magnetic field generated by group of high voltage transmission lines in residential area is given. Methodology. Mathematical model of magnetic field, generated by group of high voltage transmission lines in residential area, based of the experimental values of magnetic field flux density in given points on the basis of optimization problem solving is improved. The objective of the synthesis of the single circuit active screening system is to determine their number, configuration, spatial arrangement, wiring diagrams and compensation cables currents, setting algorithm of the control systems as well as the resulting value of the magnetic flux density at the points of the protected space. Synthesis of the full-scale model of active screening system is reduced to the problem of multiobjective nonlinear programming with constraints in which calculation of the objective functions and constraints are carried out on the basis of the Maxwell equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. The problem is solved by a stochastic multiswarm multi-agent particles optimization. Results. The single-circuit active screening system synthesis results for reduction of a magnetic field generated by group of high voltage transmission lines in residential area is given. Field experimental researches of the single-circuit active screening system of the magnetic field generated by group of high voltage transmission lines in residential area with various control algorithms is given. Originality. For the first time out the development and field experimental studies of the single-circuit active screening system of the magnetic field generated by group of high voltage transmission lines in residential area are carried out. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the spatial arrangement of compensating cables of single

  14. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently the authors used a MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r b < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. The authors' success with the MITL technology led them to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. They have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30-50-ns FWHM output pulse

  15. Magnetic insulation regimes in high-current diodes and transmission lines of conical configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, O.I.; Voronin, V.S.; Lebedev, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    Steady states of the electron current in a high-voltage diode and of the transmission line of conical configuration at emission current restriction by the space are considered on the basis of the self-consistant kinetic description in connection with the prospects of controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Proceeding from the magnetic self-insulation principle solved are the problems of controling the emission electron current in the double-electron geometry to prevent it from being present on the anode in the line regime and to achieve its maximum focusing in the diode regime. The motion of plasma boundaries as well as the probable contribution of the ion component of the current were not taken into consideration. It is shown that the beam focusing on the system axis takes place at sufficiently strong currents. It is connected with the fact that some part of the full diode current runs on the cathode surface. The results were compared with existing approximate diode models and with the experimetal data on focusien of strong-current beams

  16. Compton scattering of photons from electrons in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, K.L.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines are used for power transport between the vacuum insulator and the diode in high current particle accelerators. Since the efficiency of the power transport depends on the details of the initial line geometry, i.e., the injector, the dependence of the electron canonical momentum distribution on the injector geometry should reveal the loss mechanism. We propose to study that dependence experimentally through a Compton scattering diagnostic. The spectrum of scattered light reveals the electron velocity distribution perpendicular to the direction of flow. The design of the diagnostic is in progress. Our preliminary analysis is based on the conservation of energy and canonical momentum for a single electron in the anti E and anti B fields determined from 2-D calculations. For the Mite accelerator with power flow along Z, the normalized canonical momentum, μ, is in the range - 0.7 < μ less than or equal to 0. For anti k/sub i/ parallel to circumflex Y, and anti k/sub s/ circumflex X, our analysis indicates that the scattered photons have 1.1 eV less than or equal to h nu/sub s/ < 5.6 eV for ruby laser scattering and can be detected with PM tubes

  17. Application of Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r ρ < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30--50 ns FWHM output pulse. 10 refs

  18. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, S. L.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Frost, C. A.; Poukey, J. W.; Turman, B. N.

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders were used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r(sub rho) less than 2 cm), 11 - 15 MeV, 50 - 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v(perpendicular)/c = beta(perpendicular) less than or equal to 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30 - 50 ns FWHM output pulse.

  19. RF and microwave noise suppression in a transmission line using Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Hong, Y. K.; Kim, K.; Joo, J.; Yoon, Y. W.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, Y. B.; Kim, K. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) and microwave noise suppression by using magnetic composite films on a microstrip line (MSL) was studied in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 13.5 GHz. The MSL was composed of a Cu transmission line, dielectric materials, and a Cu substrate. The Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films were placed on the MSL, and the reflection and the transmission characteristics were investigated. We observed that RF and microwave noise suppression caused by the Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films varied with the concentration ratio of the sendust (Fe-Si-Al) and the Ni-Zn ferrite. The frequency dependence of the power loss due to the composite films on the MSL was measured and the power loss increased at higher frequencies with increasing concentration of the sendust in the composites. The electromagnetic interference shielding efficiencies of the magnetic composite films in the far-field region are also discussed.

  20. To Solution of Classical Problem Pertaining to Magnetic Interference of Overhead Power Transmission Line on Extended Conducting Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Glushko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to magnetic interference of overhead power transmission lines and high-voltage bus bars of electrical installations on extended conducting communications and secondary circuits of relay protection and automation. A simplified task solution has been obtained on the basis of the Carson integral approximation.

  1. Coupling of an applied field magnetically insulated ion diode to a high power magnetically insulated transmission line system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenchen, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The coupling of energy from a high power pulsed accelerator through a long triplate magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) in vacuum to an annular applied magnetic field insulated extraction ion diode is examined. The narrow power transport window and the wave front erosion of the MITL set stringent impedance history conditions on the diode load. A new ion diode design developed to satisfy these criteria with marginal electron insulation is presented. The LION accelerator is used to provide a positive polarity 1.5 MV, 350 kA, 40 ns FWHM pulse with a 30 kA/ns current rate from a triplate MITL source. A transition converts the triplate into a cylindrical cross section which flares into the ion diode load. Extensive current and voltage measurements performed along this structure and on the extracted ion beam provide conclusive evidence that the self insulation condition of the MITL is maintained in the transition by current loss alone. The ion diode utilizes a radial magnetic field between a grounded cathode annular emission tip and a disk anode. A 50 cm 2 dielectric/metal anode area serves as the ion plasma source subject to direct electron bombardment from the opposing cathode tip under marginal magnetic insulation conditions. The ions extracted cross the radial magnetic field and exit the diode volume as an annular cross section beam of peak current about 100 kA. The diode current gradually converts from the initial electron flow to nearly 100% ion current after 30 ns, coupling 60% of the diode energy into ions

  2. A Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with overmoded slow-wave-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; He, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-De; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ling, Jun-Pu

    2016-12-01

    In order to enhance the power capacity, an improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with overmoded slow-wave-structure (SWS) is proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The analysis of the dispersion relationship and the resonant curve of the cold test indicate that the device can operate at the near π mode of the TM01 mode, which is useful for mode selection and control. In the particle simulation, the improved Ku-band MILO generates a microwave with a power of 1.5 GW and a frequency of 12.3 GHz under an input voltage of 480 kV and input current of 42 kA. Finally, experimental investigation of the improved Ku-band MILO is carried out. A high-power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 800 MW, a frequency of 12.35 GHz, and pulse width of 35 ns is generated under a diode voltage of 500 kV and beam current of 43 kA. The consistency between the experimental and simulated far-field radiation pattern confirms that the operating mode of the improved Ku-band MILO is well controlled in π mode of the TM01 mode. Project supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61171021).

  3. Effects of Electron Flow Current Density on Flow Impedance of Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yong; Zou Wen-Kang; Song Sheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    In modern pulsed power systems, magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) are used to couple power between the driver and the load. The circuit parameters of MITLs are well understood by employing the concept of flow impedance derived from Maxwell's equations and pressure balance across the flow. However, the electron density in an MITL is always taken as constant in the application of flow impedance. Thus effects of electron flow current density (product of electron density and drift velocity) in an MITL are neglected. We calculate the flow impedances of an MITL and compare them under three classical MITL theories, in which the electron density profile and electron flow current density are different from each other. It is found that the assumption of constant electron density profile in the calculation of the flow impedance is not always valid. The electron density profile and the electron flow current density have significant effects on flow impedance of the MITL. The details of the electron flow current density and its effects on the operation impedance of the MITL should be addressed more explicitly by experiments and theories in the future. (nuclear physics)

  4. Proposal of a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with inclined vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Li, Yangmei; Jin, Zhenxing

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel compact P-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with specially inclined slow-wave-structure (SWS) vanes to decrease its total dimension and weight. The dispersion characteristics of the inclined SWS are investigated in detail and made comparisons with that of the traditional straight SWS. The results show that the inclined SWS is more advantageous in operating on a steady frequency in a wide voltage range and has a better asymmetric mode segregation and a relatively large band-gap between the TM00 and TM01 modes which are in favor of avoiding the asymmetric and transverse mode competition. Besides, the transverse dimension of the proposed novel inclined SWS with the same operation frequency is decreased by about 50%, and correspondingly the device volume shrinks remarkably to its 0.35 times. In particle-in-cell simulation, the electron bunching spokes are obviously formed in the inclined SWS, and a P-band high-power microwave with a power of 5.8 GW, frequency of 645 MHz, and efficiency of 17.2% is generated by the proposed device, which indicates the feasibility of the compact design with the inclined vanes at the P-band.

  5. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  6. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  7. 55-TW magnetically insulated transmission-line system: Design, simulations, and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein a system of self-magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs that operated successfully at 20 MA, 3 MV, and 55 TW. The system delivered the electromagnetic-power pulse generated by the Z accelerator to a physics-package load on over 1700 Z shots. The system included four levels that were electrically in parallel. Each level consisted of a water flare, vacuum-insulator stack, vacuum flare, and 1.3-m-radius conical outer MITL. The outputs of the four outer MITLs were connected in parallel by a 7.6-cm-radius 12-post double-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute added the currents of the four outer MITLs, and delivered the combined current to a single 6-cm-long inner MITL. The inner MITL delivered the current to the load. The total initial inductance of the stack-MITL system was 11 nH. A 300-element transmission-line-circuit model of the system has been developed using the tl code. The model accounts for the following: (i impedance and electrical length of each of the 300 circuit elements, (ii electron emission from MITL-cathode surfaces wherever the electric field has previously exceeded a constant threshold value, (iii Child-Langmuir electron loss in the MITLs before magnetic insulation is established, (iv MITL-flow-electron loss after insulation, assuming either collisionless or collisional electron flow, (v MITL-gap closure, (vi energy loss to MITL conductors operated at high lineal current densities, (vii time-dependent self-consistent inductance of an imploding z-pinch load, and (viii load resistance, which is assumed to be constant. Simulations performed with the tl model demonstrate that the nominal geometric outer-MITL-system impedance that optimizes overall performance is a factor of ∼3 greater than the convolute-load impedance, which is consistent with an analytic model of an idealized MITL-load system. Power-flow measurements demonstrate that, until peak current, the Z stack-MITL system

  8. A long-pulse repetitive operation magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De; Shu, Ting; Liu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube. It has allowed us to generate 3.1 GW pulse of 40 ns duration in the single-pulse operation and 500 MW pulse of 25 ns duration in the repetition rate operation. However, because of the severe impedance mismatch, the power conversion efficiency is only about 4% in the repetition rate operation. In order to eliminate the impedance mismatch and obtain repetitive long-pulse high-power microwave (HPM), a series of experiments are carried out and the recent progress is presented in this paper. In the single-pulse operation, when the diode voltage is 466 kV and current is 41.6 kA, the radiated microwave power is above 2.2 GW, the pulse duration is above 102 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.74 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 11.5%. In the repetition rate operation, under the condition of the diode voltage about 400 kV, beam current about 38 kA, the radiated microwave power is about 1.0 GW, the pulse duration is about 85 ns. Moreover, the radiated microwave power and the pulse duration decline little by little when the shot numbers increase gradually. The experimental results show that the impedance matching is a vital factor for HPM systems and one of the major technical challenges is to improve the cathode for the repetition rate operation MILO

  9. A long-pulse repetitive operation magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De; Shu, Ting; Liu, Jin Liang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube. It has allowed us to generate 3.1 GW pulse of 40 ns duration in the single-pulse operation and 500 MW pulse of 25 ns duration in the repetition rate operation. However, because of the severe impedance mismatch, the power conversion efficiency is only about 4% in the repetition rate operation. In order to eliminate the impedance mismatch and obtain repetitive long-pulse high-power microwave (HPM), a series of experiments are carried out and the recent progress is presented in this paper. In the single-pulse operation, when the diode voltage is 466 kV and current is 41.6 kA, the radiated microwave power is above 2.2 GW, the pulse duration is above 102 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.74 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 11.5%. In the repetition rate operation, under the condition of the diode voltage about 400 kV, beam current about 38 kA, the radiated microwave power is about 1.0 GW, the pulse duration is about 85 ns. Moreover, the radiated microwave power and the pulse duration decline little by little when the shot numbers increase gradually. The experimental results show that the impedance matching is a vital factor for HPM systems and one of the major technical challenges is to improve the cathode for the repetition rate operation MILO.

  10. A long-pulse repetitive operation magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De; Shu, Ting; Liu, Jin Liang

    2014-05-01

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube. It has allowed us to generate 3.1 GW pulse of 40 ns duration in the single-pulse operation and 500 MW pulse of 25 ns duration in the repetition rate operation. However, because of the severe impedance mismatch, the power conversion efficiency is only about 4% in the repetition rate operation. In order to eliminate the impedance mismatch and obtain repetitive long-pulse high-power microwave (HPM), a series of experiments are carried out and the recent progress is presented in this paper. In the single-pulse operation, when the diode voltage is 466 kV and current is 41.6 kA, the radiated microwave power is above 2.2 GW, the pulse duration is above 102 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.74 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 11.5%. In the repetition rate operation, under the condition of the diode voltage about 400 kV, beam current about 38 kA, the radiated microwave power is about 1.0 GW, the pulse duration is about 85 ns. Moreover, the radiated microwave power and the pulse duration decline little by little when the shot numbers increase gradually. The experimental results show that the impedance matching is a vital factor for HPM systems and one of the major technical challenges is to improve the cathode for the repetition rate operation MILO.

  11. Design and performance of the Z magnetically-insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stygar, W.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The 36-module Z accelerator was designed to drive z-pinch loads for weapon-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, and to serve as a testing facility for pulsed-power research required to develop higher-current drivers. The authors have designed and tested a 10-nH 1.5-m-radius vacuum section for the Z accelerator. The vacuum section consists of four vacuum flares, four conical 1.3-m-radius magnetically-insulated transmission lines, a 7.6-cm-radius 12-post double-post-hole convolute which connects the four outer MITLs in parallel, and a 5-cm-long inner MITL which connects the output of the convolute to a z-pinch load. IVORY and ELECTRO calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of the vacuum flares with the constraint that there be no significant electron emission from the insulator-stack grading rings. Iterative TLCODE calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of the outer MITLs with the constraint that the MITL electron-flow-current fraction be ≤ 7% at peak current. The TLCODE simulations assume a 2.5 cm/micros MITL-cathode-plasma expansion velocity. The design limits the electron dose to the outer-MITL anodes to 50 J/g to prevent the formation of an anode plasma. The TLCODE results were confirmed by SCREAMER, TRIFL, TWOQUICK, IVORY, and LASNEX simulations. For the TLCODE, SCREAMER, and TRIFL calculations, the authors assume that after magnetic insulation is established, the electron-flow current launched in the outer MITLs is lost at the convolute. This assumption has been validated by 3-D QUICKSILVER simulations for load impedances ≤ 0.36 ohms. LASNEX calculations suggest that ohmic resistance of the pinch and conduction-current-induced energy loss to the MITL electrodes can be neglected in Z power-flow modeling that is accurate to first order. To date, the Z vacuum section has been tested on 100 shots. They have demonstrated they can deliver a 100-ns rise-time 20-MA current pulse to the baseline z-pinch load

  12. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  13. ''SMILE'': A Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission LinE adder for the 8-stage RADLAC II accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R.; Pankuch, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The RADLAC II Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission LinE ''SMILE'' is a coaxial wave guide structure that is composed of two regions: (a) a 9.5-m voltage adder and (b) a 3-m long extension section. The adder section provides for the addition of the input voltages from the individual water-dielectric pulse forming line feeds. The extension section isolates the adder from the magnetically immersed foilless diode electron source load and efficiently transports the pulsed power out from the deionized water tank of the device. The SMILE modification of the RADLAC II accelerator enabled us to produce high quality beams of up to 14 MV, 100 kA. The design and the experimental evaluation of SMILE will be presented and compared with numerical simulation predictions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  14. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  15. Power electron beam front shortening in magnetically insulated transmission line with inner coaxial dielectric insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galstjan, E.A.; Kazanskiy, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    By now the technology of high-power high-current relativistic electron beams with microsecond duration has been developed. The same technology is used in high-power electric pulse generation. However at present the high-power beams of subnanosecond duration are necessary for some investigations and applications. The maximum power parameter achieved by means of the usual technology is limited by a value in the range of 100-300 MW. For this reason a search for new ways to generate high-power REB (relativistic electron beam) is a topical problem. It is obvious that this problem may be reduced to the generation of pulses with a subnanosecond front duration. There are many methods to shorten a pulse duration to its front duration for instance, by using parts of short-circuited transmission lines

  16. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  17. Parallel plate transmission line transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, S.J.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A Transmission Line Transformer (TLT) can be used to transform high-voltage nanosecond pulses. These transformers rely on the fact that the length of the pulse is shorter than the transmission lines used. This allows connecting the transmission lines in parallel at the input and in series at the

  18. Survey of magnetic fields near BPA 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, N.; Aggarwal, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize typical levels and variability of 60Hz magnetic fields at the centerline and edge of right-of-way of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines. This was accomplished by taking magnetic field measurements at over 800 spans in Oregon and Washington. The spans were sampled using a stratified random sampling procedure with region (East vs. West), voltage (230-kV vs 500-kV), and circuit configuration as strata. There were five different circuit configuration groups for each region/voltage category requiring a total of 200 strata. Magnetic field measurements were taken at 13 locations under each span using an EMDEX-C as a survey meter. Additional information recorded for each span included conductor height (at 10 locations), right-of-way width, longitudinal and lateral slope, time of day, vegetation, terrain, weather conditions, temperature, wind speed, span length and presence of other lines in the corridor. 9 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs

  19. Impedance of an annular-cathode indented-anode electron diode terminating a coaxial magnetically insulated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wright, T.P.; Bailey, J.; Heath, C.E.; Mock, R.; Spence, P.W.; Fockler, J.; Kishi, H.

    1988-01-01

    The impedance of a diode having an annular cathode and indented anode that terminates a coaxial MITL (magnetically insulated transmission line) is measured and compared with a semiempirical model developed from calculations made using the magIc code. The measurements were made on the 16-Ω electron accelerator HELIA (high-energy linear induction accelerator) operating at 3 MV. The model agrees with the measurements within the 10% measuring error and shows that the diode operates in either a load- or line-dominated regime depending on AK (anode-cathode) gap spacing. In the load-dominated regime, which corresponds to small AK gaps, the diode impedance is controlled by an effective anode-cathode gap, and the flow is approximately axial. In the line-dominated regime, which corresponds to large AK gaps, the impedance is independent of the AK gap and corresponds to the impedance associated with the minimum current solution of the MITL, with the flow becoming more radial as the AK gap is increased

  20. Fiber optic cryogenic sensors for superconducting magnets and superconducting power transmission lines at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Bajko, M.; Perez, J. C.; Bajas, H.; Consales, M.; Giordano, M.; Breglio, G.; Palmieri, L.; Cusano, A.

    2014-08-01

    The design, fabrication and tests of a new generation of superconducting magnets for the upgrade of the LHC require the support of an adequate, robust and reliable sensing technology. The use of Fiber Optic Sensors is becoming particularly challenging for applications in extreme harsh environments such as ultra-low temperatures, high electromagnetic fields and strong mechanical stresses offering perspectives for the development of technological innovations in several applied disciplines.

  1. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  2. Transmission of Signals via Land Line for Magnetic Tape Copying and Other Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    link. The input coupling network (8 channel) is shown in Figure 8c and ci rcuit details are given in Section 4. In realizing the system, maxi mum use...approached.4 In put si gnals to the line driver are first amp lified by the stage comprising QI (Fi g. 13) and associated compone nts. For the range of input...having TT L compatible levels ) are coup led to the FM recording amp lifier via the network indicated in Figure 25b . Digital recording amp lifiers are

  3. Ion diode performance on a positive polarity inductive voltage adder with layered magnetically insulated transmission line flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D. D.; Schumer, J. W.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Phipps, D.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Ottinger, P. F.; Apruzese, J. P.; Cooperstein, G.; Young, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A pinch-reflex ion diode is fielded on the pulsed-power machine Mercury (R. J. Allen, et al., 15th IEEE Intl. Pulsed Power Conf., Monterey, CA, 2005, p. 339), which has an inductive voltage adder (IVA) architecture and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL). Mercury is operated in positive polarity resulting in layered MITL flow as emitted electrons are born at a different potential in each of the adder cavities. The usual method for estimating the voltage by measuring the bound current in the cathode and anode of the MITL is not accurate with layered flow, and the interaction of the MITL flow with a pinched-beam ion diode load has not been studied previously. Other methods for determining the diode voltage are applied, ion diode performance is experimentally characterized and evaluated, and circuit and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are performed. Results indicate that the ion diode couples efficiently to the machine operating at a diode voltage of about 3.5 MV and a total current of about 325 kA, with an ion current of about 70 kA of which about 60 kA is proton current. It is also found that the layered flow impedance of the MITL is about half the vacuum impedance.

  4. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  5. Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...

  6. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  7. Transmission line fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    There were reports from Russia in the late 1960's and early 1970's that staff in new 500-kV and 750-kV substations were suffering from headaches and other symptoms broadly associated with fatigue. Whilst the Russian results were not confirmed by independent studies, they did serve to stimulate public concern. In 1979 published results of a study of childhood cancer in Denver, Colorado concentrated attention onto the magnetic rather than the electric field. Research programmes in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are briefly described. Although some studies suggest an association between exposure to 50/60 Hz fields and cancer, other studies do not. Having reviewed the evidence, the International Radiation Protection Association, the World Health Organisation, the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment and the U.K. National Radiological Protection Board all consider that the relation is not established. (author)

  8. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined

  9. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  10. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  11. Self-Shielding Of Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The use of shielding to contend with noise or harmful EMI/EMR energy is not a new concept. An inevitable trade that must be made for shielding is physical space and weight. Space was often not as much of a painful design trade in older larger systems as they are in today’s smaller systems. Today we are packing in an exponentially growing number of functionality within the same or smaller volumes. As systems become smaller and space within systems become more restricted, the implementation of shielding becomes more problematic. Often, space that was used to design a more mechanically robust component must be used for shielding. As the system gets smaller and space is at more of a premium, the trades starts to result in defects, designs with inadequate margin in other performance areas, and designs that are sensitive to manufacturing variability. With these challenges in mind, it would be ideal to maximize attenuation of harmful fields as they inevitably couple onto transmission lines without the use of traditional shielding. Dr. Tom Van Doren proposed a design concept for transmission lines to a class of engineers while visiting New Mexico. This design concept works by maximizing Electric field (E) and Magnetic Field (H) field containment between operating transmission lines to achieve what he called “Self-Shielding”. By making the geometric centroid of the outgoing current coincident with the return current, maximum field containment is achieved. The reciprocal should be true as well, resulting in greater attenuation of incident fields. Figure’s 1(a)-1(b) are examples of designs where the current centroids are coincident. Coax cables are good examples of transmission lines with co-located centroids but they demonstrate excellent field attenuation for other reasons and can’t be used to test this design concept. Figure 1(b) is a flex circuit design that demonstrate the implementation of self-shielding vs a standard conductor layout.

  12. Response analysis on nonuniform transmission line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Zlata

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transients on a loss less exponential transmission line with a pure resistance load are presented in this paper. The approach is based on the two-port presentation of the transmission line. Using Picard-Carson's method the transmission line equations are solved. The relationship between source voltage and the load voltage in s-domain is derived. All the results are plotted using program package Mathematica 3.0.

  13. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  14. Power flow studies of magnetically insulated lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, D.H.; Poukey, J.W.; Bergeron, K.D.; VanDevender, J.P.; Johnson, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    The designs for relativistic electron beam accelerators with power levels of 20 to 100 TW are greatly restricted by the inductance of a single diode of reasonable size. This fact leads to modular designs of very large accelerators. One concept uses several small insulators at a large radius arranged around the accelerator center. The total effective inductance is then low, but the energy must then be transported by self-magnetic insulated vacuum lines to the target volume. A triplate vacuum line configuration eases many mechanical support problems and allows more A-K gaps or feeds to be packaged around a given radius. This type of vacuum transmission line was chosen for initial experiments at Sandia. The experiments were conducted on the MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) accelerator. The water pulse forming lines are connected to a vacuum triplate line through a conventional stacked insulator. Diagnostics on the experiment consisted of: (1) input V; (2) input I; (3) I monitors at the input, middle, and output of both the center conductor and ground plane of the transmission line; (4) magnetic energy analyzer to view peak electron energy in the A-K gap; (5) calorimetry; and (6) Faraday cups to look at electron current flowing across the transmission line. The main goal of the experiment is to obtain input impedance of the transmission line as a function of voltage and to measure electron loss currents. These measurements are compared to theoretical models for the input impedance and energy losses

  15. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  16. Improved Field Homogeneity for Transmission Line MRI Coils Using Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Dong, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    High field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems often use short sections of transmission lines for generating and sensing alternating magnetic fields. Due to distributed nature of transmission lines, the generated field is inhomogeneous. This work investigates the application of series capaci...... capacitors to improve the field homogeneity. The resulting magnetic field distribution is estimated analytically and evaluated numerically. The results are compared to a case of a conventional transmission line coil realization....

  17. The Transmission Line for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Marco; De Lorenzi, Antonio; Recchia, Mauro; Toigo, Vanni; Bonicelli, Tullio; Simon, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    The 100 keV Ion Source Test facility - Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma (SPIDER) - is aimed to test the full scale prototype of the Ion Source for the ITER 1 MeV Neutral Beam Injector (NBI). The SPIDER facility requires the construction of a High Voltage Deck (HVD) and of a High Voltage Transmission Line (TL) respectively to host the Ion Source Power Supplies system polarized at 100 kV and to carry the power and signal conductors to the beam accelerator. In already existing NBI systems with beam energy above 100 keV, the TL is realized with the SF 6 Gas Insulated Line technology. In the SPIDER TL case, the presence of a large inner conductor (half meter diameter), would make the pressurized TL a complex and costly component; therefore a free air insulated solution has been proposed. The paper focuses on the design of this TL, which has to host inside the complex high potential (100 kV) inner electrode a number of power and measuring conductors and has to minimize the Electro Magnetic Interferences (EMI) produced by the frequent grids breakdowns. Finite Element (FE) analyses have been performed to verify the configuration from the electrostatic point of view, to evaluate EMI screening effectiveness and to assess the impact of the relatively high thermal dissipation of power conductors located inside the high potential electrode. Moreover, an experimental test campaign has been carried out on a TL mockup to validate the TL electrostatic configuration under DC voltage. Finally, the paper reports on the status of procurement activities for the Transmission Line.

  18. Microwave transmission-line impedance data

    CERN Document Server

    Gunston, M A R

    1996-01-01

    A compendium of data for computing the characteristic impedance of transmission lines based on physical dimensions. Covers both conventional structures and unusual geometries, including coaxial, eccentric and elliptic coaxial, twin-wire, wire-above-ground, microstrip and derivatives, stripline, slabline and trough line. Also details numerous configurations of coupled lines.

  19. PIC simulations of conical magnetically insulated transmission line with LTD generator: Transition from self-limited to load-limited flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laqun; Wang, Huihui; Guo, Fan; Zou, Wenkang; Liu, Dagang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the 3-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code CHIPIC3D, with a new circuit boundary algorithm we developed, a conical magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) with a 1.0-MV linear transformer driver (LTD) is explored numerically. The values of switch jitter time of LTD are critical parameters for the system, which are difficult to be measured experimentally. In this paper, these values are obtained by comparing the PIC results with experimental data of large diode-gap MITL. By decreasing the diode gap, we find that all PIC results agree well with experimental data only if MITL works on self-limited flow no matter how large the diode gap is. However, when the diode gap decreases to a threshold, the self-limited flow would transfer to a load-limited flow. In this situation, PIC results no longer agree with experimental data anymore due to the anode plasma expansion in the diode load. This disagreement is used to estimate the plasma expansion speed.

  20. Transmission of radioiodine through sampling lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrein, P.J.; Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental program to measure radioiodine transmission through sampling lines is described. The transmission depends upon both deposition on and resuspension from the walls of the line. The deposition and resuspension processes are themselves controlled by the length, diameter, and material of the line and the conditions under which it is operated. The operating conditions under study are sampling flow rate, temperature and relative humidity. Measurement results have been interpreted in terms of a four-compartment model of radioiodine deposition and resuspension. The model is applied to each of twenty or more segments of the line. Experimental measurements of short-term transmission fractions and the deposition velocities derived from them are presented for six lines. Data on resuspension rates for the same lines were obtained and are also discussed

  1. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  2. Transmission Line Resonator Segmented with Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators are often used as coils in high field MRI. Due to distributed nature of such resonators, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the resonator. The equations for optimal...... values of evenly distributed capacitors are presented. The performances of the segmented resonator and a regular transmission line resonator are compared....

  3. Signal Transmission on Power Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of power-line networks over a large frequency span, the time-domain method used in programs like EMTP (Electromagnetic Time domain Program) can not be used. A more rigorous analysis method must be employed. The correct analysis method (assuming TEM-mode propagation) for multiple....... An approximate analysis method must be usedIn this paper it is shown that an eigenvectormatrix, that is the propagation modes, can be chosen almost arbitrarily if the frequency interval of interest lies below the frequency, where the line length is about 1/3 times the wavelength for the propagation mode...... with the lowest phase velocity. The propagation constants corresponding to the chosen eigenvector matrix (the quasi modes) are found iteratively, which is a much simpler procedure than finding the eigenvalues....

  4. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Wong, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications. (paper)

  5. Calculated Hanle transmission and absorption spectra of the 87Rb D1 line with residual magnetic field for arbitrarily polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Moon, Han Seb

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a theoretical study on the transmission spectra of an arbitrarily polarized laser beam through a rubidium cell with or without a buffer gas in Hanle-type coherent population trapping (CPT). This study examined how laser polarization, transverse magnetic field, and collisions with buffer gas affects the spectrum. The transmission spectrum due to CPT and the absorption spectrum due to the level crossing absorption (LCA) were calculated according to the laser polarization. The results show that the LCA is strongly dependent on the transverse magnetic field and interaction time of the atoms with a laser light via collisions with the buffer gas. In addition, the spectral shape of the calculated Hanle spectrum is closely related to the direction between the (stray) transverse magnetic field and polarization of the laser.

  6. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, M F Abdul; Sahari, K S Mohamed; Anuar, A; Arshad, A D Mohd; Idris, M S

    2013-01-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  7. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  8. The LHCb VELO analogue transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bay, A.; Borel, J.; Buytaert, J.; De Laere, S.; Frei, R.; Haefeli, G.; Koppenburg, P.; Locatelli, L.; Schneider, O.; Zehr, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Vertex Locator is one of the most important sub-detectors of the LHCb experiment, which is devoted to B physics. The signals from the silicon strip sensors are multiplexed at 40 MHz and transported by 60 m copper lines to the counting stations placed in a radiation safe area. This paper describes the development of this long transmission line and its performance.

  9. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  10. Application of superconductors to motors, generators, and transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirtley, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are of interest to the designers of electric power equipment because they can carry current without loss, currents that are large enough to make very intense magnetic fields. This means that superconductors, used in suitable applications, can make electric power equipment smaller, lighter, more efficient, and perhaps with better dynamic response. Two specific applications are considered here: electric machinery (motors and generators) and transmission lines. The so-called high-T c superconductors will have beneficial impact on motors, generators, and transmission lines only if conductors with sufficient mechanical properties and current-carrying capabilities can be developed

  11. Explanation of the Inverse Doppler Effect Observed in Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B.; Weide, Daniel W. van der

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator

  12. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil....... The equations for optimal values of evenly distributed capacitors are derived and expressed in terms of the implemented transmission line parameters.The achieved magnetic field homogeneity is estimated under quasistatic approximation and compared to the regular transmission line resonator. Finally, a more...... practical case of a microstrip line coil with two series capacitors is considered....

  13. Electromagnetic analysis using transmission line variables

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This book employs a relatively new method for solving electromagnetic problems, one which makes use of a transmission line matrix (TLM). The propagation space is imagined to be filled with this matrix. The propagating fields and physical properties are then mapped onto the matrix. Mathematically, the procedures are identical with the traditional numerical methods; however, the interpretation and physical appeal of the transmission line matrix are far superior. Any change in the matrix has an immediate physical significance. What is also very important is that the matrix becomes a launching pad

  14. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect

  15. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  16. Tornado risk model for transmission line design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milford, RV

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available is in combination with ice loading. The wind load used in most codes of practice and design recommendations for transmission line design have until recently been based almost exclusively on large-scale wind storms, which may include severe storms such as hurricanes...

  17. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  18. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, C.A.; Bents, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance

  19. High power RF transmission line component development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I.

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant ε=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  20. High power RF transmission line component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant {epsilon}=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  1. Flux qubit to a transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlein, Max; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Within the last decade, superconducting qubits coupled to microwave resonators have been extensively studied within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Ultimately, quantum computing seems within reach in such architectures. However, error correction schemes are necessary to achieve the required fidelity in multi-qubit operations, drastically increasing the number of qubits involved. In this work, we couple a flux qubit to a transmission line where it interacts with itinerant microwave photons granting access to all-optical quantum computing. In this approach, travelling photons generate entanglement between two waveguides, containing the qubit information. In this presentation, we show experimental data on flux qubits coupled to transmission lines. Furthermore, we will discuss entanglement generation between two separate paths.

  2. An analytical theory of transmission line shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Per

    1993-01-01

    The classical electrogeometric model of shielding failure flashovers on transmission lines is investigated by analytical methods. Most of the basic elements that has appeared in the literature on the subject have been incorporated and put into a comprehensive model. These elements are: tower top geometry, structure height above ground, line insulation, lateral slope of ground, probability distribution of lightning currents, ratio of striking distances to ground wire and earth relative to conductor, and probability distribution of lightning leader approach angle to ground. Departing from a basic idealistic case, the sensitivity of the model to variations in these parameters is studied. Numerical examples are given. 8 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  3. Environmental impact of the aerial power transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, D.; Rusan, R.

    1993-01-01

    In the last 10-12 years the existence of the high voltage lines existence within populated areas has been more and more contested. The paper tries to complete a blank in the Romanian technical literature by introducing the concept of 'line corridor' which is different from the occupied geometric area and from 'the line disturbed corridor'. The concept is meant to specify the area where the high frequency and 50 Hz electromagnetic pollution exceeds some given limits. The impact of the power transmission lines on the human body, due to the effects of the electric and magnetic fields, is considered. Also, the aspects concerning the visual impact, the acoustic and radio noise and the area expensing by the high voltage lines, are considered. International standards and regulations regarding the limitations of this effects are presented. (author)

  4. Reconnection of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyn, M.F.; Gratton, F.T.; Gnavi, G.; Heindler, M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field line diffusion in a plasma is studied on the basis of the non-linear boundary layer equations of dissipative, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. Non-linear steady state solutions for a class of plasma parameters have been obtained which are consistent with the boundary conditions appropriate for reconnection. The solutions are self-consistent in connecting a stagnation point flow of a plasma with reconnecting magnetic field lines. The range of the validity of the solutions, their relation to other fluid models of reconnection, and their possible applications to space plasma configurations are pointed out. (Author)

  5. Optoelectronic line transmission an introduction to fibre optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Raymond L

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic Line Transmission: An Introduction to Fibre Optics presents a basic introduction as well as a background reference manual on fiber optic transmission. The book discusses the basic principles of optical line transmission; the advantages and disadvantages of optical fibers and optoelectronic signalling; the practical applications of optoelectronics; and the future of optoelectronics. The text also describes the theories of optical line transmission; fibers and cables for optical transmission; transmitters including light-emitting diodes and lasers; and receivers including photodi

  6. PSpice for filters and transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the 'cookbook approach' so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exact

  7. On the Transmission Line Pulse Measurement Technique

    OpenAIRE

    X. Rodriguez; M. Eduardo; M. Harington

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Line Pulse is a short pulse (25ns to 150ns) measurement of the current-voltage (I/V) characteristics of the ESD protection built into an integrated circuit. The short TLP pulses are used to simulate the short ESD pulse threats and integrated circuit must tolerate without being damaged. In this work the fundamental principles of how the TLP pulse is generated and used to create I-V characteristic plots will be explored. The measurement will be then used to characterize the I-V cha...

  8. MEMS-based transmission lines for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Fu, Jiahui; Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Huajuan; Lee, Jongchul

    2003-04-01

    This paper mainly presents a briefly review for recent progress in MEMS-based transmission lines for use in microwave and millimeterwave range. MEMS-based transmission lines including different transmission line structure such as membrane-supported microstrip line microstrip line, coplanar microshield transmission line, LIGA micromachined planar transmission line, micromachined waveguides and coplanar waveguide are discussed. MEMS-based transmission lines are characterized by low propagation loss, wide operation frequency band, low dispersion and high quality factor, in addition, the fabrication is compatible with traditional processing of integrated circuits (IC"s). The emergence of MEMS-based transmission lines provided a solution for miniaturizing microwave system and monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  9. Large field-of-view transmission line resonator for high field MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johannesson, Kristjan Sundgaard; Boer, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators is often a preferable choice for coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because they provide a number of advantages over traditional loop coils. The size of such resonators, however, is limited to shorter than half a wavelength due to high standing wave....... Achieved magnetic field distribution is compared to the conventional transmission line resonator. Imaging experiments are performed using 7 Tesla MRI system. The developed resonator is useful for building coils with large field-of-view....

  10. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pipe before it is installed. (b) Testing of repairs made by welding. Each repair made by welding in... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line is...

  11. Separation of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor σ, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e 2σ , and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e σ . Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/ω pe , which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if σ becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R ⊙ =7×10 10 cm is about e 23 times larger, so when σ≳23, two lines separated by c/ω pe at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, σ, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  12. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  13. Magnetic field line reconnection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gekelman, W.; Stenzel, R.L.; Wild, N.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory experiment concerned with the basic physics of magnetic field line reconnection is discussed. Stimulated by important processes in space plasmas and anomalous transport in fusion plasmas the work addresses the following topics: Dynamic magnetic fields in a high beta plasma, magnetic turbulence, plasma dynamics and energy transport. First, the formation of magnetic neutral sheets, tearing and island coalescence are shown. Nonstationary magnetic fluctuations are statistically evaluated displaying the correlation tensor in the #betta#-k domain for mode identification. Then, the plasma properties are analyzed with particular emphasis on transport processes. Although the classical fluid flow across the separatrix can be observed, the fluctuation processes strongly modify the plasma dynamics. Direct measurements of the fluid force density and ion acceleration indicate the presence of an anomalous scattering process characterized by an effective scattering tensor. Turbulence also enhances the plasma resistivity by one to two orders of magnitude. Measurements of the three-dimensional electron distribution function using a novel energy analyzer exhibit the formation of runaway electrons in the current sheet. Associated micro-instabilities are observed. Finally, a macroscopic disruptive instability of the current sheet is observed. Excess magnetic field energy is converted at a double layer into particle kinetic energy and randomized through beam-plasma instabilities. These laboratory results are compared with related observations in space and fusion plasmas. (Auth.)

  14. Induced voltages in metallic pipelines near power transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grcev, Leonid; Jankov, Voislav; Filiposki, Velimir

    2002-01-01

    With the continuous development of the electric power system and the pipeline networks used to convey oil or natural gas, cases of close proximity of high voltage structures and metallic pipelines become more and more frequent. Accordingly there is a growing concern about possible hazards resulting from voltages induced in the metallic pipelines by magnetic coupling with nearby power transmission lines. This paper presents a methodology for computation of the induced voltages in buried isolated metallic pipelines. A practical example of computation is also presented. (Author)

  15. Multistage linear electron acceleration using pulsed transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Prestwich, K.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Epstein, B.G.; Freeman, J.R.; Sharpe, A.W.; Tucker, W.K.; Shope, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    A four-stage linear electron accelerator is described which uses pulsed radial transmission lines as the basic accelerating units. An annular electron beam produced by a foilless diode is guided through the accelerator by a strong axial magnetic field. Synchronous firing of the injector and the acccelerating modules is accomplished with self-breaking oil switches. The device has accelerated beam currents of 25 kA to kinetic energies of 9 MV, with 90% current transport efficiency. The average accelerating gradient is 3 MV/m

  16. Characterization of superconducting transmission line resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Jan; Summer, Philipp; Meier, Sebastian; Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Schwarz, Manuel; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Krawczyk, Marta; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting transmission line resonators are widely used in circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments as quantum bus or storage devices. For these applications, long coherence times, which can be linked to the internal quality factor of the resonators, are crucial. Here, we show a systematic study of the internal quality factor of niobium thin film resonators. We analyze different cleaning methods and substrate parameters for coplanar waveguide as well as microstrip geometries. In addition, we investigate the impact of a niobium-aluminum interface which is necessary for galvanically coupled flux qubits made from aluminum. This interface can be avoided by fabricating the complete resonator-qubit structure using Al/AlO{sub x}/Al technology during fabrication.

  17. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  18. Transmission Line Analysis of the Superconducting Quadrupole Chains of the LHC Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    2003-01-01

    Key information for determination of fundamental design features of magnet powering and protection circuits can be retrieved from the results of transmission line calculations of the superconducting magnet chains in a particle accelerator. Modelling and simulation of the behaviour of long magnet strings provide important data for the expected electrical behaviour and performances under all operating conditions. The presented results of a transmission line study concerns the sixteen superconducting main quadrupole chains QF/QD of CERN's future LHC collider. The paper details the elaboration of the synthesized electrical model of the individual quadrupoles and the associated lumped transmission line. It presents results on the current ripple for a given converter voltage output characteristics, the magnet excitation, leakage and earth currents during the ramping procedure, the impedance resonance spectrum and the need for individual magnet damping and the propagation, reflection, superposition and damping of th...

  19. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  20. Parametric amplifications in the nonlinear transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, T; Sakai, J; Inoue, H [Toyama Univ., Takaoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1980-03-01

    The parametric amplification in a transmission line with nonlinear capacitors is analysed theoretically using the equations of three wave interactions. Since this line has two modes, high frequency and low frequency modes, there may occur some mode coupling phenomena through the resonant interactions. We consider three waves with wave number k sub(j) and frequency ..omega..sub(j) in resonance with each other, that is, ..omega../sub 1/ + ..omega../sub 2/ = ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 1/ + k/sub 2/ = k/sub 3/, where 0 <= ..omega../sub 1/ <= ..omega../sub 2/ <= ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 3/ >= 0. Such conditions are realized in our network and there exist two states: ''forward state'' (each group velocity is positive) and ''backward state'' (one of the group velocities is negative). The coupled equations of three waves has two constant pumps: high frequency (HF) pump and low frequency (LF) pump. Using linear approximations, we examine the possible types of parametric amplification and obtain the power gains depending on the frequency deviation. For only the case of HF pump we get the gain between signals with seme frequency and also get the gain from the low frequency signal to the high frequency signal (''up-conversion'') for the LF pump. The nonlinear analysis gives the exact relation between input and output signals. For the forward state the gain is absolutely suppressed by the ratio of pumping power to input power, while the gain of backward state has no finite maximum and there may appear an ''oscillating state'' if the pumping power is comparatively small.

  1. Thermal Rectification in Graded Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wen; Chen Wei-Zhong; Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    We consider heat conduction in a nonlinear inductance-capacitance (LC) transmission line with an inductance gradient by adding white-noise signals. It is found that the heat flux in the direction of inductance decrease is larger than that in the direction of inductance increase. When the low-inductance end is at higher temperature, the phonon density decreases due to conversion to high-frequency phonons, which can not move to the high-inductance end due to its lower cutoff frequency. However, when the high-inductance end is at higher temperature, the loss of phonon density can be compensated for because some high-frequency phonons can move to the low-inductance end dur to its higher cutoff frequency. This leads to the asymmetry of energy transfer. Discussion shows that this asymmetry exists in a particular range of temperatures, and increases with the increase of the difference between heat baths and the inductance gradient. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  2. Nonlinear left-handed transmission line metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A B; Weide, D W van der

    2008-01-01

    Metamaterials, exhibiting simultaneously negative permittivity ε and permeability μ, more commonly referred to as left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) and also known as negative-index materials, have received substantial attention in the scientific and engineering communities [1]. Most studies of LHMs (and electromagnetic metamaterials in general) have been in the linear regime of wave propagation and have already inspired new types of microwave circuits and devices. The results of these studies have already been the subject of numerous reviews and books. This review covers a less explored but rapidly developing area of investigation involving media that combine nonlinearity (dependence of the permittivity and permeability on the magnitude of the propagating field) with the anomalous dispersion exhibited by LHM. The nonlinear phenomena in such media will be considered on the example of a model system: the nonlinear left-handed transmission line. These nonlinear phenomena include parametric generation and amplification, harmonic and subharmonic generation as well as modulational instabilities and envelope solitons. (topical review)

  3. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... materials, removing vegetation including danger trees, and revegetating areas disturbed by construction... implement the Proposed Action Alternative, based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE...

  4. Matching problems in pulse power radial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittag, K.; Brandelik, A.

    1984-12-01

    In this report we study the power transfer from a generator along a coaxial transmission line followed by a radial transmission line into a load, which in our application is a pseudo-spark plasma of about one millimeter diameter and about 15 cm in length. First the theoretical background based on transmission line theory is described. Then numerical results are presented. The main conclusion is that when matching the pulse power generator to the pseudo-spark plasma, the effect of the impedance transformation caused by the radial transmission line has to be taken into account. The conditions to obtain an optimal match are described. (orig.) [de

  5. Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code%Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼义翔; 雷天时; 吴撼宇; 郭宁; 韩娟娟; 邱爱慈; 王亮平; 黄涛; 丛培天; 张信军; 李岩; 曾正中; 孙铁平

    2011-01-01

    The transmission-line-circuit model of the Z accelerator, developed originally by W. A. STYGAR, P. A. CORCORAN, et al., is revised. The revised model uses different calculations for the electron loss and flow impedance in the magnetically insulated transmission line system of the Z accelerator before and after magnetic insulation is established. By including electron pressure and zero electric field at the cathode, a closed set of equations is obtained at each time step, and dynamic shunt resistance (used to represent any electron loss to the anode) and flow impedance are solved, which have been incorporated into the transmission line code for simulations of the vacuum section in the Z accelerator. Finally, the results are discussed in comparison with earlier findings to show the effectiveness and limitations of the model.

  6. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... transmission lines on ornamental plant growth. Zeki Demir ... The effects of proximity to power-line on specific leaf area and seedling dbh were tested .... during vegetation season is about 72% and common wind blow.

  7. A current controlled variable delay superconducting transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anlage, S.M.; Snortland, H.J.; Beasley, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a device concept for a current-controlled variable delay for superconducting transmission line. The device makes use of the change in kinetic inductance of a superconducting transmission line under the application of a DC bias current. The relevant materials parameters and several promising superconducting materials have been identified

  8. Centralized Coordination of Load Shedding & Protection System of Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Bak, Claus Leth

    2018-01-01

    The power system integrity is vulnerable to thermal limit of transmission lines due to overloading and consequently activation of their protection devices following severe contingencies. In this paper, the loading rate of transmission lines is monitored online and is considered in the centralized......, over current protection....

  9. Analysis of some coplanar transmission lines: coplanar coupled lines, coplanar coupled striplines, and coplanar coupled lines with rectangular microshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Naichang; He, Jianguo; Yao, Demiao; Dai, Qin; Lin, Weigan

    1995-06-01

    Two types of coplanar transmission lines, rectangular microshield coplanar coupled lines (RMCCL) and coplanar coupled rectangular microshield lines (CCRML), are proposed for MMIC applications. These are developed from coplanar coupled lines (CCL) and coplanar coupled strip lines (CCS). Analytic formulas are presented for calculating the quasistatic TEM parameters of these coupled lines by means of exact conformal mapping techniques. Numerical results are also presented to illustrate the properties of these coplanar transmission lines.

  10. Magnetization of topological line-node semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2018-02-01

    Using an approximate expression for the Landau levels of the electrons located near a nodal line of a topological line-node semimetal, we obtain formulas for the magnetization of this semimetal at an arbitrary shape of its line. It is also shown that the dependence of the chemical potential on the magnetic field can be strong in these materials, and this dependence can essentially influence the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. The obtained results are applied to the rhombohedral graphite, which is one of the line-node semimetals. For this material, we find temperature and magnetic field dependencies of its magnetic susceptibility.

  11. Transmission line analogy for relativistic Poynting-flux jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Kronberg, P. P.

    2013-04-01

    Radio emission, polarization and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C 303 have shown that one knot of this jet carries a galactic-scale electric current and that it is magnetically dominated. We develop the theory of magnetically dominated or Poynting-flux jets by making an analogy of a Poynting jet with a transmission line or waveguide carrying a net current and having a potential drop across it (from the jet's axis to its radius) and a definite impedance which we derive. The electromagnetic energy flow in the jet is the jet impedance times the square of the jet current. The observed current in 3C 303 can be used to calculate the electromagnetic energy flow in this magnetically dominated jet. Time dependent but not necessarily small perturbations of a Poynting-flux jet are described by the `telegrapher's equations'. These predict the propagation speed of disturbances and the effective wave impedance for forward and backward propagating wave components. A localized disturbance of a Poynting jet gives rise to localized dissipation in the jet which may explain the enhanced synchrotron radiation in the knots of the 3C 303 jet, and also in the apparently stationary knot HST-1 in the jet near the nucleus of the nearby galaxy M87. For a relativistic Poynting jet on parsec scales, the reflected voltage wave from an inductive termination or load can lead to a backward propagating wave which breaks down the magnetic insulation of the jet giving |{boldsymbol E}| /|{boldsymbol B}|ge 1. At the threshold for breakdown, |{boldsymbol E}|/|{boldsymbol B}|=1, positive and negative particles are directly accelerated in the {boldsymbol E} × {boldsymbol B} direction which is approximately along the jet axis. Acceleration can occur up to Lorentz factors ˜107. This particle acceleration mechanism is distinct from that in shock waves and that in magnetic field reconnection.

  12. TLINES: A Computer Program for Circuits of Transmission Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    of various lengths are handled by stringing together many short lines, with the assumption that each of the longer lines has a length approximated as...expressed in terms of transmission lines numbered from 2 through CAPM , connected in numerical sequence as in figure 3. Line 1 is a dummy element disconnected...from line 2 and the rest of the circuit. Lines 2 through CAPM can each be set to any impedance the user desires. Line CAPM +1 is a zero-impedance line

  13. Calculation of electrical and magnetic field in electric power transmission lines aiming project optimization, environmental impact and alternatives comparisons; O calculo dos campos eletrico e magnetico de L.T. visando a otimizacao do projeto, o impacto ambiental e a comparacao de alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portela, Carlos M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Moreno O, German [Antioquia Univ., Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1995-12-31

    The optimization of overhead electric power transmission lines leads to compact projects in which the neighbourhood electric and magnetic field are a critical restriction. The Load Simulation Method enables the reliable calculation of such fields. Presented are equations for the application of such conditions. Results are presented 9 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  14. Characteristic analysis of coupled transmission lines in stripline-type beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwada, T.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission characteristics in stripline electrodes of a stripline-type beam position monitor (BPM) are discussed on the basis of a coupled-mode analysis in electromagnetically coupled transmission lines. The physical prospect in the calibration procedure of stripline electrodes is improved in terms of signal transmission characteristics in the frequency domain. It is demonstrated that in the signal transmission with electromagnetic coupling between the stripline electrodes, the magnetic- and electric-coupling parameters play an important role depending upon the spatial configuration and mechanical structure of the stripline electrodes. In this report, a theoretical analysis, and experimental investigation into signal transmission characteristics and performance in a standard stripline-type BPM are described in detail on the basis of a coupled-mode analysis in uniform transmission lines

  15. High voltage transmission lines - what are the hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing use of high voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission lines there is a growing concern among the public about possible human health effects resulting from exposure to the electric fields associated with these lines. While there is no definitive evidence of such effects, mounting public fear and activism over hypothesized health risks is already causing delays in the licensing and constuction of major power transmission facilities, and is encouraging the formation of regulatory policy. This paper briefly reviews the concerns, biological effects data and standards for HVAC transmission lines

  16. Bottlenecks reduction using superconductors in high voltage transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daloub Labib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy flow bottlenecks in high voltage transmission lines known as congestions are one of the challenges facing power utilities in fast developing countries. Bottlenecks occur in selected power lines when transmission systems are operated at or beyond their transfer limits. In these cases, congestions result in preventing new power supply contracts, infeasibility in existing contracts, price spike and market power abuse. The “Superconductor Technology” in electric power transmission cables has been used as a solution to solve the problem of bottlenecks in energy transmission at high voltage underground cables and overhead lines. The increase in demand on power generation and transmission happening due to fast development and linked to the intensive usage of transmission network in certain points, which in turn, lead to often frequent congestion in getting the required power across to where it is needed. In this paper, a bottleneck in high voltage double overhead transmission line with Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced was modeled using conductor parameters and replaced by Gap-Type Superconductor to assess the benefit of upgrading to higher temperature superconductor and obtain higher current carrying capacity. This proved to reduce the high loading of traditional aluminum conductors and allow more power transfer over the line using superconductor within the same existing right-of-way, steel towers, insulators and fittings, thus reducing the upgrade cost of building new lines.

  17. Line formation in microturbulent magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domke, H.; Pavlov, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of Zeeman lines in Gaussian microturbulent magnetic fields is considered assuming LTE. General formulae are derived for the local mean values of the transfer matrix elements. The cases of one-dimensional (longitudinal), isotropic, and two-dimensional (transversal) magnetic microturbulence are studied in some detail. Asymptotic formulae are given for small mean as well as for small microturbulent magnetic fields. Characteristic effects of magnetic microturbulence on the transfer coefficients are: (i) the broadening of the frequency contours, although only for the case of longitudinal Zeeman effect and longitudinal magnetic microturbulence this effect can be described analogous to Doppler broadening, (ii) the appearance of a pseudo-Zeeman structure for nonlongitudinal magnetic microturbulence, (iii) the reduction of maximal values of circular polarization, and (iv) the appearance of characteristic linear polarization effects due to the anisotropy of the magnetic microturbulence. Line contours and polarization of Zeeman triplets are computed for Milne-Eddington atmospheres. It is shown that magnetic intensification due to microturbulent magnetic fields may be much more efficient than that due to regular fields. The gravity center of a Zeeman line observed in circularly polarized light remains a reasonable measure of the line of sight component of the mean magnetic field for a line strength eta 0 < approx. 2. For saturated lines, the gravity center distance depends significantly on the magnetic microturbulence and its anisotropy. The influence of magnetic microturbulence on the ratio of longitudinal field magnetographic signals shows that unique conclusions about the magnetic microstructure can be drawn from the line ratio measurements only in combination with further spectroscopic data or physical reasoning. (orig.)

  18. Transmission Lines Loading Enhancement Using ADPSO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahdavi; H. Monsef; A. Bagheri

    2010-01-01

    Discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) is a powerful stochastic evolutionary algorithm that is used to solve the large-scale, discrete and nonlinear optimization problems. However, it has been observed that standard DPSO algorithm has premature convergence when solving a complex optimization problem like transmission expansion planning (TEP). To resolve this problem an advanced discrete particle swarm optimization (ADPSO) is proposed in this paper. The simulation res...

  19. Coupling and corona effects research plan for transmission lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, J E; Formanek, V C

    1976-06-01

    Concern has arisen over the possible effects of electric and magnetic fields produced by EHV-UHV transmission lines. Past and ongoing research concerning the electric and magnetic field effects from EHV-UHV transmission lines was reviewed as it pertains to the following areas: (1) electromagnetic interference, (2) acoustic noise, (3) generation of gaseous effluents, and (4) safety considerations of induced voltages and currents. The intent of this review was to identify the short and long range research projects required to address these areas. The research plan identifies and gives priority to twenty programs in corona and coupling effects. In the case of the corona effects, a number of programs were recommended for acoustic noise and electromagnetic interference to delineate improved power line design criteria in terms of social, meteorological, geographical and cost constraints. Only one project is recommended in the case of ozone generation, because the results of comprehensive analyses, laboratory studies and field measurements have demonstrated that power lines do not contribute significant quantities of ozone. In the case of the coupling effects, a number of programs are recommended for HVAC transmission lines to improve the theoretically developed design guidelines by considering practical constraints. For HVDC transmission lines, programs are suggested to engender a better theoretical understanding and practical measurements capability for the coupling mechanisms of the dc electric and magnetic field with nearby objects. The interrelationship of the programs and their role in a long-term research plan is also discussed.

  20. State Estimation-based Transmission line parameter identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Andrés Olarte Dussán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two state-estimation-based algorithms for identifying transmission line parameters. The identification technique used simultaneous state-parameter estimation on an artificial power system composed of several copies of the same transmission line, using measurements at different points in time. The first algorithm used active and reactive power measurements at both ends of the line. The second method used synchronised phasor voltage and current measurements at both ends. The algorithms were tested in simulated conditions on the 30-node IEEE test system. All line parameters for this system were estimated with errors below 1%.

  1. Coupled Transmission Lines as Impedance Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the use of a coupled line section as an impedance transformer is presented. We show how to properly select the terminations of the coupled line structures for effective matching of real and complex loads in both narrow and wide frequency ranges. The corresponding...... circuit configurations and the design procedures are proposed. Synthesis relations are derived and provided for efficient matching circuit construction. Design examples are given to demonstrate the flexibility and limitations of the design methods and to show their validity for practical applications...

  2. Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zensho

    1998-01-01

    Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)

  3. Ground-based transmission line conductor motion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Milano, U.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-based-conductor motion-sensing apparatus is provided for remotely sensing movement of electric-power transmission lines, particularly as would occur during the wind-induced condition known as galloping. The apparatus is comprised of a motion sensor and signal-generating means which are placed underneath a transmission line and will sense changes in the electric field around the line due to excessive line motion. The detector then signals a remote station when a conditioning of galloping is sensed. The apparatus of the present invention is advantageous over the line-mounted sensors of the prior art in that it is easier and less hazardous to install. The system can also be modified so that a signal will only be given when particular conditions, such as specific temperature range, large-amplitude line motion, or excessive duration of the line motion, are occurring

  4. Analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of coupled resonant elements and application to sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqui, J.; Su, L.; Mata, J.; Martín, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of magnetically coupled resonators. We have considered two different structures: (i) a microstrip line loaded with pairs of stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), and (ii) a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line loaded with pairs of split ring resonators (SRRs). In both cases, the line exhibits a single resonance frequency (transmission zero) if the resonators are identical (symmetric structure with regard to the line axis), and this resonance is different to the one of the line loaded with a single resonator due to inter-resonator coupling. If the structures are asymmetric, inter-resonator coupling enhances the distance between the two split resonance frequencies that arise. In spite that the considered lines and loading resonators are very different and are described by different lumped element equivalent circuit models, the phenomenology associated to the effects of coupling is exactly the same, and the resonance frequencies are given by identical expressions. The reported lumped element circuit models of both structures are validated by comparing the circuit simulations with extracted parameters with both electromagnetic simulations and experimental data. These structures can be useful for the implementation of microwave sensors based on symmetry properties. - Highlights: • Magnetic-coupling between resonant elements affects transmission properties. • Inter-resonant coupling enhances the distance of two resonant frequencies. • The structures are useful for sensors and comparators, etc

  5. Magnetic pulse sharpener and delay-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Xia Liansheng

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to achieve short rise time pulse which has been delayed with a delay-line and magnetic pulse sharpener. A delay-line and two shock-lines are designed to carry pulsed signal with a maximum voltage magnitude up to 80 kV. A pulse of High voltage with arise time of 48 ns at a level of 0.1%-0.9% were achieved, and the attenuation in the line is very small

  6. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  7. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and other factors affecting safety and operation. (b) The frequency of patrols is determined by the size of the line, the operating pressures, the class location, terrain, weather, and other relevant factors, but...

  8. Optimal Transmission Line Switching under Geomagnetic Disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Mowen; Nagarajan, Harsha; Yamangil, Emre; Bent, Russell; Backhaus, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there have been increasing concerns about how geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) impact electrical power systems. Geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) can saturate transformers, induce hot spot heating and increase reactive power losses. These effects can potentially cause catastrophic damage to transformers and severely impact the ability of a power system to deliver power. To address this problem, we develop a model of GIC impacts to power systems that includes 1) GIC thermal capacity of transformers as a function of normal Alternating Current (AC) and 2) reactive power losses as a function of GIC. We also use this model to derive an optimization problem that protects power systems from GIC impacts through line switching, generator dispatch, and load shedding. We then employ state-of-the-art convex relaxations of AC power flow equations to lower bound the objective. We demonstrate the approach on a modified RTS96 system and UIUC 150-bus system and show that line switching is an effective means to mitigate GIC impacts. We also provide a sensitivity analysis of decisions with respect to GMD direction.

  9. A universal calculation model for the controlled electric transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivzivadze, O.; Zivzivadze, L.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties associated with the development of calculation models are analyzed, and the ways of resolution of these problems are given. A version of the equivalent circuit as a six-pole network, the parameters of which do not depend on the angle of shift Θ between the voltage vectors of circuits is offered. The interrelation between the parameters of the equivalent circuit and the transmission constants of the line was determined. A universal calculation model for the controlled electric transmission line was elaborated. The model allows calculating the stationary modes of lines of such classes at any angle of shift Θ between the circuits. (author)

  10. Computation of nonuniform transmission lines using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, G.C.; Paulino, J.O.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). School of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Calculation of lightning overvoltages on transmission lines has been described. Lightning induced overvoltages are of great significance under certain conditions because of the main characteristics of the phenomena. The lightning channel model is one of the most important parameters essential to obtaining the generated electromagnetic fields. In this study, nonuniform transmission line equations were solved using the finite difference method and the leap-frog scheme, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The subroutine was interfaced with the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). Two models were used to represent the characteristic impedance of the nonuniform lines used to model the transmission line towers and the lightning main channel. The advantages of the FDTD method was the much smaller code and faster processing time. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Atlas transmission line/transition design and fabrication status

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, E O; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Parker, G V; Ricketts, R L; Valdez, G A

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. Design has been completed for this new generation pulsed-power machine consisting of an azimuthal array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current to the load region at the machine center. The transmission line consists of a cable header, load protection switch, and tri-plate assembly interfacing to the center transition section. The cable header interface to the Marx module provides a mechanism to remove the Marx module for maintenance without removing other components of the transmission line. The load protection switch provides a mechanism for protecting the load during charging of the Marx in the event of a pre-fire condition. The aluminum tri-plate is a low-inductance transmission line that carries radial current flow from the Marx energy storage system at the machine periphery toward the load. All transmission line components are oil insulated except the...

  12. CALCULATION METHOD OF ELECTRIC POWER LINES MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH BASED ON CYLINDRICAL SPATIAL HARMONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Erisov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Simplification of accounting ratio to determine the magnetic field strength of electric power lines, and assessment of their environmental safety. Methodology. Description of the transmission lines of the magnetic field by using techniques of spatial harmonic analysis in the cylindrical coordinate system is carried out. Results. For engineering calculations of electric power lines magnetic field with sufficient accuracy describes their first spatial harmonic magnetic field. Originality. Substantial simplification of the definition of the impact of the construction of transmission line poles on the value of its magnetic field and the bands of land alienation sizes. Practical value. The environmentally friendly projection electric power lines on the level of the magnetic field.

  13. Kalman filter estimation of RLC parameters for UMP transmission line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Amin Siti Nur Aishah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the development of Kalman filter that allows evaluation in the estimation of resistance (R, inductance (L, and capacitance (C values for Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP short transmission line. To overcome the weaknesses of existing system such as power losses in the transmission line, Kalman Filter can be a better solution to estimate the parameters. The aim of this paper is to estimate RLC values by using Kalman filter that in the end can increase the system efficiency in UMP. In this research, matlab simulink model is developed to analyse the UMP short transmission line by considering different noise conditions to reprint certain unknown parameters which are difficult to predict. The data is then used for comparison purposes between calculated and estimated values. The results have illustrated that the Kalman Filter estimate accurately the RLC parameters with less error. The comparison of accuracy between Kalman Filter and Least Square method is also presented to evaluate their performances.

  14. Tuning of JET transmission line/antenna system during ICRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, J.

    1993-05-01

    The launched toroidal wave spectrum for ICRH and ICRH current drive is controlled by the phasing of the antenna currents. This causes imbalance in the transmission lines, which makes it more difficult to use the full power of the ICRH generators. Further, the generators are sensitive to the amount of reflected power. To reduce the amount of reflected power the transmission lines have to be constantly tuned. To study the tuning three models of the antenna are developed and compared with experimental results. A method is suggested which enables better usage of the generated power using a power correction unit to evenly distribute the power load between the generators. 4 refs, 24 figs

  15. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  16. Experimental analysis of a TEM plane transmission line for DNA studies at 900 MHz EM fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, F; Doria, D; Lorusso, A; Nassisi, V; Velardi, L; Alifano, P; Monaco, C; Tala, A; Tredici, M; Raino, A

    2006-01-01

    A suitable plane transmission line was developed and its behaviour analysed at 900 MHz radiofrequency fields to study DNA mutability and the repair of micro-organisms. In this work, utilizing such a device, we investigated the behaviour of DNA mutability and repair of Escherichia coli strains. The transmission line was very simple and versatile in changing its characteristic resistance and field intensity by varying its sizes. In the absence of cell samples inside the transmission line, the relative modulation of the electric and/or magnetic field was ±31% with respect to the mean values, allowing the processing of more samples at different exposure fields in a single run. A slight decrease in spontaneous mutability to rifampicin-resistance of the E. coli JC411 strain was demonstrated in mismatch-repair proficient samples exposed to the radio-frequency fields during their growth on solid medium

  17. Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line project, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the project is to replace the existing 36-mile Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line which has reached the end of its useful service life. Presently, the overall condition of this existing section of the 47-year-old line is poor. Frequent repairs have been required because of the absence of overhead ground wires. The continued maintenance of the line will become more expensive and customer interruptions will persist because of the damage due to lightning. The expense of replacing shell rotted poles, and the concern for the safety of the maintenance personnel because of hazards caused by severe shell rot are also of primary importance. The operational and maintenance problems coupled with power system simulation studies, demonstrate the need for improvements to the Wolf Point area to serve area loads. Western's Wolf Point Substation is an important point of interconnection for the power output from the Fort Peck Dam to area loads as far away as Williston, North Dakota. The proposed transmission line replacement would assure that there will continue to be reliable transmission capacity available to serve area electrical loads, as well as provide a reliable second high-voltage transmission path from the Fort Peck generation to back-up a loss of the Fort Peck-Wolf Point 115-kV Line No. 1

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND POWER LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Ranković

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the contemporary epidemiological researches, there are some indications that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields harm human health which has been proved through numerous scientific studies published in recent years. Today, most countries use the ICNIRP guidelines and Council Recommendation as the scientific basis for their recommended levels of exposure. Magnetic fields from high voltage transmission power lines have been discussed in this paper. The field profiles and their contribution to environmental pollution are studied. The obtained results are found to be useful for discussing the comparison of the field densities on the human body at the ground level under or near the lines.

  19. Environmental impact of high voltage aerial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P.; Mouallen, M.C.; Quintella, S.E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The identification of environmental impacts caused by the aerial transmission lines and the measures for reducing these impacts are discussed, considering the impact over the soil in different areas, biological effects caused by delayed exposure and visual impacts due to the line structures. A methodology for the impact evaluation and the aspects of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Report are also studied. (C.G.C.). 2 refs, 1 fig

  20. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ''environmental impact statement'' is not required

  1. Visual impact of overhead power transmission lines and dielectric and corona effects constraints on insulation coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deponti, F.; Fini, G.P.; Porrino, A.; Rosa, F.

    1992-06-01

    In assessing overhead power transmission line design and planning criteria for the optimization of visual impact, safety and the reduction of electro magnetic disturbance effects, this paper reviews the research findings of ENEL, the Italian Electricity Board. The on-going research activities involve theoretical calculations and laboratory performance tests to determine the best compact configurations for 380 kV lines. The parameters under examination include: insulator spacing, sizing and salt fog resistivity; allowable overvoltages; maximum line length; behaviour in lightning conditions; radio and acoustics disturbances

  2. Rigorous theoretical derivation of lumped models to transmission line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of the negative electric parameter concept, i.e. negative lumped resistance, inductance, conductance and capacitance (N-RLGC), the lumped equivalent models of transmission line systems, including the circuit model, two-port π-network and T-network, are given. We start from the N-segment-ladder-like equivalent networks composed distributed parameters, and achieve the input impedance in the form of a continued fraction. Utilizing the continued fraction theory, the expressions of input impedance are obtained under three kinds of extreme cases, i.e. the load impedances are equal to zero, infinity and characteristic impedance, respectively. When the number of segment N is limited to infinity, they are transformed to lumped elements. Comparison between the distributed model and lumped model of transmission lines, the expression of tanh γd, which is the key term in the transmission line equations, are obtained by RLGC, furthermore, according to input admittance, admittance matrix and ABCD matrix of transmission lines, the lumped equivalent circuit models, π-networks and T-networks have been given. The models are verified in the frequency and time domain, respectively, showing that the models are accurate and efficient. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  4. Characteristics of the λ/4 transmission line resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Masuda, H.; Yoshida, K.; Arai, S.; Niki, K.

    1994-01-01

    Though the spiral cavity is adequate for low frequency operation, mechanical instability becomes serious for such a low frequency as 20 MHz. We have then studied how to shorten the spiral length by using λ/4 transmission line models. Four models with reduced spiral length are presented. (author)

  5. A novel transmission line protection using DOST and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaya Bharata Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a smart fault detection, classification and location (SFDCL methodology for transmission systems with multi-generators using discrete orthogonal Stockwell transform (DOST. The methodology is based on synchronized current measurements from remote telemetry units (RTUs installed at both ends of the transmission line. The energy coefficients extracted from the transient current signals due to occurrence of different types of faults using DOST are being utilized for real-time fault detection and classification. Support vector machine (SVM has been deployed for locating the fault distance using the extracted coefficients. A comparative study is performed for establishing the superiority of SVM over other popular computational intelligence methods, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and artificial neural network (ANN, for more precise and reliable estimation of fault distance. The results corroborate the effectiveness of the suggested SFDCL algorithm for real-time transmission line fault detection, classification and localization.

  6. Airplane Ice Detector Based on a Microwave Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. Dickey; Carl, James R.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic instrument that could detect the potentially dangerous buildup of ice on an airplane wing is undergoing development. The instrument is based on a microwave transmission line configured as a capacitance probe: at selected spots, the transmission-line conductors are partly exposed to allow any ice and/or liquid water present at those spots to act as predominantly capacitive electrical loads on the transmission line. These loads change the input impedance of the transmission line, as measured at a suitable excitation frequency. Thus, it should be possible to infer the presence of ice and/or liquid water from measurements of the input impedance and/or electrical parameters related to the input impedance. The sensory transmission line is of the microstrip type and thus thin enough to be placed on an airplane wing without unduly disturbing airflow in flight. The sensory spots are small areas from which the upper layer of the microstrip has been removed to allow any liquid water or ice on the surface to reach the transmission line. The sensory spots are spaced at nominal open-circuit points, which are at intervals of a half wavelength (in the transmission line, not in air) at the excitation frequency. The excitation frequency used in the experiments has been 1 GHz, for which a half wavelength in the transmission line is .4 in. (.10 cm). The figure depicts a laboratory prototype of the instrument. The impedance-related quantities chosen for use in this version of the instrument are the magnitude and phase of the scattering parameter S11 as manifested in the in-phase (I ) and quadrature (Q) outputs of the phase detector. By careful layout of the transmission line (including the half-wavelength sensor spacing), one can ensure that the amplitude and phase of the input to the phase detector keep shifting in the same direction as ice forms on one or more of the sensor areas. Although only one transmission-line sensor strip is used in the laboratory version, in a

  7. Theory and Circuit Model for Lossy Coaxial Transmission Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genoni, T. C.; Anderson, C. N.; Clark, R. E.; Gansz-Torres, J.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, Dale Robert

    2017-04-01

    The theory of signal propagation in lossy coaxial transmission lines is revisited and new approximate analytic formulas for the line impedance and attenuation are derived. The accuracy of these formulas from DC to 100 GHz is demonstrated by comparison to numerical solutions of the exact field equations. Based on this analysis, a new circuit model is described which accurately reproduces the line response over the entire frequency range. Circuit model calculations are in excellent agreement with the numerical and analytic results, and with finite-difference-time-domain simulations which resolve the skindepths of the conducting walls.

  8. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  9. Research on the Test of Transmission Line Galloping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lichun; Li, Qing; lv, Zhongbin; Ji, Kunpeng; Liu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The load of iced transmission line and the load generated by galloping after the conductor are covered by ice all may cause severe circuit faults, such as tripping, conductor breaking, armor clamp damage and even tower collapse, thus severely threatening running safety of power system. The generation and development processes of galloping of power transmission line is very complicated, and numerous factors may influence the galloping excitation, such as environmental factors, terrain factors and structural parameters of power transmission line; in which, the ice covering of conductor is one of necessary factors causing galloping. Therefore, researches on ice covering increasing test of different types of conductors under different meteorological conditions have been conducted in large-sized multi-functional phytotron, thus obtaining the relation curve of ice covering increasing of conductor along with time under different conditions, and analyzing factors influencing increasing of ice covering. The research result shows that under the same ice covering conditions, the increasing of ice covering of conductor with small diameter is relatively rapid; both environmental temperature and wind speed have obvious influence on increasing of ice covering of conductor, and the environmental temperature will decide the type of ice covering of conductor surface. Meanwhile, after wind tunnel tests targeting conductors with different ice covering shapes, pneumatic stability loss characteristics of conductors with different ice shapes have been obtained. Research results have important scientific reference value for revealing the mechanism of galloping of iced power transmission line, and have relatively high engineering practicability value for promoting realization of early warning system for galloping of iced power transmission line.

  10. Upgrading transmission lines with aerial LiDAR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koop, J.E. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology is described as an example of techniques used by hydro companies to increase their capacity with existing plants, and within tight budget constraints. LiDAR was chosen by Manitoba Hydro primarily because LiDAR's data collection method offers very fast turn-around time from collection to delivery, and most importantly because of LiDAR's highly accurate ability to map terrain and wire catenary shape in every span. The article describes a case study of the 'Nip and Tuck' method of wire re-tensioning based on LiDAR data, which was used by Manitoba Hydro to create a computer model of Saskatchewan Hydro's transmission line capacity on its 138 kV transmission line between Saskatoon and North Battleford. The model was needed to analyze the existing line conditions in an effort to minimize cascading failures on the 40-year old line. Using the 'Nip and Tuck' technology in combination with LiDAR, SaskPower engineers were able to complete the required modifications to raise transmission wire operating temperatures on the 135 km long line to 66 degree C in only 36 days, and at a cost that was 80 per cent less than the cost would have been using conventional techniques ($232,000 instead of the estimated $1.25 million).

  11. Study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission from overhead High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, S.R.; Roha Tukimin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Zulkifli Yusof; Mohd Azizi Mohd Jali

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights the study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission performed at an overhead 275-kV High-Voltage Transmission Lines. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was 10.8 % and 1.8 % of the permissible exposure limit for the electric and magnetic field respectively. Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement. (author)

  12. Analytical Model for High Impedance Fault Analysis in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maximov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high impedance fault (HIF normally occurs when an overhead power line physically breaks and falls to the ground. Such faults are difficult to detect because they often draw small currents which cannot be detected by conventional overcurrent protection. Furthermore, an electric arc accompanies HIFs, resulting in fire hazard, damage to electrical devices, and risk with human life. This paper presents an analytical model to analyze the interaction between the electric arc associated to HIFs and a transmission line. A joint analytical solution to the wave equation for a transmission line and a nonlinear equation for the arc model is presented. The analytical model is validated by means of comparisons between measured and calculated results. Several cases of study are presented which support the foundation and accuracy of the proposed model.

  13. North Central Transmission Line: Guidelines for the environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines that Manitoba Hydro must follow in the preparation of the environmental impact statement on the proposed North Central Transmission Line (TCTL) project are presented. The project consists of a 138 kV transmission line, two 25 kV distribution lines, and related ancillary structures and facilities. The review process must be sensitive to cultural and community needs and must involve those most directly affected, and should be grounded in the impacted northern communities. The review should include a project background, the proposal, a description of the existing natural and socio-economic environment, and must address employment, education and training, impacts on renewable resource harvesting, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts, legal/jurisdictional issues, infrastructure, mitigation and compensation, and environmental monitoring and follow-up. 1 fig., 20 tabs

  14. Capacitive Coupling in Double-Circuit Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Benesova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an algorithm for calculation of capacitances and charges on conductors in systems with earth wires and in double-circuit overhead lines with respect to phase arrangement. A balanced voltage system is considered. A suitable transposition of individual conductors enables to reduce the electric and magnetic fields in vicinity of overhead lines and to limit the inductive and capacitive linkage. The procedure is illustrated on examples the results of which lead to particular recommendations for designers.

  15. Calculation of the Magnetic Fields of the Electric Power Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsiuk V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of calculation of per unit length parameters of multi-conductor electrical overhead transmission lines has been treated in the paper. The calculation of distribution of electric and magnetic fields has been performed by means of the finite volume method for entire span of the line. The theoretical justification of the method for calculation the parameters of electromagnetic field taking into account the change of the vector of magnetic potential along the line has been given. The problems of electrostatic and magnetostatic for a single electric conductor and unlimited long conductor with current have been solved. For the inner and total inductivities of a single conductor under the current have been obtained relationships and drawn dependences. Dependence between the speeds of light and of electromagnetic wave’s propagation has been presented. Based on the characteristics of distribution of electric and magnetic fields of multi-conductor lines has been provided the method of calculation of the matrix of own and mutual capacitances and inductivities the calculated values of per unit length parameters of compact 110 kV electric line which is in concordance with one of basic physical constant – the speed of light.

  16. Sensor Placement For Structural Monitoring of Transmission Line Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eRaphael

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line towers are usually analyzed using linear elastic idealized truss models. Due to the assumptions used in the analysis, there are discrepancies between the actual results obtained from full scale prototype testing and the analytical results. Therefore, design engineers are interested in assessing the actual stress levels in transmission line towers. Since it is costly to place sensors on every member of a tower structure, the best locations for sensors need to be carefully selected. This study evaluates a methodology for sensor placement in transmission line towers. The objective is to find optimal locations for sensors such that the real behavior of the structure can be explained from measurements. The methodology is based on the concepts of entropy and model falsification. Sensor locations are selected based on maximum entropy such that there is maximum separation between model instances that represent different possible combinations of parameter values which have uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to that of an intuitive method in which sensor locations are selected where the forces are maximum. A typical 220 kV transmission tower is taken as case study in this paper. It is shown that the intuitive method results in much higher number of non-separable models compared to the optimal sensor placement algorithm. Thus the intuitive method results in poor identification of the system.

  17. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  18. Improved magnetic field line design for TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Baldwin, D.E.; Foote, J.H.; Chargin, A.K.; Hinkle, R.E.; Hussung, R.O.; Damm, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    Optimization of the currents in the TMX magnet set leads to a field line configuration which has a central solenoidal region uniform in parallel B parallel to within 10 percent over a 2m length. The field design has sufficient flexibility to meet all three physics objectives of the TMX experiment

  19. Chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu; Abe, Yoshihiko; Urata, Kazuhiro; Irie, Haruyuki.

    1989-05-01

    This is an introductory review of chaotic magnetic field line in plasmas, together with some new results, with emphasis on the long-time tail and the fractional Brownian motion of the magnetic field line. The chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas is a typical chaotic phenomena in the Hamiltonian dynamical systems. The onset of stochasticity induced by a major magnetic perturbation is thought to cause a macroscopic rapid phenomena called the current disruption in the tokamak discharges. Numerical simulations on the basis of magnetohydrodynamics reveal in fact the disruptive phenomena. Some dynamical models which include the area-preserving mapping such as the standard mapping, and the two-wave Hamiltonian system can model the stochastic magnetic field. Theoretical results with use of the functional integral representation are given regarding the long-time tail on the basis of the radial twist mapping. It is shown that application of renormalization group technique to chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian system proves decay of the velocity autocorrelation function with the power law. Some new numerical results are presented which supports these theoretical results. (author)

  20. 800 kW transmission line research at Leatherhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-05-29

    The experimental transmission line was installed at Leatherhead to enable the Central Electricity Research Laboratories to study the insulators, fittings, and conductors likely to be needed for ac power transmission at voltages up to the equivalent of 800 kV three-phase. Continuous recording will be made of corona power loss and radio and television interference. For this purpose C.E.R.L. has developed a statistical radio-interference recorder. The instrumentation also includes an automatic corona-loss bridge and data logger.

  1. Conductance of auroral magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, D.R.; Gurnett, D.A.; Goertz, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    DE-1 high-resolution double-probe electric-field data and simultaneous magnetic-field measurements are reported for two 1981 events with large electric fields which reversed over short distances. The data are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. A field-line conductance of about 1 nmho/sq m is determined for both upward and downward currents, and the ionospheric conductivity is shown, in the short-wavelength limit, to have little effect on the relationship between the (N-S) electric and (E-W) magnetic fields above the potential drop parallel to the magnetic-field lines. The results are found to be consistent with a linear relationship between the field-aligned current density and the parallel potential drop. 14 references

  2. Ballooning modes on open magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ballooning instability on open magnetic field lines is given a thorough mathematical analysis. It is shown that resistive bounding ends (endplates) induce the same stability properties as insulating ends. When unstable, the maximal growth rate increases monotonically with boundary resistivity. An interchange instability may be present, and one necessary condition for its stability is that ∫dl/B be constant on pressure surfaces. (This is an equilibrium existence condition for systems with closed magnetic field lines.) Another necessary condition for interchange stability has the same form as in the closed line case. Precise necessary and sufficient stability criteria are given for various types of bounding ends, including insulating, resistive, and perfectly conducting. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Transmission Delay Modeling of Packet Communication over Digital Subscriber Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain multimedia and voice services, such as VoIP, IPTV, etc., are significantly delay sensitive and their performance is influenced by the overall transmission delay and its variance. One of the most common solutions used in access networks are xDSL lines, especially ADSL2+ or VDSL2. Although these subscriber lines also use packet communication, there are several differences and mechanisms, which influence their resulting delay. Their delay characteristics are also dependent on the individual settings of each xDSL provider, therefore we decided to investigate this area for typical commercially available lines in Czech Republic. Based on the measured values and experiments with real ADSL2+ lines we also developed a potential modeling method, which is presented in this article as well. The parameters for packet jitter based on the generalized Pareto distribution were modeled.

  4. Comparative study of aerial transmission lines and underground isolated on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Jimenez, Marco Esteban

    2012-01-01

    A comparison was made of aerial power lines and underground isolated on gas. Growing electric demand has given way to debate the lines transmission. Multiple discussions have generated about its application, however, the energy must be supplied and this process leads to the search for more efficient methods. The theory has covered the most important design criteria of the airlines and an introduction to the little known transport lines isolated on gas. The process of manufacturing, installation and operation are studied within the scope of the project. Count information is included in the main aspects of calculation relating to power transmission. Besides, the planning of the optimal route nominal calculations, load flow and power losses are focused as well as magnetic field strengths and finally economic analysis. (author) [es

  5. Collisionless reconnection: magnetic field line interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field lines are quantum objects carrying one quantum Φ0 = 2πh/e of magnetic flux and have finite radius λm. Here we argue that they possess a very specific dynamical interaction. Parallel field lines reject each other. When confined to a certain area they form two-dimensional lattices of hexagonal structure. We estimate the filling factor of such an area. Anti-parallel field lines, on the other hand, attract each other. We identify the physical mechanism as being due to the action of the gauge potential field, which we determine quantum mechanically for two parallel and two anti-parallel field lines. The distortion of the quantum electrodynamic vacuum causes a cloud of virtual pairs. We calculate the virtual pair production rate from quantum electrodynamics and estimate the virtual pair cloud density, pair current and Lorentz force density acting on the field lines via the pair cloud. These properties of field line dynamics become important in collisionless reconnection, consistently explaining why and how reconnection can spontaneously set on in the field-free centre of a current sheet below the electron-inertial scale.

  6. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  7. Transmission Line for 258 GHz Gyrotron DNP Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdashov, Alexandr A.; Belousov, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexey V.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Korchagin, Vyacheslav V.; Kornishin, Sergey Yu.; Tai, Evgeny M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design and test results of the transmission line for liquid-state (LS) and solid-state (SS) DNP spectrometers with the second-harmonic 258.6 GHz gyrotron at the Institute of the Biophysical Chemistry Center of Goethe University (Frankfurt). The 13-meter line includes a mode converter, HE11 waveguides, 4 mitre bends, a variable polarizer-attenuator, directional couplers, a water-flow calorimeter and a mechanical switch. A microwave power of about 15 W was obtained in the pure HE11 mode at the spectrometer inputs.

  8. Analyzing the Health Risks Resulting from Extending the 400kV High Voltage Transmission Lines on the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Dervish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is difficult to imagine life without electricity, there are compiling confirmations show thatexposure to magnetic fields correlated electricity and radio frequencies pose magnificent hazards to human health. The most economist method to transfer electricity from power generation stations to users is by measures of high power transmission lines, buoyed by big transmission towers. The cables laced between the towers radiate magnetic and electric fields. In this research study, the magnetic field at ground level under 400 kV network lines extended in residential places have been conducted in two ways, mathematical calculation and practical measurement then the obtained results analyzed and compared with the international standards reference values. the reason of chose this type of transmission line is frequently using. The results indicate that they fall within the safe limiter commended by the WorldHealth Organization. the strength of radiation increasing with high of sea level and moisture ratiobecause of air ionization.

  9. Electrodynamic Wireless Power Transmission to Rotating Magnet Receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Jimenez, J D; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) using a synchronously rotating magnet located in a 3.2 cm 3 receiver. We demonstrate wireless power transmission up to 99 mW (power density equal to 31 mW/cm 3 ) over a 5-cm distance and 5 mW over a 20-cm distance. The maximum operational frequency, and hence maximal output power, is constrained by the magnetic field amplitude. A quadratic relationship is found between the maximal output power and the magnetic field. We also demonstrate simultaneous, power transmission to multiple receivers positioned at different locations

  10. The 12th 735-kV transmission line project: Hydro-Quebec network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is proposing to construct a 735-kV transmission line from the Chissibi station near the LG3 hydroelectric power plant to the Jacques-Cartier station near Quebec City. The width of the right-of-way will generally be 90 m and it is intended to install the line in two stages. The Chissibi-Chibougamau section should enter service in 1993 and the Chibougamau-Cartier section in 1994. The cost of the line is estimated at $1.21 billion, of which $900 million is for line construction and $310 million for station equipment. Prospective corridors for the line route have been selected, portions of which enable twinning with Hydro-Quebec's existing 9th 735-kV line. A series of hearings on the environmental and other impacts of the power line project was held by the Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement and results are summarized along with the views of the Bureau. The summary describes the justification for the project, the choice of the transmission line route, the evaluation of the impacts of the project on the natural and human environments, health effects due to magnetic fields, and effects on the economic development of northern Quebec. Recommendations are given for mitigating the impacts of the project. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Analytical methods for study of transmission line lightning protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Per.

    1993-04-01

    Transmission line lightning performance is studied by analytical methods. The elements of shielding failure flashovers and back-flashovers are analysed as functions of incidence, response and insulation. Closed-form approximate expressions are sought to enhance understanding of the phenomena. Probabilistic and wave propagation aspects are particularly studied. The electrogeometric model of lightning attraction to structures is used in combination with the log-normal probability distribution of lightning to ground currents. The log-normality is found to be retained for the currents collected by mast-type as well as line-type structures, but with a change of scale. For both types, exceedingly simple formulas for the number of hits are derived. Simple closed-form expressions for the line outage rates from back- flashovers and shielding failure flashovers are derived in a uniform way as functions of the critical currents. The expressions involve the standardized normal distribution function. System response is analysed by use of Laplace transforms in combination with text-book transmission-line theory. Inversion into time domain is accomplished by an approximate asymptotic method producing closed-form results. The back-flashover problem is analysed in particular. Approximate, image type expressions are derived for shunt admittance of wires above, on and under ground for analyses of fast transients. The derivation parallels that for series impedance, now well-known. 3 refs, 5 figs

  12. Numerical noise analysis for insulator of overhead transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Yuwen; Huang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    As an important and complex issue in aero acoustic field, a lot of explorations have been devoted to the wind-induced noise. However, there is still lack of intensive investigations for aerodynamic noise in high-voltage transmission. The overhead transmission line system leads to serious occupational noise exposure in high wind-speed environment, and the noise can even injure the electricians in charge of insulator. By using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which combined with computational aero acoustics (CAA), this paper predicts the noise generated by insulator of high voltage electricity transmission line which explores in wind environment. The simulation results indicate that the wind velocity, the assembly angle of the insulator and its ribs' distribution are the main contributory factors for the aerodynamic noise. Specifically, when wind velocity is greater than 15m/s, the alteration of noise is not sensitive to the wind velocity; furthermore, when the assembly angle increases from 0°to 60°, the noise decreases gradually, however, if the angle is happening to be 75°or 90°, it would be even greater than that at 0°. In order to inhibit the aerodynamic noise, it is necessary to control the flow blowing across the boundary of the insulator. Consequently, the result indicates that if the outermost rib is shorter than the second one, the noise reduced evidently. This information expects to provide useful help for the extremely suppression of aerodynamic noise, and also supply practical reference material for the design and application of overhead transmission line system.

  13. Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.

  14. Chameleon's behavior of modulable nonlinear electrical transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togueu Motcheyo, A. B.; Tchinang Tchameu, J. D.; Fewo, S. I.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    We show that modulable discrete nonlinear transmission line can adopt Chameleon's behavior due to the fact that, without changing its appearance structure, it can become alternatively purely right or left handed line which is different to the composite one. Using a quasidiscrete approximation, we derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, that predicts accurately the carrier frequency threshold from the linear analysis. It appears that the increasing of the linear capacitor in parallel in the series branch induced the selectivity of the filter in the right-handed region while it increases band pass filter in the left-handed region. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear model confirm the forward wave in the right handed line and the backward wave in the left handed one.

  15. Cyber Risk Assessment of Transmission Lines in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of information technologies in power systems has increased the risk of power systems to cyber-attacks. In this paper, we assess the risk of transmission lines being overloaded due to cyber-based false data injection attacks. The cyber risk assessment is formulated as bilevel optimization problems that determine the maximum line flows under false data injection attacks. We propose efficient techniques to reduce the computation complexity of solving the bilevel problems. Specifically, primary and secondary filtering techniques are employed to identify the lines whose flows will never exceed their limits, which can significantly reduce computation burden. A special feasibility cut-based acceleration technique is introduced to further reduce the computation burden. The simulation results on the IEEE 30-bus, IEEE 118-bus, IEEE 300-bus and IEEE 2383-bus systems verify the proposed risk assessment model and the effectiveness of the proposed filtering and acceleration techniques.

  16. Development of Live-working Robot for Power Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Ren, Chengxian; Li, Jinliang; Li, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Dream-I, the first reconfigurable live-working robot for power transmission lines successfully developed in China, has the functions of autonomous walking on lines and accurately positioning. This paper firstly described operation task and object of the robot; then designed a general platform, an insulator replacement end and a drainage plate bolt fastening end of the robot, presented a control system of the robot, and performed simulation analysis on operation plan of the robot; and finally completed electrical field withstand voltage tests in a high voltage hall as well as online test and trial on actual lines. Experimental results show that by replacing ends of manipulators, the robot can fulfill operation tasks of live replacement of suspension insulators and live drainage plate bolt fastening.

  17. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Fault Detection in Radial and Network Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shadaram

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fiber optic based sensor capable of fault detection in both radial and network overhead transmission power line systems is investigated. Bragg wavelength shift is used to measure the fault current and detect fault in power systems. Magnetic fields generated by currents in the overhead transmission lines cause a strain in magnetostrictive material which is then detected by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG. The Fiber Bragg interrogator senses the reflected FBG signals, and the Bragg wavelength shift is calculated and the signals are processed. A broadband light source in the control room scans the shift in the reflected signal. Any surge in the magnetic field relates to an increased fault current at a certain location. Also, fault location can be precisely defined with an artificial neural network (ANN algorithm. This algorithm can be easily coordinated with other protective devices. It is shown that the faults in the overhead transmission line cause a detectable wavelength shift on the reflected signal of FBG and can be used to detect and classify different kind of faults. The proposed method has been extensively tested by simulation and results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to detect different kinds of fault in both radial and network system.

  18. Study on Tower Models for EHV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning outage accident is one of the main factors that threat seriously the safe and reliable operation of power system. So it is very important to establish reasonable transmission tower model and evaluate the impulse response characteristic of lightning wave traveling on the transmission tower properly for determining reliable lightning protection performance. With the help of Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP, six 500kV tower models are built. Aiming at one line to one transformer operating mode of 500kV substation, the intruding wave overvoltage under different tower models is calculated. The effect of tower model on intruding overvoltage has been studied. The results show that different tower models can result in great differences to the calculation results. Hence, reasonable selection of the tower model in the calculation of back- strike intruding wave is very important.

  19. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  20. Quality factor of a transmission line coupled coplanar waveguide resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besedin, Ilya [National University for Science and Technology (MISiS), Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Menushenkov, Alexey P. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-12-15

    We investigate analytically the coupling of a coplanar waveguide resonator to a coplanar waveguide feedline. Using a conformal mapping technique we obtain an expression for the characteristic mode impedances and coupling coefficients of an asymmetric multi-conductor transmission line. Leading order terms for the external quality factor and frequency shift are calculated. The obtained analytical results are relevant for designing circuit-QED quantum systems and frequency division multiplexing of superconducting bolometers, detectors and similar microwave-range multi-pixel devices. (orig.)

  1. Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...

  2. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  3. Electron transmission through a periodically driven graphene magnetic barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, R., E-mail: rbiswas.pkc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P. K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal – 721401 (India); Maiti, S. [Ajodhya Hills G.S.A.T High School, Ajodhya, Purulia, West Bengal – 723152 (India); Mukhopadhyay, S. [Purulia Zilla School, Dulmi Nadiha, Purulia, West Bengal – 723102 (India); Sinha, C. [Department of Physics, P. K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal – 721401 (India); Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur – 700032 (India)

    2017-05-10

    Electronic transport through graphene magnetic barriers is studied theoretically in presence of an external time harmonic scalar potential in the framework of non-perturbative Landau–Floquet Formalism. The oscillating field mostly suppresses the transmission for rectangular magnetic barrier structure and exhibits the Fano resonance for multiphoton processes due to the presence of bound state inside the barrier. While, for a pair of delta function barriers of larger separation, the oscillating potential suppresses the usual Fabry–Perot oscillations in the transmission and a new type of asymmetric Fano resonance is noted for smaller separation, occurring due to extended states between the barriers. - Highlights: • Tunnelling of the Dirac Fermions through oscillating pure magnetic barriers is reported for the first time. • The high energy transmission through a graphene magnetic barrier is suppressed by the application of time periodic modulation. • Suppression of the Fabry Perot transmission is noted due to the application of an external time harmonic potential. • Two kinds of the Fano resonances are noted in transmission through a pair of modulated δ-function magnetic barriers.

  4. Magnetic Nature of Light Transmission through a 5-nm Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyosim; Kim, Dai-Sik; Kim, Richard H Joon-Yeon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kang, Taehee; Jeong, Jeeyoon; Lee, Dukhyung

    2018-02-09

    Slot antennas have been exploited as important building blocks of optical magnetism because their radiations are invoked by the magnetic fields along the axes, as vectorial Babinet principle predicts. However, optical magnetism of a few-nanometer-width slit, for which fascinating applications are found due to the colossal field enhancement but Babinet principle fails due to the nonnegligible thickness, has not been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrated that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in light transmission through a 5-nm slit on a 150-nm-thick gold film. The 5-nm slit was fabricated by atomic layer lithography, and the transmission was investigated for various incident angles by experiment and simulation at 785-nm wavelength. We found that, due to the deep subwavelength gap width, the transmission has the same incident angle dependence as the tangential magnetic field on the metal surface and this magnetic nature of a nanogap holds up to ~100-nm width. Our analysis establishes conditions for nanogap optical magnetism and suggests new possibilities in realizing magnetic-field-driven optical nonlinearities.

  5. Doppler-shifted neutral beam line shape and beam transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kokatnur, N.; Lagin, L.J.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of Doppler-shifted Balmer-α line emission from the TFTR neutral beam injection systems has revealed that the line shape is well approximated by the sum of two Gaussians, or, alternatively, by a Lorentzian. For the sum of two Gaussians, the broad portion of the distribution contains 40% of the beam power and has a divergence five times that of the narrow part. Assuming a narrow 1/e- divergence of 1.3 degrees (based on fits to the beam shape on the calorimeter), the broad part has a divergence of 6.9 degrees. The entire line shape is also well approximated by a Lorentzian with a half-maximum divergence of 0.9 degrees. Up to now, fusion neutral beam modelers have assumed a single Gaussian velocity distribution, at the extraction plane, in each direction perpendicular to beam propagation. This predicts a beam transmission efficiency from the ion source to the calorimeter of 97%. Waterflow calorimetry data, however, yield a transmission efficiency of ∼75%, a value in rough agreement with predictions of the Gaussian or Lorentzian models presented here. The broad wing of the two Gaussian distribution also accurately predicts the loss in the neutralizer. An average angle of incidence for beam loss at the exit of the neutralizer is 2.2 degrees, rather than the 4.95 degrees subtended by the center of the ion source. This average angle of incidence, which is used in computing power densities on collimators, is shown to be a function of beam divergence

  6. Transmission-line-circuit model of an 85-TW, 25-MA pulsed-power accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsel, B. T.; Corcoran, P. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Hess, M. H.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Laity, G. R.; Lamppa, D. C.; McBride, R. D.; Moore, J. K.; Myers, A.; Rose, D. V.; Slutz, S. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Waisman, E. M.; Welch, D. R.; Whitney, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a physics-based transmission-line-circuit model of the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The 33-m-diameter Z machine generates a peak electrical power as high as 85 TW, and delivers as much as 25 MA to a physics load. The circuit model is used to design and analyze experiments conducted on Z. The model consists of 36 networks of transmission-line-circuit elements and resistors that represent each of Zs 36 modules. The model of each module includes a Marx generator, intermediate-energy-storage capacitor, laser-triggered gas switch, pulse-forming line, self-break water switches, and tri-plate transmission lines. The circuit model also includes elements that represent Zs water convolute, vacuum insulator stack, four parallel outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), double-post-hole vacuum convolute, inner vacuum MITL, and physics load. Within the vacuum-transmission-line system the model conducts analytic calculations of current loss. To calculate the loss, the model simulates the following processes: (i) electron emission from MITL cathode surfaces wherever an electric-field threshold has been exceeded; (ii) electron loss in the MITLs before magnetic insulation has been established; (iii) flow of electrons emitted by the outer-MITL cathodes after insulation has been established; (iv) closure of MITL anode-cathode (AK) gaps due to expansion of cathode plasma; (v) energy loss to MITL conductors operated at high lineal current densities; (vi) heating of MITL-anode surfaces due to conduction current and deposition of electron kinetic energy; (vii) negative-space-charge-enhanced ion emission from MITL anode surfaces wherever an anode-surface-temperature threshold has been exceeded; and (viii) closure of MITL AK gaps due to expansion of anode plasma. The circuit model is expected to be most accurate when the fractional current loss is small. We have performed circuit simulations of 52 Z experiments conducted with a variety of accelerator

  7. Transmission-line-circuit model of an 85-TW, 25-MA pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Hutsel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a physics-based transmission-line-circuit model of the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The 33-m-diameter Z machine generates a peak electrical power as high as 85 TW, and delivers as much as 25 MA to a physics load. The circuit model is used to design and analyze experiments conducted on Z. The model consists of 36 networks of transmission-line-circuit elements and resistors that represent each of Zs 36 modules. The model of each module includes a Marx generator, intermediate-energy-storage capacitor, laser-triggered gas switch, pulse-forming line, self-break water switches, and tri-plate transmission lines. The circuit model also includes elements that represent Zs water convolute, vacuum insulator stack, four parallel outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs, double-post-hole vacuum convolute, inner vacuum MITL, and physics load. Within the vacuum-transmission-line system the model conducts analytic calculations of current loss. To calculate the loss, the model simulates the following processes: (i electron emission from MITL cathode surfaces wherever an electric-field threshold has been exceeded; (ii electron loss in the MITLs before magnetic insulation has been established; (iii flow of electrons emitted by the outer-MITL cathodes after insulation has been established; (iv closure of MITL anode-cathode (AK gaps due to expansion of cathode plasma; (v energy loss to MITL conductors operated at high lineal current densities; (vi heating of MITL-anode surfaces due to conduction current and deposition of electron kinetic energy; (vii negative-space-charge-enhanced ion emission from MITL anode surfaces wherever an anode-surface-temperature threshold has been exceeded; and (viii closure of MITL AK gaps due to expansion of anode plasma. The circuit model is expected to be most accurate when the fractional current loss is small. We have performed circuit simulations of 52 Z experiments conducted with a

  8. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline's pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE's review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest

  9. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.

  10. Design and optimization of the PBFA II vacuum interface and transmission lines for light ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Daniel, D.H.; Stinnett, R.W.; Gray, E.W.; Mattis, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The PBFA II vacuum insulator was originally designed for optimum coupling to a proton ion diode with minimum inductance. In July 1983 it was decided that lithium ions at 30 MeV would be the baseline for PBFA II. This requires the use of Plasma Opening Switches (POS) and vacuum inductor to reach 30 MV. To achieve this, the vacuum magnetically insulated transmission lines had to be redesigned as an inductive energy store. To gain optimum coupling to this vacuum inductor, the output impedance of the water section was increased by the use of a water-dielectric transformer. The calculations leading to the final design are discussed

  11. A modular restoration tower for electric power line transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolazzi, L.C.; Pereira, J.C.; Leonel, C.E.L.; Rocha, G.B.; Bianchezzi, V.; Mendes, F. [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: lauro@grante.ufsc.br, jcarlos@grante.ufsc.br; Luz, R.L. [ELETROSUL Centrais Eletricas S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], Email: rluz@eletrosul.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The main target of this R and D project is to develop an restoration tower for electric energy lines transmission. Whereas these towers should present the main features like transport facility, easiest assembling associated with a low cost of manufacture, it was applied the single-column tower concepts supported by stays, modularized, framed and articulated at the base. The concepts used for this development was a design methodology. From the different definition situations of load, numerical models have been developed focusing the design to the best of structural element arrangements of its modules. Then, tests were performed in laboratory to determine the module structural performance for different work load situations. These tests served to identify inconsistencies in the numerical models and proposed adjustments in its design to improve its performance on the strength and stability. (author)

  12. Mathematical modeling of agricultural fires beneath high voltage transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zohri, Emad H.; Shafey, Hamdy M.; Abdel-Salam, M.; Ahmed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for agricultural fires based on a multi-phase formulation. The model includes dehydration and pyrolysis of agricultural fuel and pyrolysis products. The model considers a homogeneous distribution of the agricultural solid fuel particles, interacting with the gas flow via source terms. These terms include: drag forces, production of water vapour and pyrolysis products, radiative and convective heat exchange. A multi-phase radiative transfer equation for absorbing-emitting medium is considered to account for the radiative heat exchange between the gas and solid phases of the fire. The main outputs of the present model are most important to study the influence of agricultural fire occurring beneath high voltage transmission lines. The agricultural fire causes a flashover due to the ambient temperature rise and soot accumulation on the insulator of these transmission lines. Numerical results of the present model are obtained for flat grassland fires to study the effects of wind velocity, solid fuel moisture content and ignition length on some selected fire outputs. These outputs include the temperature, velocity, soot volume fraction fields of the gas phase, together with fire propagation rate and flame geometry. The numerical results are compared to the available experimental work in the literature. -- Research highlights: → The model is sensitive to the initial condition of the ignition length affecting the fire propagation rate and width. → The model predicts the effects of both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content on fire propagation rate, in agreement with the available experimental work in the literature. → The model shows that both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content are important factors affecting the fire plume thickness, location, and inclination. → The model is able to visualize the flame geometry through tracing radiative heat rates exceeding a threshold value for flame visibility (60 k

  13. Lossy transmission line model of hydrofractured well dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzek, T.W. [Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); De, A. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The real-time detection of hydrofracture growth is crucial to the successful operation of water, CO{sub 2} or steam injection wells in low-permeability reservoirs and to the prevention of subsidence and well failure. In this paper, we describe propagation of very low frequency (1-10 to 100 Hz) Stoneley waves in a fluid-filled wellbore and their interactions with the fundamental wave mode in a vertical hydrofracture. We demonstrate that Stoneley-wave loses energy to the fracture and the energy transfer from the wellbore to the fracture opening is most efficient in soft rocks. We conclude that placing the wave source and receivers beneath the injection packer provides the most efficient means of hydrofracture monitoring. We then present the lossy transmission line model of wellbore and fracture for the detection and characterization of fracture state and volume. We show that this model captures the wellbore and fracture geometry, the physical properties of injected fluid and the wellbore-fracture system dynamics. The model is then compared with experimentally measured well responses. The simulated responses are in good agreement with published experimental data from several water injection wells with depths ranging from 1000 ft to 9000 ft. Hence, we conclude that the transmission line model of water injectors adequately captures wellbore and fracture dynamics. Using an extensive data set for the South Belridge Diatomite waterfloods, we demonstrate that even for very shallow wells the fracture size and state can be adequately recognized at wellhead. Finally, we simulate the effects of hydrofracture extension on the transient response to a pulse signal generated at wellhead. We show that hydrofracture extensions can indeed be detected by monitoring the wellhead pressure at sufficiently low frequencies.

  14. Evaluation of Fibre Lifetime in Optical Ground Wire Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunvalds, R.; Ciekurs, A.; Porins, J.; Supe, A.

    2017-06-01

    In the research, measurements of polarisation mode dispersion of two OPGWs (optical ground wire transmission lines), in total four fibres, have been carried out, and the expected lifetime of the infrastructure has been assessed on the basis of these measurements. The cables under consideration were installed in 1995 and 2011, respectively. Measurements have shown that polarisation mode dispersion values for cable installed in 1995 are four times higher than that for cable installed in 2011, which could mainly be explained by technological differences in fibre production and lower fibre polarisation mode dispersion requirements in 1995 due to lack of high-speed (over 10 Gbit/s) optical transmission systems. The calculation methodology of non-refusal work and refusal probabilities, using the measured polarisation mode dispersion parameters, is proposed in the paper. Based on reliability calculations, the expected lifetime is then predicted, showing that all measured fibres most likely will be operational within minimum theoretical service life of 25 years accepted by the industry.

  15. Efficient design of multituned transmission line NMR probes: the electrical engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydel, J A; Krzystyniak, M; Pienkowski, D; Pietrzak, M; de Sousa Amadeu, N; Ratajczyk, T; Idzik, K; Gutmann, T; Tietze, D; Voigt, S; Fenn, A; Limbach, H H; Buntkowsky, G

    2011-01-01

    Transmission line-based multi-channel solid state NMR probes have many advantages regarding the cost of construction, number of RF-channels, and achievable RF-power levels. Nevertheless, these probes are only rarely employed in solid state-NMR-labs, mainly owing to the difficult experimental determination of the necessary RF-parameters. Here, the efficient design of multi-channel solid state MAS-NMR probes employing transmission line theory and modern techniques of electrical engineering is presented. As technical realization a five-channel ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C, (2)H and (15)N) probe for operation at 7 Tesla is described. This very cost efficient design goal is a multi port single coil transmission line probe based on the design developed by Schaefer and McKay. The electrical performance of the probe is determined by measuring of Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) in particular input/output ports. These parameters are compared to the calculated parameters of the design employing the S-matrix formalism. It is shown that the S-matrix formalism provides an excellent tool for examination of transmission line probes and thus the tool for a rational design of these probes. On the other hand, the resulting design provides excellent electrical performance. From a point of view of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), calibration spectra of particular ports (channels) are of great importance. The estimation of the π/2 pulses length for all five NMR channels is presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrostatic induction under the Tanashi test transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitani, Y; Yokata, S

    1964-06-01

    Experimental results are given on the electrostatic voltage induced in small and medium-sized motorcars under the Tanashi 800 kV Test Transmission Line, which is of horizontal arrangement, 200 m span, four bundle conductors and average height of 13.52 m. The induced voltage was measured between 1600 and 3000 V under the line voltage of 520 kV. The voltage and current were measured with four kinds of model motorcars in air and water, and results of the measurements are compared with those of actual measurements with good agreements. The values of capacity and leakage resistance, whose parallel circuit was considered to represent an equivalent circuit of the motorcar, were measured with a Maxwell-Wien bridge at frequencies between 30 and 1000 c/s. It was found that the values at 60 c/s were measured to be approximately six or seven times higher than its values at 1000 c/s, and that new tires have higher conductivities than the old ones, reducing the electrostatic induction voltage by a large amount.

  17. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  18. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  19. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-04-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over electrical conducting aluminum strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125°C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements, but these methods do not provide information about the structural integrity of connectors. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to induce structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  20. Magnetic resonance of rubidium atoms passing through a multi-layered transmission magnetic grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Y; Kurokawa, S; Hatakeyama, A

    2017-01-01

    We measured the magnetic resonance of rubidium atoms passing through periodic magnetic fields generated by two types of multi-layered transmission magnetic grating. One of the gratings reported here was assembled by stacking four layers of magnetic films so that the direction of magnetization alternated at each level. The other grating was assembled so that the magnetization at each level was aligned. For both types of grating, the experimental results were in good agreement with our calculations. We studied the feasibility of extending the frequency band of the grating and narrowing its resonance linewidth by performing calculations. For magnetic resonance precision spectroscopy, we conclude that the multi-layered transmission magnetic grating can generate periodic fields with narrower linewidths at higher frequencies when a larger number of layers are assembled at a shorter period length. Moreover, the frequency band of this type of grating can potentially achieve frequencies of up to hundreds of PHz. (paper)

  1. On setting magnets in the PEP beam-transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses magnets in the PEP beam-transport line. Topics discussed are: conditioning, direction of excitation, rate of excitation; determination of the excitation current for the principal bend magnets; steering mechanisms; bump magnets; and determination of excitation currents of the quadrupole magnets

  2. Methods and results of modeling and transmission-line calculations of the superconducting dipole chains of CERN's LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgeois, F

    2001-01-01

    Electrical modeling and simulation of the LHC magnet strings are being used to determine the key parameters that are needed for the design of the powering and energy extraction equipment. Poles and zeros of the Laplace expression approximating the Bode plot of the measured coil impedance are used to synthesize an R/L/C model of the magnet. Subsequently, this model is used to simulate the behavior of the LHC main dipole magnet string. Lumped transmission line behavior, impedance, resonance, propagation of the power supply ripple, ramping errors, energy extraction transients and their damping are presented in this paper. (3 refs).

  3. Reduction of the visual impact of overhead transmission line systems through utilisation of line surge arresters as lightning protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    with the Technical University of Denmark, on how to lessen the visual impact of 400 kV overhead line transmission systems. In this paper omission of shield wires combined with installation of a suitable number of line surge arresters is investigated as a possible alternative to transmission lines equipped...... with shielding wires thereby reducing tower height, allowing more compact designs of towers thus minimizing the visual environment impact of the lines. Omission of shield wires in the system and instead utilizing a larger number of surge arresters in the (upper) phases of an overhead line without reduction...... will be investigated by transient simulations on a 400 kV line with either shield wires or line surge arresters. These simulations will also be used to estimate number and location of the line surge arresters in the line to ensure a satisfactory performance of the line when omitting shield wires in the tower top...

  4. Dielectric window development for the ITER ICRF vacuum transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikinheimo, L.; Heikkinen, J.; Hytoenen, Y.

    1998-08-01

    A vacuum window block design is presented for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) ion cyclotron radio frequency heating vacuum transmission line. The vacuum windows in various auxiliaries of the present fusion facilities and in future fusion reactors are essential and most vulnerable components, as they provide ultimate vacuum and tritium containment. Various existing windows, e.g. those at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (IPP, Garching), Tore Supra (CEA, Cadarache), and at JET Tokamak (Euratom, Culham), have provided a starting point for the present work, but the large size, remote handling and cooling requirements, as well as the strong neutron radiation in the fusion reactors have called a new design, where new material combinations for the dielectric and conductor have deemed to be necessary. Conventional and well tested design solutions have been chosen wherever possible. A preprototype construction has been launched to test the design principles, in particular the joining of the ceramics to a titanium conductor by brazing which has not been possible so far in this size and geometry. First results of the preprototype tests are reported here. The present final report is a combination of the results achieved with the support of two different projects; an industrial project funded by EFET and a NET Research and Design project funded by the Euratom/TEKES within the Euratom fusion programme. (orig.)

  5. Transmission of Mössbauer rays through ferromagnets in radio-frequency magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyublik, A. Ya.; Sadykov, E. K.; Petrov, G. I.; Arinin, V. V.; Vagizov, F. G.; Spivak, V. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of Mössbauer radiation through a thick ferromagnetic crystal, exposed to a radio-frequency (rf) magnetic field, is studied. The quantum-mechanical dynamical scattering theory is developed, taking into account the periodical reversals of the magnetic field at the nuclei. The Mössbauer forward scattering (FS) spectra of the weak ferromagnet FeBO 3 placed into rf field are measured. It is found that the coherent gamma wave in the crystal absorbs or emits only couples of the rf photons. As a result, the FS spectra consist of equidistant lines spaced by twice the frequency of the rf field in contrast to the absorption spectra

  6. A surface acoustic wave electric field strength meter for environmental studies of HV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Ranghiasci, C.; Verona, E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in concern over the health and safety aspects of high voltage transmission lines (HVTL). The majority of research has focused on effects directly or indirectly involved with the central nervous system, including physiological, ultrastructural, and biochemical alterations, changes in blood composition, behaviour, reproduction, and development. Several recent epidemiological reports have presented preliminary data suggesting an increase in the incidence of cancer among children and adults exposed to magnetic fields through living close to various types of electrical power lines or devices. With the increase in environmental concerns there has been a concomitant consideration of biological effects and health implications related to presently existing HVTL and those planned in the future. It was concluded that the electric and magnetic field strengths and the electrical discharges are the most important electrophysical factors. Thus, it has been deemed necessary to develop measuring means to determine the field strengths in areas surrounding electric installations, in particular at ground level. In the present paper an electric field meter, based on the use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line, is presented and the experimental results obtained are discussed

  7. In situ transmission electron microscopy for magnetic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Kuhn, Luise Theil

    2016-01-01

    Nanomagnetism is a subject of great interest because of both application and fundamental aspects in which understanding of the physical and electromagnetic structure of magnetic nanostructures is essential to explore the magnetic properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool...... that allows understanding of both physical structure and micromagnetic structure of the thin samples at nanoscale. Among TEM techniques, in situ TEM is the state-of-the-art approach for imaging such structures in dynamic experiments, reconstructing a real-time nanoscale picture of the properties......-structure correlation. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing in situ TEM magnetic imaging studies, including Lorentz microscopy and electron holography in TEM, applied to the research of magnetic nanostructures....

  8. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations

  9. Reconnection of magnetic lines in an ideal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.

    1978-04-01

    The rate of reconnection of magnetic lines at an X-point, also growth of a ''tearing'' configuration have always been related to the presence of resistivity or other dissipative mechanisms. These phenomena, exhibiting nonconservation of magnetic line topology, are shown to occur in an ideal, nondissipative fluid, thereby violating beliefs, theorems, and calculations of over a century

  10. Magnetic transmission gear finite element simulation with iron pole hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Mattia; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Glehn, Gregor; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic poles in a magnetic transmission gear require particular attention during their design process. Usually, during the numerical simulation of these devices the effects of hysteresis for loss estimation are neglected and considered only during post-processing calculations. Since the literature lacks hysteresis models, this paper adopts a homogenized hysteretic model able to include eddy current and hysteresis losses in 2D laminated materials for iron poles. In this article the results related to the hysteresis in a magnetic gear are presented and compared to the non-hysteretic approach.

  11. Tracing Magnetic Fields With The Polarization Of Submillimeter Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes. However, there is no universal diagnostic for the magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) and each magnetic tracer has its limitation. Any new detection method is thus valuable. Theoretical studies have shown that submillimeter fine-structure lines are polarized due to atomic alignment by Ultraviolet (UV) photon-excitation, which opens up a new avenue to probe interstellar magnetic fields. The method is applicable to all radiative-excitation dominant region, e.g., H II Regions, PDRs. The polarization of the submillimeter fine-structure lines induced by atomic alignment could be substantial and the applicability of using the spectro-polarimetry of atomic lines to trace magnetic fields has been supported by synthetic observations of simulated ISM in our recent paper. Our results demonstrate that the polarization of submillimeter atomic lines is a powerful magnetic tracer and add great value to the observational studies of the submilimeter astronomy.

  12. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  13. The Evaluation Method of the Lightning Strike on Transmission Lines Aiming at Power Grid Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianfeng; Wu, Jianwei; Huang, Liandong; Geng, Yinan; Yu, zhanqing

    2018-01-01

    Lightning protection of power system focuses on reducing the flashover rate, only distinguishing by the voltage level, without considering the functional differences between the transmission lines, and being lack of analysis the effect on the reliability of power grid. This will lead lightning protection design of general transmission lines is surplus but insufficient for key lines. In order to solve this problem, the analysis method of lightning striking on transmission lines for power grid reliability is given. Full wave process theory is used to analyze the lightning back striking; the leader propagation model is used to describe the process of shielding failure of transmission lines. The index of power grid reliability is introduced and the effect of transmission line fault on the reliability of power system is discussed in detail.

  14. Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz transmission electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, C.; Gürsoy, D.

    2015-01-01

    Intense ongoing research on complex nanomagnetic structures requires a fundamental understanding of the 3D magnetization and the stray fields around the nano-objects. 3D visualization of such fields offers the best way to achieve this. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy provides a suitable combination of high resolution and ability to quantitatively visualize the magnetization vectors using phase retrieval methods. In this paper, we present a formalism to represent the magnetic phase shift of electrons as a Radon transform of the magnetic induction of the sample. Using this formalism, we then present the application of common tomographic methods particularly the iterative methods, to reconstruct the 3D components of the vector field. We present an analysis of the effect of missing wedge and the limited angular sampling as well as reconstruction of complex 3D magnetization in a nanowire using simulations. - Highlights: • We present a formalism to represent electron-optical magnetic phase shift as a Radon transform of the 3D magnetic induction of the nano-object. • We have analyzed four different tomographic reconstruction methods for vectorial data reconstruction. • Reconstruction methods were tested for varying experimental limitations such as limited tilt range and limited angular sampling. • The analysis showed that Gridrec and SIRT methods performed better with lower errors than other reconstruction methods

  15. Multipactor Mitigation in Coaxial Lines by Means of Permanent Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Iglesias, D; Anza, S; Vague, J; Gimeno, B; Boria, V E; Raboso, D; Vicente, C; Gil, J; Caspers, F; Conde, L

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is the analysis of the feasibility of employing permanent magnets for the multipactor mitigation in a coaxial waveguide. First, the study of a coaxial line immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field shows that multipactor can be suppressed at any RF frequency if the external magnetic field is strong enough. Both theoretical simulations and experimental tests validate this statement. Next, multipactor breakdown of a coaxial line immersed in a hollow cylindrical permanent magnet is analyzed. Numerical simulations show that multipactor can be suppressed in a certain RF frequency range. The performed experimental test campaign demonstrates the capability of the magnet to avoid the multipactor electron multiplication process.

  16. Hamiltonian theory of vacuum helical torus lines of magnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnudi, Giovanni; Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1994-01-01

    For making plasma into equilibrium state, the lines of magnetic force must have magnetic surfaces. However in a helical system, space is divided into the region having magnetic surface structure and the region that does not have it. Accordingly, it is an important basic research for the plasma confinement in a helical system to examine where is the boundary of both regions and how is the large area structure of the lines of magnetic force in the boundary region. The lines of magnetic force can be treated as a Hamilton mechanics system, and it has been proved that the Hamiltonian for the lines of magnetic force can be expressed by a set of canonical variables and the function of time. In this research, the Hamiltonian that describes the lines of magnetic force of helical system torus coordination in vacuum was successfully determined concretely. Next, the development of new linear symplectic integration method was carried out. The important supports for the theory of determining Hamiltonian are Lie transformation and paraxial expansion. The procedure is explained. In Appendix, Lie transformation, Hamiltonian for the lines of magnetic force, magnetic potential, Taylor expansion of the potential, cylindrical limit approximation, helical toroidal potential and integrable model are described. (K.I.)

  17. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klofai, Yerima; Essimbi, B Z; Jaeger, D

    2011-01-01

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  18. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  19. Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

  20. Nonlinear Seismic Behavior of Different Boundary Conditions of Transmission Line Systems under Earthquake Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear seismic behaviors of different boundary conditions of transmission line system under earthquake loading are investigated in this paper. The transmission lines are modeled by cable element accounting for the nonlinearity of the cable. For the suspension type, three towers and two span lines with spring model (Model 1 and three towers and four span lines’ model (Model 2 are established, respectively. For the tension type, three towers and two span lines’ model (Model 3 and three towers and four span lines’ model (Model 4 are created, respectively. The frequencies of the transmission towers and transmission lines of the suspension type and tension type are calculated, respectively. The responses of the suspension type and tension type are investigated using nonlinear time history analysis method, respectively. The results show that the responses of the transmission tower and transmission line of the two models of the suspension type are slightly different. However, the responses of transmission tower and transmission line of the two models of the tension type are significantly different. Therefore, in order to obtain accurate results, a reasonable model should be considered. The results could provide a reference for the seismic analysis of the transmission tower-line system.

  1. A two-dimensional uniplanar transmission-line metamaterial with a negative index of refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elek, Francis; Eleftheriades, George V

    2005-01-01

    A uniplanar transmission-line (TL) network has been loaded with lumped elements (chip or printed), enabling one to achieve a two-dimensional (2D) uniplanar negative-refractive-index (NRI) metamaterial. The metamaterial consists of a 2D array of unit cells, composed of TL sections connected in series and loaded in a specified manner. The unit cell dimensions can be designed to be much smaller than the operating wavelength, enabling one to identify the structure as an effective medium, with a negative index of refraction. This NRI metamaterial supports transverse electric (TE) waves, as opposed to related previous work on NRI-TL media that supported transverse magnetic (TM) waves. The dispersion characteristics are calculated using a simple, fast 2D loaded TL model with periodic (Bloch) boundary conditions. Subsequently the dispersion relation is simplified in the homogeneous limit, thus allowing one to identify effective permittivities and permeabilities, which are shown to be simultaneously negative. Simulations demonstrating the negative refraction of a plane wave on an interface between such a NRI uniplanar metamaterial and a commensurate positive-refractive-index (PRI) metamaterial verify the validity of the proposed concept and theory. A fully printed unit cell is presented at microwave frequencies (∼10 GHz) along with a prescription for synthesizing an isotropic 3D transmission line NRI metamaterial based on this unit cell

  2. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  3. Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.

  4. Risk Analysis Method Based on FMEA for Transmission Line in Lightning Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Yuan WANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Failure rate of transmission line and reliability of power system are significantly affected by Lightning meteorological factor. In view of the complexity and variability of Lightning meteorological factors, this paper presents lightning trip-out rate model of transmission line in considering distribution of ground flash density and lightning day hours. Meanwhile, presents a failure rate model of transmission line in different condition, and a risk analysis method for transmission line considering multiple risk factors based on risk quantification. This method takes Lightning meteorological factor as the main evaluation standard, and establishes risk degree evaluation system for transmission line including another five evaluation standard. Put forward the risk indicators by quantify the risk factors based on experience date of transmission line in service. Based on the risk indexes comprehensive evaluation is conducted, and the evaluation result closer to practice is achieved, providing basis for transmission line risk warning and maintenance strategy. Through the risk analysis for 220 kV transmission line in a certain power supply bureau, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated.

  5. Power charging and discharging characteristics of smes connected to artificial transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, T.; Okada, T.; Shirai, Y.

    1985-01-01

    To consider the characteristics of SMES and to investigate problems on the operations of SMES in power systems, we carried out some experiments on an experimental network. In the network, a small superconducting magnet is connected to a small synchronous generator through a double thyristorized converter and transformers. The generator is connected to the regional power system through artifitial transmission lines, AC power into or out of SMES and reactive power are controlled. Furthermore, a computer simulation program is made for the experimental system. The results of the simulation are compared with those of the experiments. For the experiments and the simulation, the harmonics current-flow, power-flow, characteristics of the generator and so on, are discussed

  6. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. M., E-mail: jared.johnson@ttu.edu; Reale, D. V.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Krile, J. T. [Department of Electromagnetics and Sensor Systems, Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  7. MITIGACIÓN DE CAMPO MAGNÉTICO DE LÍNEAS DE TRANSMISIÓN UTILIZANDO BUCLES PASIVOS MITIGAÇÃO DE CAMPO MAGNÉTICO DE LINHAS DE TRANSMISSÃO UTILIZANDO BUCLES PASSIVOS MAGNETIC FIELD MITIGATION OF TRANSMISSION LINES USING PASSIVE LOOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Raúl Cadavid

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un método simple para determinar el campo magnético generado por líneas de transmisión. El cálculo del campo magnético tiene en cuenta los efectos de mitigación de bucles pasivos, incluyendo su ubicación óptima en la línea mediante la aplicación de algoritmos genéticos. Los resultados de los cálculos son validados mediante reportes de casos publicados en el IEEE, software de análisis de campo electromagnético y datos experimentales arrojados de una implementación realizada en las líneas de alimentación de las torres de iluminación en un estadio. Luego del análisis, se demuestra la validez del método y la factibilidad de aplicarlo en líneas de transmisión del sistema de potencia.Neste artigo se apresenta um método simples para determinar o campo magnético gerado por linhas de transmissão. O cálculo do campo magnético leva em conta os efeitos de mitigação de loops passivos, incluindo sua localização ótima na linha mediante a aplicação de algoritmos genéticos. Os resultados dos cálculos são validados mediante reportes de casos publicados no IEEE, software de análise de campo eletromagnético e dados experimentais arrojados de uma implementação realizada nas linhas de alimentação das torres de iluminação em um estádio. Depois da análise, se demonstra a validade do método e a factibilidade de aplicá-lo em linhas de transmissão do sistema de potência.A simple method to determine the magnetic field generated by transmission lines is presented in this paper. The magnetic field calculation takes into account the mitigating effects of passive loops, including their optimal position in the line by applying genetic algorithms. Calculations results are validated by case reports published in the IEEE Transactions, software package for electromagnetic field analysis, and experimental data obtained from an implementation made in the power lines at a stadium lighting tower. After

  8. Diffusion coefficient and Kolmogorov entropy of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.; Malara, F.

    1984-01-01

    A diffusion equation for magnetic field lines of force in a turbulent magnetic field, which describes both the random walk of a single line and how two nearby lines separate from each other, has been obtained using standard statistical techniques. Starting from such an equation, a closed set of equations for the moments may be obtained, in general, with suitable assumptions. From such a set of equations the Kolmogorov entropy may be explicitly calculated. The results have been applied to the most interesting examples of magnetic field geometries. (author)

  9. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hololobova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at the distance from it to the railway lines was measured, as well as the time dependence of CACS codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and its passing. Findings. The root causes analysis of CACS faults and failures was carried out. The effect of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuit and CACS with signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission line was investigated. Possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS were considered. Originality. The effect research of transmission lines (750 kV on the operation of the automatic cab signalling on spans Prishib-Burchatsk and Privolnoye-Yelizarovo, Pridneprovsk railway in places of oblique railroads crossing and transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz was conducted. Electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it to the railway line, as well as the time dependences of ALSN codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and as its passing were measured. It was found that CACS codes in track circuits under transmission lines are strongly distorted, as strength

  10. Microwave transmission measurements through a magnetic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mohamed Zein; Dewar, Graeme

    We have measured the 12 - 18 GHz microwave transmission through, and the reflection from, a nickel zinc ferrite penetrated by a wire lattice. The metamaterial efficiently transmitted microwaves under conditions for which the index of refraction was negative. The wires, 0.29 mm in diameter, were threaded through Teflon tubes and centered in holes 1.7 mm in diameter drilled through the ferrite. The holes formed a square array with a lattice constant of 3.0 mm. A ferrite sample containing the wire array filled a length of 3.0 cm inside standard WR-62 waveguide and a static magnetic field between 0.042 and 13.0 kOe was applied parallel to the wires. We measured the transmission relative to an open waveguide and the reflection relative to a reflective metal plate across the waveguide face. We observed transmission modes at combinations of magnetic field and microwave frequency for which both the permeability of the ferrite and permittivity of the wire array were negative.

  11. On increasing the spectral efficiency and transmissivity in the data transmission channel on the spacecraft-ground tracking station line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, M. N.; Kostenko, V. I.; Likhachev, S. F.

    2018-01-01

    The algorithms for achieving a practical increase in the rate of data transmission on the space-craft-ground tracking station line has been considered. This increase is achieved by applying spectral-effective modulation techniques, the technology of orthogonal frequency compression of signals using millimeterrange radio waves. The advantages and disadvantages of each of three algorithms have been revealed. A significant advantage of data transmission in the millimeter range has been indicated.

  12. Prediction of the Voltage Quality in an Overhead Transmission Line with Distributed Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bulyga Leonid L.; Tarasov Evgeniy V.; Ushakov Vasily Ya.; Kharlov Nikolay N.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is devoted to investigation of an electrical transmission line with allowance for distributed parameters. From the results of voltage measurements at terminals of an actual transmission line, effective values of the voltage are calculated for every line section. Special attention is given to higher harmonics and asymmetry. Spectral composition of the voltage is presented and changes in values of harmonic components are analyzed. The effect of higher harmonics on the equipment...

  13. Prediction of the Voltage Quality in an Overhead Transmission Line with Distributed Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulyga Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to investigation of an electrical transmission line with allowance for distributed parameters. From the results of voltage measurements at terminals of an actual transmission line, effective values of the voltage are calculated for every line section. Special attention is given to higher harmonics and asymmetry. Spectral composition of the voltage is presented and changes in values of harmonic components are analyzed. The effect of higher harmonics on the equipment operation is analyzed.

  14. Planning Electric Transmission Lines: A Review of Recent Regional Transmission Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-13

    The first Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) recommends that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a national review of transmission plans and assess the barriers and incentives to their implementation. DOE tasked Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to prepare two reports to support the agency’s response to this recommendation. This report reviews regional transmission plans and regional transmission planning processes that have been directed by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order Nos. 890 and 1000. We focus on the most recent regional transmission plans (those issued in 2015 and through approximately mid-year 2016) and current regional transmission planning processes. A companion report focuses on non-plan-related factors that affect transmission projects.

  15. Design of Miniaturized 10dB Wideband Branch Line Coupler Using Dual and T-Shape Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design mechanism of miniaturized wideband branch line coupler (BLC with loose coupling of 10 dB. Dual transmission lines are used as a feed network which provides a size reduction of 32% with a fractional bandwidth (FBW of 60% for 10±0.5 dB coupling but return loss performance is found to be poor in the operating band. For further improvement of return loss performance as well as for size reduction of the BLC, a T- shape transmission lines are used instead of series quarter wavelength transmission lines, and hence the overall size reduction of around 44% with FBW of 50.4% is achieved. The return loss and isolation performance is found to be les than 15 dB in the entire operating band (2.5–4.1 GHz with respect to design frequency 3G Hz. The proposed BLC is analyzed, fabricated and tested.

  16. Performance Evaluation on Transmission Tower-Line System with Passive Friction Dampers Subjected to Wind Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration control and performance evaluation on a transmission-tower line system by using friction dampers subjected to wind excitations are carried out in this study. The three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a transmission tower is firstly constructed. A two-dimensional lumped mass model of a transmission tower is developed for dynamic analysis. The analytical model of transmission tower-line system is proposed by taking the dynamic interaction between the tower and the transmission lines into consideration. The mechanical model of passive friction damper is presented by involving the effects of damper axial stiffness. The equation of motion of the transmission tower-line system incorporated with the friction dampers disturbed by wind excitations is established. A real transmission tower-line system is taken as an example to examine the feasibility and reliability of the proposed control approach. An extensive parameter study is carried out to find the optimal parameters of friction damper and to assess the effects of slipping force axial stiffness and hysteresis loop on control performance. The work on an example structure indicates that the application of friction dampers with optimal parameters could significantly reduce wind-induced responses of the transmission tower-line system.

  17. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III–V Radio Bursts in a Solar Flare ... velocities of the electron streams associated with the above two types of bursts indicate ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News ...

  18. Magnetic field line random walk in non-axisymmetric turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautz, R.C.; Lerche, I.

    2011-01-01

    Including a random component of a magnetic field parallel to an ambient field introduces a mean perpendicular motion to the average field line. This effect is normally not discussed because one customarily chooses at the outset to ignore such a field component in discussing random walk and diffusion of field lines. A discussion of the basic effect is given, indicating that any random magnetic field with a non-zero helicity will lead to such a non-zero perpendicular mean motion. Several exact analytic illustrations are given of the effect as well as a simple numerical illustration. -- Highlights: → For magnetic field line random walk all magnetic field components are important. → Non-vanishing magnetic helicity leads to mean perpendicular motion. → Analytically exact stream functions illustrate that the novel transverse effect exists.

  19. Bending magnets for the CBA beam-transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thern, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The beam-transport line from the AGS to CBA requires 68 large bending magnets, consisting of pure dipoles and two types of combined function gradient magnets. All three types were designed with magnetic-field calculation program POISSON, using the same exterior dimensions and coil package. The design goal of +-1% momentum acceptance for the transport line required a wide horizontal aperture, with a much-smaller vertical aperture for economy. Two prototypes of one gradient magnet were built, and a facility constructed to measure them and the later production magnets. Measurements were done using both a long coil and a point coil (Rawson-Lush gaussmeter). Preliminary results show δB/B - 3 , δG/G - 2 , and δB 2 /B - 4 cm - 2 over the beam aperture. Due to end effects, the actual gradient differs from the design gradient by 1%, which has been compensated for in the beam-line design

  20. Ultrasound transmission spectroscopy: in-line sizing of nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Volker, A.W.F.; Pierre, G.; Bouvet, F.; Crozat, S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in a number of applications, e.g. coatings or paints. To optimize nanoparticle production in-line quantitative measurements of their size distribution and concentration are needed. Ultrasound-based methods are especially suited for in-line particle sizing. These

  1. Simulation of 6 1/8 inch rigid coaxial RF transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, Atul; Pande, M.M.; Rao, M.K.V.; Handu, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) transmission line has been designed based upon rigid coaxial 6 1/8 , 50-ohm line for coupling the RF power from its source to 400 KeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. Simulation and analysis have been carried out to evaluate various RF parameters of the line. (author)

  2. Measurement of magnetically insulated line voltage using a Thomson Parabola Charged Particle Analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, T.D.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The absence of direct measurements of magnetically insulated line voltage necessitated reliance on inferred voltages based on theoretical calculation and current measurements. This paper presents some of the first direct measurements of magnetically insulated transmission line peak voltages. These measurements were made on the Sandia National Laboratories HydraMITE facility. The peak voltage is measured by observing the energy of negative ions produced at the line cathode and accelerated through the line voltage. The ion energy and the charge-to-mass ratio are measured using the Thomson Parabola mass spectrometry technique. This technique uses parallel E and B fields to deflect the ions. The deflected ions are detected using a microchannel plate coupled to a phosphor screen and photographic film. The Thomson Parabola results are compared to Faraday Cup measurements and to calculated voltages based on current measurements. In addition, the significance of observed positive ions is discussed

  3. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  4. Temperature dependence of dynamical permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip line probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiling; Li, Chengyi; Chai, Guozhi

    2017-01-01

    A temperature dependence microwave permeability characterization system of magnetic thin film up to 10 GHz is designed and fabricated. This system can be used at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C, and is based on a shorted microstrip probe, which is made by microwave printed circuit board. Without contacting the magnetic thin films to the probe, the microwave permeability of the film can be detected without any limitations of sample size and with almost the same accuracy, as shown by comparison with the results obtained from a shorted microstrip transmission-line fixture. The complex permeability can be deduced by an analytical approach from the measured reflection coefficient of a strip line ( S 11 ) with and without a ferromagnetic film material on it. The procedures are the same with the shorted microstrip transmission-line method. The microwave permeability of an oblique deposited CoZr thin film was investigated with this probe. The results show that the room temperature dynamic permeability of the CoZr film is in good agreement with the results obtained from the established short-circuited microstrip perturbation method. The temperature dependence permeability results fit well with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Development of the temperature-dependent measurement of the magnetic properties of magnetic thin film may be useful for the high-frequency application of magnetic devices at high temperatures. (paper)

  5. 75 FR 66750 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... physically worn and structurally unsound in places. The wood transmission poles have lasted beyond the... access roads, developing staging areas for storage of materials, removing and replacing existing wood... construction activities. The existing structures would be replaced with structures of similar design within or...

  6. Simulation of longitudinal differential protection of transmission lines with additional stabilization and APU system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Tomislav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the algorithm for the longitudinal differential protection of transmission lines with automatic reclosing. Classic stabilization is not sufficient for avoiding of unnecessary operations caused by saturation of current transformer. This problem can occur during the fault plased outside of the protected zone of the transmission line. It is shown how unnecessary operation can occur during the outside fault whithout using of additional stabilization. The different types of faults were simulated and comparison of relay operations with and without additional stabilization is presented. The simulations were performed on the three-phase model of the transmission line formed by using of MATLAB/Simulink program.

  7. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Kishore

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... of the electron streams that generate type V bursts, spread in the velocity spectrum, and the curvature of the magnetic field lines along which they travel. Keywords. Sun—corona—magnetic field—flares—radio bursts—polarization. 1. Introduction. Type V bursts are relatively unusual solar radio tran- sients.

  8. Numerical determination of the magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo-Petravic, G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    The structure of a magnetic field is determined by a one-degree of freedom, time-dependent Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian is evaluated for a given field in a perturbed action-angle form. The location and the size of magnetic islands in the given field are determined from Hamiltonian perturbation theory and from an ordinary Poincare plot of the field line trajectories

  9. Wideband Isolation by Frequency Conversion in a Josephson-Junction Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzani, Leonardo; Kotler, Shlomi; Sirois, Adam J.; DeFeo, Michael P.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; Vale, Leila R.; Aumentado, José

    2017-11-01

    Nonreciprocal transmission and isolation at microwave frequencies are important in many practical applications. In particular, compact isolators are useful in protecting sensitive quantum circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures from amplifier backaction and other environmental noise such as black-body radiation from higher temperature stages. However, the size of commercial cryogenic isolators limits the ability to measure multiple quantum circuits because of space constraints in typical dilution refrigerator systems. Furthermore, isolators usually require the use of ferrite components that cannot be integrated at the chip level and, since they also need large biasing magnetic fields, are incompatible with superconducting quantum circuits. In this work we show one way to accomplish isolation in a superconducting chip-scale device, a traveling-wave unidirectional frequency converter based on a parametrically pumped superconducting Josephson-junction transmission line, demonstrating better than 4.8 dB of inferred signal isolation from 6.6 to 11.4 GHz, with a maximum of 12 dB at 9.5 GHz. By using frequency diplexing techniques a conventional isolator could be implemented over this bandwidth.

  10. Mass and loss analysis of a space-type radiation cooled insulated DC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, g.E.

    1986-01-01

    As both the power levels and transmission distances increase such as for large future nuclear power systems, the transmission line becomes an important element in the power chain between the source and load bus. Thus, the transmission line's characteristics must be determined so that the effect of these characteristics on the total power system can be assessed. These design characteristics include the specific mass, percent power loss, size, voltage and power levels, and operating temperatures of the conductor and insulating materials. In a previous paper, the dc transmission line's characteristics of a noninsulated solid cylindrical conductor were determined. In that analysis the expression derived for the transmission line's mass only included the conductor mass and the operating temperature of the line was that of the conductor. In the analysis of this paper, a single layer of insulation is added to the solid cylindrical conductor. In this analysis the dependency of the dc transmission line's mass, loss, and size on the power and voltage levels, conductor and insulation surface temperatures, transmission distance, and conductor and insulation material properties is determined. This analysis can be extended to multi-layers of insulation but the complexity of the analysis increases as the number of layers increase

  11. Design of Chebychev’s Low Pass Filters Using Nonuniform Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Attamimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission lines are utilized in many applications to convey energy as well as information. Nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs are obtained through variation of the characteristic quantities along the axial direction. Such NTLs can be used to design network elements, like matching circuits, delay equalizers, filters, VLSI interconnections, etc. In this work, NTLs were analyzed with a numerical method based on the implementation of method of moment. In order to approximate the voltage and current distribution along the transmission line, a sum of basis functions with unknown amplitudes was introduced. As basis function, a constant function was used. In this work, we observed several cases such as lossless and lossy uniform transmission lines with matching and arbitrary load. These cases verified the algorithm developed in this work. The second example consists of nonuniform transmission lines in the form of abruptly changing transmission lines. This structure was used to design a Chebychev’s low pass filter. The calculated reflection and transmission factors of the filters showed some coincidences with the measurements.

  12. Recent TWOQUICK particle simulations of one- and two- stage transmission lines and diodes on PBFA and SABRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poukey, J.W.; Cuneo, M.E.; Lockner, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents recent particle simulation studies of the pulsed-power machines PBFA and SABRE. The code used is the 2-D electromagnetic TWOQUICK. For SABRE we emphasize the single-stage case and compare with experiment. Here the voltage adder, magnetically-insulated-transmission-line (MITL), and proton applied-B extraction diode are all included in the fully time-dependent simulations. Results include vacuum wave precursor effects vs. cathode turn-on threshold, and the sheath-retrapping benefits of diode undermatching. For PBFA we emphasize the 2-stage case and compare with experiments using lithium ions. Here we include the transmission lines and MITLs feeding the 2-stage barrel diode. Results show that good operation is critically dependent on careful B-field shaping in the feeds and diode

  13. World's longest underwater line part of new dc transmission link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-04-01

    The world's seventh dc transmission system including the world's longest underwater power cable is now operative. The system, linking the Italian Mainland with Sardinia, was designed and engineered by the English Electric Co. Ltd. It will ensure a constant power supply for Sardinia and allow export of 200 MW of power to the Tuscany area in Italy. Proving test began on the link in Decmeber and continued until full demand is made on it from Italy.

  14. Two-dimensional electron flow in pulsed power transmission lines and plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, B.W.; Longcope, D.W.; Ng, C.K.; Sudan, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) and the interruption of current in a plasma opening switch (POS) are determined by the physics of the electrons emitted by the cathode surface. A mathematical model describes the self-consistent two-dimensional flow of an electron fluid. A finite element code, FERUS, has been developed to solve the two equations which describe Poisson's and Ampere's law in two dimensions. The solutions from this code are obtained for parameters where the electron orbits are considerably modified by the self-magnetic field of the current. Next, the self-insulated electron flow in a MITL with a step change in cross-section is studied using a conventional two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, MASK. The equations governing two-dimensional quasi-static electron flow are solved numerically by a third technique which is suitable for predicting current interruption in a POS. The object of the study is to determine the critical load impedance, Z CL , required for current interruption for a given applied voltage, cathode voltage and plasma length. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  15. Visualization of magnetic dipolar interaction based on scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Miyamoto, Noritaka; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), in this report we visualized the magnetic dipolar interactions in nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and imaged their magnetization distributions at various applied fields. We calculated the magnetic dipolar interaction by analyzing the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image.

  16. Using ice melting and ice rolling technologies to remove ice from sub-transmission and transmission lines at Manitoba Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Development of an of an Ice Storm Management program by Manitoba Hydro to reduce ice storm damage to its 8 kV feeders to 115 kV transmission lines, is discussed. The program consists of the de-icing of overhead lines, either by ice melting, or ice rolling. Ice melting involves the placement of a three-phase short at a calculated point. The term ice rolling denotes a process of mechanically stripping the ice from conductors. The most recent major ice storm experienced by Manitoba Hydro was in the winter of 1997/1998. During the period from February 6 to February 17, 1998, a total of 83 'ice melt' procedures were performed to melt the ice from 2,628 km of overhead line (7,883 km of conductor), in addition to 'ice rolling'. This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's 25-years' experience with ice melting and it also describes the advantages and disadvantages of both ice melting and ice rolling. Although not a panacea to combat the effects of ice storms, ice melting was found to be the most effective way of removing ice from overhead transmission and sub-transmission lines. Ice rolling was also found to be effective. Other tools that have been found to be useful by various utilities in combating ice storm damage include improved structure and line design, system design that provide more redundancies and emergency sources, and standby generators at critical load points

  17. Radio and television interference caused by corona discharges from high-voltage transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Increase in power utility loads in industrialized countries, as well as developing countries, demands a higher level of transmission line voltage. Radio interference (RI) problems have been determined to be a limiting factor in selecting the size of transmission line conductors. Transmission line noise is primarily caused by corona discharges in the immediate vicinity of the conductor. It has been observed that discharges occur during both half-cycles of the applied voltage, but positive corona is usually predominant at AM radio frequencies range with practical high-voltage and extra high-voltage transmission lines. The corona radio noise effect is highly dependent upon the presence of particles on the surface of the conductor and the increase of the electrical gradient beyond the breakdown value of the air. Therefore, corona radio noise varies significantly with the weather and atmospheric conditions and generally increases by 10 to 30 dB in foul weather

  18. An ME-PC Enhanced HDMR Method for Efficient Statistical Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Line Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for statistically characterizing multiconductor transmission line (MTL) networks subject to a large number of manufacturing uncertainties is presented. The proposed method achieves its efficiency by leveraging a high

  19. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  20. Numerical simulations of sheared magnetic lines at the solar null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźma, B.; Murawski, K.; Solov'ev, A.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We perform numerical simulations of sheared magnetic lines at the magnetic null line configuration of two magnetic arcades that are settled in a gravitationally stratified and magnetically confined solar corona. Methods: We developed a general analytical model of a 2.5D solar atmospheric structure. As a particular application of this model, we adopted it for the curved magnetic field lines with an inverted Y shape that compose the null line above two magnetic arcades, which are embedded in the solar atmosphere that is specified by the realistic temperature distribution. The physical system is described by 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic equations that are numerically solved by the FLASH code. Results: The magnetic field line shearing, implemented about 200 km below the transition region, results in Alfvén and magnetoacoustic waves that are able to penetrate solar coronal regions above the magnetic null line. As a result of the coupling of these waves, partial reflection from the transition region and scattering from inhomogeneous regions the Alfvén waves experience fast attenuation on time scales comparable to their wave periods, and the physical system relaxes in time. The attenuation time grows with the large amplitude and characteristic growing time of the shearing. Conclusions: By having chosen a different magnetic flux function, the analytical model we devised can be adopted to derive equilibrium conditions for a diversity of 2.5D magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere. Movie associated to Fig. 5 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Frequency Selective Properties of Coaxial Transmission Lines Loaded with Combined Artificial Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Falcone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a modified coaxial transmission line by periodic inclusions will be discussed. The introduction of split ring resonators, conductor stubs, air gaps, and combination of these gives rise to new frequency selective properties, such as stopband or passband behavior, observable in planar as well as volumetric metamaterial structures. These results envisage new potential applications and implementation of devices in coaxial transmission line technology.

  2. TEr azimuthal modes for a biconic transmission line in the small-gap limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.A.; Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Seidel, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    Azimuthally asymmetric modes in a biconic transmission line with a small-gap angle may be approximated by ''transmission-line-like'' modes. It is shown that the errors in these approximations are second order in the gap angle and approximate error bounds are provided. As an example demonstrating the application of this analysis in biconic structures, an analysis to characterize of the electromagnetic waves in the vacuum feed of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II is provided

  3. Analytical study for the ability of nonlinear transmission lines to generate solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) has been studied analytically, in this paper to generate solitons and to cause waveform spreading. This can be achieved by balancing nonlinearity and dispersion. A new technique of improved tanh method (ITM) and improved sech methods (ISM) is applied to the nonlinear partial differential equation that describes the NLTL. It is found that the parameters of the transmission line play an important role in controlling the shape of the soliton.

  4. PSPICE simulation of bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Fan Yajun

    2010-01-01

    The operating principle of the bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line type is given. The output bipolar pulses are simulated by using PSPICE program on condition of different electric length and different impedance of the short-circuited coaxial transmission line. The bipolar pulses are generated by using unipolar pulse with pulse width of 2 ns in experiment, the experimental result fit well with the simulation result. (authors)

  5. Induction effect of an electromagnetic pulse on transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazirandeh, A.; Maleki, P.; Sardari, D.

    2004-01-01

    Ever increasing demand for and vital importance of communication systems and power transmission to our industries, transportation to work, hospitals, and many other important places deemed necessary to have safety based design considerations. Many natural phenomena and man-made devices may generate powerful and intensive EMP, which is very harmful to the safe mode operation of electrical and communicational systems. In this paper we have calculated induced electric field and power induction due to lightening, nuclear explosion and similar events to the aerial and underground cables

  6. Analysis of Power Network for Line Reactance Variation to Improve Total Transmission Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing growth in power demand and the penetration of renewable distributed generations in competitive electricity market demands large and flexible capacity from the transmission grid to reduce transmission bottlenecks. The bottlenecks cause transmission congestion, reliability problems, restrict competition, and limit the maximum dispatch of low cost generations in the network. The electricity system requires efficient utilization of the current transmission capability to improve the Available Transfer Capability (ATC. To improve the ATC, power flow among the lines can be managed by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices as power flow controllers, which alter the parameters of power lines. It is important to place FACTS devices on suitable lines to vary the reactance for improving Total Transmission Capacity (TTC of the network and provide flexibility in the power flow. In this paper a transmission network is analyzed based on line parameters variation to improve TTC of the interconnected system. Lines are selected for placing FACTS devices based on real power flow Performance Index (PI sensitivity factors. TTC is computed using the Repeated Power Flow (RPF method using the constraints of lines thermal limits, bus voltage limits and generator limits. The reactance of suitable lines, selected on the basis of PI sensitivity factors are changed to divert the power flow to other lines with enough transfer capacity available. The improvement of TTC using line reactance variation is demonstrated with three IEEE test systems with multi-area networks. The results show the variation of the selected lines’ reactance in improving TTC for all the test networks with defined contingency cases.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVE SCREENING SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC FIELD OF HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES OF DIFFERENT DESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines with different design allowing and development of recommendations for the design of active screening systems by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Methodology. Analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing is made on the basis of Maxwell's equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. Determination of the number, configuration, spatial arrangement and the compensation coil currents is formulated in the form of multiobjective optimization problem that is solved by multi-agent multiswarm stochastic optimization based on Pareto optimal solutions. Results of active screening system for the synthesis of various types of transmission lines with different numbers of windings controlled. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of the flux density of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of power lines with different types and based on findings developed recommendations for the design of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number and spatial arrangement of compensating windings of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing for the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field. Results of active screening system synthesis of the magnetic field of industrial frequency generated by single-circuit 110 kV high voltage power lines with the supports have 330 - 1T «triangle» rotating magnetic field with full polarization in a residential five-storey building, located near the power lines. The system contains three compensating coil and reduces

  8. Magnet Lattice Design for the Transmission of Power Using Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Daniel; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    As the amount of electricity generated by renewable energy sources continues to increase, the current method of power transmission will not serve as an adequate method for transmitting power over very long distances. A new method for transmitting power is proposed using particle beams in a storage ring. Particle beams offer an incredibly energy efficient alternative to transmission lines in transmitting power over very long distances. A thorough investigation of the magnet lattice design for this storage ring is presented. The design demonstrates the ability to design a ring with stable orbits over a 381.733 km circumference. Double bend achromats and FODO cells are implemented to achieve appropriate {beta} functions and dispersion functions for 9-11 GeV electron beams.

  9. Alternative lines with magnetic plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobig, H.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma confinement with the aid of a magnetic field is the most common and also the most frequently investigated principle on the way to controlled nuclear fusion. Apart from the Tokamak principle, which is the most advanced principle as far as fusion-relevant plasma parameters are concerned, also other approaches are being investigated, e.g. the mirror device, the bumpy tons, and the stellarator. In principle, all three concepts permit 'stationary' plasma confinement in a stationary fusion reactor. Compared with the pulsed Tokamak reactor, this is a considerable advantage. (orig./GG) [de

  10. Origin of Magnetism in Hydrothermally Aged 2-Line Ferrihydrite Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Jiang, Zhao-Xia; Du, Yong-Hua; Yin, Xin-Mao; Xi, Shi-Bo; Wen, Wen; Roberts, Andrew P; Wee, Andrew T S; Xiong, Yi-Min; Liu, Qing-Song; Gao, Xing-Yu

    2017-03-07

    As an iron oxyhydroxide, nanosized ferrihydrite (Fh) is important in Earth science, biology, and industrial applications. However, its basic structure and origin of its magnetism have long been debated. We integrate synchrotron-based techniques to explore the chemical structures of 2-line ferrihydrite and to determine the origin of its magnetism during hydrothermal aging in air. Our results demonstrate that both the magnetism and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) signal of 2-line ferrihydrite are enhanced with aging time, and that XMCD spectral patterns resemble that of maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) rather than magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). Fe L-edge and K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) further indicate formation of both maghemite and hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) with increasing concentrations with longer hydrothermal aging time. Thus, magnetic enhancement with longer hydrothermal aging time is attributed to increasing maghemite concentration instead of a magnetically ordered ferrihydrite as previously reported. Moreover, L-edge and K-edge XAS spectra with different probing depths yield different ratios of these Fe oxides, which suggest the formation of a core (ferrihydrite-rich)-shell (with a mixture of both allotropes; α-Fe 2 O 3 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) structure during hydrothermal aging. Our results provide insights into the chemical evolution of 2-line ferrihydrite that reveal unambiguously the origin of its magnetism.

  11. California-Oregon 500-kV transmission line development of design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    The California-Oregon Transmission Project (COTP) encompassed the design and construction of a third 500-kV ac intertie between California and the Pacific Northwest Transmission system. Sargent ampersand Lundy's (S ampersand L) scope of work in the COTP includes the design of approximately 150 miles of new single-circuit, 500-kV transmission line from southern Oregon to the vicinity of Redding, California. This paper presents the development of the design criteria for this segment of the project, which crosses diverse topographic and climatic regions. This project is an example of the increasing utilization of computers in transmission line engineering. Almost all aspects of design involved the use of the computer. Also, the development of the design criteria for this project coincided with an early release of the TLWorkstation software package by EPRI. TLWorkstation is an engineering workstation containing a family of programs for various aspects of transmission line design. This engineering software allows for increasing refinement in the design and economic optimization of transmission lines and is becoming an important design tool for transmission engineers

  12. Generalized matrix method for transmission of neutrons through multilayer magnetic system with non-colinear magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, F.; Ignatovich, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    A generalized matrix method (GMM) for reflection and transmission of polarized and nonpolarized neutrons for multilayer systems with non-colinear magnetization of neighboring layers is developed. Several methods exist for calculation of the reflection and transmission coefficients of the multilayer systems (MS). We consider here only two of them. One is the recurrence method (RM), and another one is the matrix method. Previously these methods were used for scalar particles and for spinor particles. In the last case a limitation was imposed on the directions of the magnetization of different layers: they were required to lie in the plane parallel to the layers. In 1995 Fermon has described a different approach of the neutrons in MS. Here, the behaviour of the wave inside the layers depends on the position within the plane. The RM, as shown by us earlier, permits to treat multilayer systems with arbitrary directions of the magnetization. We show how to treat these systems with the updated matrix method, which we call the generalized matrix method. In the GMM method the transmission and reflection of a layered system are obtained by finding a 4 x 4 matrix, which is a product of elementary 4 x 4 matrices related to the different layers, and in the RM the solution is found by recurrent application of the same procedure of finding the reflection and transmission matrices for a continuously increasing number of layers. The RM method permits to use a simple algorithm to write analytical formulas for the reflection and transmission. However, for more or less complicated systems these formulas become useless and one needs to do numerical calculations. The GMM does not give a simple analytical algorithm, but it gives a very simple numerical algorithm. We have developed two computer codes for computing the coefficients of reflection and transmission of a layered system using the GMM and RM methods. The calculated reflectivities R ++ and R +- for a polarized beam which fall on

  13. Controlling the transmission line shape of molecular t-stubs and potential thermoelectric applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Robert; Markussen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric line shapes can occur in the transmission function describing electron transport in the vicinity of a minimum caused by quantum interference effects. Such asymmetry can be used to increase the thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions. So far, however, asymmetric line shapes hav...... calculations for a variety of t-stub molecules and also address their suitability for thermoelectric applications....

  14. E-Textile Embroidered Metamaterial Transmission Line for Signal Propagation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Moradi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the utilization of common fabrics for the manufacturing of e-textile metamaterial transmission lines is investigated. In order to filter and control the signal propagation in the ultra-high frequency (UHF range along the e-textile, a conventional metamaterial transmission line was compared with embroidered metamaterial particles. The proposed design was based on a transmission line loaded with one or several split-ring resonators (SRR on a felt substrate. To explore the relations between physical parameters and filter performance characteristics, theoretical models based on transmission matrices’ description of the filter constituent components were proposed. Excellent agreement between theoretical prediction, electromagnetic simulations, and measurement were found. Experimental results showed stop-band levels higher than −30 dB for compact embroidered metamaterial e-textiles. The validated results confirmed embroidery as a useful technique to obtain customized electromagnetic properties, such as filtering, on wearable applications.

  15. E-Textile Embroidered Metamaterial Transmission Line for Signal Propagation Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bahareh; Fernández-García, Raul; Gil, Ignacio

    2018-06-05

    In this paper, the utilization of common fabrics for the manufacturing of e-textile metamaterial transmission lines is investigated. In order to filter and control the signal propagation in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) range along the e-textile, a conventional metamaterial transmission line was compared with embroidered metamaterial particles. The proposed design was based on a transmission line loaded with one or several split-ring resonators (SRR) on a felt substrate. To explore the relations between physical parameters and filter performance characteristics, theoretical models based on transmission matrices' description of the filter constituent components were proposed. Excellent agreement between theoretical prediction, electromagnetic simulations, and measurement were found. Experimental results showed stop-band levels higher than -30 dB for compact embroidered metamaterial e-textiles. The validated results confirmed embroidery as a useful technique to obtain customized electromagnetic properties, such as filtering, on wearable applications.

  16. Line Capacity Expansion and Transmission Switching in Power Systems With Large-Scale Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Bronmo, Geir; Philpott, Andy B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2020 electricity production from wind power should constitute nearly 50% of electricity demand in Denmark. In this paper we look at optimal expansion of the transmission network in order to integrate 50% wind power in the system, while minimizing total fixed investment cost and expected cost...... of power generation. We allow for active switching of transmission elements to reduce congestion effects caused by Kirchhoff's voltage law. Results show that actively switching transmission lines may yield a better utilization of transmission networks with large-scale wind power and increase wind power...

  17. submitter Superconducting transmission lines – Sustainable electric energy transfer with higher public acceptance?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Heiko; Chervyakov, Alexander; Stückrad, Stefan; Salmieri, Delia; Rubbia, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extensive research and development investments into superconducting science and technology, both at the fundamental and at the applied levels, many benefits of superconducting transmission lines (SCTL) remain unknown to the public and decision makers at large. This paper aims at informing about the progress in this important research field. Superconducting transmission lines have a tremendous size advantage and lower total electrical losses for high capacity transmission plus a number of technological advantages compared to solutions based on standard conductors. This leads to a minimized environmental impact and enables an overall more sustainable transmission of electric energy. One of the direct benefits may be an increased public acceptance due to the low visual impact with a subsequent reduction of approval time. The access of remote renewable energy (RE) sources with high-capacity transmission is rendered possible with superior efficiency. That not only translates into further reducing $CO_2...

  18. Novel pulse amplifying circuits based on transmission lines of different characteristic impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, F.; Doria, D.; Lorusso, A.; Nassisi, V.

    2006-01-01

    Two novel circuits used to amplify electric pulses by the coupling of transmission lines of different characteristic impedance are described. The circuits are intended for doubling voltage pulses and for doubling current pulses. The former is composed by a R 0 transmission line closed on a set of two 2R 0 storage lines connected in parallel, while the latter is composed by a R 0 transmission line closed on a set of two R 0 /2 storage lines connected in series. The length of every storage line is half of input-pulse length. In both circuits, one storage line is characterized by an open extremity and the other line by a closed extremity. Connecting opportunely the storage lines to suitable load resistors, 4R 0 and R 0 /4, for the circuit having parallel and series connected lines, respectively, a twice of the output pulse intensity is obtained. Such devices are very suitable to generate high intensity voltage and/or current peaks which are very interesting in the field of the accelerators. Both circuit behaviours have been theoretically studied and verified by computer simulations

  19. Transmission Characteristics of an OFDM signal for Power Line Communication System with High Bit Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira; Watanabe, Yosuke; Tokuda, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koji

    In this paper, we measured what influence the sinusoidal transmission characteristics of the electric power line with various forms gave to the transmission characteristic of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signal through PLC (power line communication system) modem. We classified the electric power line transmission line with various forms in a real environment into two basic elements, which are an outlet type branch and a switch type branch. Next, PHY rate (Physical rate) is measured for each basic element connected with the PLC modem. At this time, the transmission characteristics of the electric power line are simulated from measured data. OFDM sending and receiving systems are composed on the computer, and the PHY rate is simulated. By comparing with measured and calculated values, it is revealed that PHY rate of PLC modem is most affected in the case of the power line transmission characteristics having broad band and high level attenuation and group delay variation, and is not affected in the case of that having narrow band attenuation and group delay variation.

  20. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric - VOLUSIA COUNTY MAJOR POWER LINES (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Power Line data was aggregated by using parcel data and visual inspection of 2005 aerial photography to determine centerline of Power Lines Right of...

  1. Radiating nonuniform transmission-line systems and the partial element equivalent circuit method

    CERN Document Server

    Nitsch, Juergen; Wollenberg, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    High frequencies of densely packed modern electronic equipment turn even the smallest piece of wire into a transmission line with signal retardation, dispersion, attenuation, and distortion. In electromagnetic environments with high-power microwave or ultra-wideband sources, transmission lines pick up noise currents generated by external electromagnetic fields. These are superimposed on essential signals, the lines acting not only as receiving antennas but radiating parts of the signal energy into the environment. This book is outstanding in its originality. While many textbooks rephrase

  2. High temperature superconducting Josephson transmission lines for pulse and step sharpening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.S.; Wendt, J.R.; Hietala, V.M.; Ginley, D.S.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Plut, T.A.; Vawter, G.A.; Tigges, C.P.; Siegal, M.P.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1992-01-01

    An increasing number of high speed digital and other circuit applications require very narrow impulses or rapid pulse edge transitions. Shock wave transmission lines using series or shunt Josephson junctions are one way to generate these signals. Using two different high temperature superconducting Josephson junction processes (step-edge and electron beam defined nanobridges), such transmission lines have been constructed and tested at 77 K. Shock wave lines with approximately 60 YBaCuO nanobridges, have generated steps with fall times of about 10 ps. With step-edge junctions (with higher figures of merit but lower uniformity), step transition times have been reduced to an estimated 1 ps

  3. Experimental observation on asymmetric energy flux within the forbidden frequency band in the LC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Feng; Chen Weizhong; Pan Junting; Xu Wen; Du Sidan

    2012-01-01

    We study the energy flux in a nonlinear electrical transmission line consisting of two coupled segments which are identical in structure and different in parameters. The asymmetry of energy flux caused by nonlinear wave has been observed experimentally in the forbidden band of the line. The experiment shows whether the energy can flow through the transmission line depends on the amplitude of the boundary driving voltages, which can be well explained in the theoretical framework of nonlinear supratransmission. The numerical simulation based on Kirchhoff’s laws further verifies the existence of the asymmetric energy flux in the forbidden band.

  4. Data transmission through power line of smart transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the method to use the phase shift keying (PSK) communication technique in smart transmitter is presented. In nuclear applications, smart transmitters for various parameters are expected to improve the accuracy of measurement and to reduce the load of calibration work. The capability of communication in field level is the most important merit of the smart transmitter. The most popular method is using of digital and analog techniques simultaneously - transmitting measurements from the field at 4-20mA while modulating the current to carry digital information in both directions over the same twisted pairs. Conventional smart transmitters use the frequency shift keying (FSK) method for digital communication. Generally, however, the FSK method has the speed limit at 1200 bps. Amount of information to transmit becomes increasing as the processing technique is improved. The PSK method is noticeable alternative for high speed digital communication, but it has non-zero DC component. In order to use the PSK method in the field transmission with smart transmitter, the method to remove the DC component is studied in this work

  5. Remote Control System of the TJ-II Microwave Transmission Lines Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Sanchez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Cappa, A.; Gama, J. de la; Olivares, J.; Garcia, R.; Chamorro, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ECRH system of the TJ-II stellarator has two gyrotrons, which deliver a maximum power of 300 kW each at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron will be used to heat the plasma by electron Bernstein waves (EBWH). The microwave power is transmitted from the gyrotrons to the vacuum chamber by two quasi-optical transmission lines for ECRH and a corrugated waveguide for EBWH. All transmission lines have an internal movable mirror inside the vacuum chamber to focus the beam and to be able to change the launching angle. The control of the beam polarization is very important and the lines have two corrugated mirrors, which actuate as polarizers. In this report the control system of the position of these three internal mirrors and the polarizers of the EBWH transmission line is described. (Author) 20 refs

  6. Advanced high-speed protection for transmission lines with different configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholomier, D.; Naisani, P. [Areva T and D Automation Canada Inc., Monteal, PQ (Canada); Apostolov, A. [Omicron Electronics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Power substations and transmission lines require intelligent (microprocessor-based) electronic devices (IED) for data acquisition, protection, metering, and control. This paper presented a universal transmission line protection relay with segregated phase differential protection as the main function and multiple backup protection functions, including 3 zone distance protection. It described features allowing the application of the IED to multi-terminal lines, mutual coupled lines, charging current compensation, transformer inrush current detection, breaker and a half and ring bus substation configurations. GPS synchronized current differential protection offers reliable protection for transmission and distribution circuits. The security of the protection relay can be improved significantly by combining it with fallback techniques to cover loss of GPS synchronizing, and by including non-differential elements as back-up during route switching and channel failures. 7 figs.

  7. TRANSMISSION LINE-WIRE DANCING (GALLOPING – LYAPUNOV INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Vanko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aerodynamic losses of damping, or aerodynamic instability, which we observe in experiments and in engineering practice. As applied to industrial high-voltage lines this phenomenon is usually called galloping (dancing of phase line wires. This phenolmenon can be explained by Lyapunov’s instability of equilibrium state of wires profile (cross-section. In addition to known condition of Grauert-den-Hartog’s instability there was obtained practical condition of instability, which depends only on stationary aerodynamic profile’s factor – dimensionless coefficient of head resistance and lift coefficient, and also on their derivative with respect to the angle of attack.There was suggested an effective numerical-analytical method of investigation of stability for equilibrium of profile’s state in flow, which was developed at the department “Applied mathematics” of Bauman MSTU. This method allows to determine the stationary aerodynamics characteristics of profile by numerical simulation of profile flow under different angles of attack by vortex element method and later on the application of analytical conditions of stability and Lyapunov’s instability of equilibrium positions. The obtained results during the investigation of rhombic and square profiles stability, as well as general profile of iced wire, and their comparisons with the known experiments’ results in aerodynamic tubes indicate the precision of developed methods and algorithms. The usage of mesh-free Lagrange method of vortex elements and software for their realization allows to solve also dual problems of aerohydroelasticity and to carry out direct numerical simulation of profile movement in flow. In this article the investigations’ results of different authors in this field were taken into account.

  8. Magnetic error analysis of recycler pbar injection transfer line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Detailed study of Fermilab Recycler Ring anti-proton injection line became feasible with its BPM system upgrade, though the beamline has been in existence and operational since year 2000. Previous attempts were not fruitful due to limitations in the BPM system. Among the objectives are the assessment of beamline optics and the presence of error fields. In particular the field region of the permanent Lambertson magnets at both ends of R22 transfer line will be scrutinized.

  9. Magnetic stochasticity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas chaos of field lines and charged particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaev, Sadrilla

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas.  The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and  magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and  statisti...

  10. Assessment of ELF magnetic fields produced by independent power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucca, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of assessing the ELF (extremely low-frequency) magnetic fields produced, in a certain area characterised by the presence of more than one independent power line, is faced. The use of the incoherent summation of the single contributions, as an advantageous estimator of the total magnetic field, is proposed and justified by means of a heuristic procedure. This kind of approach can be seen as a useful and practical tool to be employed in environmental impact analysis and in assessing long-term human exposure to ELF magnetic fields. (authors)

  11. Cultural-resource survey report: Hoover Dam Powerplant Modification Project II. Associated transmission-line facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, R.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is proposing to modify or install additional transmission facilities between the Hoover Dam hydroelectric plant and the Western Area Power Authority substation near Boulder City, Nevada. Reclamation has completed cultural resource investigations to identify historic or prehistoric resources in the project area that might be affected during construction of the transmission line. Four possible transmission corridors approximately 50 feet wide and between 9.5 and 11.5 miles long were investigated. The proposed transmission lines either parallel or replace existing transmission lines. The corridors generally have undergone significant disturbance from past transmission line construction. A Class II sampling survey covering approximately 242 acres was conducted. Access or construction roads have not been identified and surveys of these areas will have to be completed in the future. No historic or prehistoric archeological sites were encountered within the four corridor right-of-ways. It is believed that the probability for prehistoric sites is very low. Four historic period sites were recorded that are outside, but near, the proposed corridor. These sites are not individually eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, but may be associated with the construction of Hoover Dam and contribute to a historic district or multiple property resource area focusing on the dam and its construction

  12. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  13. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park

  14. Tracing overhead transmission line corridors with regard to environmental and spatial qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cof

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities for running the proposed overhead transmission line Okroglo-Italian border. The Slovene and Italian methods are shown as methods enabling consideration of environmental and spatial impact within the process of planning overhead transmission line corridors. The Slovene method consists of analyses of attractiveness and vulnerability, whereby the first considers those functional and economic factors that affect spatial attractiveness for overhead transmission lines. Thus we can assess the level of economic and functional suitability of alternative routes of the proposed 400 kilovolt overhead transmission line from transformation station Okroglo (Slovenia to Srednje, Golo Brdo and Vrtojba, three potential contact points on the Slovene–Italian border. In accordance with stipulations of the Law on spatial management vulnerability models were prepared, which were used to simulate the development’s potential negative environmental effects and to analyse suitability, which implies harmonisation of development and protection demands. Their result is a possible corridor that can be developed without significant conflicts. The Italian procedure was developed to trace the transmission line corridor from the Slovenian border to the transformation station in Udine. It was also applied on the Slovenian side. Three groups of factors were considered in the procedure: exclusion, repulsion, and attraction. The much simpler procedure enables comparisons, since it uses the same or at least similar spatial data. In conclusion a short commentary is added about the corridor concept as a planning tool.

  15. Pressure control of a pneumatic control system with a long transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Seong; Lee, Kwang Kuk; Choi, Myung Soo

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a robust controller to control pressure in a pneumatic pressure vessel with a long transmission line is proposed. Frequency response of transmission line using compressible fluid is changed by the flowing state of the fluid. So, if a fixed gain controller designed based on a model supposed the flowing state to a specific state, the performance of the control system could be degraded because of the modelling error. The controller designed in this study is composed of two parts. One is a feedback controller to improve a feedback characteristics and to compensate the influence of the variation of transfer characteristics of a transmission line owing to the change of flowing state and the other is a feed forward controller to regulate command following performance. The experimental results with the designed controller show that the robustness of the control system is achieved regardless of the change of the model of the transmission line. Therefore, the designed controller can be utilized for the performance improvement of a pressure control system with a long transmission line using compressible fluid

  16. A simplified theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    An approximate theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line is developed by combining the reflection theory of Booker and Lefeuvre with Greifinger and Greifinger's treatment of the effect of ionization below the level of reflection. The theory allows for the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, for reflection from the gradient on the under side of the D-region (or, at night, of a ledge below the E-region), for reflection from the gradient on the underside of the E-region and for reflection from the gradient on the topside of the E-region. The procedure is to compare local vertical gradient with local wavelength, thereby classifying altitude into intervals where the gradient is high and ones where it is low. Where the gradient is low, the phase-integral treatment is adequate. An interval where the gradient is high may, to a first approximation, be replaced by a discontinuity. The amount of the discontinuity is the difference between the refractive indices at the top and bottom of the interval of high gradient, judged in relation to local wavelength. It is then a matter of combining reflections from the several discontinuities. This requires calculation of the complex phase-changes between the discontinuities. But there are the intervals where the phase-integral treatment is available. To a better approximation, there is a non-zero phase change associated with an interval of high gradient. The method for incorporating this is described. (author)

  17. Bipole III transmission line Henday-Riel: Alternative corridors status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    As part of expansion plans in the Manitoba Hydro system, it is proposed to build a 850-km high voltage dc transmission line from the Henday converter station on the Nelson River to a new converter station near Winnipeg. A review is provided of work done on the first stage of route selection and environmental assessment for this project. Right-of-way requirements are outlined and environmental impact issues are discussed in the areas of employment and business opportunities, effects on wilderness areas and aesthetics, electric and magnetic field effects, and land use. The four zones, east and west of Lake Winnipeg, that were studied in the selection of potential corridors are described along with the corridor siting criteria. Five discrete corridor alternatives are identified and evaluated. A route east of Lake Winnipeg has been selected as the preferred corridor. Feedback from public consultations will assist in preparation of a final corridor selection study which is to be submitted to federal and provincial environmental review. 12 figs

  18. A GaAs planar Schottky varactor diode for left-handed nonlinear transmission line applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun-Rong; Yang Hao; Tian Chao; Huang Jie; Zhang Hai-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The left-handed nonlinear transmission line (LH-NLTL) based on monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology possesses significant advantages such as wide frequency band, high operating frequency, high conversion efficiency, and applications in millimeter and submillimeter wave frequency multiplier. The planar Schottky varactor diode (PSVD) is a major limitation to the performance of the LH-NLTL frequency multiplier as a nonlinear component. The design and the fabrication of the diode for such an application are presented. An accurate large-signal model of the diode is proposed. A 16 GHz-39.6 GHz LH-NLTL frequency doubler using our large-signal model is reported for the first time. The measured maximum output powers of the 2nd harmonic are up to 8 dBm at 26.4 GHz, and above 0 dBm from 16 GHz to 39.6 GHz when the input power is 20 dBm. The application of the LH-NLTL frequency doubler furthermore validates the accuracy of the large-signal model of the PSVD. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. A 32-channel lattice transmission line array for parallel transmit and receive MRI at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriany, Gregor; Auerbach, Edward J; Snyder, Carl J; Gözübüyük, Ark; Moeller, Steen; Ritter, Johannes; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Vaughan, Tommy; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2010-06-01

    Transmit and receive RF coil arrays have proven to be particularly beneficial for ultra-high-field MR. Transmit coil arrays enable such techniques as B(1) (+) shimming to substantially improve transmit B(1) homogeneity compared to conventional volume coil designs, and receive coil arrays offer enhanced parallel imaging performance and SNR. Concentric coil arrangements hold promise for developing transceiver arrays incorporating large numbers of coil elements. At magnetic field strengths of 7 tesla and higher where the Larmor frequencies of interest can exceed 300 MHz, the coil array design must also overcome the problem of the coil conductor length approaching the RF wavelength. In this study, a novel concentric arrangement of resonance elements built from capacitively-shortened half-wavelength transmission lines is presented. This approach was utilized to construct an array with whole-brain coverage using 16 transceiver elements and 16 receive-only elements, resulting in a coil with a total of 16 transmit and 32 receive channels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśnikowski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

  1. The behavior of the magnetic lines of a rotating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelidis, E.

    1977-01-01

    The behaviour of a magnetic line has been studied under continuous injection of plasma. Under increasing density the existence of three zones of possible concentration has been shown. For values greater than a critical value D=0, with D suitably defined, one zone disappears, whilst the other two degenerate into one. (Auth.)

  2. Bending magnets for the CBA beam-transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thern, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The beam-transport line from the AGS to CBA requires 68 large bending magnets, consisting of pure dipoles and two types of combined function gradient magnets. All three types were designed with magnetic-field calculation program POISSON, using the same exterior dimensions and coil package. The design goal of +-1% momentum acceptance for the transport line required a wide horizontal aperture, with a much-smaller vertical aperture for economy. Two prototypes of one gradient magnet were built, and a facility constructed to measure them and the later production magnets. Measurements were done using both a long coil and a point coil (Rawson-Lush gaussmeter). Preliminary results show ..delta..B/B < 0.2 x 10/sup -3/, ..delta..G/G < 0.3 x 10/sup -2/, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B < 0.3 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ over the beam aperture. Due to end effects, the actual gradient differs from the design gradient by 1%, which has been compensated for in the beam-line design.

  3. Magnetic field line draping in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Lepping, R. P.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous IMP 8 solar wind and ISEE 1/2 observations for a northern dawn ISEE 1/2 magnetopause crossing on November 6, 1977. During this crossing, ISEE 1/2 observed quasi-periodic pulses of magnetosheathlike plasma on northward magnetic field lines. The ISEE 1/2 observations were originally interpreted as evidence for strong diffusion of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the inner edge of the low-latitude boundary layer. An alternate explanation, in terms of magnetic field merging and flux transfer events, has also been advocated. In this paper, a third interpretation is proposed in terms of quasi-periodic magnetopause motion which causes the satellites to repeatedly exit the magnetosphere and observe draped northward magnetosheath magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer.

  4. Variation on the magnetic field profiles of transmission lines for various surrounding conditions calculated by the finite element method; Variacion de los perfiles de campo magnetico en lineas de transmision en diversas condiciones del entorno calculadas mediante el metodo de elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, Fernando; Ferreira, Fabiana

    2001-07-01

    This paper applies the finite element method for the calculation of line magnetic field transversal profile using own routine calculation. Using a real case, simulations were performed under various conditions gathering distortion elements, obtaining the field profile. By analysing these results conclusions are drawing related to the changes produced by the distortions on the magnetic field configuration and evaluations of the surrounding elements influence are evaluated.

  5. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  6. High voltage transmission lines studies with the use of artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    The paper presents an alternative approach for the studies of high voltage transmission lines based on artificial intelligence and more specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). In contrast to the existing conventional-analytical techniques and simulations which are using in the calculations empirical and/or approximating equations, this approach is based only on actual field data and actual measurements. The proposed approach is applied on high voltage transmission lines in order to calculate the lightning outages, on grounding systems in order to assess the grounding resistance and on high voltage transmission lines' polluted insulators in order to estimate the critical flashover voltage. The obtained results are very close to the actual ones for all three case studies, something which clearly implies that the ANN approach is well working and has an acceptable accuracy, constituting an additional tool of electric engineers. (author)

  7. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  8. Calculation of large ion densities under HVdc transmission lines by the finite difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Tomotaka; Sunaga, Yoshitaka

    1995-01-01

    A calculation method for large ion densities (charged aerosols) under HVdc transmission lines was developed considering both the charging mechanism of aerosols by small ions and the drifting process by wind. Large ion densities calculated by this method agreed well with the ones measured under the Shiobara HVdc test line on the lateral profiles at ground level up to about 70m downwind from the line. Measured values decreased more quickly than calculated ones farther downwind from the line. Considering the effect of point discharge from ground cover (earth corona) improved the agreement in the farther downwind region

  9. Discrete PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission lines loading in TNEP problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Mahdavi, M.; Bagheri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, lines adequacy rate has not been considered at the end of planning horizon, i.e. expanded network misses adequacy after some times and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, expansion planning has been implemented by merging lines loading parameter in the STNEP and inserting investment cost into the fitness function constraints using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm. Expanded network will possess a maximum adequacy to provide load demand and also the transmission lines overloaded later. The proposed idea has been tested on the Garvers network and an actual transmission network of the Azerbaijan regional electric company, Iran, and the results are compared with the decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA) technique. The results evaluation shows that the network will possess maximum efficiency economically. Also, it is shown that precision and convergence speed of the proposed DPSO based method for the solution of the STNEP problem is superior to DCGA approach.

  10. Study of the behaviour of magnetic lines after perturbation of a toroidal field with magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of a perturbing magnetic field on a field whose magnetic surfaces are tori nested around a closed central line is studied. This perturbation effect creates magnetic islands around surfaces with rational rotational transform. These islands are investigated analytically, which makes it possible to evaluate their size. The resulting turbulence of the medium can then be studied by calculating the interaction of two neighbouring islands

  11. Circuit simulation of exponential transmission line for petawatt Z-pinch plasma drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhengzhong

    2011-01-01

    It was demonstrated, based on the PSPICE circuit simulation, that the sectioning number for the circuit simulation of an exponential transmission line should be determined as twice the line's one-way electromagnetic wave transport time(electric length) divided by the wave-front of input pulse, owing to elimination of the wave reflections caused by artificial impedance discontinuity in the line's circuit simulation model, which employs a serial and sectional transmission line with impedances constant in each section but stair-step-varied between sections, and with total electric length the same as that of the exponential line under simulation. A pulse of 112.2 ns wave-front propagates through an exponential water transmission line of 1 234.2 ns one-way transport time will give the best sectioning number of 22, when the constant impedance of each section is given by the geometric mean of the two ends' impedances of the corresponding section on the exponential line under simulation. This sectioning rule is equivalent to the statement that the two-way transport time of each section should be equal to the input pulse's wave-front. (authors)

  12. Using technique vibration diagnostics for assessing the quality of power transmission line supports repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpakov Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The considered method for assessing the quality of the repair work to restore the rack supports of transmission lines is based on the method of vibration diagnostics. Power transmission line supports with a symmetrical destruction of the protective layer of concrete in the ground in violation of the construction section were chosen as an object. Finite element modelling package Ansys was used in assessing the quality of repair work. The example of evaluating the quality of repair using the relative adhesion defective area design criteria in the analysis of natural vibration frequencies is given.

  13. New schemes for high-voltage pulsed generators based on stepped transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossamykin, V.S.; Gordeev, V.S.; Pavlovskii, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    Wave processes were analyzed from the point of effective energy delivery in pulsed power systems based on transmission lines. A series of new schemes for the pulsed generators based on multistage stepped transmission lines both with the capacitive and inductive energy storage was found. These devices can provide voltage or current transformation up to 5-10 times due to wave processes if stage's characteristic impedances are in a certain correlation. The schemes suggested can be widely applied in the new powerful pulsed power accelerators. The theoretical conclusions are justified experimentally

  14. Environmental impacts of power plants and transmission lines in power system planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miracapillo, C.; Moreschini, G.; Rome Univ. 'La Sapienza'

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with a criterion to assess the environmental impacts of power plants and transmission lines in power system planning. First, the effects of hydro-plants, thermal plants and transmission lines are reviewed. Then, a number of methods for the evaluation of the environmental impacts of civil and industrial plants are described. A new criterion is proposed to introduce the evaluation of the environmental impact and related costs into methods for power system planning. Finally, the criterion is applied to a simple case

  15. Transmission-line-circuit model of an 85-TW, 25-MA pulsed-power accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    B. T. Hutsel; P. A. Corcoran; M. E. Cuneo; M. R. Gomez; M. H. Hess; D. D. Hinshelwood; C. A. Jennings; G. R. Laity; D. C. Lamppa; R. D. McBride; J. K. Moore; A. Myers; D. V. Rose; S. A. Slutz; W. A. Stygar

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a physics-based transmission-line-circuit model of the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The 33-m-diameter Z machine generates a peak electrical power as high as 85 TW, and delivers as much as 25 MA to a physics load. The circuit model is used to design and analyze experiments conducted on Z. The model consists of 36 networks of transmission-line-circuit elements and resistors that represent each of Zs 36 modules. The model of each module includes a Marx generator, intermediate-en...

  16. Structure of the magnetic field line diversion in Helias configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strumberger, E.

    1991-01-01

    The vacuum magnetic field outside the last closed magnetic surface of Helias configurations is investigated with respect to its field line diversion properties. In a Helias configuration with N periods N half-helix like edges run on the toroidally outward side of the plasma boundary and yield the possibility of separatrix formation due to the coincidence of helical edge and x-points between islands. With the choice N=5, and ι=1 at the plasma boundary, there are five magnetic islands outside the last closed magnetic surface. In the case considered, islands are lying in front of the helical edge at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of this edge, while in positions in between x-points are in front of the helical edge. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs

  17. Ground-Wave Propagation Effects on Transmission Lines through Error Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transient calculation of overhead transmission lines is strongly influenced by the natural resistivity of the ground. This varies from 1-10K (Ω·m depending on several media factors and on the physical composition of the ground. The accuracy on the calculation of a system transient response depends in part in the ground return model, which should consider the line geometry, the electrical resistivity and the frequency dependence of the power source. Up to date, there are only a few reports on the specialized literature about analyzing the effects produced by the presence of an imperfectly conducting ground of transmission lines in a transient state. A broad range analysis of three of the most often used ground-return models for calculating electromagnetic transients of overhead transmission lines is performed in this paper. The behavior of modal propagation in ground is analyzed here into effects of first and second order. Finally, a numerical tool based on relative error images is proposed in this paper as an aid for the analyst engineer to estimate the incurred error by using approximate ground-return models when calculating transients of overhead transmission lines.

  18. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO's circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western's existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations

  20. Testing of Prototype Magnetic Suspension Cryogenic Transfer Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Shu, Q. S.; Cheng, G.; Susta, J. T.

    2006-04-01

    A 6-meter prototype cryogenic transfer line with magnetic suspension was tested for its mechanical and thermal performance at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A test facility with two cryogenic end-boxes was designed and commissioned for the testing. Suspension mechanisms were verified through a series of tests with liquid nitrogen. The thermal performance of the prototype was determined using the new test apparatus. The tested prototype has incorporated temperature and vacuum pressure data acquisition ports, customized interfaces to cryogenic end-boxes, and instrumentation. All tests were conducted under simulated onsite transfer line working conditions. A static (boiloff rate measurement) testing method was employed to demonstrate the gross heat leak in the tested article. The real-time temperature distribution, vacuum level, levitation distance, and mass flow rate were measured. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the testing facility design and preparation, test procedure, and primary test results. Special arrangements (such as turning on/off mechanical support units, observing levitation gap, and setting up the flowmeter) in testing of such a magnetically levitated transfer line are also discussed. Preliminary results show that the heat leak reduction of approximately one-third to one-half is achievable through such transfer lines with a magnetic suspension system.

  1. Method of selecting optimum cross arm lengths for a 750 kV transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, G N; Olorokov, V P

    1965-01-01

    A method is presented, based on both technical and economic considerations, for selecting cross arm lengths for intermediate poles of power transmission lines according to the effects of internal overvoltage, methods from probability theory and mathematical statistics employed. The problem of optimum pole size is considered in terms of the effect of internal overvoltages for a prescribed maximum level of 2.1 PU currently used in the USSR for the design of 750 kV lines.

  2. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

  3. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  4. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  5. Sound Transmission Through Multi-Panel Structures Lined with Elastic Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, J. S.; Shiau, N.-M.; Kang, Y. J.

    1996-04-01

    Theory and measurements related to sound transmission through double panels lined with elastic porous media are presented. The information has application to the design of noise control barriers and to the optimization of aircraft fuselage transmission loss, for example. The major difference between the work described here and earlier research in this field relates to the treatment of the porous material that is used to line the cavity between the two panels of the double panel structure. Here we have used the porous material theory proposed by Biot since it takes explicit account of all the wave types known to propagate in elastic porous materials. As a result, it is possible to use the theory presented here to calculate the transmission loss of lined double panels at arbitrary angles of incidence; results calculated over a range of incidence angles may then be combined to yield the random incidence transmission loss. In this paper, the equations governing wave propagation in an elastic porous material are first considered briefly and then the general forms for the stresses and displacements within the porous material are given. Those solutions are expressed in terms of a number of constants that can be determined by application of appropriate boundary conditions. The boundary conditions required to model double panels having linings that are either directly attached to the facing panels or separated?!from them by air gaps are presented and discussed. Measurements of the random incidence transmission loss of aluminium double-panel structures lined with polyurethane foam are presented and have been found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Both the theoretical predictions and the measured results have shown that the method by which an elastic porous lining material is attached to the facing panels can have a profound influence on the transmission loss of the panel system. It has been found, for example, that treatments in which the lining material

  6. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  7. Design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Waveguide Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.; Grunloh, H.; Koliner, J.

    2007-11-01

    The ITER ECH transmission line system is designed to deliver the power, from twenty-four 1 MW 170 GHz gyrotrons and three 1 MW 127.5 GHz gyrotrons, to the equatorial and upper launchers. The performance requirements, initial design of components and layout between the gyrotrons and the launchers is underway. Similar 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguide systems have been built and installed on several fusion experiments; however, none have operated at the high frequency and long-pulse required for ITER. Prototype components are being tested at low power to estimate ohmic and mode conversion losses. In order to develop and qualify the ITER components prior to procurement of the full set of 24 transmission lines, a 170 GHz high power test of a complete prototype transmission line is planned. Testing of the transmission line at 1-2 MW can be performed with a modest power (˜0.5 MW) tube with a low loss (10-20%) resonant ring configuration. A 140 GHz long pulse, 400 kW gyrotron will be used in the initial tests and a 170 GHz gyrotron will be used when it becomes available. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  8. Optical modeling of fiber organic photovoltaic structures using a transmission line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonas, N; Stathopoulos, N A; O'Connor, B T; Bedeloglu, A Celik; Savaidis, S P; Vasiliadis, S

    2017-12-01

    An optical model has been developed and evaluated for the calculation of the external quantum efficiency of cylindrical fiber photovoltaic structures. The model is based on the transmission line theory and has been applied on single and bulk heterojunction fiber-photovoltaic cells. Using this model, optimum design characteristics have been proposed for both configurations, and comparison with experimental results has been assessed.

  9. Multiwavelet packet entropy and its application in transmission line fault recognition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qiaoge

    2014-11-01

    Multiwavelets possess better properties than traditional wavelets. Multiwavelet packet transformation has more high-frequency information. Spectral entropy can be applied as an analysis index to the complexity or uncertainty of a signal. This paper tries to define four multiwavelet packet entropies to extract the features of different transmission line faults, and uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to recognize and classify 10 fault types of power transmission lines. First, the preprocessing and postprocessing problems of multiwavelets are presented. Shannon entropy and Tsallis entropy are introduced, and their difference is discussed. Second, multiwavelet packet energy entropy, time entropy, Shannon singular entropy, and Tsallis singular entropy are defined as the feature extraction methods of transmission line fault signals. Third, the plan of transmission line fault recognition using multiwavelet packet entropies and an RBF neural network is proposed. Finally, the experimental results show that the plan with the four multiwavelet packet energy entropies defined in this paper achieves better performance in fault recognition. The performance with SA4 (symmetric antisymmetric) multiwavelet packet Tsallis singular entropy is the best among the combinations of different multiwavelet packets and the four multiwavelet packet entropies.

  10. Geometric quantum discord and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Han-Jie; Zhang Guo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line are investigated. We show how GQDs evolve and investigate their dependencies on the parameters of the system. We also calculate the energy and the Berry phase and compare them with GQD, finding that there are close connections between them. (general)

  11. Full Scale Experimental Study on the Air Insulation of 765kV Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Boo; Shin, Jeong Woon; Cho, Sung Bae; Chang, Sung Chil; Kwak, Joo Shik [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ik Soo; Lee, Heyoung Ho; Kang, Young Sik; Lee, Hong Sik; Choi, Beyoung Joo; Kim, Young Bae [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Design and construction of testing yard. Technical specification of impulse voltage generator which was installed in testing yard. Corrosion and statistical analysis of test data. Test object setup and test results of flashover characteristic in various paths. Recommended optimum air clearance of 765kV transmission lines. (author). 163 refs., figs.

  12. Lightning Protection Performance Assessment of Transmission Line Based on ATP model Automatic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hanwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the initial lightning breakdown current by combing ATP and MATLAB simulation software effectively, with the aims to evaluate the lightning protection performance of transmission line. Firstly, the executable ATP simulation model is generated automatically according to the required information such as power source parameters, tower parameters, overhead line parameters, grounding resistance and lightning current parameters, etc. through an interface program coded by MATLAB. Then, the data are extracted from the generated LIS files which can be obtained by executing the ATP simulation model, the occurrence of transmission lie breakdown can be determined by the relative data in LIS file. The lightning current amplitude should be reduced when the breakdown occurs, and vice the verse. Thus the initial lightning breakdown current of a transmission line with given parameters can be determined accurately by continuously changing the lightning current amplitude, which is realized by a loop computing algorithm that is coded by MATLAB software. The method proposed in this paper can generate the ATP simulation program automatically, and facilitates the lightning protection performance assessment of transmission line.

  13. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    The classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions, The method is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Lagrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  14. Fuzzy-Wavelet Based Double Line Transmission System Protection Scheme in the Presence of SVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Ravikumar; Shaik, Abdul Gafoor; Tulasi Ram, Sankara S.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing the power transfer capability and efficient utilization of available transmission lines, improving the power system controllability and stability, power oscillation damping and voltage compensation have made strides and created Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) devices in recent decades. Shunt FACTS devices can have adverse effects on distance protection both in steady state and transient periods. Severe under reaching is the most important problem of relay which is caused by current injection at the point of connection to the system. Current absorption of compensator leads to overreach of relay. This work presents an efficient method based on wavelet transforms, fault detection, classification and location using Fuzzy logic technique which is almost independent of fault impedance, fault distance and fault inception angle. The proposed protection scheme is found to be fast, reliable and accurate for various types of faults on transmission lines with and without Static Var compensator at different locations and with various incidence angles.

  15. Transmission Line Ampacity Improvements of AltaLink Wind Plant Overhead Tie-Lines Using Weather-Based Dynamic Line Rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Gentle, Jake P.; Hill, Porter; McJunkin, Tim; Myers, Kurt S.; Abbound, Alex; Renwick, Rodger; Hengst, David

    2017-07-01

    Abstract—Overhead transmission lines (TLs) are conventionally given seasonal ratings based on conservative environmental assumptions. Such an approach often results in underutilization of the line ampacity as the worst conditions prevail only for a short period over a year/season. We presents dynamic line rating (DLR) as an enabling smart grid technology that adaptively computes ratings of TLs based on local weather conditions to utilize additional headroom of existing lines. In particular, general line ampacity state solver utilizes measured weather data for computing the real-time thermal rating of the TLs. The performance of the presented method is demonstrated from a field study of DLR technology implementation on four TL segments at AltaLink, Canada. The performance is evaluated and quantified by comparing the existing static and proposed dynamic line ratings, and the potential benefits of DLR for enhanced transmission assets utilization. For the given line segments, the proposed DLR results in real-time ratings above the seasonal static ratings for most of the time; up to 95.1% of the time, with a mean increase of 72% over static rating.

  16. Progress on corrugated waveguide components suitable for ITER ECH&CD transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy C.J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2 MW cw requirement for ITER EC transmission lines has led GA to design a number of new and modified components, namely power monitors and polarizers to meet this requirement. In addition, the ITER transmission lines may require sliding joints or bellows to accommodate the thermal expansion of the lines and/or vessel motion. The ex-vessel sections of the EC launchers require double seal waveguides, miter bends and possibly double seal sliding joints to assure tritium retention in this region. GA has developed designs for many of these components and some of them have already been tested at high power at the JAEA RF Test Stand. Thermal analyses of the standard GA power monitor miter bend show that our standard design is suitable for 1 MW cw operation when the H-field is in the plane of the miter bend. For 2 MW cw operation a modified design, which also requires H-plane orientation, has been developed and a prototype has been fabricated and is ready for testing. For long pulse/cw operation, a 2 MW calorimetric miter bend with thermally isolated mirror has been designed and a prototype has been fabricated. Since the mirror is thermally isolated, calorimetry on the mirror cooling water can provide a measure of absorbed power. Such a miter bend, when made in a double seal version, could be useful for monitoring total power at the end of an EC transmission line just before the in-vessel section of an EC launcher. A mode analyzer using an all metal water-cooled beam splitter is being developed for use in measuring in real time the HE11 and higher order mode content or total power in EC transmission lines. Such a high power diagnostic can be very useful in optimizing the alignment of the MOU output into a transmission line and in monitoring the HE11 mode purity at various locations in a transmission line. Prior to making a 63.5 mm 170 GHz version suitable for use on ITER, several prototype 31.75 mm 110 GHz versions have been fabricated and tested at

  17. Magnetic field line diffusion at the onset of stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaesser, K.; Deeskow, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Hamiltonian equations of a particle in a random set of waves just above the stochasticity threshold are considered both theoretically and numerically. First we derive the diffusion coefficient and the autocorrelation time perturbatively without using the thermodynamic limit, and we discuss the relevance of the Hamiltonian problem for particle acceleration and magnetic field line flow. Then we integrate the equations for an ensemble of magnetic field lines numerically for a model problem and show the time evolution of moments and correlations. Twice above the threshold we observe diffusive behaviour from the beginning, but the diffusion coefficient includes also the non-resonant modes. Just at threshold we find first a short phase of free acceleration, later a diffusion which is lower than predicted by the theoretical formula. The best way to analyze the problem is in terms of cumulants, but a reliable comparison with any theory requires also a time integration of the corresponding kinetic equations. (orig.)

  18. Studies on the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized inhomogeneous plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Shen, Linfang; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua; Chen, Zhou; Hong, Lujun

    2018-01-01

    There have been many studies on the sub-terahertz (sub-THz) wave transmission in reentry plasma sheaths. However, only some of them have paid attention to the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheaths. In this paper, the transmission of sub-THz waves in both unmagnetized and magnetized reentry plasma sheaths was investigated. The impacts of temporal evolution of the plasma sheath on the wave transmission were studied. The transmission of "atmospheric window" frequencies in a magnetized plasma sheath was discussed in detail. According to the study, the power transmission rates (Tp) for the left hand circular (LHC) and the right hand circular modes in the magnetized plasma sheath are obviously higher and lower than those in the unmagnetized plasma sheath, respectively. The Tp of LHC mode increases with both wave frequency and external magnetic field strength. Also, the Tp of LHC mode in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasma sheaths varies with time due to the temporal evolution of the plasma sheath. Moreover, the performance of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheath hints at a new approach to the "blackout" problem. The new approach, which is in the capability of modern technology, is to utilize the communication system operating at 140 GHz with an onboard magnet installed near the antenna.

  19. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  20. Broadband Impedance Transformer Based on Asymmetric Coupled Transmission Lines in Nonhomogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A new broadband quarter-wavelength impedance transformer based on an asymmetric coupled line section is presented. The bandwidth of the coupled line transformer is extended with the help of an interconnecting transmission line. An analytical model for the transformer is developed. The analysis...... of the structure reveals that a fractional bandwidth of more than 100% at –20 dB reflection level can be achieved with such a structure. An experimental transformer circuit has been designed, fabricated and tested. Theoretical and experimental results are fair agreement and confirm the established theory...

  1. Effects of magnetic fields during high voltage live-line maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göcsei, Gábor; Kiss, István, Dr; Németh, Bálint

    2015-10-01

    In case of transmission and distribution networks, extra low frequency (typically 50 or 60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields have to be taken into consideration separately from each other. Health effects have been documented from exposures to both types of fields. Magnetic fields are qualified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (category “2B”) by WHO's cancer research institute, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), so it is essential to protect the workers against their harmful effects. During live-line maintenance (LLM) electric fields can be shielded effectively by different kinds of conductive clothing, which are enclosed metal surfaces acting as a Faraday-cage. In practice laboratory measurements also prove their efficiency, the required shielding ratio is above 99% by the related standard.. A set of measurements have proved that regular conductive clothing used against the electric fields cannot shield the magnetic fields effectively at all. This paper introduces the possible risks of LLM from the aspect of the health effects of magnetic fields. Although in this case the principle of shielding the electric fields cannot be applied, new considerations in equipment design and technology can be used as a possible solution. Calculations and simulations based on the data of the Hungarian transmission network - which represents the European grid as a part of ENTSO-E - and high-current laboratory measurement results also prove the importance of the topic.

  2. Effects of magnetic fields during high voltage live-line maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Göcsei, Gábor; Kiss, Dr István; Németh, Bálint

    2015-01-01

    In case of transmission and distribution networks, extra low frequency (typically 50 or 60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields have to be taken into consideration separately from each other. Health effects have been documented from exposures to both types of fields. Magnetic fields are qualified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (category “2B”) by WHO's cancer research institute, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), so it is essential to protect the workers against their harmful effects. During live-line maintenance (LLM) electric fields can be shielded effectively by different kinds of conductive clothing, which are enclosed metal surfaces acting as a Faraday-cage. In practice laboratory measurements also prove their efficiency, the required shielding ratio is above 99% by the related standard.. A set of measurements have proved that regular conductive clothing used against the electric fields cannot shield the magnetic fields effectively at all. This paper introduces the possible risks of LLM from the aspect of the health effects of magnetic fields. Although in this case the principle of shielding the electric fields cannot be applied, new considerations in equipment design and technology can be used as a possible solution. Calculations and simulations based on the data of the Hungarian transmission network - which represents the European grid as a part of ENTSO-E - and high-current laboratory measurement results also prove the importance of the topic. (paper)

  3. Ballistic charge carrier transmission through graphene multi-barrier structures in uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A; Dragoman, D

    2014-01-01

    We investigate charge carrier transport in graphene multi-barrier structures placed in a uniform magnetic field. The transmission coefficient is found analytically by generalizing the transfer matrix method for the case of graphene regions subjected to a uniform magnetic field. The transmission coefficient through the structure can be modulated by varying the gate voltages, the magnetic field and/or the width of the gated regions. Such a configuration could be used in multiple-valued logic circuits, since it has several output states with discrete and easily selectable transmission/current values. (paper)

  4. Schoen manifold with line bundles as resolved magnetized orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We give an alternative description of the Schoen manifold as the blow-up of a Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold in which one Z{sub 2} factor acts as a roto-translation. Since for this orbifold the fixed tori are only identified in pairs but not orbifolded, four-dimensional chirality can never be obtained using standard techniques alone. However, chirality is recovered when its tori become magnetized. To exemplify this, we construct an SU(5) GUT on the Schoen manifold with Abelian gauge fluxes, which becomes an MSSM with three generations after an appropriate Wilson line is associated to its freely acting involution. We reproduce this model as a standard orbifold CFT of the (partially) blown down Schoen manifold with a magnetic flux. Finally, in analogy to a proposal for non-perturbative heterotic models by Aldazabal et al. we suggest modifications to the heterotic orbifold spectrum formulae in the presence of magnetized tori.

  5. New formulae for magnetic relative helicity and field line helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    We consider a magnetic field {B} occupying the simply connected domain D and having all its field lines tied to the boundary S of D. We assume here that {B} has a simple topology, i.e., the mapping {M} from positive to negative polarity areas of S associating to each other the two footpoints of any magnetic line, is continuous. We first present new formulae for the helicity H of {B} relative to a reference field {{B}}r having the same normal component {B}n on S, and for its field line helicity h relative to a reference vector potential {{C}}r of {{B}}r. These formulae make immediately apparent the well known invariance of these quantities under all the ideal MHD deformations that preserve the positions of the footpoints on S. They express indeed h and H either in terms of {M} and {B}n, or in terms of the values on S of a pair of Euler potentials of {B}. We next show that, for a specific choice of {{C}}r, the field line helicity h of {B} fully characterizes the magnetic mapping {M} and then the topology of the lines. Finally, we give a formula that describes the rate of change of h in a situation where the plasma moves on the perfectly conducting boundary S without changing {B}n and/or non-ideal processes, described by an unspecified term {N} in Ohm’s law, are at work in some parts of D.

  6. Rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-04-28

    A rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC) comprises a multilayer sheet in a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis, where the multilayer sheet comprises a conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer. The conductive pattern layer comprises a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, the first conductive film surrounds the longitudinal axis, and the second conductive film surrounds the first conductive film. The first conductive film serves as a signal line and the second conductive film serves as a conductive shield for the rolled-up transmission line structure.

  7. Microscopic simulation model of superconducting transmission lines for standard microwave CAD programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, G.J.; Kratz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting lines are very promising candidates for fast signal transmission in integrated circuits, because of their low losses and dispersion, which result in large usable bandwidths. Coplanar waveguides are of special interest, since only one superconducting layer is needed for their implementation. This requirement fits well the present day capabilities of the high temperature superconductor technology. At present, the major drawback of this type of transmission line is the lack of accurate and fast CAD models including the special properties of superconducting electrodes. In the following we will briefly describe the essentials of a model for the case of superconducting lines. For a complete description the reader is referenced to. The model has been proven to be useful in conjunction with commercially available microwave CAD programs. (orig.)

  8. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanting; Yang, Yongmin; Chen, Zhongsheng

    2014-04-10

    Sub-resonances often happen in wireless power transmission (WPT) systems using coupled magnetic resonances (CMR) due to environmental changes, coil movements or component degradations, which is a serious challenge for high efficiency power transmission. Thus self-tuning is very significant to keep WPT systems following strongly magnetic resonant conditions in practice. Traditional coupled-mode ways is difficult to solve this problem. In this paper a two-port power wave model is presented, where power matching and the overall systemic power transmission efficiency are firstly defined by scattering (S) parameters. Then we propose a novel self-tuning scheme based on on-line S parameters measurements and two-side power matching. Experimental results testify the feasibility of the proposed method. These findings suggest that the proposed method is much potential to develop strongly self-adaptive WPT systems with CMR.

  9. A Pilot Directional Protection for HVDC Transmission Line Based on Relative Entropy of Wavelet Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing high-voltage direct current (HVDC transmission system and its fault superimposed circuit, the direction of the fault components of the voltage and the current measured at one end of transmission line is certified to be different for internal faults and external faults. As an estimate of the differences between two signals, relative entropy is an effective parameter for recognizing transient signals in HVDC transmission lines. In this paper, the relative entropy of wavelet energy is applied to distinguish internal fault from external fault. For internal faults, the directions of fault components of voltage and current are opposite at the two ends of the transmission line, indicating a huge difference of wavelet energy relative entropy; for external faults, the directions are identical, indicating a small difference. The simulation results based on PSCAD/EMTDC show that the proposed pilot protection system acts accurately for faults under different conditions, and its performance is not affected by fault type, fault location, fault resistance and noise.

  10. Application of reliability based design concepts to transmission line structure foundations. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGioia, A.M. Jr.; Rojas-Gonzalez, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The application of reliability based design (RBD) methods to transmission line structure foundations has developed somewhat more slowly than that for the other structural components in line systems. In a previous paper, a procedure was proposed for the design of transmission line structures foundations using a probability based load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. This procedure involved the determination of a foundation strength factor, φ F , which was used as a multiplier of the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the LRFD equation. Statistical analyses of results from full-scale load tests were used to obtain φ F values applicable to various nominal design strength equations and for drilled shafts subjected to uplift loads. These results clearly illustrated the significant economic benefits of conducting more detailed subsurface investigations for the design of transmission line structure foundations. A design example was also presented. In this paper the proposed procedure is extended to laterally load drilled shafts

  11. Location of Faults in Power Transmission Lines Using the ARIMA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pinto Moreira de Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in transmission lines is the occurrence of failures that affect the quality of the electric power supplied, as the exact localization of the fault must be known for correction. In order to streamline the work of maintenance teams and standardize services, this paper proposes a method of locating faults in power transmission lines by analyzing the voltage oscillographic signals extracted at the line monitoring terminals. The developed method relates time series models obtained specifically for each failure pattern. The parameters of the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model are estimated in order to adjust the voltage curves and calculate the distance from the initial fault localization to the terminals. Simulations of the failures are performed through the ATPDraw ® (5.5 software and the analyses were completed using the RStudio ® (1.0.143 software. The results obtained with respect to the failures, which did not involve earth return, were satisfactory when compared with widely used techniques in the literature, particularly when the fault distance became larger in relation to the beginning of the transmission line.

  12. Experimental study of the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam recurrence in a bi-modal electrical transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farota, Abdou K; Faye, Mansour M

    2013-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) recurrence in an experimental bi-modal nonlinear transmission line. The FPU recurrence is observed in the two transmission modes known as the low frequency mode and the high frequency mode. In each case, a spectrum analysis is performed in order to study the waves along the line. (paper)

  13. New magnet transport system for the LHC beam transfer lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system (pictured here in one of the tunnels) is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The lead vehicle is powered by an electric rail set into the roof of the tunnel. The system is backed up by electrical batteries that enable it to operate in the absence of an outside power source or in the event of power failure. Last but not least, for the long-distance transport of magnets, it can be optically guided by a line traced on the tunnel floor. The convoy moves through the particularly narr...

  14. Long-Haul Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over Low-Crosstalk Heterogeneous 32-Core Transmission Line Using Partial Recirculating Loop System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Shibahara, Kohki; Ye, Feihong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present long-haul 32-core dense space division multiplexed (DSDM) unidirectional transmission over a single-mode multicore transmission line. We developed a low-crosstalk heterogeneous 32-core fiber with a square lattice arrangement, and a novel partial recirculating loop system...

  15. Quasi-Optical Transmission Lines for ECRH on TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Likin, K.; Martin, R.; Cappa, A.; Cepero, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Two mirror lines are used to transmit ht microwave power from the powerful microwave generators to the TJ-II plasmas. Both lines have been tested at nominal power level and they are now in operation. This paper is devoted to the final design of the transmission lines and their testing. Before starting operation at high power level measurements of the wave beam parameters at low power level were made. Two horn antennae were designed to simulate the gyrotron output. Numerical simulations of the far field radiation pattern of the antennae were made, a computer code based on Huygens diffraction theory was developed to simulate the propagation of the beam along a mirror line. A comparison of the theoretical and the experimental results is also presented here. (Author)

  16. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  17. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  18. Stress Analysis of Boom of Special Mobile Crane for Plain Region in Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Shao, Tao; Chen, Jun; Wan, Jiancheng; Li, Zhonghuan; Jiang, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Basis of the boom force analysis of special mobile crane for plain region in transmission line, the load type of boom design is confirmed. According to the different combinations of boom sections, the composite pattern of the different boom length is obtained to suit the actual conditions of boom overlapping. The large deformation model is employed with FEM to simulate the stress distribution of boom, and the calculation results are checked. The performance curves of rated load with different arm length and different working range are obtained, which ensures the lifting capacity of special mobile crane meeting the requirement of tower erection of transmission line. The proposed FEM of boom of mobile crane would provide certain guiding and reference to the boom design.

  19. Minimal inductance for axisymmetric transmission lines with radially dependent anode-cathode gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Waisman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We extend the variational calculus technique for inductance minimization of constant gap axisymmetric transmission lines (TL, introduced by Hurricane [J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4503 (2004JAPIAU0021-897910.1063/1.1687986], to the case in which the anode-cathode gap is a linear function of the midgap radius. The full analytic optimal midgap solution curve z(r yielding minimum inductance is obtained in terms of a single parameter ρ_{0}, determined numerically by imposing that z(r goes through prescribed end points. The radius of curvature ρ(r of the optimal curve is obtained everywhere the function is defined, even outside of the end point range, and it is shown that a convenient choice is ρ_{0}=ρ(0. The value of the transmission line inductance is calculated by 1D numerical quadrature. A simple numerical technique is introduced for TL with nonlinear radial gap dependence.

  20. On-line nuclear ash gauge for coal based on gamma-ray transmission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, R.A.M.; El-Kateb, A.H.; Abdul-Kader, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Developments and applications of on-line nuclear gauges in the coal industry are highly requested. A nuclear ash gauge for coal, based on γ-ray transmission techniques is developed. Single and dual energy γ-ray beams are used to determine the ash content of coal. The percentage ash content as a function of the γ-ray intensities transmitted through coal samples is measured and sensitivity curves are obtained. An empirical formulation relating the ash content values to the γ-ray intensities is derived. Preliminary results show that both single and dual energy γ-ray transmission techniques can be used to give a rapid on-line estimation of the ash concentration values in coal with low cost and reasonable accuracy, but the dual one is much preferable. (author)

  1. Conducting properties of classical transmission lines with Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, E.; Diez, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the behavior of bands of extended states and localized states which appear in classical disordered electrical transmission lines, when we use a ternary map and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process to generate the long-range correlated disorder, instead of using the Fourier filtering method. By performing finite-size scaling we obtain the asymptotic value of the map parameter b in the thermodynamic limit in a selected range of values of the parameters γ and C of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. With these data we obtain the phase diagrams which separate the localized states from the extended states. These are the fundamental results of this article. - Highlights: → We study disordered classical transmission lines. → We use the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process to generate long-range correlated disorder. → We obtain the phase diagram of the transition in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. Broadband microwave frequency doubler based on left-handed nonlinear transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jie; Gu Wenwen; Zhao Qian

    2017-01-01

    A bandwidth microwave second harmonic generator is successfully designed using composite right/left-handed nonlinear transmission lines (CRLH NLTLs) in a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. The structure parameters of CRLH NLTLs, e.g. host transmission line, rectangular spiral inductor, and nonlinear capacitor, have a great impact on the second harmonic performance enhancement in terms of second harmonic frequency, output power, and conversion efficiency. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the second harmonic frequency is determined by the anomalous dispersion of CRLH NLTLs and can be significantly improved by effectively adjusting these structure parameters. A good agreement between the measured and simulated second harmonic performances of Ka-band CRLH NLTLs frequency multipliers is successfully achieved, which further validates the design approach of frequency multipliers on CRLH NLTLs and indicates the potentials of CRLH NLTLs in terms of the generation of microwave and millimeter-wave signal source. (paper)

  3. Effect of kicker circuit inductance on the transmission-line discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Deren; Wang Xiangqi; Shang Lei; Pei Yuanji; Fan Kuanjun

    2004-01-01

    Circuit inductance exists at discharging circuit of transmission-line, it includes the inductance at the main switch of thyratron when conducts, the linking inductance between the linking cables, the matching resistance inductance and the load inductance. When a long pulse is generated by transmission-line, the circuit inductance can be omitted. However, when the pulse is short (such as shorter than 200 ns), especially when ferromagnetic core kicker acts as the load, the effect is obvious. The short pulse current is needed in order to generate long time interval synchronous radiation light pulses by using online assembly of pulse convex orbit and DC convex orbit. This paper analyses the effect and presents several experimental results. It also supposes two practical cases to decrease the rise time of the pulse

  4. Fractional analysis for nonlinear electrical transmission line and nonlinear Schroedinger equations with incomplete sub-equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendzi-Donfack, Emmanuel; Nguenang, Jean Pierre; Nana, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    We use the fractional complex transform with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative operator to establish the exact and generalized solutions of two fractional partial differential equations. We determine the solutions of fractional nonlinear electrical transmission lines (NETL) and the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation with the Kerr law nonlinearity term. The solutions are obtained for the parameters in the range (0<α≤1) of the derivative operator and we found the traditional solutions for the limiting case of α =1. We show that according to the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, the solutions found can describe physical systems with memory effect, transient effects in electrical systems and nonlinear transmission lines, and other systems such as optical fiber.

  5. Rényi entropies of electrical transmission lines with Fibonacci distribution of inductances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, E., E-mail: elazo@uta.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Mellado, F. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Eléctrica-Electrónica, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Saavedra, E. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile)

    2012-10-01

    We study classical dual transmission lines with constant capacitances C{sub j}=C{sub 0}, ∀j, when we distribute two inductance values L{sub A} and L{sub B} according to the Fibonacci sequence. Using the electric current function I{sub j}(ω), we study the normalized localization length Λ(ω), the Rényi entropies R{sub m}(ω) and the normalized information length β(ω). We found three kinds of behavior of the I{sub j}(ω) function: localized, extended and intermediate. In addition, it is found that the transmission line with Fibonacci distribution of inductances shows a behavior characteristic of quasi-periodic systems, namely, a self-similar frequency spectrum, where each subband is divided into three subbands, but the number of global subbands is greater than four.

  6. Definition of a matrix of the generalized parameters asymmetrical multiphase transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov V.M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Idle time, without introduction of wave characteristics, algorithm of definition of a matrix of the generalized parameters asymmetrical multiphase transmission lines is offered. Definition of a matrix of parameters is based on a matrix primary specific of parameters of line and simple iterative procedure. The amount of iterations of iterative procedure is determined by a set error of performance of the resulted matrix ratio between separate blocks of a determined matrix. The given error is connected by close image of with a margin error determined matrix.

  7. Transmission line theory for long plasma production by radio frequency discharges between parallel-plate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to seek for a radio frequency (RF) eigen-mode of waves in producing a plasma between a pair of long dielectric-covered parallel-plate RF electrodes, this paper analyzed all normal modes propagating along the electrodes by solving Maxwell's equations. The result showed that only an odd surface wave mode will produce the plasma in usual experimental conditions, which will become a basic transmission line theory when use of such long electrodes for on-line mass-production of amorphous silicon solar cells

  8. The Experimental Verification of Gaussian Beam Coupling for ECH Transmission Line at 400 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Mun Seok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We design a quasi-optical transmission line system for a 400 GHz gyrotron beam. The 400GHz Gaussian beam is injected to a corrugated waveguide bounced from a quasi-optical mirror. From detailed 2D field patterns of the output beam emitted from the corrugated waveguide, we analyze the mode contents and the source of non-ideal beam expansion

  9. System for Relay Protection Command Transmission by High-Voltage Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Yenkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a system for relay protection command transmission by high-voltage lines is shown in the paper. The paper describes an architecture of the system, main principles of its operation, engineering aspects of the development that is accomplishment of technical requirements, solution of trades-off. Justification of the selected design and an algorithm of the reliable detection of relay protection signals are given in the paper.

  10. Sound transmission through triple-panel structures lined with poroelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, previous theories on the prediction of sound transmission loss for a double-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials are extended to address the problem of a triple-panel structure. Six typical configurations are considered for a triple-panel structure based on the method of coupling the porous layers to the facing panels which determines critically the sound insulation performance of the system. The transfer matrix method is employed to solve the system by applying appropriate types of boundary conditions for these configurations. The transmission loss of the triple-panel structures in a diffuse sound field is calculated as a function of frequency and compared with that of corresponding double-panel structures. Generally, the triple-panel structure with poroelastic linings has superior acoustic performance to the double-panel counterpart, remarkably in the mid-high frequency range and possibly at low frequencies, by selecting appropriate configurations in which those with two air gaps in the structure exhibit the best overall performance over the entire frequency range. The poroelastic lining significantly lowers the cut-on frequency above which the triple-panel structure exhibits noticeably higher transmission loss. Compared with a double-panel structure, the wider range of system parameters for a triple-panel structure due to the additional partition provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance. Despite the increased structural complexity, the triple-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials has the obvious advantages in sound transmission loss while without the penalties in weight and volume, and is hence a promising replacement for the widely used double-panel sandwich structure.

  11. Implementation of a microcomputer based distance relay for parallel transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, A.G.; Jihuang, L.

    1986-01-01

    Distance relaying for parallel transmission lines is a difficult application problem with conventional phase and ground distance relays. It is known that for cross-country faults involving dissimilar phases and ground, three phase tripping may result. This paper summarizes a newly developed microcomputer based relay which is capable of classifying the cross-country fault correctly. The paper describes the principle of operation and results of laboratory tests of this relay

  12. Efficient production of hot plasmas through multiple-wire implosion in transmission line generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomberg, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Model equations for the implosion of multiple-wire arrays mounted across the electrodes of a transmission line generator are used to obtain an expression for the energy-coupling efficiency. For a useful class of imploding loads, the efficiency is shown to depend on a single dimensionless parameter. Furthermore, the efficiency curve has a maximum, and this permits an explicit optimization of the wire load parameters in terms of the machine parameters

  13. Thermal fluctuations in resonant motion of fluxons on a Josephson transmission line: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, E.; Koshelets, V. P.; Monaco, Roberto

    1982-01-01

    The radiation emission from long and narrow Josephson tunnel junctions dc-current biased on zero-field steps has been ascribed to resonant motion of fluxons on the transmission line. Within this dynamic model a theoretical expression for the radiation linewidth is derived from a full statistical ...... treatment of thermal fluctuations in the fluxon velocity. The result appears to be very general and is corroborated by experimental determination of linewidth and frequency of radiation emitted from overlap Nb-I-Pb junctions....

  14. Transmission line model for coupled rectangular double split‐ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei; Tang, Meng; Krozer, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a model based on a coupled transmission line formulation is developed for microstrip rectangular double split‐ring resonators (DSRRs). This model allows using the physical dimensions of the DSRRs as an input avoiding commonly used extraction of equivalent parameters. The model inclu...... simulations of the DSRR structures. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 53:1311–1315, 2011; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.25988...

  15. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  16. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al Attar, Talal

    2017-05-13

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  17. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al Attar, Talal; Alshehri, Abdullah; Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed; Al-Turki, Abdullah Turki

    2017-01-01

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  18. Sound transmission through triple-panel structures lined with poroelastic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, previous theories on the prediction of sound transmission loss for a double-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials are extended to address the problem of a triple-panel structure. Six typical configurations are considered for a triple-panel structure based on the method of coupling the porous layers to the facing panels which determines critically the sound insulation performance of the system. The transfer matrix method is employed to solve the system by applying app...

  19. Assessment of surge arrester failure rate and application studies in Hellenic high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Fotis, G.P.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The use of transmission line surge arresters to improve the lightning performance of transmission lines is becoming more common. Especially in areas with high soil resistivity and ground flash density, surge arresters constitute the most effective protection mean. In this paper a methodology for assessing the surge arrester failure rate based on the electrogeometrical model is presented. Critical currents that exceed arresters rated energy stress were estimated by the use of a simulation tool. The methodology is applied on operating Hellenic transmission lines of 150 kV. Several case studies are analyzed by installing surge arresters on different intervals, in relation to the region's tower footing resistance and the ground flash density. The obtained results are compared with real records of outage rate showing the effectiveness of the surge arresters in the reduction of the recorded failure rate. The presented methodology can be proved valuable to the studies of electric power systems designers intending in a more effective lightning protection, reducing the operational costs and providing continuity of service. (author)

  20. Simulation Analysis of Transmission-Line Impedance Transformers for Petawatt-Class Pulsed Power Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yixiang; Qiu Aici; Sun Fengju; Huang Tao; Cong Peitian; Wang Liangping; Zeng Jiangtao; Li Yan; Zhang Xinjun; Lei Tianshi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the transmission line code TLCODE, a 1D circuit model for a transmission-line impedance transformer was developed and the simulation results were compared with those in the literature. The model was used to quantify the efficiencies of voltage-transport, energy-transport and power-transport for a transmission-line impedance transformer as functions of ψ (the ratio of the output impedance to the input impedance of the transformer) and Γ (the ratio of the pulse width to the one-way transit time of the transformer) under a large scale of m (the coefficient of the generalized exponential impedance profile). Simulation results suggest that with the increase in Γ, from 0 to ∞, the power transport efficiency first increases and then decreases. The maximum power transport efficiency can reach 90% or even higher for an exponential impedance profile (m = 1). With a consideration of dissipative loss in the dielectric and electrodes of the transformer, two representative designs of the water-insulated transformer are investigated for the next generation of petawatt-class z-pinch drivers. It is found that the dissipative losses in the electrodes are negligibly small, below 0.1%, but the dissipative loss in the water dielectric is about 1% to 4%. (fusion engineering)

  1. Modeling particle emission and power flow in pulsed-power driven, nonuniform transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelle Bruner

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems are being developed to operate at higher power in an effort to increase source brightness and penetration power. Essential to the design of these systems is a thorough understanding of electron power flow in the transmission line that couples the pulsed-power driver to the load. In this paper, analytic theory and fully relativistic particle-in-cell simulations are used to model power flow in several experimental transmission-line geometries fielded on Sandia National Laboratories’ upgraded Radiographic Integrated Test Stand [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 1653 (2000ITPSBD0093-381310.1109/27.901250]. Good agreement with measured electrical currents is demonstrated on a shot-by-shot basis for simulations which include detailed models accounting for space-charge-limited electron emission, surface heating, and stimulated particle emission. Resonant cavity modes related to the transmission-line impedance transitions are also shown to be excited by electron power flow. These modes can drive oscillations in the output power of the system, degrading radiographic resolution.

  2. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2017-06-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  3. Investigation of Fe3O4 Colloid Behaviour in a Magnetic Field by Polarized Neutron Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokukin, E.B.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Petrenko, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the dependence of neutron polarization following their transmission through a magnetic colloid on the concentration of magnetic particles, magnetic field strength and wavelength of neutrons. In a magnetic field up to 500 Oe the precession of the neutron polarization is seen. Comparison of the experimental data and theory is made and colloid magnetization is determined. The measurement was carried out with the SPN-1 polarized neutron spectrometer at the high-flux pulsed reactor IBR-2 in Dubna. 7 refs., 2 figs

  4. Study on frequency characteristics of wireless power transmission system based on magnetic coupling resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the frequency characteristics of the wireless energy transmission system based on the magnetic coupling resonance, a circuit model based on the magnetic coupling resonant wireless energy transmission system is established. The influence of the load on the frequency characteristics of the wireless power transmission system is analysed. The circuit coupling theory is used to derive the minimum load required to suppress frequency splitting. Simulation and experimental results verify that when the load size is lower than a certain value, the system will appear frequency splitting, increasing the load size can effectively suppress the frequency splitting phenomenon. The power regulation scheme of the wireless charging system based on magnetic coupling resonance is given. This study provides a theoretical basis for load selection and power regulation of wireless power transmission systems.

  5. Advanced Design of the First Quasi-optical Transmission Line for ECRH at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Likin, K.; Martin, R.

    1999-01-01

    TJ-II plasma start-up and heating are made by electron cyclotron resonance waves at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. The microwave power of the gyrotrons is transmitted by two quasi-optical transmission lines. The first line launches the microwave power under fixed injection geometry, i. e. there is no a possibility to change the launching angle the wave polarization. Due to the long distance between the last focusing mirror and the center TJ-II vessel the beam is quite wide at plasma border. The second line has a moveable mirror installed inside the TJ-II vessel. To get high absorption efficiency and a narrow energy deposition profile the internal mirror focuses the wave beam at plasma center. The beam width is about 2 cm. To get more flexibility in experiments on heating and current drive the first transmission line needs to be upgraded. The designs is presented in this report. It includes and internal mirror to focus the beam and to change the injection angle. A polarizer consisting in two corrugated mirrors will be incorporated to get any wave polarization. Two mirrors with an array of coupling holes and calorimetric measurements of the energy absorbed in the barrier window will permit the estimation of the microwave power launched the TJ-II. (Author) 13 refs

  6. Modeling stretched solitary waves along magnetic field lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muschietti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is presented for a new type of fast solitary waves which is observed in downward current regions of the auroral zone. The three-dimensional, coherent structures are electrostatic, have a positive potential, and move along the magnetic field lines with speeds on the order of the electron drift. Their parallel potential profile is flattened and cannot fit to the Gaussian shape used in previous work. We develop a detailed BGK model which includes a flattened potential and an assumed cylindrical symmetry around a centric magnetic field line. The model envisions concentric shells of trapped electrons slowly drifting azimuthally while bouncing back and forth in the parallel direction. The electron dynamics is analysed in terms of three basic motions that occur on different time scales characterized by the cyclotron frequency We , the bounce frequency wb , and the azimuthal drift frequency wg. The ordering We >> wb >> wg is required. Self-consistent distribution functions are calculated in terms of approximate constants of motion. Constraints on the parameters characterizing the amplitude and shape of the stretched solitary wave are discussed.

  7. Isotropic transmission of magnon spin information without a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Arabinda; Tian, Chang; Adeyeye, Adekunle Olusola

    2017-07-01

    Spin-wave devices (SWD), which use collective excitations of electronic spins as a carrier of information, are rapidly emerging as potential candidates for post-semiconductor non-charge-based technology. Isotropic in-plane propagating coherent spin waves (magnons), which require magnetization to be out of plane, is desirable in an SWD. However, because of lack of availability of low-damping perpendicular magnetic material, a usually well-known in-plane ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is used with a large out-of-plane bias magnetic field, which tends to hinder the benefits of isotropic spin waves. We experimentally demonstrate an SWD that eliminates the requirement of external magnetic field to obtain perpendicular magnetization in an otherwise in-plane ferromagnet, Ni 80 Fe 20 or permalloy (Py), a typical choice for spin-wave microconduits. Perpendicular anisotropy in Py, as established by magnetic hysteresis measurements, was induced by the exchange-coupled Co/Pd multilayer. Isotropic propagation of magnon spin information has been experimentally shown in microconduits with three channels patterned at arbitrary angles.

  8. Distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    combined faults, being advised to increase the resistive limit of the protection zone, if the network has lower short-circuit power. It is recommended to assure that the fault can only happen for cases where the faulted phase from the higher voltage level leads the faulted phase from the lower voltage......Multiple-circuit transmission lines combining different voltage levels in one tower present extra challenges when setting a protection philosophy, as faults between voltage levels are possible. In this study, the fault loop impedance of combined faults is compared with the fault loop impedance......-phase-to-ground faults. It is also demonstrated that the fault loop impedance of combined faults is more resistive, when compared with equivalent single-phase-to-ground faults. It is concluded that the settings used to protect a line against single-phase-to-ground faults are capable of protecting the line against...

  9. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  10. The Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC Injection Transfer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Chertok, I; Churkin, I N; Giesch, Manfred; Golubenko, O B; Kalbreier, Willi; Kouba, G; Mejidzade, V; Mikhailov, S; Steshov, A; Sukhanov, A; Sukhina, B; Schirm, K M; Weisse, E

    2000-01-01

    Two injection transfer lines, each about 2.8 km long, are being built to transfer protons at 450 GeV from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A total of 180 quadrupole magnets are required; they are produced in the framework of the contribution of the Russian Federation to the construction of the LHC. The classical quadrupoles, built from laminated steel cores and copper coils, have a core length of 1.4 m, an inscribed diameter of 32 mm and a strength of 53.5 T/m at a current of 530 A. The total weight of one magnet is 1.1 ton. For obtaining the required field quality at the small inscribed diameter, great care in the stamping of the laminations and the assembly of quadrants is necessary. Special instruments have been developed to measure, with a precision of some mm, the variations of the pole gaps over the full length of the magnet and correlate them to the obtained field distribution. The design has been developed in a collaboration between BINP and CERN. Fabrication and ...

  11. CRPP's Evacuated Waveguide Proposal for JET-EP ECRH Transmission Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M. A.; Alberti, S.; Goodman, T. P.; Hogge, J.-P.; Porte, L.; Tran, M. Q.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this document is to provide a detailed description of the preliminary design and technical information of a proposed evacuated transmission lines for JET . EP ECRH system. Three waveguide diameters (31.75mm, 45mm and 63.5mm) were studied and compared to the base design of the 87mm waveguide/quasi.optical proposal (WG87-QO). This report concentrates on only the 45mm waveguide diameter (WG45). This size represents an optimization between the flexibility of the smaller diameter and the low loss of the larger. For simplicity only the WG45 will be compared with the WG87-QO, but the other diameters (31.75 and 63.5 mm) should be kept under consideration for a final evacuated waveguide line. The characteristics of the 63.5 mm waveguide system can be found in the report which was distributed in September. After an introduction of the history and motivation for this study a general overview of the proposal is presented. Sections 4 and 5 describe the elements to be used in the proposed line including the overall transmission losses for the line. Section 6 offers a cost comparison of the two proposaIs. The 7th section is a brief description of an alternative launcher design using the waveguide inserted into the launcher port. The 8th section describes the ca1ibration and conditioning process to be performed after the line is insta1led and how the torus displacements wi1l be handled. The 9th section describes the proposed schedule for purchasing and insta1lation of the waveguide lines. Sections II and 12 include a conclusion and summary of the proposal. (author)

  12. Artificial neural networks to estimate the EMF ELF on car travelling near power transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sayegh, O.A.; Qabazard, A.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). advanced Systems Division of Environment and Urban

    2007-07-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to determine the electromagnetic field (EMF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) intensity on a vehicle body at different distances from a high tension power line and at varying power loads. EMF radiated emissions from ELF source power transmission lines can produce interference in the electric components in vehicles traveling at variable speed near the power lines. The passengers in the vehicle may also experience EMF-related health problems. Although EMF has been recently categorized as a new form of pollution, the situation has been largely ignored by the industry. Typically, electromagnetic fields at different frequencies show the fastest growing environmental influences. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of EMF and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. The purpose of this work was to promote discussion and help find design solutions to manufacture a new device for measuring the EMF at variable speed. In this study, a set of near field measurements outside the vehicle were used to train ANN. Estimations of the EMF ELF for various distances from the high tension power line were presented. It was determined that the most important factors affecting the electric field model include exposure conditions; size, shape and position of the exposed body in the field; and, surface charge density. The EMF ELF was found to increase near sagging areas of the overhead power transmission line. The EMF ELF was found to be proportional to the total amps flowing through the line at the time of measurement. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Flatiron-Erie 115kV transmission line project, Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to uprate its existing 115-kV Flatiron-Erie transmission line. The line is located in Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado, and passes through the City of Longmont. The line connects Flatiron Substation and several of the substations supplying Longmont. It is a single circuit 115-kV line, 31.5 miles long, and was built in 1950-51 on a 75-foot wide right-of-way (ROW) using wood H-frame structures. Western proposes to build 27 new structures along the line, to replace or modify 45 of the existing structures and to remote 11 of them. Many of these additions and changes would involve structures that are approximately 5 to 15 feet taller than the existing ones. The existing conductors and ground wires would remain in place. The purpose of these actions would be to allow the power carrying capability of the line to be increased and to replace deteriorating/structural members. Western would be the sole participant in the proposed project. This report gives an analysis of the study area environment and the development of alternative routes. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the primary alternative routes. The environmental consequences of this project are addressed

  14. Magnet power supply and beam line control for a secondary beam line K6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Takasaki, M.; Minakawa, M.; Ishii, H.; Kato, Y.; Ieiri, M.; Tanaka, K.H.; Noumi, H.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    K6 is a secondary separated-beam line with momentum range up to 2.0 GeV/c in the north experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS). On the construction, newly developed magnet power supplies (MPSs), in each of them a microprocessor is embedded, are introduced. The features of the MPS are as follows: 1, The MPS is connected to an upper-level beam line controller (BLC) by GPIB highway for exchanging simple messages. 2, All the operations of the MPS are supervised by the microprocessor, which has its individual parameters and fault messages. It reduces the load of the upper-level controller. 3, The MPS has functions to inspect itself and to report the result. It saves much time and labor of maintenance. (author)

  15. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  16. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  17. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.simmons@nottingham.ac.uk; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications. - Graphical abstract:.

  18. Mode and climatic factors effect on energy losses in transient heat modes of transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigun, A. Ya; Sidorov, O. A.; Osipov, D. S.; Girshin, S. S.; Goryunov, V. N.; Petrova, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    Electrical energy losses increase in modern grids. The losses are connected with an increase in consumption. Existing models of electric power losses estimation considering climatic factors do not allow estimating the cable temperature in real time. Considering weather and mode factors in real time allows to meet effectively and safely the consumer’s needs to minimize energy losses during transmission, to use electric power equipment effectively. These factors increase an interest in the evaluation of the dynamic thermal mode of overhead transmission lines conductors. The article discusses an approximate analytic solution of the heat balance equation in the transient operation mode of overhead lines based on the least squares method. The accuracy of the results obtained is comparable with the results of solving the heat balance equation of transient thermal mode with the Runge-Kutt method. The analysis of mode and climatic factors effect on the cable temperature in a dynamic thermal mode is presented. The calculation of the maximum permissible current for variation of weather conditions is made. The average electric energy losses during the transient process are calculated with the change of wind, air temperature and solar radiation. The parameters having the greatest effect on the transmission capacity are identified.

  19. The performance of transmission lines and cables subjected to electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion (NEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguet, M.; Ianovici, M.; Lin, C.C.; Fornerod, F.

    1980-01-01

    The use of armoured cables for telecommunication and data transmission systems is practically essential to avoid electromagnetic interference. The authors have made a mathematical study of the probable effect of a high altitude nuclear explosion. Using a simplified model, the voltages and currents induced into single and multiple-sheathed, overhead and buried cables subjected to an intense magnetic pulse (50kV/m) from high altitude, are determined by computer. It is found that, contrary to expectations the current intensity in the second case is seven times greater than for the overhead conductor. (F.N.S.)

  20. Simplified method to solve sound transmission through structures lined with elastic porous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Kim, J

    2001-11-01

    An approximate analysis method is developed to calculate sound transmission through structures lined with porous material. Because the porous material has both the solid phase and fluid phase, three wave components exist in the material, which makes the related analysis very complicated. The main idea in developing the approximate method is very simple: modeling the porous material using only the strongest of the three waves, which in effect idealizes the material as an equivalent fluid. The analysis procedure has to be conducted in two steps. In the first step, sound transmission through a flat double panel with a porous liner of infinite extents, which has the same cross sectional construction as the actual structure, is solved based on the full theory and the strongest wave component is identified. In the second step sound transmission through the actual structure is solved modeling the porous material as an equivalent fluid while using the actual geometry of the structure. The development and validation of the method are discussed in detail. As an application example, the transmission loss through double walled cylindrical shells with a porous core is calculated utilizing the simplified method.

  1. Quantifying siting difficulty: a case study of US transmission line siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajjhala, S.P. [Resources for the Future, Washington DC (United States); Fischbeck, P.S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Departments of Social and Decision Sciences and Engineering and Public Policy

    2007-01-15

    The worldwide demand for new energy infrastructures has been paralleled in recent years by the increasing difficulty of siting major facilities. Siting difficulty is the subject of widespread discussion, but because of the complexity of the problem, potential solutions are not obvious or well understood. This paper presents a two-step policy-level framework that first develops an empirical measure of siting difficulty and then qualitatively assesses its major causes. The approach is based on the creation and aggregation of four siting indicators that are independent of the common causes and localized effects of siting problems. The proposed framework is demonstrated for the case of US transmission line siting. Results of the analyses reveal significant variations in state siting difficulty and industry experts' perceptions of its dominant causes, with implications for the long-term success of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and knowledge transfer among siting professionals in the deregulated industry. (author)

  2. Transmission-line resonators for the study of individual two-level tunneling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Jan David; Bilmes, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Lisenfeld, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic two-level tunneling systems (TLS) emerge in amorphous dielectrics and constitute a serious nuisance for various microfabricated devices, where they act as a source of noise and decoherence. Here, we demonstrate a new test bed for the study of TLS in various materials which provides access to properties of individual TLS as well as their ensemble response. We terminate a superconducting transmission-line resonator with a capacitor that hosts TLS in its dielectric. By tuning TLS via applied mechanical strain, we observe the signatures of individual TLS strongly coupled to the resonator in its transmission characteristics and extract the coupling components of their dipole moments and energy relaxation rates. The strong and well-defined coupling to the TLS bath results in pronounced resonator frequency fluctuations and excess phase noise, through which we can study TLS ensemble effects such as spectral diffusion, and probe theoretical models of TLS interactions.

  3. Sound transmission through double panel constructions lined with elastic porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, J. S.; Green, E. R.

    1986-07-01

    Attention is given to a theory governing one-dimensional wave motion in elastic porous materials which is capable of reproducing experimental transmission measurements for unfaced polyurethane foam layers. Calculations of the transmission loss of fuselage-like foam-lined double panels are presented and it is shown that the foam/panel boundary conditions have a large effect on the panel performance; a hybrid arrangement whereby the foam is bonded directly to one panel and separated from the other by a thin air gap appears to be the most advantageous under practical circumstances. With this configuratiom, the mass-air-mass resonance is minimized and increased low-frequency performance is offered.

  4. Regional analysis assessment of landslide hazard and zoning map for transmission line route selection using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, I N Z; Omar, R C; Usman, F; Mejan, M A; Halim, M K Abd; Zainol, M A; Zulkarnain, M S

    2013-01-01

    The stability of ground as foundation for infrastructure development is always associated with geology and geomorphology aspects. Failure to carefully analyze these aspects may induce ground instability such subsidence and landslide which eventually can cause catastrophe to the infrastructure i.e. instability of transmission tower. However, in some cases such as the study area this is unavoidable. A GIS system for analysis of route was favoured to perform optimal route predictions based selection by incorporating multiple influence factors into its analysis by incorporating the Landslide Hazard Map (LHM) that was produced on basis of slope map, aspect map, land use map and geological map with the help of ArcGIS using weighted overlay method. Based on LHM it is safe to conclude that the proposed route for Ulu Jelai- Neggiri-Lebir-LILO transmission line has very low risk in term of landslides.

  5. Improved superconductor for transmission line applications, phase I. Final report, January 1, 1975--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginski, A.I.; Mauser, S.F.; Roland, G.W.; Burghardt, R.R.; Daniel, M.R.; Janocko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of an existing superconducting power transmission cable design indicated that economic benefits in the area of refrigeration can be derived from the substitution of Nb 3 Ge superconductor for the presently planned Nb 3 Sn. However, the cost of Nb 3 Ge must be comparable to that of Nb 3 Sn, which is achievable when preparing Nb 3 Ge by the chemical vapor deposition. Alternatively, technical benefits can be obtained. The most essential and prerequisite requirement is that the Nb 3 Ge critical current density be improved significantly over the present state-of-the art. Other properties of Nb 3 Ge are generally suitable for the transmission line application and/or require only moderate improvements. (auth)

  6. Stability of a line receiver (0-T) preamplifier, connected to a capacitive detector via a transmission line

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Fedyakin, N; Ramaioli, P; Shuvalov, R S

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the stability of a line receiver (0-T) preamplifier proposed to readout the ionization signal of the ATLAS LAr electromagnetic calorimeter. The transport of detector signal to the preamplifier input via a cable is analyzed on the basis of classical theory of wave propagation in transmission lines. It is shown that the analysis of stability can be reduced to the examination of zeros of the expression Z sub i sub n +Z sub D sub C , where Z sub i sub n is the input impedance of the 0-T and Z sub D sub C is the impedance of the detector plus cable, as seen by the preamplifier. An experimental method to measure the preamplifier input impedance in a range 1-200 MHz is described. The stability function Z sub i sub n +Z sub D sub C was built by using the combination of experimental data (Z sub i sub n) and calculations (Z sub D sub C) and was used to analyze the stability of two versions of 0-T preamplifier at different experimental conditions. It is illustrated that if the vector end of this semiempirical...

  7. A NON-ISOTHERMAL THEORY FOR INTERPRETING SODIUM LINES IN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste [University of Bern, Physics Institute, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Sing, David K., E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-10

    We present a theory for interpreting the sodium lines detected in transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. Previous analyses employed the isothermal approximation and dealt only with the transit radius. By recognizing the absorption depth and the transit radius as being independent observables, we develop a theory for jointly interpreting both quantities, which allows us to infer the temperatures and number densities associated with the sodium lines. We are able to treat a non-isothermal situation with a constant temperature gradient. Our novel diagnostics take the form of simple-to-use algebraic formulae and require measurements of the transit radii (and their corresponding absorption depths) at line center and in the line wing for both sodium lines. We apply our diagnostics to the HARPS data of HD 189733b, confirm the upper atmospheric heating reported by Huitson et al., derive a temperature gradient of 0.4376 ± 0.0154 K km{sup −1}, and find densities ∼1–10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}.

  8. Atomic spin resonance in a rubidium beam obliquely incident to a transmission magnetic grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, A; Goto, K

    2016-01-01

    We studied atomic spin resonance induced by atomic motion in a spatially periodic magnetostatic field. A rubidium atomic beam, with a velocity of about 400 m s −1 , was obliquely incident to a transmission magnetic grating that produced a spatially periodic magnetic field. The magnetic grating was formed by a magnetic thin film on a polyimide substrate that had multiple slits at 150 μm intervals. The atoms experienced field oscillation, depending on their velocity and the field period when passing through the grating, and underwent magnetic resonance. Resonance spectra obtained with a perpendicular magnetization film were in clear contrast to ones obtained with an in-plane magnetization film. The former exhibited resonance peaks at odd multiples of the frequency, determined by the velocity over the period, while the latter had dips at the same frequencies. (paper)

  9. Study of the behaviour of chaotic magnetic field lines in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, M.; Mendonca, J.T.; Rebut, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    One plausible explanation for the observed anomalous energy losses in tokamaks is the existence of a confinement region in the plasma, where magnetic islands coexist with stochastic magnetic field lines. It is the purpose of the present work to elucidate the statistical behaviour of the stochastic field lines. This is done by numerically integrating the field line equations. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs

  10. Stability of axisymmetric plasmas in closed line magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, A.N.; Vernon Wong, H.; Berk, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of axisymmetric plasmas confined by closed poloidal magnetic field lines is considered. The results are relevant to plasmas in the dipolar fields of stars and planets, as well as the Levitated Dipole Experiment, multipoles, Z pinches and field reversed configurations. The ideal MHD energy principle is employed to study the stability of pressure driven shear Alfven modes. A point dipole is considered in detail to demonstrate that equilibria exist which are MHD stable for arbitrary beta. Effects of sound waves and plasma resistivity are investigated for Z pinch and point dipole equilibria by means of resistive MHD theory. Kinetic theory is used to study drift frequency modes and their interaction with MHD modes near the ideal stability boundary for different collisionality regimes. Effects of collisional dissipation on drift mode stability are explicitly evaluated and applied to a Z pinch. The role of finite Larmor radius effects and drift reversed particles in modifying ideal stability thresholds is examined. (author)

  11. Distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-circuit transmission lines combining different voltage levels in one tower present extra challenges when setting a protection philosophy, as faults between voltage levels are possible. This study presents a detailed theoretical analysis of such combined faults, including the development...... of a formula for estimating the magnitude of the short-circuit current. It is demonstrated that if the faulted phase from the higher voltage level leads the faulted phase from the lower voltage level, a distance relay at the higher voltage level sees the fault in the forward direction, whereas a distance relay...

  12. Numerical study of electron-leakage power loss in a tri-plate transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.J.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been conducted using NRL's DIODE2D computer code to model the steady-state behavior of electron flow in a radial diode and in its adjacent tri-plate transmission line (TTL). Particular attention was paid to the magnitude of the electron current flowing from the cathode to the anode surface in the TTL. A quantitative value for this effective power loss is given. The electron current is restricted mainly to the transition region in the TTL into which there is seepage of the B/sub z/ that is imposed in the diode gap. This finding highlights the importance of that region to diode designers

  13. Multi-scale modelling of supercapacitors: From molecular simulations to a transmission line model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pean, C.; Rotenberg, B.; Simon, P.; Salanne, M.

    2016-09-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of a typical nanoporous-carbon based supercapacitor. The organic electrolyte consists in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and hexafluorophosphate ions dissolved in acetonitrile. We simulate systems at equilibrium, for various applied voltages. This allows us to determine the relevant thermodynamic (capacitance) and transport (in-pore resistivities) properties. These quantities are then injected in a transmission line model for testing its ability to predict the charging properties of the device. The results from this macroscopic model are in good agreement with non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, which validates its use for interpreting electrochemical impedance experiments.

  14. Transmission line analysis of beam deflection in a BPM stripline kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu Ju; Poole, B.

    1997-05-01

    In the usual treatment of impedances of beamline structures the electromagnetic response is computed under the assumption that the source charge trajectory is parallel to the propagation axis and is unaffected by the wake of the structure. For high energy beams of relatively low current this is generally a valid assumption. Under certain conditions the assumption of a parallel source charge trajectory is no longer valid and the effects of the changing trajectory must be included in the analysis. Here the usual transmission line analysis that has been applied to BPM type transverse kickers is extended to include the self-consistent motion of the beam in the structure

  15. Direct measurement of the quantum state of the electromagnetic field in a superconducting transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F. de; Aolita, L.; Davidovich, L.; Toscano, F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose an experimental procedure to directly measure the state of an electromagnetic field inside a resonator, corresponding to a superconducting transmission line, coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB). The measurement protocol is based on the use of a dispersive interaction between the field and the CPB, and the coupling to an external classical field that is tuned to resonance with either the field or the CPB. We present a numerical simulation that demonstrates the feasibility of this protocol, which is within reach of present technology

  16. Two-Port Representation of a Linear Transmission Line in the Time Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    which is a rational function. To use the Prony procedure it is necessary to inverse transform the admittance functions. For the transmission line, most...impulse is a constant, the inverse transform of Y0(s) contains an impulse of value ._ Therefore, if we were to numerically inverse transform Yo(s), we...would remove this im- pulse and inverse transform Y-(S) Y (S) 1’LR+C~ (23) The prony procedure would then be applied to the result. Of course, an impulse

  17. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO 2 substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected

  18. Probability of extreme interference levels computed from reliability approaches: application to transmission lines with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbi, M.; Besnier, P.; Pecqueux, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the risk analysis of an EMC default using a statistical approach. It is based on reliability methods from probabilistic engineering mechanics. A computation of probability of failure (i.e. probability of exceeding a threshold) of an induced current by crosstalk is established by taking into account uncertainties on input parameters influencing levels of interference in the context of transmission lines. The study has allowed us to evaluate the probability of failure of the induced current by using reliability methods having a relative low computational cost compared to Monte Carlo simulation. (authors)

  19. Multiband Slot-Based Dual Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abdo-Sanchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A dual Composite Right-/Left-Handed Transmission Line (CRLH TL implementation that presents multiband behaviour is proposed in this contribution. The artificial TL is realized by loading a host microstrip line with alternate rectangular stubs and slots. The required series and shunt immittances are respectively provided by the slot and the stub. Due to the distributed nature of these immittances, the resultant phase response presents theoretically infinite RH and LH alternate bands, thus being appropriate for multiband applications. The design methodology is described with the help of a proposed TLs-based equivalent circuit and highlights the simplicity for balance condition. Full wave simulated results of the dispersion characteristics and frequency response of a unit-cell and a three-cells structure are presented.

  20. New approach to determine the angular transmission in zero-degree magnetic spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Pereira-Conca, J.; Schmidt, K.H.

    2000-11-01

    A new method to estimate the angular transmission in zero-degree magnetic spectrometers is presented. This method is based on a parameterisation of the angular aperture of the spectrometer for any possible value of the magnetic rigidity of the transmitted particles. This parameterisation of the angular aperture together with a description of the kinematics of the reaction mechanism allows to determine the angular transmission analytically, avoiding tedious Monte-Carlo calculations. The analytical solutions are implemented for residual nuclei produced in fission, projectile-fragmentation and fusion-evaporation reactions. (orig.)

  1. On field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in dipole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liu; Cowley, S.C.

    1989-07-01

    Using the dipole magnetic field model, we have developed the theory of field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in general magnetic field geometries. In this model, the Alfven speed thus varies both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Specifically, it is found that field line resonances do persist in the dipole model. The corresponding singular solutions near the resonant field lines as well as the natural definition of standing shear Alfven eigenfunctions have also been systematically derived. 11 refs

  2. Anisotropic behaviour of transmission through thin superconducting NbN film in parallel magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šindler, M., E-mail: sindler@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Tesař, R. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Koláček, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Skrbek, L. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Transmission through thin NbN film in parallel magnetic field exhibits strong anisotropic behaviour in the terahertz range. • Response for a polarisation parallel with the applied field is given as weighted sum of superconducting and normal state contributions. • Effective medium approach fails to describe response for linear polarisation perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. - Abstract: Transmission of terahertz waves through a thin layer of the superconductor NbN deposited on an anisotropic R-cut sapphire substrate is studied as a function of temperature in a magnetic field oriented parallel with the sample. A significant difference is found between transmitted intensities of beams linearly polarised parallel with and perpendicular to the direction of applied magnetic field.

  3. Resilience of electricity grids against transmission line overloads under wind power injection at different nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Christoph; Lind, Pedro G; Maass, Philipp

    2017-09-14

    A steadily increasing fraction of renewable energy sources for electricity production requires a better understanding of how stochastic power generation affects the stability of electricity grids. Here, we assess the resilience of an IEEE test grid against single transmission line overloads under wind power injection based on the dc power flow equations and a quasi-static grid response to wind fluctuations. Thereby we focus on the mutual influence of wind power generation at different nodes. We find that overload probabilities vary strongly between different pairs of nodes and become highly affected by spatial correlations of wind fluctuations. An unexpected behaviour is uncovered: for a large number of node pairs, increasing wind power injection at one node can increase the power threshold at the other node with respect to line overloads in the grid. We find that this seemingly paradoxical behaviour is related to the topological distance of the overloaded line from the shortest path connecting the wind nodes. In the considered test grid, it occurs for all node pairs, where the overloaded line belongs to the shortest path.

  4. Thermal analysis of a transmission line for Traveling Wave Tube TWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chbiki, Mounir; Laraqi, Najib; Jarno, Jean-François; Herrewyn, Jacques; Silva Botelho, Tony da

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method has been developed to study the delay line of Traveling Waves Tubes (TWT). Our study is focused on the analysis of the hot lines shrinking phenomenon. In the studied case, unlike brazed configuration, the contact areas are not perfect, resulting in a diminution of the heat transfer process. In this work, we highlight the influence of the macro-constriction on the heat transfer rate in the various parts of a TWT the geometry of which is also relatively complex. We propose in this work an analytical study of the thermal behavior of a transmission line in established regime. First, we determine the individual thermal resistance of each component. Secondly, we estimate the global resistance of the device according to the geometrical parameters and the respective conductivities of the various elements of this line. In this analytical model, we proceed to parametric studies in order to determine the geometrical configurations that will provide the lowest global thermal resistance. We will emphasize the potential gain according to the used materials and the increase of contact areas.

  5. Wireless Power Transmission to Organic Light Emitting Diode Lighting Panel with Magnetically Coupled Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Han, Jun-Han; Kang, Seung-Youl; Cheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Zyung, Taehyoung; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Moon, Jaehyun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-09-01

    We are successful to lit the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting panel through the magnetically coupled wireless power transmission technology. For the wireless power transmission, we used the operation frequency 932 kHz, specially designed double spiral type transmitter, small and thin receiver on the four layered printed circuit board, and schottky diodes for the full bridge rectifier. Our white OLED is a hybrid type, in which phosphorescent and fluorescent organics are used together to generate stable white color. The total efficiency of power transmission is around 72%.

  6. A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device (MPD) with variable magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A. D.; Sharma, M.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Ganesh, R.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2018-04-01

    A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device consisting of electromagnets with core material has been constructed with a capability to experimentally control the relative volume fractions of magnetized to unmagnetized plasma volume as well as accurate control on the gradient length scales of mean density and temperature profiles. Argon plasma has been produced using a hot tungsten cathode over a wide range of pressures 5 × 10-5 -1 × 10-3 mbar, achieving plasma densities ranging from 109 to 1011 cm-3 and the electron temperature in the range 1-8 eV. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured along the non-cusp region (in between two consecutive magnets) show a finite region with uniform and quiescent plasma, where the magnetic field is very low such that the ions are unmagnetized. Beyond that region, both plasma species are magnetized and the profiles show gradients both in temperature and density. The electrostatic fluctuation measured using a Langmuir probe radially along the non-cusp region shows less than 1% (δIisat/Iisat physics parameter space relevant to both laboratory multi-scale plasmas and astrophysical plasmas.

  7. Secure and Time-Aware Communication of Wireless Sensors Monitoring Overhead Transmission Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Katarzyna; Wydra, Michal; Ksiezopolski, Bogdan

    2017-07-11

    Existing transmission power grids suffer from high maintenance costs and scalability issues along with a lack of effective and secure system monitoring. To address these problems, we propose to use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a technology to achieve energy efficient, reliable, and low-cost remote monitoring of transmission grids. With WSNs, smart grid enables both utilities and customers to monitor, predict and manage energy usage effectively and react to possible power grid disturbances in a timely manner. However, the increased application of WSNs also introduces new security challenges, especially related to privacy, connectivity, and security management, repeatedly causing unpredicted expenditures. Monitoring the status of the power system, a large amount of sensors generates massive amount of sensitive data. In order to build an effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for a smart grid, we focus on designing a methodology of efficient and secure delivery of the data measured on transmission lines. We perform a set of simulations, in which we examine different routing algorithms, security mechanisms and WSN deployments in order to select the parameters that will not affect the delivery time but fulfill their role and ensure security at the same time. Furthermore, we analyze the optimal placement of direct wireless links, aiming at minimizing time delays, balancing network performance and decreasing deployment costs.

  8. Optimization of output power and transmission efficiency of magnetically coupled resonance wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongge; Guo, Xiaoting; Cao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Changgeng

    2018-05-01

    Magnetically coupled resonance (MCR) wireless power transfer (WPT) system is a promising technology in electric energy transmission. But, if its system parameters are designed unreasonably, output power and transmission efficiency will be low. Therefore, optimized parameters design of MCR WPT has important research value. In the MCR WPT system with designated coil structure, the main parameters affecting output power and transmission efficiency are the distance between the coils, the resonance frequency and the resistance of the load. Based on the established mathematical model and the differential evolution algorithm, the change of output power and transmission efficiency with parameters can be simulated. From the simulation results, it can be seen that output power and transmission efficiency of the two-coil MCR WPT system and four-coil one with designated coil structure are improved. The simulation results confirm the validity of the optimization method for MCR WPT system with designated coil structure.

  9. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  10. Commissioning of the 28 GHz ECRH power transmission line for the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Fernández, J., E-mail: jose.martinez@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión (LNF), Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av/Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cappa, Á. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión (LNF), Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av/Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Chirkov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ros, A.; Tolkachev, A.; Catalán, G.; Soleto, A.; Redondo, M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión (LNF), Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av/Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Doane, J.L.; Anderson, J.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The 28 GHz power transmission line of the TJ-II stellarator is described. • Mismatch and alignment problems are covered, presenting infrared measurements. • Beam distortion in the matching optics unit led to unwanted modes in the waveguide. • After a redesign distortion was eliminated and coupling maximized. • Final measurements suggest finer alignment must be performed. - Abstract: The commissioning of the 28 GHz power transmission line of the TJ-II stellarator, designed for the excitation of electron Bernstein waves (EBW) through the O-X-B mode conversion process, is presented in this paper. Based upon a comprehensive set of thermal measurements, its purpose is to go into details about the several problems that arouse during the whole process, namely higher order modes excitation because of the wider beam size and alignment mismatches at the waveguide mouth. All these drawbacks may have prevented the correct O-X mode conversion, thus providing a reasonable explanation for the unsuccessful EBW heating experiments.

  11. Support vector machine based fault classification and location of a long transmission line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papia Ray

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates support vector machine based fault type and distance estimation scheme in a long transmission line. The planned technique uses post fault single cycle current waveform and pre-processing of the samples is done by wavelet packet transform. Energy and entropy are obtained from the decomposed coefficients and feature matrix is prepared. Then the redundant features from the matrix are taken out by the forward feature selection method and normalized. Test and train data are developed by taking into consideration variables of a simulation situation like fault type, resistance path, inception angle, and distance. In this paper 10 different types of short circuit fault are analyzed. The test data are examined by support vector machine whose parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization method. The anticipated method is checked on a 400 kV, 300 km long transmission line with voltage source at both the ends. Two cases were examined with the proposed method. The first one is fault very near to both the source end (front and rear and the second one is support vector machine with and without optimized parameter. Simulation result indicates that the anticipated method for fault classification gives high accuracy (99.21% and least fault distance estimation error (0.29%.

  12. Transmission-Line Readout with Good Time and Space Resolutions for Planacon MCP-PMTs

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, F; Byrum, K; Drake, G; Ertley, C; Frisch, H; Genat, J-F; May, E

    2008-01-01

    With commercially-available multi-anode microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMT) and electronics, resolutions significantly better than 10 psec have been achieved in small systems with a few readout channels[1,2]. For large-scale time-of-flight systems used in particle physics, which may cover tens of square meters, a solution must be found with a manageable number of electronics channels and low total power consumption on the readout electronics without degrading the system timing resolution. We present here the design of a transmission-line readout for a Photonis Planacon MCP-PMT that has these characteristics. The tube, which is 5 cm square, is characterized by signal pulse rise times in the order of 200 psec and transit time spreads (TTS) in the order of 25 psec[1, 2]. The model 85011-011 MCP has 1024 anode pads laid out in an array of 32 by 32 on the back of the tube. The proposed readout is implemented on a Rogers 4350B printed circuit board with 32 parallel 50-ohm transmission lines on 1.6 mm...

  13. A novel structure of transmission line pulse transformer with mutually coupled windings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binxiong; Su, Jiancang; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xibo; Wang, Junjie

    2014-03-01

    A novel structure of transmission line transformer (TLT) with mutually coupled windings is described in this paper. All transmission lines except the first stage of the transformer are wound on a common ferrite core for the TLT with this structure. A referral method was introduced to analyze the TLT with this structure, and an analytic expression of the step response was derived. It is shown that a TLT with this structure has a significantly slower droop rate than a TLT with other winding structures and the number of ferrite cores needed is largely reduced. A four-stage TLT with this structure was developed, whose input and output impedance were 4.2 Ω and 67.7 Ω, respectively. A frequency response test of the TLT was carried out. The test results showed that pulse response time of the TLT is several nanoseconds. The TLT described in this paper has the potential to be used as a rectangle pulse transformer with very fast response time.

  14. A transmission line model for propagation in elliptical core optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantzos, E.; Papageorgiou, C.; Boucouvalas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The calculation of mode propagation constants of elliptical core fibers has been the purpose of extended research leading to many notable methods, with the classic step index solution based on Mathieu functions. This paper seeks to derive a new innovative method for the determination of mode propagation constants in single mode fibers with elliptic core by modeling the elliptical fiber as a series of connected coupled transmission line elements. We develop a matrix formulation of the transmission line and the resonance of the circuits is used to calculate the mode propagation constants. The technique, used with success in the case of cylindrical fibers, is now being extended for the case of fibers with elliptical cross section. The advantage of this approach is that it is very well suited to be able to calculate the mode dispersion of arbitrary refractive index profile elliptical waveguides. The analysis begins with the deployment Maxwell's equations adjusted for elliptical coordinates. Further algebraic analysis leads to a set of equations where we are faced with the appearance of harmonics. Taking into consideration predefined fixed number of harmonics simplifies the problem and enables the use of the resonant circuits approach. According to each case, programs have been created in Matlab, providing with a series of results (mode propagation constants) that are further compared with corresponding results from the ready known Mathieu functions method.

  15. A transmission line model for propagation in elliptical core optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgantzos, E.; Boucouvalas, A. C.; Papageorgiou, C.

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of mode propagation constants of elliptical core fibers has been the purpose of extended research leading to many notable methods, with the classic step index solution based on Mathieu functions. This paper seeks to derive a new innovative method for the determination of mode propagation constants in single mode fibers with elliptic core by modeling the elliptical fiber as a series of connected coupled transmission line elements. We develop a matrix formulation of the transmission line and the resonance of the circuits is used to calculate the mode propagation constants. The technique, used with success in the case of cylindrical fibers, is now being extended for the case of fibers with elliptical cross section. The advantage of this approach is that it is very well suited to be able to calculate the mode dispersion of arbitrary refractive index profile elliptical waveguides. The analysis begins with the deployment Maxwell’s equations adjusted for elliptical coordinates. Further algebraic analysis leads to a set of equations where we are faced with the appearance of harmonics. Taking into consideration predefined fixed number of harmonics simplifies the problem and enables the use of the resonant circuits approach. According to each case, programs have been created in Matlab, providing with a series of results (mode propagation constants) that are further compared with corresponding results from the ready known Mathieu functions method

  16. Theoretical investigation of dielectric corona pre-ionization TEA nitrogen laser based on transmission line method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrampour, Alireza; Fallah, Robabeh; Ganjovi, Alireza A.; Bahrampour, Abolfazl

    2007-07-01

    This paper models the dielectric corona pre-ionization, capacitor transfer type of flat-plane transmission line traveling wave transverse excited atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser by a non-linear lumped RLC electric circuit. The flat-plane transmission line and the pre-ionizer dielectric are modeled by a lumped linear RLC and time-dependent non-linear RC circuit, respectively. The main discharge region is considered as a time-dependent non-linear RLC circuit where its resistance value is also depends on the radiated pre-ionization ultra violet (UV) intensity. The UV radiation is radiated by the resistance due to the surface plasma on the pre-ionizer dielectric. The theoretical predictions are in a very good agreement with the experimental observations. The electric circuit equations (including the ionization rate equations), the equations of laser levels population densities and propagation equation of laser intensities, are solved numerically. As a result, the effects of pre-ionizer dielectric parameters on the electrical behavior and output laser intensity are obtained.

  17. Research on the correlation between corona current spectrum and audible noise spectrum of HVDC transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.

  18. Active Power Flow Optimization of Industrial Power Supply with Regard to the Transmission Line Conductor Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyzgold D.Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of the transmission line conductor heating effect on the active power flows optimization in the local segment of industrial power supply. The purpose is to determine the optimal generation rating of the distributed power sources, in which the power flow values will correspond to the minimum active power losses in the power supply. The timeliness is the need to define the most appropriate rated power values of distributed sources which will be connected to current industrial power supply. Basing on the model of active power flow optimization, authors formulate the description of the nonlinear transportation problem considering the active power losses depending on the transmission line conductor heating. Authors proposed a new approach to the heating model parameters definition based on allowable current loads and nominal parameters of conductors as part of the optimization problem. Analysis of study results showed that, despite the relatively small active power losses reduction to the tune 0,45% due to accounting of the conductors heating effect for the present configuration of power supply, there are significant fluctuations in the required generation rating in nodes of the network to 9,32% within seasonal changes in the outer air temperature. This fact should be taken into account when selecting the optimum power of distributed generation systems, as exemplified by an arbitrary network configuration.

  19. Rotor for a line start permanent magnet machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Mike; Schiferl, Rich; Umans, Stephen

    2017-07-11

    A rotor comprises laminations with a plurality of rotor bar slots with an asymmetric arrangement about the rotor. The laminations also have magnet slots equiangularly spaced about the rotor. The magnet slots extend near to the rotor outer diameter and have permanent magnets disposed in the magnet slots creating magnetic poles. The magnet slots may be formed longer than the permanent magnets disposed in the magnets slots and define one or more magnet slot apertures. The permanent magnets define a number of poles and a pole pitch. The rotor bar slots are spaced from adjacent magnet slots by a distance that is at least 4% of the pole pitch. Conductive material is disposed in the rotor bar slots, and in some embodiments, may be disposed in the magnet slot apertures.

  20. Magnetic imaging with a Zernike-type phase plate in a transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollard, Shawn; Malac, Marek; Beleggia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a hole-free phase plate (HFPP) for magnetic imaging in transmission electron microscopy by mapping the domain structure in PrDyFeB samples. The HFPP, a Zernike-like imaging method, allows for detecting magnetic signals in-focus to correlate the sample crystal structure...... the reference wave distortion from long-range fields affecting electron holography....

  1. Anisotropic behaviour of transmission through thin superconducting NbN film in parallel magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindler, Michal; Tesař, Karel; Koláček, Jan; Skrbek, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 533, Feb (2017), s. 154-157 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14060 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : far-infrared transmission * NbN * ssuperconducting film * vortices * terahertz waves * parallel magnetic field Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2016

  2. Electromagnetic design and development of a combined function horizontal and vertical dipole steerer magnet for medium energy beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kumud; Itteera, Janvin; Ukarde, Priti; Teotia, Vikas; Kumar, Prashant; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is required to match the optical functions between the RFQ and SRF cavities/DTL cavities.The primary function of the MEBT lines is to keep the emittance growth of the output beam as low as possible in a highly space charge environment at low energies. The transverse focusing of the beam is achieved by strong focusing quadrupoles and the longitudinal dynamics is achieved by the buncher cavities. The Dipole Steerers serve the function of a control element to achieve the desired transverse beam position. To minimize the emittance growth high magnetic field rigidity is required in a highly constrained longitudinal space for these corrector magnets. The design and development of an air-cooled dipole steerer magnet has been done for an integral dipole field of 2.1mT-m in a Good Field Region (GFR) of 23 mm diameter with Integral Field homogeneity better than 0.5%. Electromagnetic field simulations were done using 3D-FEM simulation software OPERA. Error sensitivity studies have been carried out to specify the manufacturing tolerances to estimate and minimize the beam transmission loss due to likely misalignments and rotation of the magnet. A combined function dipole corrector magnet has been designed and fabricated at the Control Instrumentation Division, BARC. This paper discusses measurement results of a combined function dipole steerer for MEBT line for Proton (H + ) beam at 2.5 MeV. (author)

  3. Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines: Magnetic field determinations from Stokes I and V spectra⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, G.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Some Ap stars that have a strong enough magnetic field and a sufficiently low v sini show spectral lines resolved into their magnetically split components. Aims: We present the results of a systematic study of the magnetic fields and other properties of those stars. Methods: This study is based on 271 new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus ⟨ B ⟩ of 43 stars, 231 determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field ⟨ Bz ⟩ and of the crossover ⟨ Xz ⟩ of 34 stars, and 229 determinations of the mean quadratic magnetic field ⟨ Bq ⟩ of 33 stars. Those data were used to derive new values or meaningful lower limits of the rotation periods Prot of 21 stars. Variation curves of the mean field modulus were characterised for 25 stars, the variations of the longitudinal field were characterised for 16 stars, and the variations of the crossover and of the quadratic field were characterised for 8 stars. Our data are complemented by magnetic measurements from the literature for 41 additional stars with magnetically resolved lines. Phase coverage is sufficient to define the curve of variation of ⟨ B ⟩ for 2 of these stars. Published data were also used to characterise the ⟨ Bz ⟩ curves of variation for 10 more stars. Furthermore, we present 1297 radial velocity measurements of the 43 Ap stars in our sample that have magnetically resolved lines. Nine of these stars are spectroscopic binaries for which new orbital elements were derived. Results: The existence of a cut-off at the low end of the distribution of the phase-averaged mean magnetic field moduli ⟨ B ⟩ av of the Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines, at about 2.8 kG, is confirmed. This reflects the probable existence of a gap in the distribution of the magnetic field strengths in slowly rotating Ap stars, below which there is a separate population of stars with fields weaker than 2 kG. In more than half of the stars with magnetically resolved lines that have a

  4. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  5. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF and childhood leukemia near transmission lines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kokate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines. Literature of major 50 studies are divided according to pooled analysis / meta-analysis, residential zone assessment and case-control studies.

  6. Status of magnetically-insulated power transmission theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Jr, C W [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The theory of magnetically-insulated power flow has improved dramatically over the last two decades. Theoretical improvements included a complete general kinetic theory that involved distributions of electrons based on quasi-conserved canonical variables and was used to study flow stability and to analyze simulations and pulsers with voltage adders. The status of theory at this time allowed us to understand many features of these flows, but did not allow detailed analysis for design and data interpretation. Recent theoretical advances have drastically changed this situation. Two recent static models based on layered flows have allowed us to understand and to improve power coupling in voltage adders, current adders, plasma opening switches and in systems where the vacuum impedance varies along the flow. A dynamic model based upon electrons flowing in one or more thin layers has permitted detailed self-consistent time-dependent calculations which include electron flow. This model accurately predicts experimental and simulation data. (author). 3 figs.

  7. Measurement of borders in power transmission lines; Medicao de fronteira em linhas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Celso [Bandeirante Energia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The creation of Bandeirantes Energia S/A, which is a energy distributor company and at the same time one of the four originated companies from the division of ELETROPAULO Eletricidade S/A, generated the need of consumed energy measurements. Different from a previous situation, which had been accomplished in the 230, 345 and 440 Kv transformer stations. With the aggravating of having been created two distribution companies by this division, which later possessed transmission lines in common finishing a border scenery of 88/138 kv in connection with CTEEP, EPTE, Furnas in station terminals and ELETROPAULO Metropolitana in transmission lines. In order to measure the consumed energy it has been necessary to install meters in all energy entrance subsystems, but there were certain cases for which part of the energy had been absorbed by other distribution company, some times before the connection with Bandeirantes some times after this connection to have been done. For these cases, it has been necessary to install meters at de middle of the line, it means installed meters at the border between the two companies. In February of 1999, they were initiate the studies of viability for these measurements implantation in all of the interface points among Bandeirantes and the other concessionaires, based on the premise that from 01/01/2000 on all the consumed energy by the company should be measured. In the end of May of 1999, with the design final definitions the studies were finished, after that, it has been started the equipment purchases and the actions to hire companies to execute these activities. Finally, in the last week of August of 1999 the construction activities were initiated and the circuits were energized in December of that year.

  8. An improved DPSO with mutation based on similarity algorithm for optimization of transmission lines loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Mahdavi, M.; Bagheri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem acquires a principal role in power system planning and should be evaluated carefully. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the STNEP problem. But only in one of them, lines adequacy rate has been considered at the end of planning horizon and the problem has been optimized by discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO). DPSO is a new population-based intelligence algorithm and exhibits good performance on solution of the large-scale, discrete and non-linear optimization problems like STNEP. However, during the running of the algorithm, the particles become more and more similar, and cluster into the best particle in the swarm, which make the swarm premature convergence around the local solution. In order to overcome these drawbacks and considering lines adequacy rate, in this paper, expansion planning has been implemented by merging lines loading parameter in the STNEP and inserting investment cost into the fitness function constraints using an improved DPSO algorithm. The proposed improved DPSO is a new conception, collectivity, which is based on similarity between the particle and the current global best particle in the swarm that can prevent the premature convergence of DPSO around the local solution. The proposed method has been tested on the Garver's network and a real transmission network in Iran, and compared with the DPSO based method for solution of the TNEP problem. The results show that the proposed improved DPSO based method by preventing the premature convergence is caused that with almost the same expansion costs, the network adequacy is increased considerably. Also, regarding the convergence curves of both methods, it can be seen that precision of the proposed algorithm for the solution of the STNEP problem is more than DPSO approach.

  9. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-12-30

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid.

  10. Aerodynamic instability of cables in transmission power lines; Inestabilidad aerodinamica en cables de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lopez, Alberto; Vilar Rojas, Jorge Ivan; Munoz Black, Celso J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    One of the aerodynamic instabilities of transmission power lines cables is galloping, which consists in the appearance of important cable vibrations, mainly when the wind hits orthogonally the power line. In some cases the maximum amplitude that occurs reaches several meters, even when the wind velocities in a region are well below the value used for the mechanical design of the power lines. In general terms, galloping is associated with particular climatic conditions such as low temperatures and high humidities. In these conditions a coating of ice that adheres to the cable is formed, changing its transverse cross section, propitiating the galloping, although some authors have reported galloping without ice. These climatic conditions are presented mainly in the Northern part of our country and in the high regions of the mountain zones; nevertheless, the galloping phenomenon has been reported in few cases by Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The possible expansion of the power lines in these regions of the country leads to prevent the measures needed to diminish the appearance of this phenomenon. In this paper mention is made in particular of the solution adopted to the galloping problem that has appeared in the transmission power line of Salamayuca to Reforma, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (CFE,1991). [Espanol] Una de las inestabilidades aerodinamicas que se presentan en los cables de lineas de transmision es el galopeo, el cual consiste en la aparicion de vibraciones importantes de los cables, sobre todo cuando el flujo del viento incide ortogonalmente a la linea. En algunos casos las amplitudes maximas que se presentan llegan a ser de varios metros, aun cuando las velocidades del viento en una region esten muy por debajo del valor empleado para el diseno mecanico de las lineas. Generalmente, el galopeo se asocia con condiciones climaticas particulares como son las bajas temperaturas y altas humedades. En estas condiciones se forma una cubierta de hielo que se

  11. Aerodynamic instability of cables in transmission power lines; Inestabilidad aerodinamica en cables de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lopez, Alberto; Vilar Rojas, Jorge Ivan; Munoz Black, Celso J [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    One of the aerodynamic instabilities of transmission power lines cables is galloping, which consists in the appearance of important cable vibrations, mainly when the wind hits orthogonally the power line. In some cases the maximum amplitude that occurs reaches several meters, even when the wind velocities in a region are well below the value used for the mechanical design of the power lines. In general terms, galloping is associated with particular climatic conditions such as low temperatures and high humidities. In these conditions a coating of ice that adheres to the cable is formed, changing its transverse cross section, propitiating the galloping, although some authors have reported galloping without ice. These climatic conditions are presented mainly in the Northern part of our country and in the high regions of the mountain zones; nevertheless, the galloping phenomenon has been reported in few cases by Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The possible expansion of the power lines in these regions of the country leads to prevent the measures needed to diminish the appearance of this phenomenon. In this paper mention is made in particular of the solution adopted to the galloping problem that has appeared in the transmission power line of Salamayuca to Reforma, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (CFE,1991). [Espanol] Una de las inestabilidades aerodinamicas que se presentan en los cables de lineas de transmision es el galopeo, el cual consiste en la aparicion de vibraciones importantes de los cables, sobre todo cuando el flujo del viento incide ortogonalmente a la linea. En algunos casos las amplitudes maximas que se presentan llegan a ser de varios metros, aun cuando las velocidades del viento en una region esten muy por debajo del valor empleado para el diseno mecanico de las lineas. Generalmente, el galopeo se asocia con condiciones climaticas particulares como son las bajas temperaturas y altas humedades. En estas condiciones se forma una cubierta de hielo que se

  12. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE CHOICE OF THE NEW GENERATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TRANSMISSION LINE 220 kV OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTOLATI V.M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission Power Lines of new generation are described in the article (single- compact, double-circuit compact, double-circuit Controlled Self-compensating High Voltage Transmission Power Lines (CSHVL. Basic principles of creation, design elements and comparative characteristics of the transmission lines of the new generation are described, the advantages of its are showed. Methodical approaches to the choosing of a new generation of transmission lines and facilities management FACTS are formulated. Methodical approaches to the choice of options for transmission lines 220 kV and facilities management are shown.

  13. Single-phased Fault Location on Transmission Lines Using Unsynchronized Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTRATE, M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased accuracy into the fault's detection and location makes it easier for maintenance, this being the reason to develop new possibilities for a precise estimation of the fault location. In the field literature, many methods for fault location using voltages and currents measurements at one or both terminals of power grids' lines are presented. The double-end synchronized data algorithms are very precise, but the current transformers can limit the accuracy of these estimations. The paper presents an algorithm to estimate the location of the single-phased faults which uses only voltage measurements at both terminals of the transmission lines by eliminating the error due to current transformers and without introducing the restriction of perfect data synchronization. In such conditions, the algorithm can be used with the actual equipment of the most power grids, the installation of phasor measurement units with GPS system synchronized timer not being compulsory. Only the positive sequence of line parameters and sources are used, thus, eliminating the incertitude in zero sequence parameter estimation. The algorithm is tested using the results of EMTP-ATP simulations, after the validation of the ATP models on the basis of registered results in a real power grid.

  14. Multipactor threshold calculation of coaxial transmission lines in microwave applications with nonstationary statistical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Zhang, N.; Cui, W.; Neuber, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical theory for the initial onset of multipactor breakdown in coaxial transmission lines, taking both the nonuniform electric field and random electron emission velocity into account. A general numerical method is first developed to construct the joint probability density function based on the approximate equation of the electron trajectory. The nonstationary dynamics of the multipactor process on both surfaces of coaxial lines are modelled based on the probability of various impacts and their corresponding secondary emission. The resonant assumption of the classical theory on the independent double-sided and single-sided impacts is replaced by the consideration of their interaction. As a result, the time evolutions of the electron population for exponential growth and absorption on both inner and outer conductor, in response to the applied voltage above and below the multipactor breakdown level, are obtained to investigate the exact mechanism of multipactor discharge in coaxial lines. Furthermore, the multipactor threshold predictions of the presented model are compared with experimental results using measured secondary emission yield of the tested samples which shows reasonable agreement. Finally, the detailed impact scenario reveals that single-surface multipactor is more likely to occur with a higher outer to inner conductor radius ratio

  15. Development of an x-ray klystron modulator with a pulse-forming line and magnetic switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemoto, M.; Takeda, S.

    1992-01-01

    A new type of klystron modulator has been developed for the Japan Linear Collider. It consists of a pulse-forming line (PFL), a pulse transformer and a magnetic switch. In order to realize a compact modulator, a triplate strip transmission line using deionized water as a dielectric was adapted. An Fe amorphous core was used for the magnetic switch and the pulse transformer to reduce the size and cost. A preliminary test has shown that an output pulse with a peak voltage of 550 kV, a pulse length (flat-top) of 440 ns and a rise time of 165 ns can be generated for a dummy load with an impedance of 412Ω. It was also experimentally confirmed that the power efficiency of the modulator is approximately 83%. (Author) 7 figs., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  16. Some aspects on alternative lines of magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1991-02-01

    Facing the year 2000, some proposals for a balanced strategy of fusion research are given in this paper. Fusion research by the world community has made substantial progress, and it is now possible to build an experimental test reactor based on the tokamak confinement principle, in the form of a global commitment such as the ITER/NET project. Nevertheless further investigations are needed before the practical use of fusion energy becomes a reality. With regard to this, and to the time gap formed by the planning and construction period of ITER/NET, continued activities have to take place at the national laboratories, to preserve the quality of plasma physical research and the competence of fusion scientists and engineers, as well as to guarantee research on alternative lines aiming at an improved reactor concept. Some aspects are given in this context on the desired properties of an optimal fusion reactor, including a high plasma beta value, a minimized imposed toroidal magnetic field, controlled or non-existent disruptions, steady-state operation, minimized plasma-wall interaction, and the absence both of a stabilizing conducting wall and of active feedback systems. (au)

  17. Cross Talk Analysis on Multiple Coupled Transmission Lines; (The calculation of transfer functions on multiple coupled tansmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1994-01-01

    A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed to calcul......A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed...

  18. Construction of Superconducting Magnet System for the J-PARC Neutrino Beam Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, T.; Wanderer, P.; Sasaki, K.; Ajima, Y.; Araoka, O.; Fujii, Y.; Hastings, N.; Higashi, N.; Iida, M.; Ishii, T.; Kimura, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Makida, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Ohhata, H.; Okamura, T.; Sakashita, K.; Sugawara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Terashima, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Ichikawa, A.; Kakuno, H.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ganetis, G.; gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Muratore, J.; Parker, B.; Boussuge, T.; Charrier, J.-P.; Arakawa, M.; Ichihara, T.; Minato, T.; Okada, Y.; Itou, A.; Kumaki, T.; Nagami, M.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-10-18

    Following success of a prototype R&D, construction of a superconducting magnet system for J-PARC neutrino beam line has been carried out since 2005. A new conceptual beam line with the superconducting combined function magnets demonstrated the successful beam transport to the neutrino production target.

  19. Use of Green functions in line shape problems in nuclear Magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Moreno, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method based on the two times Green function formalism is presented. It permits the straightforward determination of the line shape in Magnetic Resonance experiments together with its temperature behavior. Model calculations are made on a two-spin system attached to a one-dimensional rotor obtaining the temperature dependence of its Magnetic Resonance line shape and second moment

  20. The Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field in Terms of a Line Integral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    An exact line integral representation Is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by a magnetic Hertzian dipole. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  1. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    An exact line integral representation is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles. The positions of source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. Numerical examples...... are presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation....

  2. Numerical Calculation of Transient Thermal Characteristics in Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For further knowledge of the thermal characteristics in gas-insulated transmission lines (GILs installed above ground, a finite-element model coupling fluid field and thermal field is established, in which the corresponding assumptions and boundary conditions are given.  Transient temperature rise processes of the GIL under the conditions of variable ambient temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation are respectively investigated. Equivalent surface convective heat transfer coefficient and heat flux boundary conditions are updated in the analysis process. Unlike the traditional finite element methods (FEM, the variability of the thermal properties with temperature is considered. The calculation results are validated by the tests results reported in the literature. The conclusion provides method and theory basis for the knowledge of transient temperature rise characteristics of GILs in open environment.

  3. Chebyshev approximations for the transmission integral for one single line in Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Lamas, H.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic expansion, to arbitrary accuracy, of the transmission integral (TI) for a single Moessbauer line is presented. This serves for calculating the effective thickness (T a ) of an absorber in Moessbauer spectroscopy even for T a >10. The new analytic expansion arises from substituting in the TI expression the exponential function by a Chebyshev polynomials series. A very fast converging series for TI is obtained and used as a test function in a least squares fit to a simulated spectrum. The test yields satisfactory results. The area and height parameters calculated were found to be in good agreement with earlier results. The present analytic method assumes that the source and absorber widths are different. ((orig.))

  4. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  5. Design and manufacture of the RF power supply and RF transmission line for SANAEM project Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turemen, G.; Ogur, S.; Ahiska, F.; Yasatekin, B.; Cicek, E.; Ozbey, A.; Kilic, I.; Unel, G.; Alacakir, A.

    2017-08-01

    A 1-5 MeV proton beamline is being built by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority in collaboration with a number of graduate students from different universities. The primary goal of the project, is to acquire the design ability and manufacturing capability of all the components locally. SPP will be an accelerator and beam diagnostics test facility and it will also serve the detector development community with its low beam current. This paper discusses the design and construction of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line components such as its waveguide converters and its circulator. Additionally low and high power RF test results are presented to compare the performances of the locally produced components to the commercially available ones.

  6. Time Domain Analysis of Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects Based on Transmission Line ‎Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haji Nasiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Time domain analysis of multilayer graphene nanoribbon (MLGNR interconnects, based on ‎transmission line modeling (TLM using a six-order linear parametric expression, has been ‎presented for the first time. We have studied the effects of interconnect geometry along with ‎its contact resistance on its step response and Nyquist stability. It is shown that by increasing ‎interconnects dimensions their propagation delays are increased and accordingly the system ‎becomes relatively more stable. In addition, we have compared time responses and Nyquist ‎stabilities of MLGNR and SWCNT bundle interconnects, with the same external dimensions. ‎The results show that under the same conditions, the propagation delays for MLGNR ‎interconnects are smaller than those of SWCNT bundle interconnects are. Hence, SWCNT ‎bundle interconnects are relatively more stable than their MLGNR rivals.‎

  7. Pollutant Dispersion Modeling in Natural Streams Using the Transmission Line Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Meddah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling has become an indispensable tool for solving various physical problems. In this context, we present a model of pollutant dispersion in natural streams for the far field case where dispersion is considered longitudinal and one-dimensional in the flow direction. The Transmission Line Matrix (TLM, which has earned a reputation as powerful and efficient numerical method, is used. The presented one-dimensional TLM model requires a minimum input data and provides a significant gain in computing time. To validate our model, the results are compared with observations and experimental data from the river Severn (UK. The results show a good agreement with experimental data. The model can be used to predict the spatiotemporal evolution of a pollutant in natural streams for effective and rapid decision-making in a case of emergency, such as accidental discharges in a stream with a dynamic similar to that of the river Severn (UK.

  8. Joint interval reliability for Markov systems with an application in transmission line reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csenki, Attila

    2007-01-01

    We consider Markov reliability models whose finite state space is partitioned into the set of up states U and the set of down states D . Given a collection of k disjoint time intervals I l =[t l ,t l +x l ], l=1,...,k, the joint interval reliability is defined as the probability of the system being in U for all time instances in I 1 union ... union I k . A closed form expression is derived here for the joint interval reliability for this class of models. The result is applied to power transmission lines in a two-state fluctuating environment. We use the Linux versions of the free packages Maxima and Scilab in our implementation for symbolic and numerical work, respectively

  9. Joint interval reliability for Markov systems with an application in transmission line reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csenki, Attila [School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.csenki@bradford.ac.uk

    2007-06-15

    We consider Markov reliability models whose finite state space is partitioned into the set of up states {sub U} and the set of down states {sub D}. Given a collection of k disjoint time intervals I{sub l}=[t{sub l},t{sub l}+x{sub l}], l=1,...,k, the joint interval reliability is defined as the probability of the system being in {sub U} for all time instances in I{sub 1} union ... union I{sub k}. A closed form expression is derived here for the joint interval reliability for this class of models. The result is applied to power transmission lines in a two-state fluctuating environment. We use the Linux versions of the free packages Maxima and Scilab in our implementation for symbolic and numerical work, respectively.

  10. Sound transmission through double cylindrical shells lined with porous material under turbulent boundary layer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Bhaskar, Atul; Zhang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates sound transmission through double-walled cylindrical shell lined with poroelastic material in the core, excited by pressure fluctuations due to the exterior turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Biot's model is used to describe the sound wave propagating in the porous material. Three types of constructions, bonded-bonded, bonded-unbonded and unbonded-unbonded, are considered in this study. The power spectral density (PSD) of the inner shell kinetic energy is predicted for two turbulent boundary layer models, different air gap depths and three types of polyimide foams, respectively. The peaks of the inner shell kinetic energy due to shell resonance, hydrodynamic coincidence and acoustic coincidence are discussed. The results show that if the frequency band over the ring frequency is of interest, an air gap, even if very thin, should exist between the two elastic shells for better sound insulation. And if small density foam has a high flow resistance, a superior sound insulation can still be maintained.

  11. Experimental and numerical assessment of EPS wind action on long span transmission line conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, M.J. [PPGE, Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Cappellari, T.T.O. [Caixa Economica Federal, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Riera, J.D. [LDEC, PPGEC, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The paper presents a thorough evaluation of the action of extended pressure system (EPS) winds on a long span transmission line crossing of a water way, which was monitored during a period of about a year for the determination of its fluctuating response. Additionally, a numerical model and ensuing analysis of the cable crossing subjected to stationary turbulent wind is presented and compared with the experimental observations. In fact, the former serve to complement the experimental findings by supplying information that could not be directly measured in the field. The latter, in turn, constitute a confirmation of the Monte Carlo full simulation analysis of the cable crossing, which includes a 3D model of the structural system as well as a 3D model of the stationary wind field. One important result of the studies is that full three-dimensional models of both the cable crossing and the wind fields are needed to correctly evaluate the structural response. (author)

  12. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Typical Motion and Extinction Characteristics of the Secondary Arcs Associated with Half-Wavelength Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Haoxi; Li Qingmin; Xing Jinyuan; Li Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Secondary arc discharge is a complicated physical phenomenon and one of the key fundamental issues associated with ultra high voltage (UHV) half-wavelength transmission lines (HWTL). With the establishment of a physical simulation platform for the HWTLs, experiments were carried out regarding the motion and extinction characteristics of secondary arcs. The cathode arc root and the anode arc root were found to show an obvious polarity effect while the arc column was moving in a spiral, due to their different motion mechanisms. The extinction behavior was also recorded and experiments were designed with different compensation conditions. Results show that the arcing time can be greatly reduced if there exists an electrical compensation network. The research provides fundamentals for understanding the physics involved, especially the motion and extinction mechanisms of the secondary arcs. (low temperature plasma)

  14. Effect of feeders in 3D modeling of low impedance multilayer CPW transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, R. I.; Kyabaggu, P. B. K.; Sinulingga, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    Improved characteristics with low dissipation loss MMICs are highly desirable for wireless communications. However, the current industrial MMIC design is mainly based on microstrip concept which suffered from parasitic and unwanted phenomenon especially at higher frequency (>20 GHz). On the other hand, for future wireless technology, higher frequency operation is required and on-wafer microwave characterizations as well as precise modeling of 3D Multilayer CPW components are vital. This project concerns with understanding of the microwave characteristics behavior of Multilayer CPW components in MMIC applications. Feeder effect as unwanted parts in the characteristics has been investigated to determine its relation with the half wavelength resonance of the Multilayer CPW Low Impedance Transmission Line.

  15. Design of a Wireless Sensor Module for Monitoring Conductor Galloping of Transmission Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinbo; Zhao, Long; Chen, Guimin

    2016-10-09

    Conductor galloping may cause flashovers and even tower collapses. The available conductor galloping monitoring methods often employ acceleration sensors to measure the conductor translations without considering the conductor twist. In this paper, a new sensor for monitoring conductor galloping of transmission lines based on an inertial measurement unit and wireless communication is proposed. An inertial measurement unit is used for collecting the accelerations and angular rates of a conductor, which are further transformed into the corresponding geographic coordinate frame using a quaternion transformation to reconstruct the galloping of the conductor. Both the hardware design and the software design are described in details. The corresponding test platforms are established, and the experiments show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed monitoring sensor. The field operation of the proposed sensor in a conductor spanning 734 m also shows its effectiveness.

  16. Simplified microstrip discontinuity modeling using the transmission line matrix method interfaced to microwave CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James H.; Apel, Thomas R.

    1990-07-01

    A technique for modeling microstrip discontinuities is presented which is derived from the transmission line matrix method of solving three-dimensional electromagnetic problems. In this technique the microstrip patch under investigation is divided into an integer number of square and half-square (triangle) subsections. An equivalent lumped-element model is calculated for each subsection. These individual models are then interconnected as dictated by the geometry of the patch. The matrix of lumped elements is then solved using either of two microwave CAD software interfaces with each port properly defined. Closed-form expressions for the lumped-element representation of the individual subsections is presented and experimentally verified through the X-band frequency range. A model demonstrating the use of symmetry and block construction of a circuit element is discussed, along with computer program development and CAD software interface.

  17. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program for HV [high voltage] transmission line projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braekevelt, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    Responsible monitoring and control of environmental impacts is key to obtaining future needed approvals for new high voltage (HV) transmission line projects. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program was developed as a highly structured, self-imposed monitoring system to relieve government agencies of the responsibility of developing a similar external program. The goal was to be self-policing. The historical development, program structure, standards, priority ratings, documentation, communication and computerization of the program is described. The most effective way to minimize environmental impacts is to avoid sensitive features at the route selection stage, well before any construction takes place. The environmental monitoring program is based on the following blueprint: each crew member is responsible for environmental protection; environmental problems are to be resolved at the lowest level possible; potential concerns should be resolved before they become problems; known problems should be dealt with quickly to minimize impacts; team members should work cooperatively; and formal and regular communication is emphasized

  18. Optimized transmission-line impedance transformers for petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Welch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed 1D analytic and 2D fully electromagnetic models of radial transmission-line impedance transformers. The models have been used to quantify the power-transport efficiency and pulse sharpening of such transformers as a function of voltage pulse width and impedance profile. For the cases considered, we find that in the limit as Γ→0 (where Γ is the ratio of the pulse width to the one-way transit time of the transformer, the transport efficiency is maximized when the impedance profile is exponential. As Γ increases from zero, the optimum profile gradually deviates from an exponential. A numerical procedure is presented that determines the optimum profile for a given pulse shape and width. The procedure can be applied to optimize the design of impedance transformers used in petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators.

  19. MCD 80: A modular coupling system for power line carrier transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B; Mayer, M

    1983-05-01

    Power line carrier (PLC) links are of great importance to power supply utilities. The communications equipment is linked to the H.V. system by a coupling device. Brown Boveri have developed a new modular coupling system MCD 80 which is compact, programmable and economical. The benefit of years of experience in the field went into its development. With the new system, optimum PLC couplings, R.F. through-connections and junction networks are possible for all H.V. transmission systems. A general look at the subject of PLC couplings is followed by a closer look at the main components, such as the programmable high pass coupling unit, band pass coupling unit, hybrid, separating filter, R.F. junction network and attenuator. Some typical examples are described.

  20. Fretting Wear Behaviors of Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced (ACSR Conductors in High-Voltage Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchi Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the fretting wear behavior of aluminum cable steel reinforced (ACSR conductors for use in high-voltage transmission line. Fretting wear tests of Al wires were conducted on a servo-controlled fatigue testing machine with self-made assistant apparatus, and their fretting process characteristics, friction force, wear damage, and wear surface morphology were detailed analyzed. The results show that the running regime of Al wires changes from a gross slip regime to a mixed regime more quickly as increasing contact load. With increasing amplitudes, gross slip regimes are more dominant under contact loads of lower than 30 N. The maximum friction force is relatively smaller in the NaCl solution than in a dry friction environment. The primary wear mechanisms in dry friction environments are abrasive wear and adhesive wear whereas abrasive wear and fatigue damage are dominant in NaCl solution.